# Advanced Microeconomic Theory. Chapter 7: Monopoly

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1 Advanced Microeconomic Theory Chapter 7: Monopoly

2 Outline Barriers to Entry Profit Maximization under Monopoly Welfare Loss of Monopoly Multiplant Monopolist Price Discrimination Advertising in Monopoly Regulation of Natural Monopolies Monopsony Advanced Microeconomic Theory 2

3 Barriers to Entry Advanced Microeconomic Theory 3

4 Barriers to Entry Entry barriers: elements that make the entry of potential competitors either impossible or very costly. Three main categories: 1) Legal:the incumbent firm in an industry has the legal right to charge monopoly prices during the life of the patent Example: newly discovered drugs Advanced Microeconomic Theory 4

5 Barriers to Entry 2) Structural: the incumbent firm has a cost or demand advantage relative to potential entrants. superior technology a loyal group of customers positive network externalities (Facebook, ebay) 3) Strategic: the incumbent monopolist has a reputation of fighting off newcomers, ultimately driving them off the market. price wars Advanced Microeconomic Theory 5

6 Profit Maximization under Monopoly Advanced Microeconomic Theory 6

7 Profit Maximization Consider a demand function, which is continuous and strictly decreasing in, i.e.,. We assume that there is price that for all. such Also, consider a general cost function, which is increasing and convex in. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 7

8 Profit Maximization is a choke price No consumers buy positive amounts of the good for. p x( p)=0 for all p> p x'( p) 0 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 8

9 Profit Maximization Monopolist s decision problem is Alternatively, using, and taking the inverse demand function, we can rewrite the monopolist s problem as Advanced Microeconomic Theory 9

10 Profit Maximization Differentiating with respect to, Rearranging, with equality if. Recall that total revenue is Advanced Microeconomic Theory 10

11 Profit Maximization In addition, we assume that. That is, the inverse demand curve originates above the marginal cost curve. Hence, the consumer with the highest willingness to pay for the good is willing to pay more than the variable costs of producing the first unit. Then, we must be at an interior solution, implying Advanced Microeconomic Theory 11

12 Profit Maximization Note that Then,, i.e., monopoly price Moreover, we know that in competitive equilibrium. Then, and. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 12

13 Profit Maximization Advanced Microeconomic Theory 13

14 Profit Maximization Marginal revenue in monopoly MR describes two effects: A direct (positive) effect: an additional unit can be sold at, thus increasing revenue by. An indirect (negative) effect: selling an additional unit can only be done by reducing the market price of all units (the new and all previous units), ultimately reducing revenue by. Inframarginal units initial units before the marginal increase in output. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 14

15 Profit Maximization Is the above FOC also sufficient? Let s take the FOC, and differentiate it wrt, That is,. Since MR curve is decreasing and MC curve is weakly increasing, the second order condition is satisfied for all. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 15

16 Profit Maximization m p m q Advanced Microeconomic Theory 16

17 Profit Maximization What would happen if MC curve was decreasing in (e.g., concave technology given the presence of increasing returns to scale)? Then, the slopes of MR and MC curves are both decreasing. At the optimum, MR curve must be steeper MC curve. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 17

18 Profit Maximization m p m q Advanced Microeconomic Theory 18

19 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Can we re write the FOC in a more intuitive way? Yes. Just take multiply by, and / In equilibrium,. Hence, we can replace MR with MC in the above expression. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 19

20 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Rearranging yields This is the Lerner index of market power The price mark up over marginal cost that a monopolist can charge is a function of the elasticity of demand. Note: If, then If, then substantial mark up Advanced Microeconomic Theory 20

21 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index The Lerner index can also be written as which is referred to as the Inverse Elasticity Pricing Rule (IEPR). Example (Perloff, 2012): Prilosec OTC: 1.2. Then price should be Designed jeans: 2. Then price should be 2 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 21

22 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Example 1 (linear demand): Market inverse demand function is where Monopolist s cost function is We usually assume that To guarantee 0 0 That is, 0 0 and, thus implying 0 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 22

