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1 AGEC 105 Fall 2011 Test 2 Capps lease put the following pieces of information on your scantron: (a) Name (b) UIN # (c) Section # (d) Sign the Aggie pledge on the back of your scantron. On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. 1

2 AGEC 105 Fall 2011 Test 2 Capps 1. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) Stage 3 of production corresponds to M < 0. (b) AFC + AVC = ATC (c) M = A where A = maximum (d) All of the above. 2. According to the information below, which of the following is not true? Units of Variable Input (I) Units of Output () TC TVC 100 2,000 \$20,000 \$18,000 (a) AVC = \$10 (b) AFC = \$1 (c) The price of the input is \$180/unit. (d) Total fixed costs = \$2, According to this diagram, the income elasticity of demand for salmon is: I \$36,000 \$20, salmon (a) less than 0.5 (b) equal to 0.5 (c) greater than 0.5 (d) can t say; insufficient information. 4. Which of the following statements is true? (a) The social costs of monopolies are zero. (b) When producers respond to market prices in a previous time period, adjustments to market equilibrium occur in a cobweb pattern. (c) Firms operating as monopolistic competitors, oligopolists, or monopolists may never incur a loss. (d) The profit maximizing level of output for any firm is determined where marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost. 2

3 5. Assume that a retailer sells 500 units of Yoplait Yogurt per day at a price of \$.40/unit. You, as an economic analyst, estimate that the cross-price elasticity between Yoplait Yogurt and annon Yogurt is 0.8. If the retailer raises the price of annon Yogurt by 10%, how would sales of Yoplait Yogurt be affected? (a) Sales of Yoplait Yogurt would not be affected at all. (b) Sales of Yoplait Yogurt would rise by 40 units. (c) Sales of Yoplait Yogurt would rise by 50 units. (d) can t say; insufficient information. 6. Given that the cross-price elasticity between Yoplait Yogurt and annon Yogurt is 0.8, then we can say that: (a) annon Yogurt and Yoplait Yogurt are substitutes. (b) annon Yogurt and Yoplait Yogurt are complements. (c) annon Yogurt and Yoplait Yogurt are independent. (d) can t say; insufficient information. 7. Suppose that a successful advertising and promotion campaign occurs for apples. Given this successful campaign, it is likely that: (a) the quantity of apples sold will fall and the price of apples will rise. (b) the quantity of apples sold will rise and the price of apples will rise. (c) the quantity of apples sold will fall and the price of apples will fall. (d) the quantity of apples sold will rise and the price of apples will fall. Consider the following table pertaining to corn production on a particular farm in Iowa. Assume conditions of perfect competition. Use this table to answer questions 8 through 11. Labor Corn roduction M (Hours) (Bushels) XXX When 15 hours of labor are used, corn production is equal to: (a) 80 bushels (c) 110 bushels (b) 95 bushels (d) can t say; insufficient information. 9. To what stage of production can we say this situation corresponds? (a) Stage 1 (c) Stage 3 (b) Stage 2 (d) can t say; insufficient information. 10. Assume that the price of corn is \$5/bushel. What is the change in total revenue received by this corn producer from Iowa when using one more hour of labor? (a) \$5 (b) the minimum wage (c) \$15 (d) can t say; insufficient information. 11. What is the technical name of the concept described in question 10? (a) MIC (c) M (b) MV (d) MR 3

4 12. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) If the cross-price elasticity of demand between two goods is negative, then the two goods are complements. (b) If the income elasticity of demand for a product is greater than 1, then the good is labeled a necessity. (c) If the income elasticity of demand for a product is negative, then the good is labeled an inferior good. (d) (a) and (c). 13. Which market structure best characterizes the following: there exists product differentiation and there are many sellers? (a) oligopoly (b) monopolistic competition (c) perfect competition (d) monopoly 14. Which of the following combinations of goods is in line with a cross-price elasticity equal to -0.3? (a) Kentucky fried chicken and Scope mouthwash. (b) ancakes and maple syrup. (c) epsi and r. epper. (d) none of the above 15. Suppose that a firm produces 10 units at a price of \$14 and 15 units at a price of \$12. Then marginal revenue is: (a) \$8 (b) \$40 (c) \$140 (d) \$ The use of more environmental restrictions on dairy production, while desirable, undoubtedly will raise the marginal costs of production. What are the likely consequences of these environmental practices, ceteris paribus? (a) rices of dairy outputs will rise and quantities produced will fall. (b) rices of dairy outputs will rise and quantities produced will rise. (c) rices of dairy outputs will fall and quantities produced will rise. (d) rices of dairy outputs will fall and quantities produced will fall. 4

