2

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "2"

Transcription

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 Direct -Straightforward steady forward force by hydraulic ram Indirect -Has the advantage that there is no friction between billet and chamber (no movement) -Note dummy block at face of ram to protect tip of pressing stem, particularly in hot extrusion -Used for materials with very high friction, such as high-strength steels Hydrostatic -Fluid pressure results in triaxial compressive stresses acting on workpiece; improving formability -Much less workpiece-container container friction than for direct Lateral -Less common; requires more force Impact -To help overcome initial friction 8

9 Geometric Variables -Die angle ά -Extrusion Ratio Ratio of x-sect area of billet to that of extrusion A o /A f Other variables: -Temperature of the billet -Speed of ram travel -Type of lubricant 9

10 The k value is a measure of the strength of the material being extruded and the frictional conditions See example calculation Example 15.1, p.363, text 6/e Extrusion Ratio, R can range from 4 to 400 but usual range is 10 to 100. Softer, non ferrous, metals may reach 400 Ductile metals are easier to extrude 10

11 11

12 12

13 Investigative technique to determine flow pattern: Cut round billet in half lengthwise and then mark one face with a square grid pattern. Braze the two halves together and extrude the billet Melt the braze in a furnace to reveal the extruded grid face Fig show result for direct extrusion with square dies Dead metal zones are areas of no metal flow 13

14 Can heat in inert atmosphere to prevent formation of surface oxide file which is abrasive 14

15 15

16 16

17 17

18 18

19 19

20 Hollow cross sections Use welding chamber methods and various dies (examples in figure) During extrusion, the metal divides and flows around the supports for the mandrel into strands (separate, profiled threads) As they exit the die, the strands become rewelded under high pressure in the welding chamber The rewelded surfaces have good strength because they have not been exposed to the environment (no surface oxides) Welding chamber process is suitable only for aluminum & some alloys because of their capacity to develop strong fusion welds under pressure Use no lubricants because they prevent rewelding 20

21 Note: -Importance of symmetry of cross section -Avoidance of sharp corners -Avoidance of extreme changes in die dimensions within the cross section 21

22 22

23 23

24 Heat sinks use many fins to increase surface area and facilitate heat transfer Aluminum is preferred because of high thermal conductivity and superior weightcost ratio Extruded heat sink is preferable to cast item because lower porosity and better thermal conductivity 24

25 25

26 26

27 Note There is a sample calculation on p.369 of text 6/e. This example appears to use an incorrect value for the radius of original slug. The example uses (10 2 /4) as the square of the radius (in 2 ). The correct value for radius is 1/5. Therefore, r 2 = 1/25 or 4/

28 Improved mechanical properties provided that the heat generated by plastic deformation and friction does not recrystallize the extruded metal Accurate tolerances reduce the need for subsequent machining or finishing operations Improved surface finish due partly to the absence of an oxide film and provided that lubrication is effective Other methods such as machining; Some machines produce up to 2000 parts/hour 28

29 Steps -Shear a slug from end of a round rod -Cold extrusion to shape; has a blind hole -Punch out the material at bottom of blind hole Note the respective diameters of the slug and the hole at the bottom of the sectioned part 29

30 30

31 Note that the blank (slug) is extruded backwards 31

32 Other typical parts made by impact extrusion: -Collapsible tubes (toothpaste) -Light fixtures -Automotive parts -Small pressure vessels Most nonferrous metals can be impact extruded in vertical presses and at production rates as high as two parts per second Maximum diameter of parts made is about 150 mm (6 ) Process can produce thin-walled tubular sections having thickness-to-diameter ratios as small as Therefore, the symmetry of the part and the concentricity of the punch and the blank are important. 32

33 33

34 34

35 35

36 36

37 37

38 38

39 39

40 40

41 41

42 Redundant Work of Deformation -Additional energy required because of the non-uniform deformation that occurs within the die zone Eq is a useful equation for this calculation. There are other equations and guidelines in the research literature 42

43 43

44 44

45 Reductions higher than 45% may result in lubricant breakdown May draw hollow or larger sections at higher temperatures to reduce forces Sizing Pass: -Deformation usually occurs at surface only; -This results in non-uniform deformation across the section. -This creates variation in properties of the material depending on location within the cross section 45

46 Drawing speeds: -Slower for large sizes: m/s ( ft/min) -Faster for fine wire (for electromagnets): 50 m/s (165 ft/sec) -At higher speeds, may accumulate heat buildup (lack of time to dissipate), possibly leading to detrimental affects on product quality - 46

47 Bundle -Keep wires separated by suitable metallic material with similar properties, but lower chemical resistance -This enables it to be subsequently leached out from the drawn-wire surfaces 47

48 48

49 49

50 Die materials -Typically tool steels & carbides (Table 5.8) -Use cast-steel dies for hot drawing because of their high resistance to wear at elevated temperatures -Diamond dies used for drawing fine wire -Diamond dies may be made from single crystal diamond or in polycrystalline form with diamond particles in metal matrix (compacts) -Carbide & diamond dies have low tensile strength & toughness -Therefore they are typically used as inserts or nibs within a steel casing 50

