2 A market is any arrangement that enables buyers and sellers to get information and do business with each other. A competitive market is a market that has many buyers and many sellers so no single buyer or seller can influence the price => price cannot be manipulated or speculated The money price of a good is the amount of money needed to buy it. The relative price of a good the ratio of its money price to the money price of the next best alternative good is its opportunity cost. => ratio
3 you demand something, then you 1. Want it, 2. Can afford it, and 3. Have made a definite plan to buy it. Wants are the unlimited desires or wishes people have for goods and services. Demand reflects a decision about which wants to satisfy. The quantity demanded of a good or service is the amount that consumers plan to buy during a particular time period, and at a particular price
4 Demand The Law of Demand The law of demand states: Other things remaining the same (ceteris paribus): => the higher the price of a good, the smaller is the quantity demanded; and => the lower the price of a good, the larger is the quantity demanded. PRICE : QUANTITY
5 Demand BECAUSE 1. Substitution Effect When the relative price (opportunity cost) of a good or service rises, people seek substitutes for it, so the quantity demanded of the good or service decreases. e.g. coffee and tea If the price of coffee increase, so the demand for tea will be increased
6 Demand BECAUSE 2. Income Effect => purchasing power value for money When the price of a good or service rises relative to income, people cannot afford all the things they previously bought, so the quantity demanded of the good or service decreases. 2 1
7 Demand Demand Curve and Demand Schedule The term demand refers to the entire relationship between the price of the good and quantity demanded of the good. A demand curve shows the relationship between the quantity demanded of a good and its price when all other influences on consumers planned purchases remain the same.
8 Demand A rise in the price, other things remaining the same, brings: a decrease in the quantity demanded a movement up along the demand curve. A fall in the price, other things remaining the same, brings an increase in the quantity demanded and a movement down along the demand curve. MOVEMENT ALONG THE DD CURVE
9 Demand Willingness and Ability to Pay A demand curve is also a willingness-and-ability-topay curve. The smaller the quantity available, the higher is the price that someone is willing to pay for another unit. Willingness to pay measures marginal benefit. P Q Willingness to pay measures marginal benefit.
10 Demand A Change in Demand When some influence on buying plans other than the price of the good changes, there is a change in demand for that good. The quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, so there is a new demand curve. When demand increases, the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the demand curve shifts leftward.
11 Demand A Movement along the Demand Curve When the price of the good changes and other things remain the same, the quantity demanded changes and there is a movement along the demand curve.
12 The six main factors that change demand of a good are: The prices of related goods produced ~ substitution i.e. tea-and-coffee The higher the price of tea, the greater the demand for coffee ~ complement i.e. car-and petrol (or spare part) The higher the price of petrol, the smaller the demand of car Expected future prices: Demand The higher the expected prices, the greater the demand today The lower the expected prices, the lesser the demand today
13 The six main factors that change demand of a good are: Income: The higher the income, the greater the demand Expected future income: the higher the expected income, the greater the demand now Population: Demand the larger the population, the higher the demand Preference The more the people have the same preference, the greater the demand
14 Demand Prices of Related Goods A substitute is a good that can be used in place of another good. E.g. tea and coffee A complement is a good that is used in conjunction with another good. E.g. car and petrol When the price of a substitute for an energy bar rises or when the price of a complement of an energy bar falls, the demand for energy bars increases.
15 Demand Expected Future Prices If the price of a good is expected to rise in the future, current demand for the good increases and the demand curve shifts rightward. Income When income increases, consumers buy more of most goods and the demand curve shifts rightward. A normal good is one for which demand increases as income increases. Goods that have been used in common. E.g. potato An inferior good is a good for which demand decreases as income increases. Goods that have been used by low income group of people. E.g. tapioca
16 Demand Expected Future Income and Credit When income is expected to increase in the future or when credit is easy to obtain, the demand might increase now. Population The larger the population, the greater is the demand for all goods. Preferences People with the same income have different demands if they have different preferences.
17 Demand A Shift of the Demand Curve If the price remains the same but one of the other influences on buyers plans changes: demand changes and the demand curve shifts.
18 Demand Figure 3.2 shows an increase in demand. Because an energy bar is a normal good, an increase in income increases the demand for energy bars.
19 Supply If a firm supplies a good or service, then the firm 1. Has the resources and the technology to produce it, 2. Can profit from producing it, and 3. Has made a definite plan to produce and sell it. Resources and technology determine what it is possible to produce. Supply reflects a decision about which technologically feasible items to produce. The quantity supplied of a good or service is the amount that producers plan to sell during a given time period at a particular price.
20 Supply The Law of Supply The law of supply states: Other things remaining the same, the higher the price of a good, the greater is the quantity supplied; and the lower the price of a good, the smaller is the quantity supplied. The law of supply results from the general tendency for the marginal cost of producing a good or service to increase as the quantity produced increases (Chapter 2, page 35). Producers are willing to supply a good only if they can at least cover their marginal cost of production.
21 Supply Supply Curve and Supply Schedule The term supply refers to the entire relationship between the quantity supplied and the price of a good. The supply curve shows the relationship between the quantity supplied of a good and its price when all other influences on producers planned sales remain the same.
22 Supply Figure 3.4 shows a supply curve of energy bars. A rise in the price, other things remaining the same, brings an increase in the quantity supplied.
