2 Monopoly While a competitive firm is a price taker, a monopoly firm is a price maker.
3 Monopoly u A firm is considered a monopoly if... it is the sole seller of its product. its product does not have close substitutes.
4 Why Monopolies Arise The fundamental cause of monopoly is barriers to entry.
5 Why Monopolies Arise Barriers to entry have three sources: u Ownership of a key resource. u The government gives a single firm the exclusive right to produce some good. u Costs of production make a single producer more efficient than a large number of producers.
6 Monopoly Resources Although exclusive ownership of a key resource is a potential source of monopoly, in practice monopolies rarely arise for this reason.
7 Government-Created Monopolies Governments may restrict entry by giving a single firm the exclusive right to sell a particular good in certain markets.
8 Government-Created Monopolies Patent and copyright laws are two important examples of how government creates a monopoly to serve the public interest.
9 Natural Monopolies An industry is a natural monopoly when a single firm can supply a good or service to an entire market at a smaller cost than could two or more firms.
10 Natural Monopolies A natural monopoly arises when there are economies of scale over the relevant range of output.
11 Cost Economies of Scale as a Cause of Monopoly... Average total cost 0 Quantity of Output
12 Monopoly versus Competition Monopoly u Is the sole producer u Has a downward-sloping demand curve u Is a price maker u Reduces price to increase sales
13 Competition versus Monopoly Competitive Firm u Is one of many producers u Has a horizontal demand curve u Is a price taker u Sells as much or as little at same price
14 Demand Curves for Competitive and Monopoly Firms... Price (a) A Competitive Firm s Demand Curve Price (b) A Monopolist s Demand Curve Demand Demand 0 Quantity of Output 0 Quantity of Output
15 A Monopoly s Revenue u Total Revenue P x Q = TR u Average Revenue TR/Q = AR = P u Marginal Revenue DTR/DQ = MR
17 A Monopoly s Marginal Revenue A monopolist s marginal revenue is always less than the price of its good. u The demand curve is downward sloping. u When a monopoly drops the price to sell one more unit, the revenue received from previously sold units also decreases.
18 A Monopoly s Marginal Revenue When a monopoly increases the amount it sells, it has two effects on total revenue (P x Q). u The output effect more output is sold, so Q is higher. u The price effect price falls, so P is lower.
19 Demand and Marginal Revenue Curves for a Monopoly... Price $ Marginal revenue Demand (average revenue) Quantity of Water
20 Profit Maximization of a Monopoly u A monopoly maximizes profit by producing the quantity at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost. u It then uses the demand curve to find the price that will induce consumers to buy that quantity.
21 Profit-Maximization for a Monopoly... Costs and Revenue Monopoly price 2....and then the demand curve shows the price consistent with this quantity. B A 1. The intersection of the marginal-revenue curve and the marginalcost curve determines the profit-maximizing quantity... Average total cost Marginal cost Demand 0 Q MAX Marginal revenue Quantity
22 Comparing Monopoly and Competition u For a competitive firm, price equals marginal cost. P = MC u For a monopoly firm, price exceeds marginal cost. MR = MC
23 A Monopoly s Profit Profit equals total revenue minus total costs. Profit = TR - TC Profit = (TR/Q - TC/Q) x Q Profit = (P - ATC) x Q
24 The Monopolist s Profit... Costs and Revenue Monopoly price E B Marginal cost Average total cost Average total cost D C Demand 0 Q MAX Marginal revenue Quantity
25 The Monopolist s Profit The monopolist will receive economic profits as long as price is greater than average total cost.
26 The Market for Drugs... Costs and Revenue Price during patent life Price after patent expires Marginal revenue Demand Marginal cost 0 Monopoly Competitive Quantity quantity quantity
27 The Welfare Cost of Monopoly uin contrast to a competitive firm, the monopoly charges a price above the marginal cost. u From the standpoint of consumers, this high price makes monopoly undesirable. u However, from the standpoint of the owners of the firm, the high price makes monopoly very desirable.
28 The Efficient Level of Output... Price Marginal cost Value to buyers Cost to monopolist Cost to monopolist Value to buyers Demand (value to buyers) 0 Efficient Quantity quantity Value to buyers is greater than cost to seller. Value to buyers is less than cost to seller.