51 51

52 52

53 53

54 54

55 Draw bench -Contains a single die - Pulling force by chain drive or hydraulics -Used for single-length drawing of straight rods and tubes (diameters > 0.75 and lengths, 100 ft. Use rotating drum (bull block or capstan) for very long rods & wire of smaller cross sections 55

56 Use rotating drum (bull block or capstan) for very long rods & wire of smaller cross sections 56

57 57

58 58

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY UNIT II Hot & Cold Working - Drawing & Extrusion Drawing Drawing is an operation in which the cross-section of solid rod, wire or tubing is reduced or changed in shape by pulling

More information

Chapter 15 Extrusion and Drawing of Metals

Chapter 15 Extrusion and Drawing of Metals Introduction Chapter 15 Extrusion and Drawing of Metals Alexandra Schönning, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering University of North Florida Figures by Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Kalpakijan and

More information

Objectives. This chapter provides fundamental background on processes of drawing of rods, wires and tubes.

Objectives. This chapter provides fundamental background on processes of drawing of rods, wires and tubes. WIRE DRAWING Objectives This chapter provides fundamental background on processes of drawing of rods, wires and tubes. Mathematical approaches for the calculation of drawing load will be introduced. Finally

More information

Extrusion of complex shapes

Extrusion of complex shapes Extrusion of complex shapes 1 Hot extrusion Hot extrusion is the process of forcing a heated billet to flow through a shaped die opening It is used to produce long, strait metal products of constant cross

More information

Bulk Deformation Processes

Bulk Deformation Processes Bulk Deformation Processes Bachelor of Industrial Technology Management with Honours Semester I Session 2013/2014 TOPIC OUTLINE What is Bulk Deformation? Classification of Bulk Deformation Processes Types

More information

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 1 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES - AMEM 201 Lecture 8: Forming Processes (Rolling, Extrusion, Forging, Drawing) DR. SOTIRIS L. OMIROU Forming Processes - Definition & Types - Forming processes are those in which

More information

Module 3 Selection of Manufacturing Processes. IIT Bombay

Module 3 Selection of Manufacturing Processes. IIT Bombay Module 3 Selection of Manufacturing Processes Lecture 3 Design for Bulk Deformation Processes Instructional objectives By the end of this lecture, the students are expected to learn the working principle

More information

Casting. Forming. Sheet metal processing. Powder- and Ceramics Processing. Plastics processing. Cutting. Joining.

Casting. Forming. Sheet metal processing. Powder- and Ceramics Processing. Plastics processing. Cutting. Joining. Traditional Manufacturing Processes Casting Forming Sheet metal processing Powder- and Ceramics Processing Plastics processing Cutting Joining Surface treatment FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL FORMING Overview of

More information

Metal Forming Process. Prof.A.Chandrashekhar

Metal Forming Process. Prof.A.Chandrashekhar Metal Forming Process Prof.A.Chandrashekhar Introduction Shaping of a component by the application of external forces is known as the metal forming. Metal forming can be described as a process in which

More information

Hot Forming. Kalpakjian

Hot Forming. Kalpakjian Hot Forming Kalpakjian Hot Working: Forging Open Die Forging www.smeedwerkunica.nl Paul Berenson, www.paulb.com T.Green, WIT Forging: Heat Loss Metal near die surfaces are coolest, flow less www.freedomalloysusa.com

More information

1. Definitions and classification of Metal forming processes

1. Definitions and classification of Metal forming processes 1. Definitions and classification of Metal forming processes 1.1 Introduction: Metal forming is a very important manufacturing operation. It enjoys industrial importance among various production operations

More information

Chapter 14: Metal-Forging Processes and Equipments

Chapter 14: Metal-Forging Processes and Equipments Manufacturing Engineering Technology in SI Units, 6 th Edition Chapter 14: Metal-Forging Processes and Equipments Chapter Outline Introduction Open-die Forging Impression-die and Closed-die Forging Various

More information

Cutting Tool Materials and Cutting Fluids. Dr. Mohammad Abuhaiba

Cutting Tool Materials and Cutting Fluids. Dr. Mohammad Abuhaiba Cutting Tool Materials and Cutting Fluids HomeWork #2 22.37 obtain data on the thermal properties of various commonly used cutting fluids. Identify those which are basically effective coolants and those

More information

Chapter 16 Bulk Forming Processes. Materials Processing. Types of Deformation (Chapter 16) MET Manufacturing Processes

Chapter 16 Bulk Forming Processes. Materials Processing. Types of Deformation (Chapter 16) MET Manufacturing Processes MET 33800 Manufacturing Processes Chapter 16 Bulk Forming Processes Before you begin: Turn on the sound on your computer. There is audio to accompany this presentation. Materials Processing Chapters 11-13

More information

Unit III. Open Die Forging The work piece is compressed between two flat dies facilitating lateral flow of material without constraint,