23 Supply Minimum Supply Price A supply curve is also a minimum-supply-price curve. P Q Willingness to sell at lowest price measures marginal cost. As the quantity produced increases, marginal cost increases. The lowest price at which someone is willing to sell an additional unit rises. This lowest price is marginal cost.
24 Supply A Change in Supply When some influence on selling plans other than the price of the good changes, there is a change in supply of that good. The quantity of the good that producers plan to sell changes at each and every price, so there is a new supply curve. When supply increases, the supply curve shifts rightward. When supply decreases, the supply curve shifts leftward.
25 Supply A Movement Along the Supply Curve When the price of the good changes and other influences on sellers plans remain the same, the quantity supplied changes and there is a movement along the supply curve.
26 The six main factors that change supply of a good are: The prices of factors of production ~ cost of production Supply The higher the cost, the smaller the supply The prices of related goods produced ~ substitution i.e. tea-and-coffee The higher the price of tea, the lower the supply of coffee ~ complement i.e. car-and petrol (spare part) The higher the price of petrol, the greater the supply of car
27 The six main factors that change supply of a good are: Expected future prices: Supply The higher the expected prices, the lesser the supply today The number of suppliers: the more the suppliers, the more the supply Technology: the better the technology, the higher the supply State of nature e.g. weather, natural disaster hurricane The more the natural disaster, the lower the supply
28 e.g. Increase in number of suppliers
29 Supply Prices of Factors of Production If the price of a factor of production used to produce a good rises, the minimum price that a supplier is willing to accept for producing each quantity of that good rises. So a rise in the price of a factor of production decreases supply and shifts the supply curve leftward.
30 Supply Prices of Related Goods Produced A substitute in production for a good is another good that can be produced using the same resources. The supply of a good increases if the price of a substitute in production falls. Goods are complements in production if they must be produced together. The supply of a good increases if the price of a complement in production rises.
31 Supply Expected Future Prices If the price of a good is expected to rise in the future, supply of the good today decreases and the supply curve shifts leftward. The Number of Suppliers The larger the number of suppliers of a good, the greater is the supply of the good. An increase in the number of suppliers shifts the supply curve rightward.
32 Supply Technology Advances in technology create new products and lower the cost of producing existing products. So advances in technology increase supply and shift the supply curve rightward. The State of Nature The state of nature includes all the natural forces that influence production for example, the weather. A natural disaster decreases supply and shifts the supply curve leftward.
33 Supply A Shift of the Supply Curve If the price remains the same but some other influence on sellers plans changes, supply changes and the supply curve shifts.
34 Equilibrium is a situation in which opposing forces balance each other. Equilibrium in a market occurs when the price balances the plans of buyers and sellers. Market Equilibrium The equilibrium price is the price at which the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. (Q D = Q S ) The equilibrium quantity is the quantity bought and sold at the equilibrium price. Price regulates buying and selling plans. Price adjusts when plans don t match
35 Market Equilibrium Figure 3.7 illustrates the market equilibrium the price at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied
36 Price Adjustments At prices above the equilibrium price, a surplus forces the price down. At prices below the equilibrium price, a shortage forces the price up.
37 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity All Possible Changes in Demand and Supply A change in demand or supply or both demand and supply changes the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity.
38 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity An Increase in Demand Figure 3.8 shows that when demand increases the demand curve shifts rightward. At the original price, there is now a shortage. The price rises, and the quantity supplied increases along the supply curve. DD : P : Q S
39 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity Change in Demand with No Change in Supply When demand increases, equilibrium price rises and the equilibrium quantity increases.
40 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity When demand decreases, the equilibrium price falls and the equilibrium quantity decreases.
41 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity An Increase in Supply Figure 3.9 shows that when supply increases the supply curve shifts rightward. At the original price, there is now a surplus. The price falls, and the quantity demanded increases along the demand curve. SS : P : Q D
42 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity Change in Supply with No Change in Demand When supply increases, the equilibrium price falls and the equilibrium quantity increases.
43 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity When supply decreases, the equilibrium price rises and the equilibrium quantity decreases.
44 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity Increase in Both Demand and Supply An increase in demand and an increase in supply increase the equilibrium quantity. The change in equilibrium price is uncertain because the increase in demand raises the equilibrium price and the increase in supply lowers it. DD < SS = Ep decreases DD > SS = Ep increases
45 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity Decrease in Both Demand and Supply A decrease in both demand and supply decreases the equilibrium quantity. The change in equilibrium price is uncertain because the decrease in demand lowers the equilibrium price and the decrease in supply raises it. DD > SS = Ep decreases DD < SS = Ep increases
46 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity Increase in Demand and Decrease in Supply An increase in demand and a decrease in supply raises the equilibrium price. The change in equilibrium quantity is uncertain because the increase in demand increases the equilibrium quantity and the decrease in supply decreases it. DD < SS = Eq decreases DD > SS = Eq increases
47 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity Decrease in Demand and Increase in Supply A decrease in demand and an increase in supply lowers the equilibrium price. The change in equilibrium quantity is uncertain because the decrease in demand decreases the equilibrium quantity and the increase in supply increases it. DD > SS = Eq decreases DD < SS = Eq increases
48 After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Describe a competitive market and think about a price as an opportunity cost Explain the influences on demand Explain the influences on supply Explain how demand and supply determine prices and quantities bought and sold Use the demand and supply model to make predictions about changes in prices and quantities
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