3 Objective To prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories.
4 Scope All inventories except: (a) (b) Financial instruments (see IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation and IFRS 9 Financial Instruments); Biological assets related to agricultural activity and agricultural produce at the point of harvest (see IAS 41 Agriculture).
5 Definitions Inventories are assets: (a) held for sale in the ordinary course of business; Retailer = Stock-in-Trade Manufacturer = Finished Goods (b) in the process of production for such sale; (e.g. WIP: work in progress) or (c) in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services. (e.g. Raw Material) Inventories are current assets.
6 What is Asset? 1. Resource 2. Controlled by the entity 3. As a result of past events 4. Future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity.
7 Types of Inventories a) Merchandise b) Production Supplies c) Materials d) Work in Progress e) Finished Goods
8 Process & Work-in-Progress Difference between Work-in- Work-in- Process Work-in- Progress Current Assets Long Term Assets
9 Inventory Systems Two accounting systems are used to record transactions involving inventory: Perpetual Inventory System The inventory account is continuously updated as purchases and sales are made. Periodic Inventory System The inventory account is adjusted at the end of a reporting cycle.
10 Periodic Inventory
11 Loss of inventory Not included in closing stock Written off to cost of sales Disclose loss of inventory = Face OR Notes (if material)
12 Perpetual Inventory A system where inventory records are continuously updated so that inventory values are always available. Inventory record is kept of all receipts of items into inventory (at cost) and all issues of inventory to cost of sales. Cost means Actual Cost OR Standard Cost Each receipt and issue of inventory is recorded in the inventory account. This means that a purchases account becomes unnecessary.
16 Inventory Count A stock take is a physical verification of the amount of inventory that a business has. Timing: Normally done on year end. Periodic inventory systems Closing inventory at the end of each period being recognised in the system of accounts.
17 Perpetual inventory systems Inventory that should be there Actual physical inventory Difference XXX XXX XXX Possible causes of difference: Theft of inventory. Damage to inventory with failure to record that damage. Mis-posting of inventory receipts or issues (for example posting component A as component B). Failure to record a receipt. Failure to record an issue.
18 Timing of Inventory Count
19 Disclosures The accounting policy adopted for measuring inventories, including the cost measurement method used. The total carrying amount of inventories, classified appropriately. (For a manufacturer, appropriate classifications will be raw materials, work-in-progress and finished goods.) The amount of inventories carried at net realisable value or NRV.
20 The amount of inventories written down in value, and so recognised as an expense during the period. Details of any circumstances that have led to the write-down of inventories to NRV. The amount of any reversal of any writedown that is recognized as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognized as expense in the period. The circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories.
21 Net realisable value Estimated selling price Less estimated costs of completion estimated costs necessary to make the sale XXX (XXX) (XXX) XXX
22 Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
23 Measurement Date Market participants are defined as having the following characteristics: 1. Independent of each other (i.e. unrelated parties). 2. Knowledgable and using all available information. 3. Able of entering into the transaction. 4. Willing to enter into the transaction (i.e. not a forced transaction).
24 NRV = Entity specific value (How entity plan to sell assets) FV = Not an entity specific value (Determined by market forces) Net realisable value for inventories may not equal fair value less costs to sell. Inventories includes: a) Goods purchased and held for resale (merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale) b) Raw material, work in progress & finished goods. c) Supplies awaiting use in the production process. Costs incurred to fulfil a contract with a customer that do not give rise to inventories (or assets within the scope of another Standard) are accounted for in accordance with IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
25 Measurement of inventories Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
26 Example Suppose a company has three items of inventories on hand at the year-end. Their costs and NRVs are as follows: Item Cost NRV Calculate the closing value of inventory at the year-end?
27 Cost of Inventories Costs of purchase XXX Costs of conversion XXX Other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. XXX XXX
28 Costs of Purchase Purchase price Import duties Other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable) Transport (inwards) Handling Other costs directly attributable to the acquisition of finished goods, materials and services Settlement discount (% discount on early settlement of invoice) Trade discounts (agreed discount on retail price between traders) Financing cost due to extended payment terms Cash/bulk discount Rebates (partial refund) XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX (XXX) (XXX) (XXX) (XXX) XXX
29 Transport/Carriage Cost Transport inwards Refers to the cost of transporting the purchased inventory from the supplier to the purchaser s business premises. It is a cost that was incurred in bringing the inventory to its present location and should therefore be included in the cost of inventory. Transport outwards It is a cost that is incurred in order to complete the sale of the inventory rather than to purchase it and may therefore not be capitalised (since it is not a cost that was incurred in bringing the inventory to its present location ). Transport outwards should, therefore, be recorded as a selling expense in the statement of comprehensive income instead of capitalising it to the cost of the inventory.