Unit III. Open Die Forging The work piece is compressed between two flat dies facilitating lateral flow of material without constraint, Unit III What is Bulk Deformation? Metal forming operations which cause significant shape change by plastic deformation in metallic parts are referred to bulk deformation processes. In most of the cases

More information

MSE-226 Engineering Materials

MSE-226 Engineering Materials MSE-226 Engineering Materials Lecture-7 ALLOY STEELS Tool Steels TYPES of FERROUS ALLOYS FERROUS ALLOYS Plain Carbon Steels Alloy Steels Cast Irons - Low carbon Steel - Medium carbon steel - High carbon

More information

Chapter 14 Forging of Metals

Chapter 14 Forging of Metals Introduction Chapter 14 Forging of Metals Alexandra Schönning, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering University of North Florida Figures by Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Kalpakijan and Schmid What is

More information

CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY

CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY Tool Life Tool Materials Tool Geometry Cutting Fluids Cutting Tool Technology Two principal aspects: 1. Tool material 2. Tool geometry Three Modes of Tool Failure Fracture failure

More information

Types Of Extrusion. FIGURE 6.49 Types of extrusion. (a) direct; (b) indirect; (c) hydrostatic; (d) impact.

Types Of Extrusion. FIGURE 6.49 Types of extrusion. (a) direct; (b) indirect; (c) hydrostatic; (d) impact. Types Of Extrusion FIGURE 6.49 Types of extrusion. (a) direct; (b) indirect; (c) hydrostatic; (d) impact. Extrusion of Seamless Tube FIGURE 6.60 Extrusion of a seamless tube. The hole in the billet may

More information

Bulk Deformation Rolling Processes Forging Processes Extrusion Processes Wire and Bar Drawing Sheet Metal Forming Bending Operations Deep or Cup

Bulk Deformation Rolling Processes Forging Processes Extrusion Processes Wire and Bar Drawing Sheet Metal Forming Bending Operations Deep or Cup Metal Forming Bulk Deformation Rolling Processes Forging Processes Extrusion Processes Wire and Bar Drawing Sheet Metal Forming Bending Operations Deep or Cup Drawing Shearing Processes Miscellaneous Processes

More information

Metal extrusion. Metal stamping

Metal extrusion. Metal stamping Metal extrusion Answer the following questions 1. In which of the following extrusion operation is friction a factor in determining the extrusion force (one best answer): (a) direct extrusion or (b) indirect

More information

Chapter 15 Fundamentals of Metal Forming. Materials Processing. Deformation Processes. MET Manufacturing Processes

Chapter 15 Fundamentals of Metal Forming. Materials Processing. Deformation Processes. MET Manufacturing Processes MET 33800 Manufacturing Processes Chapter 15 Fundamentals of Metal Forming Before you begin: Turn on the sound on your computer. There is audio to accompany this presentation. Materials Processing Chapters

More information

ME 4563 ME 4563 ME Introduction to Manufacturing Processes. College of Engineering Arkansas State University.

ME 4563 ME 4563 ME Introduction to Manufacturing Processes. College of Engineering Arkansas State University. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes College of Engineering Arkansas State University 1 Bulk Deformation 2 1 Rolling 3 What is Rolling? A process of reducing the thickness (or changing the cross-section

More information

Forging die design and Forging defects

Forging die design and Forging defects Forging die design and Forging defects 1.1 Forging die-design aspects: Die design is more empirical and requires experience. Design of die depends on the processing steps, nature of work piece material,

More information

A wide range of cold-formable steel grades and aluminium alloys are used as wire materials within a diameter range from 5 mm to 34 mm.

A wide range of cold-formable steel grades and aluminium alloys are used as wire materials within a diameter range from 5 mm to 34 mm. Cold-Formed Parts 2 ESKA manufactures complex precision cold-formed parts for applications with large and medium quantities. The highly-efficient cold- forming process ensures economic manufacture of near-net-shape

More information

Thickness (T) 0,07 to 3/8 (1,78 to 9,52 mm) 1 3T 4T 2 4T 5T 3 4T 5T 4 5T 6T 5 9T 10T 7 4T 5T 11 3T 4T 12 4T 5T 16 4T 5T 17 3T 4T

Thickness (T) 0,07 to 3/8 (1,78 to 9,52 mm) 1 3T 4T 2 4T 5T 3 4T 5T 4 5T 6T 5 9T 10T 7 4T 5T 11 3T 4T 12 4T 5T 16 4T 5T 17 3T 4T TITANIUM FORMING Forming Titanium is readily formed at room temperature, using techniques and equipment suitable for steel. When correct parameters have been established, tolerances similar to those attainable

More information

CHAPTER 4 1/1/2016. Mechanical Properties of Metals - I. Processing of Metals - Casting. Hot Rolling of Steel. Casting (Cont..)