5 Assume the following table corresponds to the production of avocados (thousands of pounds) using fertilizer (tons) as the variable input. Use this table to answer questions 17 through 21. Fertilizer Output of TFC (\$) TVC(\$) TC(\$) MC(\$) (tons) Avocados x t 16 w z y What is the value of w? (a) \$100 (b) \$200 (c) \$300 (d) can t tell; insufficient information 18. What is the value of x? (a) \$100 (b) \$300 (c) \$1,000 (d) \$2, What is the value of y? (a) \$300 (b) \$480 (c) \$1,000 (d) can t say; insufficient information 20. What is the value of z? (a) \$100 (b) \$200 (c) \$380 (d) \$ What is the value of t? (a) 4 tons (b) 7.6 tons (c) 10 tons (d) 16 tons 5

6 Use the following graphs to answer questions 22 through 23. (a ) S 0 S 1 (b ) S 0 1 (c) (d ) S 1 S 0 S Which of the graphs describes the economic effects of a drought in the Midwest on corn producers? 23. Which of the graphs is consistent with the economic impacts of a food recall or food safety scare (e.g. salmonella in contaminated poultry or E.coli in contaminated beef)? 24. Which of the following combinations of goods is in line with a cross-price elasticity equal to zero? (a) Kentucky fried chicken and Scope mouthwash. (b) ancakes and maple syrup. (c) epsi and r. epper. (d) none of the above 25. Which of the following statements is false? (a) The range of own-price elasticities that best characterize the supply curve for agricultural products at the farm level in the short run is 0.1 to 0.3. (b) Capital access and cost of capital are common barriers to entry. (c) The economic analysis of imperfect competition was originated by Edward Chamberlain and Joan Robinson. (d) If at a given market price, the quantity demanded by consumers exceeds the quantity supplied by producers, then a market surplus occurs. 6

7 26. According to this diagram, Monterey Jack cheese is what kind of good? I \$80,000 \$60,000 (a) (b) (c) (d) Monterey Jack Cheese (pounds) Luxury Necessity Inferior Can t tell, insufficient information. Given the following diagram and given the assumption of perfect competition, answer questions 27 to This firm will not produce unless the price is at or above: (a) \$16 (b) \$20 (c) \$30 (d) None of the above 28. The breakeven point for this firm is at a quantity of: (a) 8,000 units (b) 10,000 units (c) 12,000 units (d) 15,000 units 29. What is the maximum profit possible for the firm to achieve if the price received per unit is \$40? (a) \$72,000 (b) \$480,000 (c) \$600,000 (d) None of the above 7

8 30. If the firm produces 12,000 units, then the total fixed costs would be: (a) \$108,000 (b) \$300,000 (c) \$408,000 (d) can t tell, insufficient information. 31. The firm will incur a loss if: (a) the price per unit of output sold is \$34. (b) the price per unit of output sold is \$30. (c) the price per unit of output sold is \$25. (d) can t tell; insufficient information 32. Given the following graph, you may conclude that: I # of inners at the yro Restaurant (a) (b) (c) (d) dinners at the yro Restaurant may be classified as necessary goods. dinners at the yro Restaurant are luxury goods. dinners at the yro Restaurant are inferior goods. can t say; insufficient information. 33. What form of imperfect competition on the selling side is associated with farm equipment manufacturers (e.g. John eere)? (a) monopolistic competition (b) oligopoly (c) monopoly (d) none of the above 34. Which of the following statements is (are) true? (a) In perfect competition, farmers can set the price in their negotiations with buyers. (b) The fact that oligopolists match all price decreases of competitors but not necessarily price increases leads to a kinked market demand curve. (c) If a firm wishes to maximize profit, then the firm should operate in stage 2 of production. (d) (b) and (c). 8

