# Profit. Total Revenue The amount a firm receives for the sale of its output. Total Cost The market value of the inputs a firm uses in production.

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1 Profit Total Revenue The amount a firm receives for the sale of its output. Total Cost The market value of the inputs a firm uses in production. Profit is the firm s total revenue minus its total cost. Profit = Total revenue - Total cost

2 PRODUCTION The Production Function The production function shows the relationship between quantity of inputs used to make a good and the quantity of output of that good. Marginal Product The marginal product of any input is the increase in output that occurs from employing an additional unit of that input in production. Diminishing Marginal Product Diminishing marginal product states that the marginal product of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases. Example: As more and more workers are hired at a firm, each additional worker contributes less and less to production because the firm has a limited amount of equipment. Diminishing Marginal Product The slope of the production function measures the marginal product of an input, such as labor.

3 Total Product Curve Quantity of Output (cookies per hour) Production function Number of Workers Hired

4 MEASURES OF COST Costs of production may be divided into fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs are costs that do not vary with the quantity of output produced. Variable costs are costs that vary with the quantity of output produced. Total Costs Total Fixed Costs (TFC) Total Variable Costs (TVC) Total Costs (TC) TC = TFC + TVC

5 Example: Measures of Cost

6 Average Costs Average Costs Average costs can be determined by dividing the firm s costs by the quantity of output the firm produces. (TC / Q) The average cost is the cost of each typical unit of product. Calculating Average Costs Average Fixed Costs (AFC) = TFC / Q Average Variable Costs (AVC) = TVC / Q Average Total Costs (ATC) = TC / Q ATC = AFC + AVC

7 Marginal Cost Marginal Cost Marginal cost (MC) measures the increase in total cost that arises from an extra unit of production. Marginal cost helps answer the following question: How much does it cost to produce an additional unit of output? MC (change in total cost) = = (change in quantity) TC Q

8 Calculating Marginal Cost MC = (change in TC / change in Q) Quantity Total Cost Marginal Cost Quantity Total Cost Marginal Cost 0 \$ \$ \$7.80 \$

9 Cost Curve Shapes A typical average total-cost curve is U-shaped. At low levels of output average total cost is high because fixed cost is spread over very few units. Average total cost declines as output increases. Average total cost starts rising because average variable cost rises substantially. Relationship between Marginal Cost and Average Total Cost: Whenever marginal cost is less than average total cost, average total cost is falling. Whenever marginal cost is greater than average total cost, average total cost is rising. The marginal-cost curve crosses the average-total-cost curve at its minimum.

10 Marginal Cost intersects Average Cost at its minimum Costs \$ MC ATC Quantity of Output (glasses of lemonade per hour)

11 Example: Cost Curve Relationships

12 Total Cost Curve Total Cost \$ TC Quantity of Output (bagels per hour)

13 Properties of Cost Curves: Marginal cost eventually rises with the quantity of output. The average-total-cost curve is U-shaped. Marginal-cost curve crosses the ATC and AVC curves at their minimum points. Costs \$ MC ATC AVC 0.50 AFC Quantity of Output (bagels per hour)

14 Average Cost Curves: short run and long run Average Total Cost ATC in short run with small factory ATC in short run with medium factory ATC in short run with large factory \$12,000 ATC in long run 0 1,200 Quantity of Cars per Day

15 Economies of scale means long-run average total cost falls as output increases. Diseconomies of scale means long-run average total cost rises as output increases. Constant returns to scale means long-run average total cost stays the same as output increases. Average Total Cost ATC in short run with small factory ATC in short run with medium factory ATC in short run with large factory ATC in long run \$12,000 10,000 Economies of scale Constant returns to scale Diseconomies of scale 0 1,000 1,200 Quantity of Cars per Day

16 Summary The goal of firms is to maximize profit, which equals total revenue minus total cost. A typical firm s production function gets flatter as the quantity of input increases, displaying the law of diminishing marginal returns. A firm s total costs are divided between fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs do not change when the firm alters the quantity of output produced; variable costs do change as the firm alters quantity of output produced. Average total cost is total cost divided by the quantity of output.atc(or AC) = TC / Q Marginal cost is the amount by which total cost would rise if output were increased by one unit. The average-total-cost curve is typically U-shaped. The marginal-cost curve crosses the average-total-cost curve at its minimum. A firm s costs often depend on the time horizon being considered. In particular, many costs are fixed in the short run but variable in the long run.

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