CHAPTER 4 1/1/2016. Mechanical Properties of Metals - I. Processing of Metals - Casting. Hot Rolling of Steel. Casting (Cont..) Processing of Metals - Casting CHAPTER 4 Mechanical Properties of Metals - I Most metals are first melted in a furnace. Alloying is done if required. Large ingots are then cast. Sheets and plates are then

More information

Bulk Forming Processes

Bulk Forming Processes Bulk Forming Processes Chapter 16 16.1 Introduction Metal has been shaped by deformation processes for several thousand years Forging, rolling, and wire drawing were performed in the Middle Ages The Industrial

More information

Powder-Metal Processing and Equipment

Powder-Metal Processing and Equipment Powder-Metal Processing and Equipment Text Reference: Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Kalpakjian & Schmid, 6/e, 2010 Chapter 17 Powder Metallurgy Metal powders are compacted into desired and

More information

Bulk Deformation Forming - Rolling

Bulk Deformation Forming - Rolling 1 Bulk Deformation Forming - Rolling Overview - Shaping and Forming Powders Pressing SLS Special Injection Molding Firing/ Sintering 2 Raw Material Molten Material Continuous Casting/Rolling Ingot casting

More information

Design for Forging. Forging processes. Typical characteristics and applications

Design for Forging. Forging processes. Typical characteristics and applications Design for Forging Forging processes Forging is a controlled plastic deformation process in which the work material is compressed between two dies using either impact or gradual pressure to form the part.

More information

Powder Metallurgy. Powder-Metal Processing and Equipment 11/10/2009

Powder Metallurgy. Powder-Metal Processing and Equipment 11/10/2009 Powder Metallurgy Powder-Metal Processing and Equipment Metal powders are compacted into desired and often complex shapes and sintered* to form a solid piece * Sinter: To heat without melting Text Reference:

More information

Aspects of wire drawing and tube drawing

Aspects of wire drawing and tube drawing Aspects of wire drawing and tube drawing R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 8 Table of Contents 1. Further

More information

GRINDING AND OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES

GRINDING AND OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES GRINDING AND OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES Grinding Related Abrasive Process Abrasive Machining Material removal by action of hard, abrasive particles usually in the form of a bonded wheel Generally used as

More information

The following steps are used in the powder metallurgy techniques:

The following steps are used in the powder metallurgy techniques: Advantages of Powder Metallurgy Virtually unlimited choice of alloys and non metallicswith associated properties. * A variety of metal or non metal powders can be used. * Refractory materials are popularly

More information

CHAPTER 14. Forging of Metals. Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Prentice-Hall Page 14-1

CHAPTER 14. Forging of Metals. Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Prentice-Hall Page 14-1 CHAPTER 14 Forging of Metals 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 14-1 Forging (a) (b) Figure 14.1 (a) Schematic illustration of the steps involved in forging a bevel gear with a shaft. Source: Forging Industry Association.

More information

Processing of Metal Powders

Processing of Metal Powders Chapter 17 Processing of Metal Powders QUALITATIVE PROBLEMS 17.15 Why is there density variation in the compacting of powders? How is it reduced? The main reason for density variation in compacting of

More information

INDEX METALS FERRIC METALS NON-FERRIC METALS WORKING WITH METALS METAL FORMING TECHNIQUES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF METAL EXTRACTION

INDEX METALS FERRIC METALS NON-FERRIC METALS WORKING WITH METALS METAL FORMING TECHNIQUES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF METAL EXTRACTION METALS INDEX METALS FERRIC METALS NON-FERRIC METALS WORKING WITH METALS METAL FORMING TECHNIQUES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF METAL EXTRACTION METALS CHEMICAL ELEMENTS FOUND IN NATURE IN SOLID STATE AT ROOM

More information

Extrusion. Subjects of interest

Extrusion. Subjects of interest Chapter 4 Extrusion Subjects of interest Introduction/objectives Classification of extrusion processes Extrusion equipment (Presses, dies and tools) Hot extrusion Deformation, lubrication, and defects

More information

1. Consider the following stress-strain responses of metallic materials:

1. Consider the following stress-strain responses of metallic materials: TECNOLOGIA MECÂNICA Mestrado em Engenharia de Materiais January 3, 2015 Number: Name: 1. Consider the following stress-strain responses of metallic materials: Y Load Unload Y E Load E Unload Y (1) (2)

More information

Primary shaping - Powder Metallurgy

Primary shaping - Powder Metallurgy Chair of Manufacturing Technology Primary shaping - Powder Metallurgy Manufacturing Technology II Exercise 2 Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering Chair of Manufacturing Technology Prof.