30 Transport cost - example A company purchases inventory for PKR 100 from a supplier. The following additional information is provided: Cost of transport inwards 25 Cost of transport outwards 15 All amounts were on credit and all amounts owing were later paid in cash. Required: Calculate the cost of the inventory.
31 Transport cost - solution Cost of inventory purchased: = PKR 125
32 Transaction Taxes The only time that transaction taxes or import duties will form part of the cost of inventory is if they may not be claimed back from the tax authorities. An entity purchased inventory. The costs thereof were as follows: Total invoice price (including 14%) paid in cash to the supplier Import duties paid in cash directly to Tax Deptt Required: A. The Taxes and the import duties were refunded by the tax authorities one month later. B. The Taxes and the import duties will not be refunded.
34 Non-refundable taxes and import duties All transaction taxes and import duties will form part of cost of inventory
35 Rebates Reduction of purchase price = cost of inventory rebate Not reduction of purchase price = income
36 Rebate - Example An entity purchased inventory for cash. The details thereof were as follows: Invoice price (no VAT is charged on these goods) Rebate offered to the entity by the supplier Required: A. Was a reduction to the invoice price of the inventory; and B. Was a refund of the entity s expected selling costs.
37 Rebate - Solution Part : A = 8000 Part : B Cost of inventory = 9000 Rebate of 1000 will be income.
38 Discounts Trade discount or bulk discount : this is usually received after successfully negotiating the invoice price down, because you are a regular customer or you are buying in bulk; and Cash discount : this is sometimes received as a reward for paying in cash;
39 Settlement discount: this is sometimes received as a reward for paying promptly. All these discounts are deducted from the cost of the inventory. Trade discounts, bulk discounts and cash discounts are generally agreed to on the transaction date. Settlement discounts, however, will have to be estimated on the transaction date based on when the entity expects to settle its account with the creditor.
40 Example An entity purchased inventory. The costs thereof were as follows: Marked price (no tax is charged on these goods) Trade discount Required: A. The entity pays in cash on transaction date and receives a cash discount of PKR 500; and B. The supplier offers an early settlement discount of PKR 400 if the account is paid within 20 days: the entity pays within the required period of 20 days. C. The supplier offers an early settlement discount of PKR 400 if the account is paid within 20 days: the entity pays after a period of 20 days.
41 Solution discounts including a cash discount = 7500 discounts including a settlement discount = 7600 The settlement discount is an estimated discount until the payment is made within the required period, at which point the discount becomes an actual discount received. The entity pays within 20 days and the settlement discount becomes a reality (i.e. the estimated discount becomes an actual discount).
42 discounts including a settlement discount = The settlement discount is an estimated discount until the payment is made within the required period, at which point the discount becomes an actual discount received. The entity pays after 20 days and the settlement discount is forfeited. The payment is therefore PKR Since the creditor is not paid within the required settlement period, the entity lost its settlement discount. The settlement discount allowance is thus recognised as an expense.
43 Finance costs due to extended settlement terms Instead of paying in cash on transaction date or paying within a short period of time, an entity could choose to pay over a long period of time. The time value of money must be taken into consideration when estimating the fair value of the cost and the cost of paying over an extended period of time must be reflected as an interest expense.
44 Example An entity purchased inventory on 1 January 20X1. The costs thereof were as follows: Invoice price payable on 31 December 20X Market interest rate 10% Required: Show the journal entries assuming: A. The effect of the time value of money is not considered to be material; and B. The effect of the time value of money is considered to be material.
45 Solution extended settlement terms: immaterial effect Inventory (A) Trade payable (L) Cost of inventory purchased on credit (time value ignored because effects immaterial to the company) Trade payable (L) Bank Payment for inventory purchased from X on 1 January 20X1 (2 years ago)
46 extended settlement terms: material effect The cost of the inventory must be measured at the present value of the future payment Inventory (A) Trade payable (L) Cost of inventory purchased on credit (invoice price is 6 050, but recognised at present value of future amount). 10% used to discount the future amount to the present value: / 1.1 / 1.1 or x
47 Interest expense 500 Trade payable (L) 500 Effective interest incurred on present value of creditor: x 10% Interest expense 550 Trade payable (L) 550 Effective interest incurred on present value of creditor: x 10% Trade payable (L) Bank Payment of creditor:
48 Example A retailer imported goods at a cost of PKR 130, including PKR 20 non-refundable import duties and PKR 10 refundable purchase taxes. The risks and rewards of ownership of the imported goods were transferred to the retailer upon collection of the goods from the harbour warehouse. The retailer was required to pay for the goods upon collection. The retailer incurred PKR 5 to transport the goods to its retail outlet and a further PKR 2 in delivering the goods.
