2 WHAT IS A COMPETITIVE MARKET? A competitive market has many buyers and sellers trading identical products so that each buyer and seller is a price taker. Buyers and sellers must accept the price determined by the market.
3 The Meaning of Competition A perfectly competitive market has the following characteristics: There are many buyers and sellers in the market. The goods offered by the various sellers are largely the same. Firms can freely enter or exit the market.
4 The Meaning of Competition As a result of its characteristics, the perfectly competitive market has the following outcomes: The actions of any single buyer or seller in the market have a negligible impact on the market price. Each buyer and seller takes the market price as given.
5 The Revenue of a Competitive Firm Total revenue for a firm is the selling price times the quantity sold. TR = (P Q) Total revenue is proportional to the amount of output.
6 The Revenue of a Competitive Firm Average revenue tells us how much revenue a firm receives for the typical unit sold. Average revenue is total revenue divided by the quantity sold.
7 The Revenue of a Competitive Firm In perfect competition, average revenue equals the price of the good. Average Revenue = Total revenue Quantity = = Price Quantity Quantity Price
8 The Revenue of a Competitive Firm Marginal revenue is the change in total revenue from an additional unit sold. MR =ΔTR/ΔQ For competitive firms, marginal revenue equals the price of the good.
9 Table 1 Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue for a Competitive Firm 2007 Thomson South-Western
10 PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND THE COMPETITIVE FIRM S SUPPLY CURVE The goal of a competitive firm is to maximize profit. This means that the firm will want to produce the quantity that maximizes the difference between total revenue and total cost.
11 Table 2 Profit Maximization: A Numerical Example 2007 Thomson South-Western
12 The Marginal Cost-Curve and the Firm s Supply Decision Profit maximization occurs at the quantity where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. WhenMR > MC, increase Q WhenMR < MC, decrease Q WhenMR = MC, profit is maximized.
13 Figure 1 Profit Maximization for a Competitive Firm Costs and Revenue MC 2 P = MR 1 = MR 2 The firm maximizes profit by producing the quantity at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue. Suppose the market price is P. MC If the firm produces Q 2, marginal cost is MC 2. ATC P = AR = MR AVC MC 1 If the firm produces Q 1, marginal cost is MC 1. 0 Q 1 Q MAX Q 2 Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western
14 Figure 2 Marginal Cost as the Competitive Firm s Supply Curve Price P 2 So, this section of the firm s MC curve is also the firm s supply curve. As P increases, the firm will select its level of output along the MC curve. MC ATC P 1 AVC 0 Q 1 Q 2 Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western
15 The Firm s Short-Run Decision to Shut Down A shutdown refers to a short-run decision not to produce anything during a specific period of time because of current market conditions. Exit refers to a long-run decision to leave the market.
16 The Firm s Short-Run Decision to Shut Down The firm shuts down if the revenue it gets from producing is less than the variable cost of production. Shut down if TR < VC Shut down if TR/Q < VC/Q Shut down if P < AVC
17 Figure 3 The Competitive Firm s Short-Run Supply Curve Costs If P > ATC, the firm will continue to produce at a profit. Firm s short-run supply curve MC ATC If P > AVC, firm will continue to produce in the short run. AVC Firm shuts down if P< AVC 0 Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western
18 Spilt Milk and Other Sunk Costs The firm considers its sunk costs when deciding to exit, but ignores them when deciding whether to shut down. Sunk costs are costs that have already been committed and cannot be recovered.
19 The Firm s Short-Run Decision to Shut Down The portion of the marginal-cost curve that lies above average variable cost is the competitive firm s short-run supply curve.
20 The Firm s Long-Run Decision to Exit or Enter a Market In the long run, the firm exits if the revenue it would get from producing is less than its total cost. Exit if TR < TC Exit if TR/Q < TC/Q Exit if P < ATC
21 The Firm s Long-Run Decision to Exit or Enter a Market A firm will enter the industry if such an action would be profitable. Enter if TR > TC Enter if TR/Q > TC/Q Enter if P > ATC
22 Figure 4 The Competitive Firm s Long-Run Supply Curve Costs Firm s long-run supply curve MC = long-run S Firm enters if P > ATC ATC Firm exits if P < ATC 0 Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western
23 Measuring Profit in Our Graph for the Competitive Firm Profit = TR TC Profit = (TR/Q TC/Q) x Q Profit = (P ATC) x Q
24 Figure 5 Profit as the Area between Price and Average Total Cost (a) A Firm with Profits Price Profit MC ATC P ATC P = AR = MR 0 Q (profit-maximizing quantity) Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western
25 Figure 5 Profit as the Area between Price and Average Total Cost (b) A Firm with Losses Price MC ATC ATC P P = AR = MR Loss 0 Q (loss-minimizing quantity) Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western
26 THE SUPPLY CURVE IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET The competitive firm s long-run supply curve is the portion of its marginal-cost curve that lies above average total cost.
