1 Economics 6 th edition 1 Chapter 3 Where Prices Come From: The Interaction of Demand and Supply Modified by Yulin Hou For Principles of Microeconomics Florida International University Fall 2017
2 What determines the price of a smartwatch? 2 Demand for smartwatches How many smartwatches do consumers want to buy? Affected by price of the smartwatches Affected by other factors, including prices of other goods Supply of smartwatches How many smartwatches are producers willing to sell? Affected by price of the smartwatches Affected by other factors, including prices of other goods
3 3 Our model of a market To analyze the market for smartwatches, we need a model how buyers and sellers behave. The model we use in this chapter is a perfectly competitive market, a market with (1) many buyers and sellers, (2) all firms selling identical products, and (3) no barriers to new firms entering the market.
4 3.1 The Demand Side of the Market 4 Market demand: the demand by all the consumers of a given good or service.
5 5 Demand curve: A curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product demanded.
6 6 Quantity demanded: The amount of a good or service that a consumer is willing and able to purchase at a given price.
7 7 Law of Demand Law of Demand: A rule that states that, holding everything else constant, when the price of a product falls, the quantity demanded of the product will increase, and when the price of a product rises, the quantity demanded of the product will decrease.
8 Shifting the demand curve (1 of 2) 8 A change in something other than price that affects demand causes the entire demand curve to shift. A shift to the right (D 1 to D 2 ) is an increase in demand. A shift to the left (D 1 to D 3 ) is a decrease in demand.
9 Shifting the demand curve (2 of 2) 9 As the demand curve shifts, the quantity demanded will change, even if the price doesn t change. The quantity demanded changes at every possible price. P 1 Q 3 Q 1 Q 2
10 10 What factors influence market demand? -Income -Prices of related goods -Tastes -Population -Expected future prices -And so on
11 11 Changes in income of Consumers Normal goods: Goods for which the demand increases as income rises and decreases as income falls. Examples: Clothing Restaurant meals Vacations
12 Changes in Income of Consumers Inferior goods: Goods for which the demand increases as income falls and decreases as income rises. Examples: Second-hand clothing Cheaper cars Inter-city bus service
13 13 Effects of changes in income An increase in income would increase the demand for clothing, ceteris paribus. However the same increase in income would likely decrease the demand for second-hand clothing.
14 14 Changes in the price of related goods Substitutes: Goods and services that can be used for the same purpose. Examples: Potatoes from different farms Coke and Pepsi McDonald s and Burger King hamburgers Crest and Colgate toothpastes
15 Changes in the Price of Related Goods Complements: Goods and services that are used together. Examples: Hot dogs and hot dog buns Coffee and Coffer filters Mobile phones and SIM cards DVD players and DVDs Flashlight and Battery
16 Effects of changes in the price of related goods 16 An increase in the price of a Coke would increase the demand for Pepsi. An increase in the price of coffee would decrease the demand for coffee filter.
17 17 Practice Suppose that when the price of hamburgers decreases, John increases his purchases of ketchup. To John, A) hamburgers and ketchup are complements. B) hamburgers and ketchup and substitutes. C) hamburgers and ketchup are normal goods. D) hamburgers are normal goods and ketchup is an inferior good.
18 18 Changes in tastes Tastes If consumers tastes change, they may buy more or less of the product. Example: If consumers become more concerned about eating healthily, they might decrease their demand for fast food.
19 Changes in Tastes Example: Advertisement Fashion and Trends In general, when consumer s taste for a product increases, the demand curve will shift to right; and when consumer s taste for a product decreases, the demand curve will shift to the left.
20 20 Changes in population/demographics Demographics: The characteristics of a population with respect to age, race, and gender. Increases in the number of people buying something will increase the amount demanded. Example: An increase in the elderly population increases the demand for medical care.
21 Changes in expectations about future prices 21 Consumers decide which products to buy and when to buy them. An expected increase in the price tomorrow increases demand today. An expected decrease in the price tomorrow decreases demand today.
22 Changes in Expectations about Future Prices Example: If you found out the price of gasoline would go up tomorrow, you would increase your demand today.
23 Change in demand vs. change in quantity demanded 23 A change in the price of the product being examined causes a movement along the demand curve. This is a change in quantity demanded. Any other change affecting demand causes the entire demand curve to shift. This is a change in demand.
24 3.2 The Supply Side of the Market 24 Market supply, i.e. the decisions of (generally) firms about how much of a product to provide at various prices.
25 25 Supply curve: A curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product supplied.
26 26 Quantity supplied: The amount of a good or service that a firm is willing and able to supply at a given price.
27 Law of Supply The law of supply: The rule that, holding everything else constant, increases in price cause increases in the quantity supplied, and decreases in price cause decreases in the quantity supplied.