49 Solution purchase price (PKR 130 less PKR 20 import duties less PKR 10 purchase taxes) PKR 100 non-refundable import duties PKR 20 transport to the retail outlet PKR 5 PKR 125 Note: The cost of purchase excludes the refundable purchase taxes paid on acquisition of the good as the PKR 10 paid will be refunded to the retailer. It excludes the selling expenses incurred (ie PKR 2 delivery costs and PKR 3 other selling costs).
50 Example A retailer buys a good priced at PKR 500 per unit. However, the supplier awards the retailer a 20 per cent discount on orders of 100 units or more. The retailer buys 100 units in a single order. Solution The retailer measures the cost of the inventory at PKR 40,000 [ie 100 units x (PKR 500 list price less 20% of PKR 500 volume discount)].
51 Example On 1 November 20X1 a retailer buys 90 units of a good from a supplier for PKR 500 per unit on 60 days interest-free credit (normal credit terms). To encourage early settlement the supplier awarded the retailer a 10 per cent early settlement discount for settling within 30 days of buying the goods. On 30 November 20X1 the retailer paid PKR 40,500 to settle the amount owing for the 90 units purchased from the supplier. Solution The retailer measures the cost of the inventory at PKR 40,500 [ie 100 units (PKR 500 list price less 10% (PKR 500) early settlement discount)].
52 Example A retailer paid PKR 100 for goods, including PKR 5 for the goods to be delivered to one of its retail outlets (outlet A). Solution The cost of purchase is PKR 100, including PKR 5 costs incurred in bringing the goods to their sale location outlet A.
53 Costs of Conversion Direct labour XXX Variable production overheads (vary directly, or nearly directly, with the volume of production) - 01 XXX Fixed production overheads (constant regardless of the volume of production) - 02 XXX XXX 1) Indirect materials and indirect labour 2) Depreciation Maintenance of factory buildings Equipment Right-of-use assets used in the production process Cost of factory management and administration Administrative overhead and selling overhead will be excluded.
54 Example Kasur Consumer Electrics (KCE) manufactures control units for air conditioning systems. The following information is relevant. Each control unit requires the following: 1 component X at a cost of Rs 1,205 each 1 component Y at a cost of Rs 800 each Sundry raw materials at a cost of Rs The company faces the following monthly expenses: Rs. Factory rent 16,500 Energy cost 7,500 Selling and administrative costs 10,000
55 Each unit takes two hours to assemble. Production workers are paid Rs. 300 per hour. Production overheads are absorbed into units of production using an hourly rate. The normal level of production per month is 1,000 hours.
56 Solution Rs. Materials: Component X 1,205 Component Y 800 Sundry raw materials 150 2,155 Labour (2 hours * Rs. 300) 600 Production overhead (Rs. 16, ,500/1,000 hours * 2 hours) 48 2,803 Note: The selling and administrative costs are not part of the cost of inventory
57 Production Overhead Debit Credit Production overhead X Cash/payables X Being the recognition of production overhead expense Inventory X Production overhead X Being the transfer of production overhead into inventory Statement of profit or loss (cost of sales) X Inventory Being the transfer of inventory cost to cost of sales X
58 Under/Over Applied Applied production overhead Actual production overhead Under-applied/Over-applied XXX XXX XXX Under-applied/under-absorbed Added to cost of sale Over-applied/Over-absorbed from cost of sale Deducted
59 Example (Under-Applied) A business plans for fixed production overheads of Rs. 1,000,000 per annum. The normal level of production is 100,000 units per annum. Due to supply difficulties the business was only able to make 75,000 units in the current year. Other costs per unit were Rs The cost per unit is: Rs. Other costs 126 Fixed production overhead (Rs. 1,000,000/100,000 units) 10 Unit cost 136
60 Solution (Under-Applied) Rs. The amount absorbed into inventory is (75,000 * Rs. 10) 750,000 Total fixed production overhead 1,000,000 The amount not absorbed into inventory 250,000 The Rs. 250,000 that has not been included in inventory is expensed (i.e. recognised in the statement of comprehensive income).
