# Part 3 : 11/11/10 07:42:55. MultiFrame Company has the following revenue and cost budgets for the two products it sells.

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1 Question 1 - CMA Decision Making MultiFrame Company has the following revenue and cost budgets for the two products it sells. Plastic Frames Glass Frames Budgeted unit sales 100, ,000 Sales price \$10.00 \$15.00 Direct materials (2.00) (3.00) Direct labor (3.00) (5.00) Fixed overhead (3.00) (4.00) Net income per unit \$2.00 \$3.00 The budgeted unit sales equal the current unit demand, and total fixed overhead for the year is budgeted at \$975,000. Assume that the company plans to maintain the same proportional mix. In numerical calculations, MultiFrame rounds to the nearest cent and unit. The total number of units MultiFrame needs to produce and sell to break even is A. 150,000 units. B. 354,545 units. C. 300,000 units. D. 177,273 units. A. Part 3 : 11/11/10 07:42:55 The breakeven calculation for a multi-product company is a bit more complicated than the breakeven calculation for a single product company. The first step is to calculate the composite unit contribution margin. For 100,000 units of plastic frames and 300,000 units of glass frames, the sales ratio is 1:3. The unit contribution margin for plastic frames is \$10 \$2 DM \$3 DL, or \$5. The unit contribution margin for glass frames is \$15 \$3 DM \$5 DL, or \$7. Therefore, the composite UCM is (\$5 1) + (\$7 3), or \$26. Fixed costs are \$975,000, so the breakeven point at a ratio of 1:3 is \$975,000 \$26, or 37,500 composite units. These will consist of (37,500 1) plastic frames and (37,500 3) glass frames, or 112,500 glass frames, or 150,000 units in total. B. See correct answer. C. See correct answer. D. See correct answer. Question 2 - CMA Decision Making Gleason Co. has two products, a frozen dessert and ready-to-bake breakfast rolls, ready for introduction. However, plant capacity is limited, and only one product can be introduced at present. Therefore, Gleason has conducted a market study, at a cost of \$26,000, to determine which product will be more profitable. The results of the study follow. Sales of Desserts at \$1.80/unit Sales of Rolls at \$1.20/unit Volume Probability Volume Probability 250, , (c) HOCK international, page 1

2 300, , , , , , The costs associated with the two products have been estimated by Gleason's cost accounting department and are shown as follows. Dessert Rolls Ingredients per unit \$.40 \$.25 Direct labor per unit Variable overhead per unit Production tooling* 48,000 25,000 Advertising 30,000 20,000 *Gleason treats production tooling as a current operating expense rather than capitalizing it as a fixed asset. The cost incurred by Gleason for the market study is a(n) A. Sunk cost. B. Incremental cost. C. Opportunity cost. D. Prime cost. A. Since the market study cost has been already incurred it will not have any relevance to future management decisions. B. Incremental (differential) cost are additional cost that result when production, or some other factor is increased. The market study has already been incurred, so it is a sunk cost. C. Opportunity cost is the cost of not selecting the best alternative. This does not relate to the cost of the market study. D. Prime cost include direct labor and direct material. Marketing study is a sunk cost. Question 3 - CIA 1193 IV-12 - Decision Making Total production costs of prior periods for a company are listed as follows. Assume that the same cost behavior patterns can be extended linearly over the range of 3,000 to 35,000 units and that the cost driver for each cost is the number of units produced. Production (units/month): 3,000 9,000 16,000 35,000 Cost X: \$23,700 \$52,680 \$86,490 \$178,260 Cost Y: 47, , , ,600 The company is concerned about its current operating performance that is summarized as follows. Sales (\$12.50 per unit) \$300,000 Variable costs 180,000 Net operating loss (40,000) How many additional units should have been sold in order for the company to break even? A. 8,000 B. 32,000 C. 12,800 (c) HOCK international, page 2