More information

Manufacturing Process II. Forging

Manufacturing Process II. Forging Manufacturing Process II Forging Introduction Forging is a deformation process in which the work is compressed between two dies, using either impact or gradual pressure to form the part. It is the oldest

More information

Mechanical behavior of crystalline materials- Comprehensive Behaviour

Mechanical behavior of crystalline materials- Comprehensive Behaviour Mechanical behavior of crystalline materials- Comprehensive Behaviour In the previous lecture we have considered the behavior of engineering materials under uniaxial tensile loading. In this lecture we

More information

COMPUTER SIMULATION BASED DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION OF DIE FORGING OPERATIONS

COMPUTER SIMULATION BASED DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION OF DIE FORGING OPERATIONS COMPUTER SIMULATION BASED DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION OF DIE FORGING OPERATIONS Dr.S.Shamasundar ProSIM, 21/B. 9 th main Shankara Nagara, Mahalakshmipuram Bangalore-560096 Email: shama@pro-sim.com Web: www.pro-sim.com

More information

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF RBD PALM OLEIN AS LUBRICANT IN COLD METAL FORMING

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF RBD PALM OLEIN AS LUBRICANT IN COLD METAL FORMING Jurnal Mekanikal December 2010, No. 31, 1-10 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF RBD PALM OLEIN AS LUBRICANT IN COLD METAL FORMING S. Syahrullail *1, S. Kamitani 2 and K. Nakanishi 2 1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,

More information

Aluminum Extrusion Alloy Guides

Aluminum Extrusion Alloy Guides Aluminum Extrusion Alloy Guides There are two extrusion processes, direct and indirect. With direct, the ingot moves relative to the container wall; with indirect, the die moves. Under pressure, the ingot

More information

COPPER PRODUCTS. 145 COPPER PRODUCTS Half Hard Tellurium Rounds

COPPER PRODUCTS. 145 COPPER PRODUCTS Half Hard Tellurium Rounds COPPER PRODUCTS 110 COPPER PRODUCTS Rounds... 12-2 Squares... 12-2 Flats - Square Edge...12-3 thru12-4 Flats - Full Round Edge (FRE)... 12-5 Cold Rolled Sheet... 12-6 110 Quarter Hard Copper Sheet... 12-6

More information

The Convenience Stores For Metal

The Convenience Stores For Metal TOOL STEEL SELECTOR GUIDE Application Suggested Grades Arbors... O1, A2, A6 Battering Tools... S5, S1, S7 Blacksmith Tools... S5, S1 Boiler-Shop Tools... S5, S1, S7 Bolt Clippers... S5, S1 Boring Tools...

More information

Tribology in Hydrostatic Extrusion of Metals A review

Tribology in Hydrostatic Extrusion of Metals A review Tribology in Hydrostatic Extrusion of Metals A review P. Tomar*, R. K. Pandey, Y. Nath Mechanical and Automation Engineering Department G.G.S. Indraprastha University, Delhi-110403, India *Corresponding

More information

1. 3 Extrusion molding

1. 3 Extrusion molding 1. 3 Extrusion molding 9 Extrusion is a widely used technique, both in the field of traditional and technical ceramics. This method allows the continuous manufacture of products with a constant cross-

More information

Cork Institute of Technology. Autumn 2005 Manufacturing Engineering (Time: 3 Hours)

Cork Institute of Technology. Autumn 2005 Manufacturing Engineering (Time: 3 Hours) Cork Institute of Technology Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) in Mechanical Engineering Stage 3 (Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering Stage 3) Instructions Answer FIVE questions. Answer TWO

More information

EFFECT OF CONVEX DIE ANGLE OF PORTHOLE DIE ON PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND EXTRUSION PROCESS IN TUBE EXTRUSION

EFFECT OF CONVEX DIE ANGLE OF PORTHOLE DIE ON PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND EXTRUSION PROCESS IN TUBE EXTRUSION EFFECT OF CONVEX DIE ANGLE OF PORTHOLE DIE ON PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND EXTRUSION PROCESS IN TUBE EXTRUSION Rajamamundi Prabhu 1 and V.S. K. Venkatachalapathy 2 1 Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa

More information

THE IMPORTANCE OF FRICTION STIR WELDING TOOL

THE IMPORTANCE OF FRICTION STIR WELDING TOOL Production Processes and Systems, vol. 6. (2013) No. 1., pp. 25-34. THE IMPORTANCE OF FRICTION STIR WELDING TOOL Ákos Meilinger, Imre Török University of Miskolc, Department of Mechanical Technology Abstract

More information

Types of Strain. Engineering Strain: e = l l o. Shear Strain: γ = a b

Types of Strain. Engineering Strain: e = l l o. Shear Strain: γ = a b Types of Strain l a g Engineering Strain: l o l o l b e = l l o l o (a) (b) (c) Shear Strain: FIGURE 2.1 Types of strain. (a) Tensile. (b) Compressive. (c) Shear. All deformation processes in manufacturing

More information

Niobium - Machining & Forming Operations

Niobium - Machining & Forming Operations Niobium - Machining & Forming Operations INTRODUCTION Niobium is a highly ductile, soft refractory metal. The machining characteristics of niobium and its common alloys are similar to those of 316 stainless

More information

ERC/NSM Activities. Research for Industry and Government

ERC/NSM Activities. Research for Industry and Government / Activities Research for Industry and Government Stamping Hydroforming Machining Forging / Activities in Tube Hydroforming 1. Materials Determination of material flow stress data for tubular materials

More information

AISI D2 Cold work tool steel

AISI D2 Cold work tool steel T OOL STEEL FACTS AISI D2 Cold work tool steel Great Tooling Starts Here! This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their