9 35. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) Total economic surplus is the sum of producer surplus and consumer surplus. (b) If total economic surplus is positive due to a shift in a demand or supply curve, society is better off. (c) The law of diminishing marginal returns states that as the use of an input increases, its M eventually will fall. (d) all of the above The following graph depicts a rightward shift in the supply curve. Use this graph to answer questions 36 through 39. The letters A through H correspond to areas under or above the respective supply and demand curves. A G B H C E F I S o S Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) This diagram could describe the impact of a bumper crop due to excellent weather conditions in a particular region of the United States. (b) This diagram could describe the impact of an unexpected freeze on the citrus industry in Florida. (c) This diagram could describe the economic effects of biotechnology, where the marginal costs of production fall by 5 percent. (d) (a) and (c) 37. The change in consumer surplus is given by: (a) - B-C (c) B + C (b) B E (d) can t tell; insufficient information. 38. The change in producer surplus is given by: (a) - B-C (c) E - B (b) B E (d) can t tell; insufficient information 39. The net effect on society is given by: (a) - B-C (c) -C E (b) C + E (d) B E 9

10 40. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) A firm in perfect competition should hire an additional worker if marginal value product is greater than or equal to the wage rate. (b) In the short run, a firm should shut down if it cannot cover minimum average variable costs of production. (c) Firms operating in a perfectly competitive market structure produce a homogenous product. (d) All of the above. Use the graph below to answer questions 41 and 42. uantity of Canned Tomatoes per ay A B C E F G Labor (hours) 41. The M of labor between points C and F is: (a) 12 (c) 3 (b) 4 (d) can t tell; insufficient information 42. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) false? (a) The technical name of this relationship is the production function. (b) Labor is a variable input in the production of canned tomatoes. (c) Stage 3 of production never occurs. (d) none of the above 43. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) not a characteristic of an oligopoly? (a) few sellers (b) numerous sellers (c) partial restrictions on entry and exit in the marketplace (d) (b) and (c) 44. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) false? (a) Commodity surplus and commodity shortage are examples of market disequilibria. (b) The supply curve for a firm is its entire MC curve. (c) roduct differentiation is the key difference between monopolistic competition and perfect competition. (d) None of the above. 10

11 The following graph pertains to a monopolistic competitor. Use this graph to address questions 45 through 47. \$30 \$28 \$26 \$ What is the price charged and the output produced by the monopolistic competitor in order to maximize profits? (a) = \$24, = 45 (b) = \$28, = 55 (c) = \$30, = 45 (d) can t tell; insufficient information. 46. The maximum profit for this monopolistic competitor is: (a) \$ 180 (b) \$ 1,350 (c) \$ 1,540 (d) None of the above. 47. If the demand curve were to intersect the quantity axis, then would be equal to: (a) 90 (b) 100 (c) 110 (d) can t tell; insufficient information. 48. Given the following diagram, what is the own-price elasticity of supply between points A and B? \$4 \$2 A B S (a) 10 (b) 4/3 (c) 3/4 (d) 1/