3 D. 16,000 A. First, we need to find the breakeven point in units, and then compare that with the actual units sold to determine how many additional units should have been sold in order to break even. The formula for the breakeven point in units is: FC / Unit Contribution Margin = BEP in units So we need to find fixed costs and the unit contribution margin. Given a loss of \$40,000, then fixed costs must be \$160,000. The formula is: \$300,000 sales - \$180,000 variable costs - X = (\$40,000) \$120,000 - X = (\$40,000) X = \$160,000 Next, find the unit contribution margin. The total contribution margin is \$300,000 - \$180,000, or \$120,000. The sale price (given in the problem) was \$12.50 per unit. With sales of \$300,000 at \$12.50 per unit, a total of 24,000 units was sold (\$300,000 / \$12.50). Therefore, the Unit Contribution Margin is \$120,000 / 24,000, or \$5. Now, we can calculate the BEP in units. BEP in units = \$160,000 / \$5, or 32,000 units The final step is to determine the additional number of units that would have been required, over and above what was actually sold, in order to break even. We have already calculated that 24,000 units were actually sold and that 32,000 units would have been needed to break even. Thus, 8,000 additional units should have been sold in order for the company to break even (32,000-24,000). B. 32,000 is the total units needed in order for the company to break even. However, the question asks for the additional units needed in order for the company to break even. So the correct answer is the difference between the number of units that actually were sold and the breakeven volume. C. See correct answer. D. See correct answer. Question 4 - CIA 1188 IV-16 - Decision Making Positive net income is shown on a cost-volume-profit chart when the A. Total expense line exceeds the total sales revenue line. B. Total variable expense line exceeds the total fixed expense line. C. Total sales revenue line exceeds the total expense line. D. Total sales revenue line exceeds the total fixed expense line. A. At this point the company would have a negative profit. B. This answer is only looking at expenses and not comparing with sales revenue. (c) HOCK international, page 3

4 C. The CVP chart identifies the variable and fixed cost. Total variable and fixed costs will equal total costs. Any time total sales revenue exceed total expenses a company will have positive net income. D. This represents the contribution margin. Must compare sales revenue with total expenses (variable and fixed). Question 5 - CMA Decision Making The relevance of a particular cost to a decision is determined by the A. Potential effect on the decision. B. Riskiness of the decision. C. Accuracy and verifiability of the cost. D. Size of the cost. A. The relevance of a cost depends on whether it varies among the related options. B. The riskiness of a project is not relevant if it does not affect the decision process. C. Some cost might be considered relevant even if they might only be estimates. D. The size of the cost is not relevant if the cost does not affect the decision process. Question 6 - CMA Decision Making Management accountants are frequently asked to analyze various decision situations, including the following: I. The cost of a special device that is necessary if a special order is accepted. II. The cost proposed annually for the plant service for the grounds at corporate headquarters. III. Joint production costs incurred, to be considered in a sell-at-split versus a process-further decision. IV. The costs associated with alternative uses of plant space, to be considered in a make/buy decision. V. The cost of obsolete inventory acquired several years ago, to be considered in a keep-versus-disposal decision. The cost described in situation II is a A. Relevant cost. B. Discretionary cost. C. Imputed cost. D. Prime cost. A. Relevant costs are those costs that will differ among the decision options. Situation II would not be considered a relevant costs. B. Discretionary cost have no relationship between input-output. This is best described in situation II since the annual cost of plant service could be subjected to periodic changes. C. Imputed costs are those costs that are not paid in cash, but are implied. The best example of an imputed cost is the interest charge on equity capital. (c) HOCK international, page 4