More information

Drilling Speeds and Feeds

Drilling Speeds and Feeds EML2322L MAE Design and Manufacturing Laboratory Drilling Speeds and Feeds The speed of a drill is measured in terms of the rate at which the outside or periphery of the tool moves in relation to the work

More information

A SHORT NOTE ON MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF METAL POWDERS

A SHORT NOTE ON MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF METAL POWDERS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN COMPUTER APPLICATIONS AND ROBOTICS ISSN 2320-7345 A SHORT NOTE ON MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF METAL POWDERS 1 R.Raja, 2 M.Rajkumar 1 Assistant Lecturer, St. Joseph College

More information

Die steels and components for extrusion

Die steels and components for extrusion Die steels and components for extrusion Contents Uddeholm your partner... 4 Uddeholm hot work tool steel for extrusion... 4 Tooling components in an extrusion press... 5 Tool steel properties for extrusion

More information

CARBON STEEL BARS HOT ROLLED

CARBON STEEL BARS HOT ROLLED CARBON STEEL BARS HOT ROLLED Grade Description...3-2 Rounds...3-3 thru 3-4 Strip...3-5 Flats (A-36)...3-6 thru 3-8 (M1044)...3-9 Squares...3-9 Reinforcing Bars...3-10 Reinforcing Mesh...3-10 TOLERANCES...3-11

More information

PROCESS TO REDUCE REJECTION RATES OF FORGING DEFECTS

PROCESS TO REDUCE REJECTION RATES OF FORGING DEFECTS PROCESS TO REDUCE REJECTION RATES OF FORGING DEFECTS ABSTRACT- this paper deals with the various forging defects that occur in a forging industry that causes high rejection rates in the components and

More information

ISSN: ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 5, Issue 4, October 2015

ISSN: ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 5, Issue 4, October 2015 Analysis of the influence of new combined process "Equal channel angular pressing-drawing" on the microstructure and properties of copper wire Naizabekov A., Lezhnev S., Volokitin, A., Volokitina I., Panin

More information

MATERIALIZING VISIONS. Bohler-Uddeholm H13 TOOL STEEL

MATERIALIZING VISIONS. Bohler-Uddeholm H13 TOOL STEEL MATERIALIZING VISIONS Bohler-Uddeholm H13 TOOL STEEL Bohler-Uddeholm H13 General Bohler-Uddeholm H13 is a chromium-molybdenumvanadium alloyed steel which is characterized by: Good resistance to abrasion

More information

11.3 The alloying elements in tool steels (e.g., Cr, V, W, and Mo) combine with the carbon to form very hard and wear-resistant carbide compounds.

11.3 The alloying elements in tool steels (e.g., Cr, V, W, and Mo) combine with the carbon to form very hard and wear-resistant carbide compounds. 11-2 11.2 (a) Ferrous alloys are used extensively because: (1) Iron ores exist in abundant quantities. (2) Economical extraction, refining, and fabrication techniques are available. (3) The alloys may

More information

QRO 90 SUPREME Hot work tool steel

QRO 90 SUPREME Hot work tool steel T O O L S T E E L F A C T S QRO 90 Hot work tool steel Great Tooling Starts Here! Cover photo: Bo Dahlgren This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general

More information

Mechanical behavior of crystalline materials - Stress Types and Tensile Behaviour

Mechanical behavior of crystalline materials - Stress Types and Tensile Behaviour Mechanical behavior of crystalline materials - Stress Types and Tensile Behaviour 3.1 Introduction Engineering materials are often found to posses good mechanical properties so then they are suitable for

More information

Forging. Types of forging process. 1. Open Die Forgings or Hand forgings. Lecture Notes on Manufacturing Process

Forging. Types of forging process. 1. Open Die Forgings or Hand forgings. Lecture Notes on Manufacturing Process Forging Forging is manufacturing process where metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure into high strength parts known as forgings. Heated metal to be shaped is placed on a mold. Pressure

More information

Metal Matrix Composite (MMC)

Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Matrix Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) The matrix is the monolithic material into which the reinforcement is embedded, and is completely continuous. This means thatt there is apath throughh the matrix ti

More information

Manufacturing Technology II. Exercise 2. Powder Metallurgy

Manufacturing Technology II. Exercise 2. Powder Metallurgy Lehrstuhl für Technologie der Fertigungsverfahren Laboratorium für Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebslehre Manufacturing Technology II Exercise 2 Powder Metallurgy Werkzeugmaschinenlabor Lehrstuhl für Technologie

More information

Properties in Shear. Figure 7c. Figure 7b. Figure 7a

Properties in Shear. Figure 7c. Figure 7b. Figure 7a Properties in Shear Shear stress plays important role in failure of ductile materials as they resist to normal stress by undergoing large plastic deformations, but actually fail by rupturing under shear

More information

where n is known as strain hardening exponent.