27 THE SUPPLY CURVE IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET Short-Run Supply Curve The portion of its marginal cost curve that lies above average variable cost. Long-Run Supply Curve The marginal cost curve above the minimum point of its average total cost curve.
28 THE SUPPLY CURVE IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET Market supply equals the sum of the quantities supplied by the individual firms in the market.
29 The Short Run: Market Supply with a Fixed Number of Firms For any given price, each firm supplies a quantity of output so that its marginal cost equals price. The market supply curve reflects the individual firms marginal cost curves.
30 Figure 6 Short-Run Market Supply (a) Individual Firm Supply (b) Market Supply Price Price MC Supply $2.00 $ Quantity (firm) 0 100, ,000 Quantity (market) If the industry has 1000 identical firms, then at each market price, industry output will be 1000 times larger than the representative firm s output Thomson South-Western
31 The Long Run: Market Supply with Entry and Exit Firms will enter or exit the market until profit is driven to zero. In the long run, price equals the minimum of average total cost. The long-run market supply curve is horizontal at this price.
33 The Long Run: Market Supply with Entry and Exit At the end of the process of entry and exit, firms that remain must be making zero economic profit. The process of entry and exit ends only when price and average total cost are driven to equality. Long-run equilibrium must have firms operating at their efficient scale.
34 Why Do Competitive Firms Stay in Business If They Make Zero Profit? Profit equals total revenue minus total cost. Total cost includes all the opportunity costs of the firm. In the zero-profit equilibrium, the firm s revenue compensates the owners for the time and money they expend to keep the business going.
35 A Shift in Demand in the Short Run and Long Run An increase in demand raises price and quantity in the short run. Firms earn profits because price now exceeds average total cost.
36 Figure 8 An Increase in Demand in the Short Run and Long Run Market (a) Initial Condition Firm Price Price P 1 A Short-run supply, S 1 Long-run supply P 1 MC ATC Demand, D1 0 Q 1 Quantity (market) 0 Quantity (firm) A market begins in long run equilibrium. And firms earn zero profit Thomson South-Western
37 Figure 8 An Increase in Demand in the Short Run and Long Run An increase in market demand raises price and output. The higher P encourages firms to produce more and generates short-run profit. (b) Short-Run Response Market Firm Price Price P 2 P 1 A B S 1 P 2 Long-run supply D 2 D 1 P 1 MC ATC 0 Q 1 Q 2 Quantity (market) 0 Quantity (firm) 2007 Thomson South-Western
38 Figure 8 An Increase in Demand in the Short Run and Long Run Profits induce entry and market supply increases. Firm (c) Long-Run Response Market Price Price P 2 P 1 A B S 1 C S 2 Long-run supply P 1 MC ATC D 2 D1 0 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Quantity (firm) 0 Quantity (market) The increase in supply lowers market price. In the long run market price is restored, but market supply is greater Thomson South-Western
39 Why the Long-Run Supply Curve Might Slope Upward Some resources used in production may be available only in limited quantities. Firms may have different costs. Marginal Firm The marginal firm is the firm that would exit the market if the price were any lower.
40 Summary Because a competitive firm is a price taker, its revenue is proportional to the amount of output it produces. The price of the good equals both the firm s average revenue and its marginal revenue.
41 Summary To maximize profit, a firm chooses the quantity of output such that marginal revenue equals marginal cost. This is also the quantity at which price equals marginal cost. Therefore, the firm s marginal cost curve is its supply curve.
42 Summary In the short run, when a firm cannot recover its fixed costs, the firm will choose to shut down temporarily if the price of the good is less than average variable cost. In the long run, when the firm can recover both fixed and variable costs, it will choose to exit if the price is less than average total cost.
43 Summary In a market with free entry and exit, profits are driven to zero in the long run and all firms produce at the efficient scale. Changes in demand have different effects over different time horizons. In the long run, the number of firms adjusts to drive the market back to the zero-profit equilibrium.
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