5 D. Prime costs include direct labor, and direct materials. This is not described in situation II. Question 7 - CMA Decision Making Condensed monthly operating income data for Korbin Inc. for May follows: Urban Store Suburban Store Total Sales \$80,000 \$120,000 \$200,000 Variable costs 32,000 84, ,000 Contribution margin 48,000 36,000 84,000 Direct fixed costs 20,000 40,000 60,000 Store segment margin 28,000 (4,000) 24,000 Common fixed cost 4,000 6,000 10,000 Operating income 24,000 (10,000) 14,000 Additional information regarding Korbin's operations follows: One-fourth of each store's direct fixed costs would continue if either store were closed. Korbin allocates common fixed costs to each store on the basis of sales dollars. Management estimates that closing the Suburban Store would result in a 10% decrease in the Urban Store's sales, while closing the Urban Store would not affect the Suburban Store's sales. The operating results for May are representative of all months. A decision by Korbin to close the Suburban Store would result in a monthly increase (decrease) in Korbin's operating income of A. \$(10,800) B. \$(1,200) C. \$(6,000) D. \$4,000 A. Total operating income before closing the Suburban store is \$14,000. Korbin has concluded that the following information will affect its net operating income: 1. Sales (decrease by 10%) = \$72, VC (also decrease by 10%) = \$28, Contribution Margin = \$43, Direct fixed cost (1/4 of Suburban fixed cost would continue) = \$30, Store segment margin = \$13, Common cost = \$10, Operating Income = \$3,200 If Korbin closes the store then operating income will decrease to \$3,200. The net affect to Korbin will be to decrease net operating income by \$10,800 (\$3,200 - \$14,000). B. The correct answer is a decrease in operating income of \$10,800. C. The correct answer is a decrease in operating income of \$10,800. D. The correct answer is a decrease in operating income of \$10,800. Question 8 - CMA Decision Making Barnes Corporation manufactures skateboards and is in the process of preparing next year's budget. The pro forma income statement for the current year is presented as follows. Sales \$1,500,000 (c) HOCK international, page 5

6 Cost of sales: Direct materials 250,000 Direct labor 150,000 Variable overhead 75,000 Fixed overhead 100,000 Gross profit 925,000 Selling and G&A Variable 200,000 Selling and G&A Fixed 250,000 Operating income 475,000 The breakeven point (rounded to the nearest dollar) for Barnes Corporation for the current year is A. \$146,341. B. \$181,818. C. \$729,730. D. \$636,364. A. See correct answer. B. See correct answer. C. See correct answer. D. The answer for this problem is found by dividing Fixed Cost by contribution margin percentage. Sales -\$1,500,000 Less: VC -\$675,000 CM -\$825,000 CM %55% \$350,000 fixed costs =55% =\$636,364 breakeven point Question 9 - CMA Decision Making Management accountants are frequently asked to analyze various decision situations including the following. 1. Alternative uses of plant space, to be considered in a make/buy decision. 2. Joint production costs incurred, to be considered in a sell-at-split versus a process-further decision. 3. Research and development costs incurred in prior months, to be considered in a product-introduction decision. 4. The cost of a special device that is necessary if a special order is accepted. 5. The cost of obsolete inventory acquired several years ago, to be considered in a keep-versus-disposal decision. The costs described in situations 2, 3, and 5 are A. Sunk costs. B. Differential costs. C. Relevant costs. D. Discretionary costs. A. The costs described in 2, 3 and 5, are sunk costs. Sunk costs are those costs that have already been incurred and are not relevant to management's future decisions. Joint costs are not relevant as are R&D, or obsolete inventory. B. Differential (incremental) costs are additional costs that result when production, or some other factor is increased. C. Relevant costs are future costs that are expected to vary will activity. (c) HOCK international, page 6

