1 CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGIES Managing the customer lifecycle customer retention and development
2 Three stages of the customer lifecycle 1. Customer acquisition 2. Customer retention aims to keep a high proportion of current customers by reducing customer defections 3. Customer development aims to increase the value of those retained customers to the company
3 Generic goals of customer retention and development Customer retention: to keep a high proportion of valuable customers by reducing customer defections (churn). Customer development: to increase the value of those retained customers to the company.
4 Simple customer retention definition Customer retention is the number of customers doing business with a firm at the end of a financial year expressed as percentage of those who were active customers at the beginning of the year.
5 The appropriate time frame Depends on repurchase cycle found in the industry Insurance policies are renewed annually. If the normal replacement cycle is four years, then retention rate is more meaningful if it is measured over four years instead of 12 months.
6 Can you tell if a customer has defected? May not be able to measure retention and defection if you have Product-based views of customers Channel-based views of customers Separate customer records in sales, marketing and service
7 Three measures of customer retention Raw customer retention rate the number of customers doing business with a firm at the end of a trading period expressed as a percentage of those who were active customers at the beginning of the period. Sales-adjusted retention rate the value of sales achieved from the retained customers expressed as a percentage of the sales achieved from all customers who were active at the beginning of the period. Profit-adjusted retention rate the profit earned from the retained customers expressed as a percentage of the profit earned from all customers who were active at the beginning of the period.
8 Retention issues Retention measures should be made with an understanding of customer profitability issues The fundamental purpose of focusing CRM efforts on customer retention is to ensure that the company maintains relationships with strategically significant customers It may not be beneficial to maintain relationships with all customers. Some are too costly to serve strategic switchers constantly in search of a better deal not strategically significant in roles such as benchmark, door opener, inspiration or technology partner
9 Customer retention vs. value retention Companies should focus on retaining customers that contribute value Sometimes this will mean that the focus is not on retention of customers, per se, but on retention of share of wallet In the banking industry, for example, it may be more important for companies to focus on managing the overall downward migration of customer spending than customer retention. Many customers simply change their buying behaviour rather than defect.
10 The economic argument for customer retention Purchases grow as tenure grows Customer management costs fall over time Customer referrals grow Premium prices Customers who are satisfied in their relationship may reward their suppliers by paying higher prices
11 Which customers to retain? Strategically significant customers High lifetime value customers High volume customers Benchmarks Inspirations Door openers But these may also be attractive to your competitors
12 Commitment and retention The level of commitment between your customer and you will figure in the decision about which customers to retain If the customer is highly committed, i.e. impervious to the appeals of competitors, you do not need to invest so much in retention. If strategically significant customers are not committed to you, you may want to invest considerable sums in their retention.
13 Why focus on newly acquired customers? New customers may have greater future lifetime value potential than longer tenure customers evidence suggests that retention rates rise over time, so if defections can be prevented in the early stages of a relationship, there will be a pay-off in future revenue streams.
14 Two basic strategies for customer retention
15 Negative and positive customer retention strategies Create exit barriers Enforce the contract Extract switching penalties Delight customers Create customer-perceived added value Create social and structural bonds Create customer engagement
16 DRIVER TO INCREASE CUSTOMER VALUE Increasing the level of expenditure Increasing cross-buying Encourage customers to diversify their purchases Encourage the customer to reduce average repurchase times Encourage the customer to reduce the number of refurbishments/returns required Encourage the customer to reduce the frequency of contacts or push them towards communication channels at a lower cost of ownership.
17 CLASSYFY CRM TOOLS Tools that try to work on time of purchase Tools that try to work on value of purchase Tools that try to work on strength of relation
18 What is customer delight? Customer delight = P > E where P = Perception E = Expectation
19 Bridging the gaps: importance against performance Clean toilets Performance Importance OFI Food quality Performance Importance OFI Numbers are scores on a 7-point scale OFI = opportunity for improvement
20 Customer delight through product quality
21 Simple ways to delight customers provide information about the customer s served market A packaging company could alert a fast-moving consumer goods manufacturer customer to competitive initiatives in the market. volunteer to collect and replace a faulty product from a customer rather than issuing a credit note offer better, lower cost solutions to the customer, even though that might reduce margin
22 Three ways to create customer-perceived added value 1. loyalty schemes 2. customer communities 3. sales promotions
23 Loyalty programme definition A loyalty scheme is a customer management programme that offers delayed or immediate incremental rewards to customers for their cumulative patronage.
24 Reward programmes Co-op dividend > Green Shield Stamps > American Airlines AAdvantage Card > Nectar Card-based schemes have changed over time No identification member s name Magnetic strip chip-embedded Solus networked Company-operated third-party operated Trivial reward major reward (5%)
25 Nectar loyalty programme
26 Sources of added value from loyalty programmes Collecting points may deliver some pre-redemption psychological benefits to customers, such as a sense of belonging and of being valued, and an enjoyable anticipation of desirable future events. At the redemption stage, customers receive both psychological and material benefits.
27 Criticisms of loyalty programmes They are ineffective at generating attitudinal loyalty They cost too much to operate
28 Customer club definition A customer club is a company-run membership organization that offers a range of value-adding benefits exclusively to members.
29 B2C customer clubs Swatch the Club ( ) The Harley Owners Group (HOG) ( ) The Subaru Owners Club ( ) Nestlé s mother and baby club ( )
30 Harley Owners Group
31 Sales promotions that build repeat purchase In pack or on-pack voucher Rebate or cash-back Patronage awards Free premium for continuous purchase Collection schemes Self-liquidating premium
32 PRICE PROMOTION (discount) An increase is necessary to balance the lower earnings SALE INCREASE (%)= Price reduction (Gross margin - Price reduction) PR=9%, GM=30% Sales increase = 0.09/ ( )=42.8% A retail company sells an average of 300 units per week to its loyal customers, the cost is 2.5 and the price 3. If company introduces a 10% reduction for one week, how many more products does it have to sell to keep same earnings?