12 49. Given the graph below, which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? \$3.00 \$2.00 S 800 1,000 1,200 (a) A shortage of 400 units exists when =\$3. (b) The market clearing price is \$2, and the market clearing quantity is 1,000. (c) A surplus of 400 units exists when = \$3. (d) (b) and (c) 50. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) false? (a) When T = 100 pounds and the level of the variable input labor is 20 hours, then A = 0.2 pounds/hour. (b) MC = AVC, when AVC = minimum (c) MC = ATC, when ATC = minimum (d) none of the above 51. Considering the diagram to the right, which of the following statement(s) is(are) true? (a) consumer surplus = \$50 (b) producer surplus = \$100 (c) total economic surplus = \$150 (d) all of the above 52. In an oligopoly, which of the following is not true? (a) firms will match all price decreases of another, but will not match price increases. (b) the market demand curve is kinked. (c) firms will attempt to differentiate their products. (d) firms will match all price increases of another, but will not match price decreases. 53. What assumption of perfect competition is relaxed in the case of monopolistic competition? (a) large number of sellers (c) no barriers to entry (b) homogeneous products (d) perfect information 54. The social costs of imperfect competition are known as: (a) producer surplus. (b) consumer surplus. (c) dead-weight loss. (d) none of the above \$7 \$5 \$ S 12

13 55. Which of the following are common barriers to entry? (a) economies of scale (b) capital access and costs (c) absolute unit-cost advantages (d) all of the above 56. BAC-21 is a dangerous strain of bacteria extremely harmful to humans. An outbreak of this potentially deadly strain occurs in Florida, particularly affecting the shrimp industry. Given this information, it is likely that: (a) the price of shrimp would fall and the quantity of shrimp produced would fall. (b) the price of shrimp would fall but the quantity of shrimp produced would rise. (c) the price of shrimp would rise and the quantity of shrimp produced would rise. (d) the price of shrimp would rise but the quantity of shrimp produced would fall. 57. Marginal Input Cost (MIC) refers to: (a) the change in total cost when producing one more unit of output. (b) the change in total revenue when using one more unit of input. (c) the change in total cost when using one more unit of input. (d) the change in total revenue when producing one more unit of output. 58. If MR were \$15 per unit, and if MC = \$13 per unit, then: (a) the firm should increase production. (b) the firm should decrease production. (c) profits are maximized. (d) can t tell; insufficient information. 59. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) Beverage manufacturers are excellent examples of monopolistic competitors. (b) The minimum point of the average variable cost curve is the shutdown point. (c) The minimum point of the average total cost curve is the breakeven point. (d) All of the above. 60. Which market structure best characterizes the situation wherein there exists product differentiation, and there are few sellers? (a) oligopoly (b) monopolistic competition (c) perfect competition (d) monopoly 61. Which of the following own-price elasticities best characterize the supply curve for agricultural products at the farm level in the short run? (a) 1.1 (c).7 (b).2 (d) Which of the following statements is not a characteristic of perfect competition? (a) large number of buyers and sellers (b) homogenous product (c) easy entry and exit into the marketplace (d) little or no market information 13

14 63. In the short run, a firm should shut down if: (a) it cannot cover its fixed costs. (b) it cannot cover its minimum average variable cost. (c) it cannot cover its minimum average total cost. (d) none of the above. 64. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) If the M curve is above the A curve, then the A curve must be falling. (b) roducer surplus represents the profit realized by firms in the market for specific quantities supplied. (c) A commodity surplus or shortage will occur when the market is in equilibrium. (d) (a) and (b). 65. If the own-price elasticity of demand equals -0.2, then the price flexibility of demand is equal to: (a) -0.2 (c) -5 (b) -0.4 (d) none of the above 66. Which of the following graphs depicts a market surplus? (a) S (b) S (c) S (d) none of the above E E E E S S E 67. Which of the following industries best illustrates an example of a monopoly? (a) retail food industry (c) a utility (electric) company (b) airline industry (d) the automobile industry 68. Which of the following is (are) a condition(s) for imperfect competition? (a) few sellers (c) barriers to enter and to exit (b) differentiated products (d) all of the above 69. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true? (a) When M < A, this situation corresponds to stage 2 of production. (b) A can never be negative, but M can be negative. (c) Another term for the T curve is the production function. (d) all of the above 70. Which of the following statements is (are) true? (a) In imperfect competition, =MR. (b) Food service purveyors (e.g. Sysco) are examples of firms operating as oligopolists. (c) Monopolists will charge a higher price and produce more output than firms engaging in perfect competition. (d) None of the above E 14

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