7 D. Discretionary costs are those costs that have no direct input/output relationship. Question 10 - CMA Decision Making The term that best refers to past costs that have been incurred and are not relevant to any future decisions is A. Incurred marginal costs. B. Discretionary costs. C. Sunk costs. D. Full absorption costs. A. Marginal costs change with increases/decreases in production levels. These costs are relevant to future decisions. B. Discretionary cost have no correlation with input-output and they may or may not be relevant to future decisions. C. Sunk cost are past cost that will not change with related options. Sunk cost are irrelevant to management's future decisions. D. Absorption costing includes direct material, direct labor and factory overhead. These costs may or may not be relevant to any future decisions. Question 11 - CMA Decision Making Management accountants are frequently asked to analyze various decision situations, including the following: I. The cost of a special device that is necessary if a special order is accepted. II. The cost proposed annually for the plant service for the grounds at corporate headquarters. III. Joint production costs incurred, to be considered in a sell-at-split versus a process-further decision. IV. The costs associated with alternative uses of plant space, to be considered in a make/buy decision. V. The cost of obsolete inventory acquired several years ago, to be considered in a keep-versus-disposal decision. The costs described in situations III and V are A. Sunk costs. B. Prime costs. C. Discretionary costs. D. Imputed costs. A. Situation III and V are describing sunk costs. Sunk costs are costs that are not relevant to decisions; decision whether to process beyond its current state, or what to do with obsolete inventory. B. Prime cost include only Direct Material and Direct Labor. C. Discretionary costs are incurred costs that have no relationship between input-output (advertising). D. An imputed cost is a cost that does not really exist, but is needed for the decision process. The common example of imputed cost is the interest cost of equity capital. (c) HOCK international, page 7

8 Question 12 - HOCK DA 2 - Decision Making Stark Rehabilitation Hospital is an inpatient institution for severely injured patients who need intense therapy to recover normal functioning. The hospital has a maximum capacity of 130 patients. The hospital employs nurses, doctors and physical therapists. Expenses are as follows: Medical staff: - 1 nurse for every 20 patients, average cost \$66,000 per year per nurse - 1 doctor for every 60 patients, average cost \$150,000 per year per doctor - 1 physical therapist for every 10 patients, average cost \$80,000 per year per therapist The cost per patient per day for meals, medicine and supplies averages \$60 per day per patient. Utilities cost a base amount of \$2,500 per month plus an average of \$200 per patient per month. Medical and exercise equipment, occupancy expense and administrative expense total \$7,700,000 per year. The hospital patient census (i.e., number of patients at any one time) varies from a minimum of 100 patients to fully occupied at 130 patients. Stark charges \$300 per day per patient, and this includes the room, meals, medicine, supplies and all services. What are Stark's variable costs? A. Medical staff B. Medical and exercise equipment, occupancy expense and administative expense C. Utilities D. Meals, medicine and supplies A. Variable costs change in total in proportion to changes in the level of activity. While it could be argued that the expenses of the medical staff behave in this way to a degree, there is a better answer choice that more closely fits this description. B. Variable costs change in total in proportion to changes in the level of activity. Medical and exercise equipment, occupancy expense and administrative expenses do not change in total in proportion to changes in the level of activity. C. Variable costs change in total in proportion to changes in the level of activity. While it could be argued that utilities cost as it is described in this question behaves in this way, there is a better answer choice that more closely fits this description. D. Variable costs change in total in proportion to changes in the level of activity. Meals, medicine and supplies fit this description. Question 13 - CMA Decision Making Delphi Company has developed a new project that will be marketed for the first time during the next fiscal year. Although the Marketing Department estimates that 35,000 units could be sold at \$36 per unit, Delphi's management has allocated only enough manufacturing capacity to produce a maximum of 25,000 units of the new product annually. The fixed costs associated with the new product are budgeted at \$450,000 for the year, which includes \$60,000 for depreciation on new manufacturing equipment. Data associated with each unit of product are presented as follows. Delphi is subject to a 40% income tax rate. (c) HOCK international, page 8