23 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Example 1 (continued): Monopolist s objective function FOC: SOC: (concave) Note that as long as 0, i.e., negatively sloped demand function, profits will be concave in output. Otherwise (i.e., Giffen good, with positively sloped demand function) profits will be convex in output. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 23

24 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Example 1 (continued): Solving for the optimal in the FOC, we find monopoly output Inserting in the demand function, we obtain monopoly price Hence, monopoly profits are Advanced Microeconomic Theory 24

25 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Example 1 (continued): Advanced Microeconomic Theory 25

26 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Example 1 (continued): Non constant marginal cost The cost function is convex in output m p Marginal cost is m q 1 a 2 b a b Advanced Microeconomic Theory 26

27 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Example 2 (Constant elasticity demand): The demand function is We can show that for all, i.e., / Advanced Microeconomic Theory 27

28 Profit Maximization: Lerner Index Example 2 (continued): We can now plug into the Lerner index, That is, price is a constant mark up over marginal cost. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 28

29 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Advanced Microeconomic Theory 29

30 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Welfare comparison for perfect competition and monopoly. q q * m ps () c'() s ds m pq ( ) p p m * m q * q Advanced Microeconomic Theory 30

31 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Consumer surplus Perfect competition: A+B+C Monopoly: A Producer surplus: Perfect competition: D+E Monopoly: D+B Deadweight loss of monopoly: C+E DWL decreases as demand and/or supply become more elastic. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 31

32 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Infinitely elastic demand 0 The inverse demand curve becomes totally flat. Marginal revenue coincides with inverse demand: 0 Profit maximizing Hence, and 0. p m q * q p( q) p Advanced Microeconomic Theory 32

33 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Example (Welfare losses and elasticity): Consider a monopolist with constant marginal and average costs,, who faces a market demand with constant elasticity where is the price elasticity of demand ( ) Perfect competition: Monopoly: using the IEPR Advanced Microeconomic Theory 33

34 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Example (continued): The consumer surplus associated with any price ( ) can be computed as 1 Under perfect competition,, 1 Under monopoly,, / 11/ 1 1 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 34

35 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Example (continued): Taking the ratio of these two surpluses If, this ratio is CS under monopoly is half of that under perfectly competitive markets Advanced Microeconomic Theory 35

36 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Example (continued): The ratio more elastic. / decreases as demand becomes Advanced Microeconomic Theory 36

37 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Example (continued): Monopoly profits are given by where / Re arranging,. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 37

38 Welfare Loss of Monopoly Example (continued): To find the transfer from CS into monopoly profits that consumers experience when moving from a perfectly competition to a monopoly, divide monopoly profits by the competitive CS / If, this ratio is One fourth of the consumer surplus under perfectly competitive markets is transferred to monopoly profits Advanced Microeconomic Theory 38

39 Welfare Loss of Monopoly More social costs of monopoly: Excessive R&D expenditure (patent race) Persuasive (not informative) advertising Lobbying costs (different from bribes) Resources to avoid entry of potential firms in the industry Advanced Microeconomic Theory 39

40 Comparative Statics Advanced Microeconomic Theory 40

41 Comparative Statics We want to understand how varies as a function of monopolist s marginal cost c ' ( q) 2 m p2 m p1 c ' ( q) 1 m q2 m q1 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 41

42 Comparative Statics Formally, we know that at the optimum,, the monopolist maximizes its profits, 0 Differentiating wrt, and using the chain rule,,, 0 Solving for, we have,, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 42

43 Comparative Statics Example: Assume linear demand curve Then, the cross derivative is, 2 and,, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 43

44 Comparative Statics Example (continued): That is, an increase in marginal cost,, decreases monopoly output,. Similarly for any other demand. Even if we don t know the accurate demand function, but know the sign of Advanced Microeconomic Theory 44

45 Comparative Statics Example (continued): Marginal costs are increasing in For convex cost curve, monopoly output is Here, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 45

46 Comparative Statics Example (continued): Constant marginal cost For the constant elasticity demand curve, we have Here, 1 0 and / Advanced Microeconomic Theory 46