where n is known as strain hardening exponent. 5.1 Flow stress: Flow stress is the stress required to sustain a certain plastic strain on the material. Flow stress can be determined form simple uniaxial tensile test, homogeneous compression test, plane

More information

UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESS UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION. Prepared by S. SENTHIL KUMAR AP / MECH SVCET

UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESS UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION. Prepared by S. SENTHIL KUMAR AP / MECH SVCET UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESS UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION Prepared by S. SENTHIL KUMAR AP / MECH SVCET INTRODUCTION Conventional machining process Metal is removed by means of tool which is harder than work

More information

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. Tool Material & Cutting Fluid

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. Tool Material & Cutting Fluid MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Tool Material & Cutting Fluid 1 CUTTING TOOL MATERIAL Success in metal cutting depends on the selection of the proper cutting tool (material and geometry) for a given work material.

More information

Solid-State Welding Processes

Solid-State Welding Processes Solid-State Welding Processes Text Reference: Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Kalpakjian & Schmid, 6/e, 2010 Chapter 31 Solid-State State Welding Processes Joining takes place without fusion

More information

Investigation into Wear Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide under Different Lubricating Conditions R.J.Hire 1 Prof.S.V.Lomte 2

Investigation into Wear Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide under Different Lubricating Conditions R.J.Hire 1 Prof.S.V.Lomte 2 IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development Vol. 3, Issue 04, 2015 ISSN (online): 2321-0613 Investigation into Wear Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide under Different Lubricating

More information

Questions concerning the contents of the lecture Manufacturing Technology

Questions concerning the contents of the lecture Manufacturing Technology Questions concerning the contents of the lecture Manufacturing Manufaturing I 1. Introduction to Manufacturing No related questions 2. Measuring and Testing in Production 1. Explain systematic errors and

More information

MACHINES DESIGN SSC-JE STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL MACHINES DESIGN

MACHINES DESIGN SSC-JE STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL MACHINES DESIGN 1 SSC-JE STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL C O N T E N T 2 1. MACHINE DESIGN 03-21 2. FLEXIBLE MECHANICAL ELEMENTS. 22-34 3. JOURNAL BEARINGS... 35-65 4. CLUTCH AND BRAKES.

More information

VDM Alloy 80 A Nicrofer 7520 Ti

VDM Alloy 80 A Nicrofer 7520 Ti VDM Alloy 80 A Nicrofer 7520 Ti Material Data Sheet No. 4048 February 2017 February 2017 VDM Alloy 80 A 2 VDM Alloy 80 A Nicrofer 7520 Ti VDM Alloy 80 A is a nickel-chromium alloy that can be age-hardened.

More information

BZN* Compacts Tool Blanks and Inserts. Machining of Ferrous Materials

BZN* Compacts Tool Blanks and Inserts. Machining of Ferrous Materials BZN* Tool Blanks and Inserts Machining of Ferrous Materials BZN* Tool Blanks and Inserts Diamond Innovations manufactures a complete line of high quality polycrystalline CBN products for machining ferrous

More information

Danly manufacture custom die sets on the latest generation CNC machining centres. 3/1

Danly manufacture custom die sets on the latest generation CNC machining centres. 3/1 Danly manufacture custom die sets on the latest generation CNC machining centres. 3/1 Two factors produce the high accuracy of Danly die sets. The high precision of our components and our system of selective

More information

Materials & Processes in Manufacturing

Materials & Processes in Manufacturing 2003 Bill Young Materials & Processes in Manufacturing ME 151 Chapter 37 Arc Processes Chapter 38 Resistance Welding Chapter 39 Brazing and Soldering 1 Introduction Arc welding processes produce fusion

More information

Plasma Heat and Surface Treatment

Plasma Heat and Surface Treatment Plasma Heat and Surface Treatment Plasmait is a supplier of heat and surface treatment solutions based on plasma technology. We design, build, deploy and support production machinery for continuous and

More information

Uddeholm Dievar is a specially developed steel grade by Uddeholm, which provides the best possible performance.

Uddeholm Dievar is a specially developed steel grade by Uddeholm, which provides the best possible performance. UDDEHOLM DIEVAR Uddeholm Dievar is a specially developed steel grade by Uddeholm, which provides the best possible performance. The chemical composition and the very latest in production technique make

More information

Ground Precision Components

Ground Precision Components E2 Ground Precision Components Ground Precision Components FIBRO Precision Components cover a very wide range of materials, shapes and sizes and thus permit virtually unrestricted selection even to highly

More information

ISOTHERMAL FORGING OF P/M FeAl ALLOYS. T. ŚLEBOD, S. BEDNAREK, A. Łukaszek-SOLEK

ISOTHERMAL FORGING OF P/M FeAl ALLOYS. T. ŚLEBOD, S. BEDNAREK, A. Łukaszek-SOLEK ISOTHERMAL FORGING OF P/M FeAl ALLOYS T. ŚLEBOD, S. BEDNAREK, A. Łukaszek-SOLEK AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza

More information

Chapter 18: Powder Metallurgy

Chapter 18: Powder Metallurgy Chapter 18: Powder Metallurgy ผ ช วยศาสตราจารย เร อโท ดร. สมญา ภ นะยา Reference: DeGarmo s Materials and Processes in Manufacturing 18.1 Introduction Powder metallurgy is the name given to the process

More information

AISI A2 Cold work tool steel

AISI A2 Cold work tool steel T OOL STEEL FACTS AISI A2 Cold work tool steel Great Tooling Starts Here! General AISI A2 is an air- or oil hardening chromiummolybdenum-vanadium alloyed tool steel characterized by: Good machinability

More information

Alro Steel. Tool & Die Steel. Handbook. A Helpful Guide to the Properties, Selection, & Heat Treatment of Tool Steels.