9 Variable Costs Direct material \$7.00 Direct labor 3.50 Manufacturing overhead 4.00 Total variable manufacturing cost Selling expenses 1.50 Total variable cost \$16.00 Delphi Company's management has stipulated that it will not approve the continued manufacture of the new product after the next fiscal year unless the after-tax profit is at least \$75,000 the first year. The unit selling price to achieve this target profit must be at least A. \$ B. \$ C. \$ D. \$ A. See correct answer. B. See correct answer. C. Need to set the problem up algebraically. 25,000 units (X - \$16 variable cost) - \$450,000 fixed cost = \$125,000 before-tax profit 25,000X - \$400,000 - \$450,000 = \$125,000 25,000X = \$400,000 +\$450,000 + \$125,000 25,000X = \$975,000 = \$39 D. See correct answer. Part 3 : 11/11/10 07:42:55 Question 14 - CIA 594 III-42 - Decision Making The following data pertains to XYZ Company for the current year of operations. Total Cost Unit Cost Sales (40,000 units) \$1,000,000 \$25 Raw materials 160,000 4 Direct labor 280,000 7 Factory overhead: Variable 80,000 2 Fixed 360,000 Selling and general expenses: Variable 120,000 3 Fixed 225,000 How many units does XYZ Company need to produce and sell to make a before-tax profit of 10% of sales? A. 25,000 units. B. 65,000 units. C. 36,562 units. D. 90,000 units. A. See correct answer. B. 65,000 units is the breakeven volume. C. See correct answer. (c) HOCK international, page 9

10 D. The formula to calculate the answer to this problem would be: 5X 16X 585,000 = (25X *.10) 9X 585,000 = 2.5X 6.5X 585,000 = 0 6.5X = 585,000 X = 90,000 units Question 15 - CIA 596 III-84 - Decision Making A company that sells its single product for \$40 per unit uses cost-volume-profit analysis in its planning. The company's after-tax net income for the past year was \$1,188,000 after applying an effective tax rate of 40%. The projected costs for manufacturing and selling its single product in the coming year are shown below. Variable cost per unit: Direct material \$5.00 Direct labor 4.00 Manufacturing overhead 6.00 Selling and administrative costs 3.00 Total variable cost per unit \$18.00 Annual fixed operating costs: Manufacturing overhead \$6,200,000 Selling and administrative costs 3,700,000 Total annual fixed cost \$9,900,000 The dollar sales volume required in the coming year to earn the same after-tax net income as the past year is A. \$23,400,000 B. \$26,400,000 C. \$21,600,000 D. \$20,160,000 A. See correct answer. B. See correct answer. C. The company desires to maintain the same profit level as the year before. If the after-tax profit was \$1,188,000, then the pre-tax profit would be \$1,980,000 (\$1,188,000 / (1-40%). The answer to find the dollar sales volume is to divide total Fixed Cost, plus pre-tax profit by unit contribution margin percentage. Sales -\$40 Less: VC -\$18 CM -\$22 CM% -55% \$9,900,000 + \$1,980,000 (pre-tax profit)=55% =\$21,600,000 D. See correct answer. Question 16 - CMA Decision Making Sunk costs A. Are substitutes for opportunity costs. (c) HOCK international, page 10

11 B. In and of themselves are not relevant to decision making. C. Are fixed costs. D. Are relevant to decision making. A. Opportunity cost and sunk cost have nothing to do with each other. B. Sunk cost are past incurred cost that are irrelevant in the decision making process. C. Sunk cost might include both fixed and variable cost. D. Sunk cost are irrelevant to the decision making process. Part 3 : 11/11/10 07:42:55 Question 17 - CMA Decision Making What is the opportunity cost of making a component part in a factory given no alternative use of the capacity? A. The variable manufacturing cost of the component. B. The total variable cost of the component. C. The total manufacturing cost of the component. D. Zero. A. Opportunity cost is a foregone benefit (inflow), not a cash outflow B. Opportunity cost is a foregone benefit (inflow), not a cash outflow C. Opportunity cost is a foregone benefit (inflow), not a cash outflow D. Opportunity cost is the benefit to income (inflow) that is lost by not using a limited resource for its best alternative use. In this question there is no alternative use of the capacity, so opportunity cost would be zero. Question 18 - CMA Decision Making The opportunity cost of making a component part in a factory with no excess capacity is the A. Total manufacturing cost of the component. B. Net benefit forgone from the best alternative use of the capacity required. C. Cost of the production given up in order to manufacture the component. D. Variable manufacturing cost of the component. A. Opportunity cost is a foregone benefit (inflow), not a cash outflow B. Opportunity cost is the benefit to income (inflow) that is lost by not using a limited resource for its best alternative use. Even though there is no excess capacity there is still an alternative use of the capacity. C. Opportunity cost is a foregone benefit (inflow), not a cash outflow D. Opportunity cost is a foregone benefit (inflow), not a cash outflow Question 19 - CIA 586 IV-8 - Decision Making (c) HOCK international, page 11