61 Incorporation in cost of sales The cost of sales would be as follows: Rs. Production costs (75,000 * Rs. 136) 10,200,000 Under-absorption of fixed production overhead 250,000 Total production costs 10,450,000 Closing inventory (25,000 * Rs. 136) (3,400,000) 7,050,000 This is equal to: Rs. 50,000 * Rs ,800,000 Plus under-absorbed fixed production overhead 250,000 7,050,000
62 Allocation of Fixed OH = Normal capacity. Normal capacity is the production expected to be achieved on average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity.
63 NC not increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant. Unallocated overheads = Expense Abnormally high production = the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. Variable production overheads = Actual Production
64 Example - 01 An entity incurred fixed production overheads of PKR 900,000 during a one-month period in which it manufactured 250,000 units of production. When operating at normal capacity the entity manufactures 250,000 units of production per month.
65 Solution The entity allocates PKR 3.6 fixed overhead cost to each unit produced during the month. Calculation: 900, ,000 units (ie normal capacity) = CU3.6 per unit produced.
66 Example - 02 The facts are the same as in last example However, in this example, the entity manufactured 200,000 units of production during the month.
67 Solution The entity allocates PKR 3.6 fixed overhead cost to each unit produced during the month. Allocated fixed production overheads = PKR 720,000 (200,000 units produced x PKR 3.6 allocation rate based on normal production rate). The unallocated fixed production overheads of PKR 180,000 must be recognised as an expense in the profit or loss. Calculation: PKR 900,000 incurred less PKR 720,000 allocated to inventory.
68 Example - 03 The facts are the same as in example However, in this example, the entity manufactured 300,000 units during the month. This level of production is abnormally high.
69 Solution The entity allocates PKR 3 fixed overhead cost to each unit produced during the month. Calculation: PKR 900, ,000 units (actual production) = PKR 3 per unit produced. Note: In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost.
70 Other costs Cost of inventories only to the extent that they are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. For example 1. It may be appropriate to include non-production overheads or the costs of designing products for specific customers in the cost of inventories. 2. Amortization of capitalized development costs related to inventory
71 Cost Exclusion (a) abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour or other production costs; (b) storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production process before a further production stage; (c) administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing inventories to their present location and condition; (d) selling costs. IAS 23 Borrowing Costs identifies limited circumstances where borrowing costs are included in the cost of inventories. 1. Measured at FV. 2. Produced in large volume on repetitive basis.
72 Deferred Settlement Terms An entity may purchase inventories on deferred settlement terms. When the arrangement effectively contains a financing element, that element, for example a difference between the purchase price for normal credit terms and the amount paid, is recognised as interest expense over the period of the financing.
73 Example An entity acquired an item of inventory for PKR 2,000,000 on twoyear interest-free credit. The identical item is available in the same market for PKR 1,654,000 if payment is made within 30 days of the date of purchase (ie normal credit terms).
74 Solution The cost of the inventory is PKR 1,654,000 (ie the purchase price for normal credit terms).
75 Example An entity acquired an item of inventory for PKR 2,000,000 on two-year interest-free credit. An appropriate discount rate is 10 per cent per year. Solution The cost of the inventory is PKR 1,652,893 (ie the present value of the future payment.) Calculation: PKR 2,000,000 future payment (1.1)2.
76 Techniques for the measurement of cost 1. Standard cost method 2. Retail method Standard costs take into account normal levels of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions.
77 Retail method is often used in the retail industry for measuring inventories of large numbers of rapidly changing items with similar margins for which it is impracticable to use other costing methods. Cost of the inventory = Sales value of the inventory appropriate percentage gross margin. The percentage used takes into consideration inventory that has been marked down to below its original selling price. An average percentage for each retail department is often used.
78 Accounting for written down NRV Cost Written down XXX XXX XXX Example NRV 8000 Cost (7300) Written down 700
79 Written-Down (Perpetual) Similar to inventory loss Cost of sales XXX Inventory XXX (Being inventory written down)
80 Written-Down (Periodic) During accounting period: 1) Automatically adjusted. 2) Measure inventory at NRV After accounting period: Cost of sales Inventory (Being inventory written down) XXX XXX
81 NRV < Cost Cost of inventories may not be recoverable 1. Inventories are damaged 2. Become wholly or partially obsolete 3. Selling prices have declined 4. An increase in costs or fall in selling price 5. Errors in production or purchasing
82 Writing inventories down below cost to net realisable value is consistent with the view that assets should not be carried in excess of amounts expected to be realised from their sale or use.