47 Multiplant Monopolist Advanced Microeconomic Theory 47

48 Multiplant Monopolist Monopolist produces output across plants it operates, with total costs at each plant. Profits maximization problem,, FOCs wrt production level at every plant for all. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 48

49 Multiplant Monopolist Multiplant monopolist operating two plants with marginal costs and. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 49

50 Multiplant Monopolist Total marginal cost is (i.e., horizontal sum) is determined by (i.e., point A) Mapping in the demand curve, we obtain price (both plants sell at the same price) At the MC level for which (i.e., point A), extend a line to the left crossing and. This will give us output levels and that plants 1 and 2 produce, respectively. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 50

51 Multiplant Monopolist Example 1 (symmetric plants): Consider a monopolist operating plants, where all plants have the same cost function. Hence, all plants produce the same output level and. The linear demand function is given by. FOCs: Advanced Microeconomic Theory 51

52 Multiplant Monopolist Example 1 (continued): Total output produced by the monopolist is and market price is Hence, the profits of every plant are with total profits of, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 52

53 Multiplant Monopolist Example 1 (continued): The optimal number of plants is determined by and solving for is decreasing in the fixed costs, and also decreasing in, as long as. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 53

54 Multiplant Monopolist Example 1 (continued): Note that when, and. Note that an increase in decreases and. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 54

55 Multiplant Monopolist Example 2 (asymmetric plants): Consider a monopolist operating two plants with marginal costs and, respectively. A linear demand function is give by. Note that This is a vertical (not a horizontal) sum. Instead, first invert the marginal cost functions Advanced Microeconomic Theory 55

56 Multiplant Monopolist Example 2 (continued): Second, Hence, 504 Setting, we obtain 7and Since , then Advanced Microeconomic Theory 56

57 Price Discrimination Advanced Microeconomic Theory 57

58 Price Discrimination Can the monopolist capture an even larger surplus? Charge to those who buy the product at and are willing to pay more Charge to those who do not buy the product at, but whose willingness to pay for the good is still higher than the marginal cost of production,. With for all units, the monopolist does not capture the surplus of neither of these segments. m p Selling these units at p p m q m * q Selling these units at p p Advanced Microeconomic Theory 58 m MC

59 Price Discrimination: First degree First degree (perfect) price discrimination: The monopolist charges to every customer his/her maximum willingness to pay for the object. Personalized price: The first buyer pays for the units, the second buyer pays for units, etc. q 1... q 2 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 59

60 Price Discrimination: First degree The monopolist continues doing so until the last buyer is willing to pay the marginal cost of production. In the limit, the monopolist captures all the area below the demand curve and above the marginal cost (i.e., consumer surplus) m q c ' ( q) Advanced Microeconomic Theory 60 * q

61 Price Discrimination: First degree Suppose that the monopolist can offer a fixed fee,, and an amount of the good,, that maximizes profits. PMP: max,.. Note that the monopolist raises the fee until. Hence we can reduce the set of choice variables max FOC: or. Intuition: monopolist increases output until the marginal utility that consumers obtain from additional units coincides with the marginal cost of production Advanced Microeconomic Theory 61

62 Price Discrimination: First degree Given the level of production, the optimal fee is * q p qdq cq * Profits ( ) ( ) 0 Intuition: the monopolist charges a fee that coincides with the utility that the consumer obtains from * r m p m q CE q q * c ' ( q) Advanced Microeconomic Theory 62

63 Price Discrimination: First degree Example: A monopolist faces inverse demand curve and constant marginal costs. No price discrimination: Price discrimination: Advanced Microeconomic Theory 63

64 Price Discrimination: First degree Example (continued): Advanced Microeconomic Theory 64

65 Price Discrimination: First degree Summary: Total output coincides with that in perfect competition Unlike in perfect competition, the consumer does not capture any surplus The producer captures all the surplus Due to information requirements, we do not see many examples of it in real applications Financial aid in undergraduate education ( tuition discrimination ) Advanced Microeconomic Theory 65

66 Price Discrimination: First degree Example (two block pricing): A monopolist faces a inverse demand curve, with constant marginal costs. Under two block pricing, the monopolist sells the first units at a price and the remaining units at a price. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 66