12 A company sells two products, X and Y. The sales mix consists of a composite unit of 2 units of X for every 5 units of Y (2:5). Fixed costs are \$49,500. The unit contribution margins for X and Y are \$2.50 and \$1.20, respectively. Considering the company as a whole, the number of composite units to break even is A. 8,250 B. 1,650 C. 22,500 D. 4,500 A. See correct answer. B. See correct answer. C. See correct answer. D. The breakeven analysis is more difficult for a multi-product company. The formula is found by dividing fixed cost by the composite contribution margin. The composite contribution margin in this problem is \$11 [2(\$2.50) + 5(\$1.20)]. The breakeven point = \$49,500 / \$11 = 4,500 units Question 20 - CMA Decision Making Hermo Company has just completed a hydro-electric plant at a cost of \$21,000,000. The plant will provide the company's power needs for the next 20 years. Hermo will use only 60% of the power output annually. At this level of capacity, Hermo's annual operating costs will amount to \$1,800,000, of which 80% are fixed. Quigley Company currently purchases its power from MP Electric at an annual cost of \$1,200,000. Hermo could supply this power, thus increasing output of the plant to 90% of capacity. This would reduce the estimated life of the plant to 14 years. If Hermo decides to supply power to Quigley, it wants to be compensated for the decrease in the life of the plant and the appropriate variable costs. Hermo has decided that the charge for the decreased life should be based on the original cost of the plant calculated on a straight-line basis. The minimum annual amount that Hermo would charge Quigley would be A. \$450,000. B. \$990,000. C. \$630,000. D. Some amount other than those given. A. This is incorrect because this is only the increase in annual FC that would be incurred if expanding the capacity, thereby, shortening the depreciable life (\$21,000,000 / 14 year life - \$21,000,000 / 20 year life). B. This answer was found by taking the increase in FC and adding the total VC of operating at 90% capacity (\$450,000 + \$540,000). C. This calculation has to include any additional increases in FC and VC that arise from the sale. The increased FC is \$450,000, which was calculated by taking the difference between depreciation over a 14 year life and 20 year life (\$1,500,000 - \$1.050,000). If the cost of operating at 60% capacity is \$360,000 then increasing capacity by 50% (to 90%) would increase costs by \$180,000. Therefore, total increased cost would be \$630,000 (\$450,000 + \$180,000). D. The correct answer is B. (c) HOCK international, page 12