28 Shifting the Supply Curve (1 of 2) 28 A change in something other than price that affects supply causes the entire supply curve to shift. A shift to the right (S 1 to S 3 ) is an increase in supply. A shift to the left (S 1 to S 2 ) is a decrease in supply.
29 Shifting the Supply Curve (2 of 2) 29 As the supply curve shifts, the quantity supplied will change, even if the price doesn t change. The quantity supplied changes at every possible price. P 1 Q 2 Q 1 Q 3
30 30 What factors influence market supply? -Prices of inputs -Technological change -Prices of substitutes in production -Number of firms in the market -Expected future prices -And so on
31 31 Change in prices of inputs Inputs are things used in the production of a good or service. An increase in the price of an input decreases the profitability of selling the good, causing a decrease in supply. A decrease in the price of an input increases the profitability of selling the good, causing an increase in supply.
32 32 Technological change A firm may experience a positive or negative change in its ability to produce a given level of output with a given quantity of inputs. We call this a technological change. Examples: A new, more productive variety of wheat would increase the supply of wheat. Governmental restrictions on land use for agriculture might decrease the supply of wheat.
33 33 Prices of related goods in production Many firms can produce and sell alternative products. Eg: A farmer can plant corn or soybeans. If the price of soybeans rises, he will plant (supply) less corn. Sometimes, two products are necessarily produced together. Eg: Cattle provide both beef and leather. An increase in the price of beef encourages more cattle farming, and hence increase the supply of leather.
34 Number of firms and expected future prices 34 More firms in the market will result in more product available at a given price (greater supply). Fewer firms supply decreases.
35 35 Expected Future Prices If a firm anticipates the price of its product will be higher in the future, it might decrease its supply today in order to increase it in the future.
36 36 A change in the price of the product being examined causes a movement along the supply curve. This is a change in quantity supplied. Any other change affecting supply causes the entire supply curve to shift. This is a change in supply.
37 3.3 Market Equilibrium: Putting Demand and Supply Together 37 Market equilibrium is a situation in which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. Price is determined by the interaction of buyers and sellers. Neither group can dictate price in a competitive market (i.e. one with many buyers and sellers).
38 38 Example: Market equilibrium At a price of $350, consumers want to buy 5 million smartwatches, and producers want to sell 5 million smartwatches. We say the equilibrium price in this market is $350, and the equilibrium quantity is 5 million smartwatches per week.
39 39 Quantitative Demand and Supply Analysis Example: Suppose that the demand for apartments in New York City is Q D = 4,750,000 1,000P and the supply of apartments is Q S = 1,000, ,300P In equilibrium, we know Q D = Q S (the equilibrium condition.)
40 Solving for the equilibrium rent and quantity 40 Q D = 4,750,000 1,000P Q S = 1,000, ,300P Q D = Q S We use these to find the equilibrium rent and quantity: 4,750,000 1,000P = 450, ,300P 5,750,000 = 2,300P P = 5,750,000/2,300 = $2,500
41 41 Find the equilibrium quantity of apartments rented: Q D = 4,750,000 1,000P or = 4,750,000 1,000(2,500) = 2,250,000 Q S = 1,000, ,300P = 1,000, ,300(2,500) = 2,250,000
42 The effect of surpluses on the market price 42 What if the price were $400 instead? At a price of $400, consumers want to buy 4 million smartwatches, while producers want to sell 6 million. This gives a surplus of 2 million smartwatches: a situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded. Prediction: sellers will compete amongst themselves, driving the price down.
43 The effect of shortages on the market price 43 Now what if the price were $250? At a price of $250, consumers want to buy 7 million smartwatches, while producers want to sell 3 million. This gives a shortage of 4 million smartwatches: a situation in which quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied. Prediction: sellers will realize they can increase the price and still sell as many smartphones, so the price will rise.
44 3.4 The Effect of Demand and Supply Shifts on Equilibrium 44 Predictions about price and quantity in model require us to know - Supply curve - Demand curves - How the curve moves
45 Example: The effect of an increase in supply on equilibrium 45 The graph shows the market for smartwatches before Apple enters the market. When Apple enters, more smartphones are supplied at any given price an increase in supply from S 1 to S 2. Equilibrium price falls from P 1 to P 2. Equilibrium quantity rises from Q 1 to Q 2.
46 Example: The effect of an increase in demand on equilibrium 46 Suppose incomes increase. What happens to the equilibrium in the smartwatch market? Smartwatches are a normal good, so as income rises, demand shifts to the right (D 1 to D 2 ). Equilibrium price rises (P 1 to P 2 ). Equilibrium quantity rises (Q 1 to Q 2 ).
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