83 Example - 01 Inventory at 31 December is PKR 146,000. This includes obsolete inventory costing PKR 4,240 which will be given away free to a local children s charity.
84 Solution PKR Total inventories at cost 146,000 Damaged inventories 4,240 NRV -- Inventory written down 4,240 Value of closing inventory 141,760 Accounting Entry: Inventory 141,760 Closing inventory 141,760
85 Example - 02 XYZ limited s year-end inventory amounted to PKR 142,800 valued at cost. Included in this amount is some timber garden furniture which has been damaged by a forklift and is beyond repair. The cost of this damaged inventory was PKR 4,650. Ramona limited sold it to a local wood chip company for PKR 1,200 and incurred transport costs of PKR 170.
86 Solution PKR Total inventories at cost 142,800 Damaged inventories 4,650 NRV (PKR 1200 PKR 170) 1,030 Inventory written down 3,620 Value of closing inventory 139,180 Accounting Entry: Inventory 139,180 Closing inventory 139,180
87 Example - 03 Inventory at 31 December 2014 is PKR 243,510. This includes PKR 2,410 for items accidentally destroyed on 3 January 2015 and PKR 1,540 which relates to the cost of damaged inventory which can be reworked at a cost of PKR 200 and which can then be sold for PKR 1,230.
88 Solution PKR Total inventories at cost 243,510 Accidentally destroyed inventory 2,410 Damaged inventories 1,540 NRV (PKR 1230 PKR 200) 1,030 Inventory written down 510 Value of closing inventory 240,590 Accounting Entry: Inventory 240,590 Closing inventory 240,590
89 Example - 04 ICI Limited s year-end inventory at the 31 December amounted to PKR 164,300 valued at cost. However, some inventory items were damaged prior to year-end and will require repair work that will cost an estimated PKR 1,280. When repaired, the items can be sold for 90% of cost. The cost of these damaged goods was PKR 2,400.
90 Solution PKR Total inventories at cost 164,300 Slow moving inventories 2,400 NRV (PKR 2400*90% PKR 1280) 880 Inventory written down 1,520 Value of closing inventory 162,780 Accounting Entry: Inventory 162,780 Closing inventory 162,780
91 Cost Formulas First-in, first-out (FIFO) or Weighted average cost
92 First-In, First-Out (FIFO) The FIFO method assumes that items are sold in the chronological order of their acquisition. The cost of the oldest inventory items are charged to COGS when goods are sold. The cost of the newest inventory items remain in ending inventory.
93 WAC Method With the weighted average cost (AVCO) method of inventory measurement it is assumed that all units are issued at the current weighted average cost per unit. New weighted average = Cost of inventory currently in store + Cost of new items received Number of units currently in store + Number of new units received
94 Example On 1st June 2015 a company held 400 units of finished goods valued at PKR 22 each. During June, the following transactions took place Date Units Purchased Cost per Unit 10/06/ PKR 23 20/06/ PKR 24 25/06/ PKR 25 Goods sold out of inventories during December were as follows: Date Units Sold Sales Price per Unit 14/06/ PKR /06/ PKR /06/ PKR Required: Calculate the value of closing inventories using a) FIFO b) Weighted Average Cost
95 Profit Impact
96 Recognition as an expense When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which the related revenue is recognised. Any write-down of inventories to net realisable value and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period the writedown or loss occurs. Reversal of any write-down of inventories, arising from an increase in net realisable value, shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.
97 Example - 01 On 14 December 20X5 a machine manufacturer sold an item of machinery it manufactured in 20X5 to a customer for PKR 8,000 cash. The cost of the machine was PKR 5,500. The customer took immediate delivery of the inventory.
98 Solution On 14 December 20X5, when the risks and rewards of ownership of the machine passed to the purchaser, the entity must recognise the carrying amount of the inventory as an expense. The following entries are made: Date of purchase of machine (inventory) Dr Inventories (asset) 5,500 Cr Cash (asset) 5,500 (To recognise the purchase of goods).
99 Solution (Contd) Dr Cash (asset) 8,000 Cr Revenue (profit or loss) 8,000 (To recognise the sale of goods). Dr Cost of goods sold (profit or loss) 5,500 Cr Inventories (asset) 5,500 (To derecognise the inventory sold).
100 Example - 02 An entity manufactures pens. In 20X1, finished goods (pen inventories) with a cost of PKR 100,000 were destroyed by fire. The entity is not insured against fire.
101 Solution The PKR 100,000 impairment loss must be recognised as an expense in profit or loss in the period in which the fire occurred. Note in this example the inventories were not sold.
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