33 Cash-back sales promotion
34 Bonds Social Positive relationships between individuals Empathy Responsiveness Reliability Leads to development of trust and commitment Structural Investments linking customer and supplier Financial Legal Equity Technological Values-based Geographic Project Multi-product
35 Insurers encourage loyalty with financial bonds Excellent claims service No-claims discounts Tenure-related discounts Multi-policy discounts Financial Bonds
36 Build customer engagement Engaged consumers are generally thought to have a higher intensity of participation in and connection to a brand or organization. They feel a strong sense of connection to the organization or brand based on their experiences of the firm s offerings, activities and reputation.
37 Four types of engagement 1. cognitive engagement 2. affective engagement 3. behavioural engagement 4. social engagement
38 Building engagement Interactivity Gamification Relational attachment Values-based attachment
39 Values defined Values are core beliefs that transcend context and serve to organize and direct attitudes and behaviours.
40 Values-based attachment Body Shop International Harley-Davidson Virgin Group
41 Body Shop s core values
42 Context makes a difference to customer retention strategies Number of competitors Corporate culture Channel configuration Purchasing practices Ownership expectations Ethical concerns
43 KPIs for customer retention programmes 1. Raw customer retention rate. 2. Raw customer retention rate in each customer segment. 3. Sales-adjusted retention rate. 4. Sales-adjusted retention rate in each customer segment. 5. Profit-adjusted retention rate. 6. Profit-adjusted retention rate in each customer segment. 7. Cost of customer retention. 8. Share of wallet of the retained customers. 9. Customer churn rate per product category, sales region or channel. 10. Cost-effectiveness of customer retention tactics.
44 The role of research Why are customers churning? Are there any lead indicators of impending defection? What can be done to address the root causes?
45 Advance indicators of intention to churn Reduced RFM scores (Recency Frequency Monetary value) Non-response to a carefully targeted offer Reduced levels of customer satisfaction Dissatisfaction with complaint handling Reduced share of customer (e.g. customer only flies one leg of an international flight on your airline) Inbound calls for technical or product-related information Late payment of an invoice Querying an invoice Customer touchpoints are changed, e.g. store closes, change of website address Customer change of address
46 Two main strategies for customer development Cross-selling is selling additional products and services to an existing customer. Up-selling is selling higher priced or higher margin products and services to an existing customer.
47 DRIVER TO INCREASE CUSTOMER VALUE Increasing the level of expenditure Increasing cross-buying Encourage customers to diversify their purchases Encourage the customer to reduce average repurchase times Encourage the customer to reduce the number of refurbishments/returns required Encourage the customer to reduce the frequency of contacts or push them towards communication channels at a lower cost of ownership.
48 CLASSYFY CRM TOOLS Tools that try to work on time of purchase Tools that try to work on value of purchase Tools that try to work on strength of relation
49 CRM TOOLS FOR INCREASING AND RETAING CUSTOMER VALUE (1/2) Tools that offer mainly economic benefits (free additional services, premiums, discounts...) Tools that offer mainly immaterial or social benefit (engagement to a forum, club, events,.)
50 CRM TOOLS FOR INCREASING AND RETAING CUSTOMER VALUE (2/2) Tools for extending the duration of the relationship Tools to extend the breadth of relationship (cross-buying) Instruments aimed at extending the depth of the relationship, i. e. instruments that push a more intense frequency of use and purchase or, in any case, that concern decisions to update or purchase premium price products compared to those at the lowest cost.
51 RETAIND AND DEVELOP LOYAL CUSTOMERS: TOOLS
52 RETAIND AND DEVELOP LOYAL CUSTOMERS: TOOLS STRATEGIC PROACTIVE ACTIONS (1/2) Actions to improve familiarity Welcome calls Newsletter Instructions for Use Actions to prevent the perception of problems Panel of early adopters Power users panel
53 RETAIND AND DEVELOP LOYAL CUSTOMERS: TOOLS PROACTIVE POLICY ACTIONS (2/2) Actions to facilitate and improve use Automatic detection New products and restyling Actions on the distribution network Vip clubs Website Newsletter Actions to facilitate the positive assessment, repurchase and guidance of other potential customers Managing critical steps Provision of unexpected benefits Customer convention Member get a member
54 RETAIND AND DEVELOP LOYAL CUSTOMERS: TOOLS REACTIVE STRATEGIC ACTIONS AND PROACTIVE TACTICAL ACTIONS Targeted actions to deal effectively with the unresolved problem Replacement services Immediate alternative benefits Customer Guarantee
55 RETAIND AND DEVELOP LOYAL CUSTOMERS: TOOLS Negative actions Bundling on product/service Bundling on customer Legal barriers Knowledge barriers
56 RETAIND AND DEVELOP LOYAL CUSTOMERS: TOOLS REACTIVE TACTICAL ACTIONS Actions aimed at a positive management of defection Retention team Ad hoc network programmes Recovery actions Win-back letter Competitive upgrades
57 CRM technologies used for customer development Campaign management Event-based marketing Data mining Customization Channel integration Integrated customer communications Marketing optimization
58 Strategies for terminating customers Make them profitable by raising prices or cutting the cost-to-serve. Un-bundle the offer Respecify the product Reorganize sales, marketing and service departments Introduce ABC class service
59 A typology of companies termination behaviours Hardliners take an active and rigorous stance in terminating unprofitable relationships, including the regular clearance of their customer portfolio. Appeasers take a more cautious approach concerning the termination of unprofitable relationships. The undecided are reluctant to terminate unprofitable relationships.
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