29 The Deadweight Loss Because a monopoly sets its price above marginal cost, it places a wedge between the consumer s willingness to pay and the producer s cost. uthis wedge causes the quantity sold to fall short of the social optimum.
30 The Inefficiency of Monopoly... Price Deadweight loss Marginal cost Monopoly price Marginal revenue Demand 0 Monopoly quantity Efficient quantity Quantity
31 The Inefficiency of Monopoly The monopolist produces less than the socially efficient quantity of output.
32 The Deadweight Loss u The deadweight loss caused by a monopoly is similar to the deadweight loss caused by a tax. u The difference between the two cases is that the government gets the revenue from a tax, whereas a private firm gets the monopoly profit.
33 Public Policy Toward Monopolies Government responds to the problem of monopoly in one of four ways. u u u u Making monopolized industries more competitive. Regulating the behavior of monopolies. Turning some private monopolies into public enterprises. Doing nothing at all.
34 Increasing Competition with Antitrust Laws u Antitrust laws are a collection of statutes aimed at curbing monopoly power. u Antitrust laws give government various ways to promote competition. u They allow government to prevent mergers. u They allow government to break up companies. u They prevent companies from performing activities which make markets less competitive.
35 Two Important Antitrust Laws u Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) u Reduced the market power of the large and powerful trusts of that time period. u Clayton Act (1914) u Strengthened the government s powers and authorized private lawsuits.
36 Regulation Government may regulate the prices that the monopoly charges. u The allocation of resources will be efficient if price is set to equal marginal cost.
37 Marginal-Cost Pricing for a Natural Monopoly... Price Average total cost Regulated price Loss Average total cost Marginal cost 0 Demand Quantity
38 Regulation In practice, regulators will allow monopolists to keep some of the benefits from lower costs in the form of higher profit, a practice that requires some departure from marginal-cost pricing.
39 Public Ownership Rather than regulating a natural monopoly that is run by a private firm, the government can run the monopoly itself. (e.g. in the U.S., the government runs the Postal Service).
40 Doing Nothing Government can do nothing at all if the market failure is deemed small compared to the imperfections of public policies.
41 Price Discrimination Price discrimination is the practice of selling the same good at different prices to different customers, even though the costs for producing for the two customers are the same.
42 Price Discrimination Price discrimination is not possible when a good is sold in a competitive market since there are many firms all selling at the market price. In order to price discriminate, the firm must have some market power.
43 Perfect Price Discrimination Perfect price discrimination refers to the situation when the monopolist knows exactly the willingness to pay of each customer and can charge each customer a different price.
44 Price Discrimination u Two important effects of price discrimination: u It can increase the monopolist s profits. u It can reduce deadweight loss.
45 Welfare Without Price Discrimination... Price (a) Monopolist with Single Price Consumer surplus Monopoly price Profit Deadweight loss Marginal cost Marginal revenue Demand 0 Quantity sold Quantity
46 Welfare With Price Discrimination... Price (b) Monopolist with Perfect Price Discrimination Profit Marginal cost Demand 0 Quantity sold Quantity
47 Examples of Price Discrimination u Movie tickets u Airline prices u Discount coupons u Financial aid u Quantity discounts
48 The Prevalence of Monopoly u How prevalent are the problems of monopolies? u Monopolies are common. u Most firms have some control over their prices because of differentiated products. u Firms with substantial monopoly power are rare. u Few goods are truly unique.
49 Summary u A monopoly is a firm that is the sole seller in its market. u It faces a downward-sloping demand curve for its product. u A monopoly s marginal revenue is always below the price of its good.
50 Summary u Like a competitive firm, a monopoly maximizes profit by producing the quantity at which marginal cost and marginal revenue are equal. u Unlike a competitive firm, its price exceeds its marginal revenue, so its price exceeds marginal cost.
51 Summary u A monopolist s profit-maximizing level of output is below the level that maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus. u A monopoly causes deadweight losses similar to the deadweight losses caused by taxes.
52 Summary u Policymakers can respond to the inefficiencies of monopoly behavior with antitrust laws, regulation of prices, or by turning the monopoly into a government-run enterprise. u If the market failure is deemed small, policymakers may decide to do nothing at all.
53 Summary u Monopolists can raise their profits by charging different prices to different buyers based on their willingness to pay. u Price discrimination can raise economic welfare and lessen deadweight losses.
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