Alro Steel. Tool & Die Steel. Handbook. A Helpful Guide to the Properties, Selection, & Heat Treatment of Tool Steels. Alro Steel Metals Industrial Supplies Plastics Tool & Die Steel Handbook A Helpful Guide to the Properties, Selection, & Heat Treatment of Tool Steels. MISSION STATEMENT To ensure the long-term success

More information

Types of Metal Alloys

Types of Metal Alloys Types of Metal Alloys Metal alloys Ferrous Nonferrous Steels Cast iron 257 Uses low carbon

More information

Resource Guide. Section 3: Ductile Iron

Resource Guide. Section 3: Ductile Iron Resource Guide Section 3: Ductile Iron Section 3 Ductile Iron Description of Grades... 3-3 65-45-12 Ferritic... 3-4 80-55-06 Partially Pearlitic... 3-6 100-70-02 Pearlitic... 3-8 4512 HRDS Heat Resistant...

More information

ALUMINUM POWDER METALLURGY

ALUMINUM POWDER METALLURGY ALUMINUM POWDER METALLURGY Increased demand for light weight components, primarily driven by the need to reduce energy consumption in a variety of societal and structural components, has led to increased

More information

C O N F I D E N T I A L

C O N F I D E N T I A L C O N F I D E N T I A L 1 Please Print or Type Company Name Main Office Address of Company THE ALUMINUM ASSOCIATION, INC. MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION City State Zip/Province Code Country Phone Number Fax Number

More information

2890 Ligonier St. Latrobe, PA Phone Fax Toll Free

2890 Ligonier St. Latrobe, PA Phone Fax Toll Free Your Best Choice For Carbide Components 2890 Ligonier St. Latrobe, PA 15650 Phone 724.532.3041 Fax 724.532.3043 Toll Free 800.862.7066 www.extramet.net OUR HISTORY OUR MISSION Extramet s Primary Objective

More information

Welding Processes. Consumable Electrode. Non-Consumable Electrode. High Energy Beam. Fusion Welding Processes. SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Welding Processes. Consumable Electrode. Non-Consumable Electrode. High Energy Beam. Fusion Welding Processes. SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding Fusion Consumable Electrode SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding SAW Submerged Arc Welding Non-Consumable Electrode GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding PAW Plasma Arc Welding High Energy

More information

Chapter 12. Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, and Operation Delmar, Cengage Learning

Chapter 12. Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, and Operation Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 12 Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, and Operation Objectives Explain the FCA welding process Describe what equipment is needed for FCA welding List the advantages of FCA welding, and explain

More information

Copper & Copper Alloys CuNi1Si (OF 2403)

Copper & Copper Alloys CuNi1Si (OF 2403) Copper and Copper Alloys Page 1 of 5 no responsibility is taken for the correctness of this information 04/2014 Cu Zn Pb Sn Fe Mn Ni Al Si As Co Cr Others Min. Rem. - - - - - 1.0-0.4 - - - - Max. - - 0.02-0.2

More information

SCRATCH-FREE & PILE-FREE PLASMA ANNEALING OF STAINLESS STEEL AND NICKEL ALLOY WIRE, ROPE &TUBE A

SCRATCH-FREE & PILE-FREE PLASMA ANNEALING OF STAINLESS STEEL AND NICKEL ALLOY WIRE, ROPE &TUBE A 1/7 SCRATCH-FREE & PILE-FREE PLASMA ANNEALING OF STAINLESS STEEL AND NICKEL ALLOY WIRE, ROPE &TUBE A fast, efficient and cost effective alternative to bright strand annealing process. The strand annealing

More information

LUBRICATION & MACHINING OF COMPACTED GRAPHITE IRON

LUBRICATION & MACHINING OF COMPACTED GRAPHITE IRON LUBRICATION & MACHINING OF COMPACTED By R. Evans, F. Hoogendoorn, & E. Platt, Quaker Chemical Corporation, Metalworking Division Laboratory SCOPE Compacted graphite iron (CGI) continues to gain use within

More information

Simulation of High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) via STAR-Cast

Simulation of High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) via STAR-Cast Simulation of High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) via STAR-Cast STAR Global Conf. 2012, 19-21 March, Noordwijk Romuald Laqua, Access e.v., Aachen High Pressure Die Casting: Machines and Products Common Materials:

More information