15 Question 24 - CMA Decision Making When a decision is made in an organization, it is selected from a group of alternative courses of action. The loss associated with choosing the alternative that does not maximize the benefit is the A. Opportunity cost. B. Incremental cost. C. Net realizable value. D. Expected value. A. By definition opportunity cost is the benefit to income (inflow) that is lost by not using a limited resource for its best alternative use. B. Incremental (differential) costs are additional costs that result when production, or some other factor is increased. C. Net realizable value is value of an asset less any disposal cost. D. The expected value of a product is the weighted average of potential outcomes. It is calculated by taking the expected volume of sales and multiplying by the estimated probabilities for each potential outcome and adding together. Question 25 - CMA Decision Making Siberian Ski Company recently expanded its manufacturing capacity, which will allow it to produce up to 15,000 pairs of cross-country skis of the mountaineering model or the touring model. The Sales Department assures management that it can sell between 9,000 pairs and 13,000 pairs of either product this year. Because the models are very similar, Siberian Ski will produce only one of the two models. The following information was compiled by the Accounting Department. Per Unit (Pair) Data Mountaineering Touring Selling price \$88.00 \$80.00 Variable costs Fixed costs will total \$369,600 if the mountaineering model is produced but will be only \$316,800 if the touring model is produced. Siberian Ski is subject to a 40% income tax rate. If Siberian Ski Company desires an after-tax net income of \$24,000, how many pairs of touring model skis will the company have to sell? A. 13,118 pairs. B. 4,460 pairs. C. 12,529 pairs. D. 13,853 pairs. A. The company desires an after-tax income of \$24,000 the formula to calculate the sales breakeven even volume is: Total fixed cost + Profit / unit contribution margin = \$316,800 (fixed costs) + \$40,000 before-tax profit (\$24,000 / (1-40% tax rate))/ \$27.20 contribution margin per unit (\$80 sales price - \$52.80 variable cost) = 13,118 units B. See correct answer. (c) HOCK international, page 15

17 C. The estimated reduction in operating costs. D. The trade-in value of the old printing press. Part 3 : 11/11/10 07:42:55 A. The interest on debt is an avoidable cost that is relevant to the decision process. B. A sunk cost is a cost that has already been incurred and is not relevant to the decision process. Sunk cost are irrelevant. C. The reduction of operating expenses is the difference between keeping the old printing press and purchasing the new one. D. The trade-in value of the old printing press will affect the decision process, so therefore, is relevant. Question 28 - CMA Decision Making In a decision analysis situation, which one of the following costs is generally not relevant to the decision? A. Incremental cost. B. Avoidable cost. C. Differential cost. D. Historical cost. A. Incremental (differential) costs are additional costs that result when production, or some other factor is increased. These cost are relevant to the decision making process. B. Avoidable cost are relevant to decision making process. In the decision making process need to look at all avoidable (variable and fixed) cost that will vary among the related options. C. Incremental (differential) costs are additional costs that result when production, or some other factor is increased. These cost are relevant to the decision making process. D. Historical cost are sunk cost that are not relevant to the decision making process. In the decision making process you want to look only at cost that differ among the related options. Question 29 - CMA Decision Making Whitehall Corporation produces chemicals used in the cleaning industry. During the previous month, Whitehall incurred \$300,000 of joint costs in producing 60,000 units of AM-12 and 40,000 units of BM-36. Whitehall uses the units-of-production method to allocate joint costs. Currently, AM-12 is sold at split-off for \$3.50 per unit. Flank Corporation has approached Whitehall to purchase all of the production of AM-12 after further processing. The further processing will cost Whitehall \$90,000. Concerning AM-12, which one of the following alternatives is most advantageous? A. Whitehall should process further and sell to Flank if the total selling price per unit after further processing is greater than \$3.00, which covers the joint costs. B. Whitehall should process further and sell to Flank if the total selling price per unit after further processing is greater than \$5.25, which maintains the same gross profit percentage. C. Whitehall should continue to sell at split-off unless Flank offers at least \$4.50 per unit after further processing, which covers Whitehall's total costs. D. Whitehall should process further and sell to Flank if the total selling price per unit after further processing is greater than \$5.00. (c) HOCK international, page 17

