# Supply and Demand. ECO 120: Global Macroeconomics

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1 Supply and Demand ECO 120: Global Macroeconomics Goals of today s class Goals Specific Goals Learn what demand is and what influences demand. Learn what supply is and what influences supply. Learn how prices and quantities are determined by supply and demand. Use these skills to make predictions about changes in price and quantity. Learning Objectives LO 2: Use the supply and demand model to predict price and quantity outcomes for markets for products and services. Relevant Reading Demand: Module 4 Supply and Equilibrium: Module 5 Changes in Equilibrium: Module 6 2 Determination of Price and Quantity 2.1 Demand Demand The quantity demanded of a good or service is the amount consumers are willing and able to buy in a given time period at a particular price. 1

2 Law of demand: All other things remaining equal, the higher (lower) the price of the good, the smaller (higher) is the quantity demanded. Demand schedule/curve: a table or graph of different quantities demanded for different prices. According to the law of demand, the demand curve should be sloping. Change in quantity demanded: when there is a change in price causing a movement from one point on the demand curve to another point. Demand Demand Schedule Point Price Q D A B C D E Demand Curve Income and Substitution effects The demand curve is downward sloping because of the income and substitution effect. Substitution effect: when the price of a good rises, people may buy substitute goods instead. 2

3 Income effect: When the price of a good rises, the real purchasing power of your income decreases. When the real value of your income decreases, you buy less of everything. Close to correct. More on the income effect later. 2.2 Supply Supply The quantity supplied of a good or service is the amount producers are willing and able to produce and sell in a given time period at a given price. Law of supply: All other things remaining the same, the higher (lower) is the price of a good, the higher (lower) is the quantity supplied. Supply schedule or curve: supplied for different prices. a table or graph of different quantities slop- According to the law of supply, the demand curve should be ing. Change in quantity supplied: when there is a change in price causing a movement from one point on the supply curve to another point. Supply Supply Schedule Point Price Q D A B C D E Supply Curve 3

4 2.3 Equilibrium Equilibrium The equilibrium price is the price where the quantity supplied is equal to the quantity demanded. The equilibrium quantity is the corresponding quantity. This is the price and quantity that will prevail in an unregulated market. Equilibrium Surplus: away from equilibrium, when Q S > Q D Shortage: away from equilibrium, when Q D > Q S. 3 Determinants of supply and demand Determinants of demand When something besides the price of the good effects demand, we say there is a change or shift in demand. Something that increases (decreases) demand shifts the demand curve to the right (left). Determinants of demand: Changes in prices of related goods. Changes in income. Changes in expected future income. 4

5 Expectations of future price. Changes in population. Changes in tastes and preferences. Shifts in demand 3.1 Substitutes and complements Changes in price of related goods Substitutes: a substitute good is a good that can be consumed instead of another good. Examples: beef and pork, wine and beer, hamburgers and hot dogs. If the price of a substitute for beer increases, this will for beer. the demand Complements: a complement good is a good that is often consumed together with another good. Examples: Peanut butter and jelly, hamburgers and buns. the de- If the price of a complement for buns increases, this will mand for buns. 3.2 Normal and inferior goods Changes in income Normal good: a good whose demand increases when consumers incomes increase. 5

6 Inferior good: a good whose demand decreases when consumers incomes increase. Can you think of examples of an inferior good? 3.3 Expectations Expectations If people expect the price of the good to increase, this will demand for the good. today s If a good is a normal good and people expect to have higher incomes in the future, this will the demand for the good. If a good is an inferior good and people expect to have higher incomes in the future, this will the demand for the good. 3.4 Determinants of supply Determinants of supply When something besides the price of the good effects supply, we say there is a change or shift in supply. Something that increases (decreases) demand shifts the supply curve to the right (left). Determinants of supply: Changes in the prices of factors of production. When costs increase this Changes in the price of related goods. Expected future prices. supply. If the price is expected to be higher in the future, producers will supply today. Number of suppliers. Changes in technology. Shifts in supply 6

7 4 Next Time... In class exercise on Supply and Demand. Apply our knowledge of supply and demand to look at behavior of exchange rates, currencies, imports, and exports (Module 42). 7

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