67 Price Discrimination: First degree Example (continued): Profits from the first units while from the remaining units Hence total profits are Advanced Microeconomic Theory 67

68 Price Discrimination: First degree Example (continued): FOCs: 2 0 Solving for and which entails prices of where since. 2 3 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 68

69 Price Discrimination: First degree Example (continued): The monopolist s profits from each block are Thus, 3 1 3, which is larger than. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 69 those arising under uniform pricing,

70 Price Discrimination: Third degree Third degree price discrimination: The monopolist charges different prices to two or more groups of customers (each group must be easily recognized by the seller). Example: youth vs. adult at the movies, airline tickets Firm s PMP: max, FOCs: 0 0 FOCs coincides with those of a regular monopolist who serves two completely separated markets practicing uniform pricing. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 70

71 Price Discrimination: Third degree Example: 38 for adults and 14 1/4 for seniors, with \$10 for both markets \$ / \$12 p 1 p 2 p1 \$24 p2 \$12 MC \$10 x1 14 MR 1 px ( 1) px ( 2 ) MR 2 x 1 x2 8 x 2 Advanced Microeconomic Theory 71

72 Price Discrimination: Third degree Using the Inverse Elasticity Pricing Rule (IERP), we can obtain the prices and / / where is the common marginal cost Then, if and only if / / Intuition: the monopolist charges lower price in the market with more elastic demand. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 72

73 Price Discrimination: Third degree Example (Pullman Seattle route): The price elasticity of demand for business class seats is 1.15, while that for economy seats is 1.52 From the IEPR, Hence, or Airline maximizes its profits by charging business class seats a price 2.63 times higher than that of economyclass seats Advanced Microeconomic Theory 73

74 Price Discrimination: Second degree Second degree price discrimination: The monopolist cannot observe the type of each consumer (e.g., his willingness to pay). Hence the monopolist offers a menu of two part tariffs, and, with the property that the consumer with type has the incentive to self select the two part tariff meant for him. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 74

75 Price Discrimination: Second degree Assume the utility function of type consumer where is the quantity of a good consumed is the fixed fee paid to the monopolist for measures the valuation consumer assigns to the good, where, with corresponding probabilities and. The monopolist s constant marginal cost satisfies for all. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 75

76 Price Discrimination: Second degree The monopolist must guarantee that 1) both types of customers are willing to participate ( participation constraint ) the two part tariff meant for each type of customer provides him with a weakly positive utility level 2) customers do not have incentives to choose the two part tariff meant for the other type of customer ( incentive compatibility ) type customer prefers, over, where Advanced Microeconomic Theory 76

77 Price Discrimination: Second degree The participation constraints (PC) are The incentive compatibility conditions are Advanced Microeconomic Theory 77

78 Price Discrimination: Second degree Re arranging the four inequalities, the monopolist s profit maximization problem becomes:,,, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 78

79 Price Discrimination: Second degree Both and are expressed in terms of the fee The monopolist increases until such fee coincides with the lowest of and for all Otherwise, one (or both) constraints will be violated, leading the high demand customer to not participate Advanced Microeconomic Theory 79

80 Price Discrimination: Second degree Advanced Microeconomic Theory 80

81 Price Discrimination: Second degree High demand customer: Let us show that is binding An indirect way to show that is to demonstrate that Proving this by contradiction, assume that Advanced Microeconomic Theory 81

82 Price Discrimination: Second degree Then, can be written as Combining this result with the fact that, which implies However, this violates We then reached a contradiction Thus, is binding but is not. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 82

83 Price Discrimination: Second degree Low demand customer: Let us show that binding Similarly as for the high demand customer, an indirect way to show that is to demonstrate that Proving this by contradiction, assume that Advanced Microeconomic Theory 83

84 Price Discrimination: Second degree Then, can be written as which violates the initial assumption We reached a contradiction Thus, is binding but is not Advanced Microeconomic Theory 84

85 Price Discrimination: Second degree In summary: From binding we have From binding we have In addition, binding implies that holds, and binding entails that is also satisfied, That is, all four constraints hold. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 85