18 A. Joint cost are irrelevant to the decision. B. Any price greater than \$5.00 per unit would increase the profit margin. C. The minimum price that Whitehall would accept is \$5.00 per unit (\$3.50 sell price at split-off + \$1.50 additional cost). D. If we know that AM-12 can be sold for \$3.50 per unit at split-off then joint cost are irrelevant to the decision whether to process further or not. If further processing will cost \$90,000 then the additional cost of processing would be \$1.50 per unit (\$90,000 / 60,000 units of AM-12). Therefore, the minimum price that Whitehall would accept must be a price no less than \$5.00 per unit (\$ \$1.50). Question 30 - HOCK DA 1 - Decision Making Stark Rehabilitation Hospital is an inpatient institution for severely injured patients who need intense therapy to recover normal functioning. The hospital has a maximum capacity of 130 patients. The hospital employs nurses, doctors and physical therapists. Expenses are as follows: Medical staff: - 1 nurse for every 20 patients, average cost \$66,000 per year per nurse - 1 doctor for every 60 patients, average cost \$150,000 per year per doctor - 1 physical therapist for every 10 patients, average cost \$80,000 per year per therapist The cost per patient per day for meals, medicine and supplies averages \$60 per day per patient. Utilities cost a base amount of \$2,500 per month plus an average of \$200 per patient per month. Medical and exercise equipment, occupancy expense and administrative expense total \$7,700,000 per year. The hospital patient census (i.e., number of patients at any one time) varies from a minimum of 100 patients to fully occupied at 130 patients. Stark charges \$300 per day per patient, and this includes the room, meals, medicine, supplies and all services. What are Stark's fixed costs? A. Medical and exercise equipment, occupancy expense and administrative expense B. Medical staff C. Meals, medicine and supplies D. Utilities A. Fixed costs are costs which do not change in total as long as the volume remains within the relevant range. Medical and exercise equipment, occupancy expense and administrative expenses do not change in total as long as the volume remains within the relevant range. B. Fixed costs are costs which do not change in total as long as the volume remains within the relevant range. Although it could be argued that the small ranges for each level of medical staffing are relevant ranges, there is a better answer choice that more closely fits this description. C. Fixed costs are costs which do not vary with activity. Meals, medicine and supplies vary with activity. D. Fixed costs are costs which do not vary with activity. Utilities vary with activity. (c) HOCK international, page 18

20 B. \$213,750 C. Some amount other than those given. D. \$257,625 A. This question is a bit more entail because it is asking you to find the sales volume given an after-tax net income of \$22,500. The formula for the problem would be: (Total fixed cost + Before-tax net income) / contribution margin per unit (%). = \$115,500 (fixed costs) + \$37,500 before-tax profit (\$22,500 / 1- tax rate) / 66.66% contribution margin rate (\$6 contribution margin / \$9 sales price) = \$229,500 B. See correct answer. C. The correct answer of \$229,500 is given. D. See correct answer. Question 33 - CMA Decision Making MultiFrame Company has the following revenue and cost budgets for the two products it sells. Plastic Frames Glass Frames Budgeted unit sales 100, ,000 Sales price \$10.00 \$15.00 Direct materials (2.00) (3.00) Direct labor (3.00) (5.00) Fixed overhead (3.00) (4.00) Net income per unit \$2.00 \$3.00 The budgeted unit sales equal the current unit demand, and total fixed overhead for the year is budgeted at \$975,000. Assume that the company plans to maintain the same proportional mix. In numerical calculations, MultiFrame rounds to the nearest cent and unit. The total number of units needed to break even if sales were budgeted at 150,000 units of plastic frames and 300,000 units of glass frames with all other costs remaining constant is A. 418,455 units. B. 171,958 units. C. 365,168 units. D. 153,948 units. A. See correct answer. B. See correct answer. C. See correct answer. D. The breakeven calculation for a multi-product company is a bit more complicated than the breakeven calculation for a single product company. The first step is to calculate the composite unit contribution margin. For 150,000 units of plastic frames and 300,000 units of glass frames, the sales ratio is 1:2. The unit contribution margin for plastic frames is \$10 \$2 DM \$3 DL, or \$5. The unit contribution margin for glass frames is \$15 \$3 DM \$5 DL, or \$7. Therefore, the composite UCM is (\$5 1) + (\$7 2), or \$19. Fixed costs (c) HOCK international, page 20

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