86 Price Discrimination: Second degree The monopolist s expected PMP can then be written as unconstrained problem, as follows, max 1, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 86

87 Price Discrimination: Second degree FOC with respect to : which coincides with that under complete information. That is, there is not output distortion for high demand buyer Informally, we say that there is no distortion at the top. FOC with respect to : 1 0 which can be re written as Advanced Microeconomic Theory 87

88 Price Discrimination: Second degree Dividing both sides by, we obtain The above expression can alternatively be written as Advanced Microeconomic Theory 88

89 Price Discrimination: Second degree depicts the socially optimal output, i.e., that arising under complete information The output offered to high demand customers is socially efficient due to the absence of output distortion for hightype agents The output offered to lowdemand customers entails a distortion, i.e., Per unit price for high type and low type differs, i.e., Monopolist practices price discrimination among the two types of customers. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 89

90 Price Discrimination: Second degree Since constraint binds while does not, then only the high demand customer retains a positive utility level, i.e.,. The firm s lack of information provides the highdemand customer with an information rent. Intuitively, the information rent emerges from the seller s attempt to reduce the incentives of the hightype customer to select the contract meant for the low type. The seller also achieves self selection by setting an attractive output for the low type buyer, i.e., is lower than under complete information. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 90

91 Price Discrimination: Second degree Example: Consider a monopolist selling a textbook to two types of graduate students, low and highdemand, with utility function where and. Hence, the UMP of student type is where denotes the student s wealth. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 91

92 Price Discrimination: Second degree Example (continued): By Walras law, the constraint binds Then, the UMP can be expressed as FOCs wrt yields the direct demand function: or Advanced Microeconomic Theory 92

93 Price Discrimination: Second degree Example (continued): Assume that the proportion of high demand (lowdemand) students is (, respectively). The monopolist s constant marginal cost is, which satisfies for all. Consider for simplicity that. This implies that each type of student would buy the textbook, both when the firm practices uniform pricing and when it sets two part tariffs Exercise. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 93

95 Advertising in Monopoly Advertising: non price strategy to capture surplus The monopolist must balance the additional demand that advertising entails and its associated costs ( dollars) The monopolist solves where the demand function on price and advertising. depends Advanced Microeconomic Theory 95

96 Advertising in Monopoly Taking FOCs with respect to,,, 10 Rearranging, we obtain, 1 Let us define the advertising elasticity of demand, Or, rearranging, % %,,, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 96

97 Advertising in Monopoly We can then rewrite the above FOC as,, Dividing both sides by, and rearranging Dividing both sides by,, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 97

98 Advertising in Monopoly From the Lerner index, we know that Hence, And rearranging,,,,,. The right hand side represents the advertising to sales ratio. For two markets with the same,, the advertising tosales ratio must be larger in the market where demand is more sensible to advertising (higher, ). Advanced Microeconomic Theory 98

99 Advertising in Monopoly Example: If the price elasticity in a given monopoly market is, and the advertising elasticity is, the advertising to sales ratio should be,.. Advertising should account for 6.7% of this monopolist s revenue. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 99

100 Regulation of Natural Monopolies Advanced Microeconomic Theory 100

101 Regulation of Natural Monopolies Natural monopolies: Monopolies that exhibit decreasing cost structures, with the MC curve lying below the AC curve. Hence, having a single firm serving the entire market is cheaper than having multiple firms, as aggregate average costs for the entire industry would be lower. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 101

102 Regulation of Natural Monopolies Unregulated natural monopolist maximizes profits at the point where MR=MC, producing units and selling them at a price. Regulated natural monopolist will charge (where demand crosses MC) and produce units. The production level implies a loss of per unit. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 102

103 Regulation of Natural Monopolies Dilemma with natural monopolies: abandon the policy of setting prices equal to marginal cost, OR continue applying marginal cost pricing but subsidize the monopolist for his losses Solution to the dilemma: A multi price system that allows for price discrimination Charging some users a high price while maintaining a low price to other users Advanced Microeconomic Theory 103

104 Regulation of Natural Monopolies Multi price system: a high price a low price Benefit: per unit in the interval from 0 to Loss: per unit in the interval The monopolist price discriminates iff Advanced Microeconomic Theory 104

105 Regulation of Natural Monopolies An alternative regulation: allow the monopolist to charge a price above marginal cost that is sufficient to earn a fair rate of return on capital investments Two difficulties: what is a fair rate of return overcapitalization Advanced Microeconomic Theory 105

106 Regulation of Natural Monopolies Overcapitalization of natural monopolies: Suppose a production function of the form. An unregulated monopoly with profit function has a rate of return on capital,. Suppose furthermore that the rate of return on capital investments,, is constrained by a regulatory agency to be equal to. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 106

107 Regulation of Natural Monopolies PMP: where. FOCs: Advanced Microeconomic Theory 107

108 Regulation of Natural Monopolies From the first FOC: From the second FOC: and re arranging Since and, then. Hence, the firm would hire more capital than under unregulated condition, where. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 108

109 Regulation of Natural Monopolies is the value of the marginal product of capital It is decreasing in (due to diminishing marginal return, i.e., 0) and are the marginal cost of additional units of capital in the unregulated and regulated, respectively, monopoly Example: electricity and water suppliers Advanced Microeconomic Theory 109

110 Regulation of Natural Monopolies An alternative illustration of the overcapitalization (Averch Johnson effect) Before regulation, the firm selects After regulation, the firm selects, where but The overcapitalization result only captures the substitution effect of a cheaper input. Output effect? Advanced Microeconomic Theory 110

111 Monopsony Advanced Microeconomic Theory 111

112 Monopsony Monopsony: A single buyer of goods and services exercises buying power by paying prices below those that would prevail in a perfectly competitive context. Monopsony (single buyer) is analogous to that of a monopoly (single seller). Examples: a coal mine, Walmart Superstore in a small town, etc. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 112

113 Monopsony Consider that the monopsony faces competition in the product market, where prices are given at, but is a monopsony in the input market (e.g., labor services). Assume an increasing and concave production function, i.e., and. This yields a total revenue of. Consider a cost function, where denotes the inverse supply function of labor. Assume that 0 for all. This indicates that, as the firm hires more workers, labor becomes scarce, thus increasing the wages of additional workers. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 113

114 The monopsony PMP is Monopsony FOC wrt the amount of labor services yields : marginal revenue product of labor. : marginal expenditure (ME) on labor. The additional worker entails a monetary outlay of. Hiring more workers make labor become more scarce, ultimately forcing the monopsony to raise the prevailing wage on all inframarginal workers, as captured by. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 114

115 Monopsony Monopsonist hiring and salary decisions. The marginal revenue product of labor,, is decreasing in given that 0. The labor supply,, is increasing in since 0. The marginal expenditure (ME) on labor lies above the supply function w since 0. The monopsony hires workers at a salary of. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 115

116 Monopsony A deadweight loss from monopsony is That is, the area below the marginal revenue product and above the supply curve, between and workers. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 116

117 Monopsony We can write the monopsony profit maximizing condition, i.e.,, in terms of labor supply elasticity, using the following steps: And rearranging, Advanced Microeconomic Theory 117

118 Monopsony Since supply, then represents the elasticity of labor Intuitively, as, the behavior of the monopsonist approaches that of a pure competitor. Advanced Microeconomic Theory 118

119 Monopsony The equilibrium condition above is also sufficient as long as Since, (by assumption), we only need that either: a) the supply function is convex, i.e., ; or b) if it is concave, i.e.,, its concavity is not very strong, that is Advanced Microeconomic Theory 119

120 Monopsony Example: Consider a monopsonist with production function, where, and facing a given market price per unit of output. Labor supply is, where. The marginal revenue product of hiring an additional worker is The marginal expenditure on labor is Advanced Microeconomic Theory 120

121 Monopsony Example (continued): Setting them equal to each other, yields a profit maximizing amount of labor: increases in the price of output,, and in the marginal productivity of labor, ; but decreases in the slope of labor supply,. Sufficiency holds since Advanced Microeconomic Theory 121

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