# Chapter 2: The Basic Theory Using Demand and Supply. Multiple Choice Questions

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1 Chapter 2: The Basic Theory Using Demand and Supply Multiple Choice Questions 1. If an individual consumes more of good X when his/her income doubles, we can infer that a. the individual is highly sensitive to changes in the price of good X. b. good X is a normal good. c. good X is an inferior good. d. the demand for good X is perfectly inelastic. 2. Which of the following factors can lead to an increase in demand for coffee at Starbucks? a. An increase in household income b. An increase in the price of sugar c. An increase in the price of coffee beans d. A 10 percent decline in local population 3. If the price of a normal good is measured along the vertical axis and its quantity along the horizontal axis, an increase in the price of the good will lead to: a. a downward movement along the demand curve. b. an upward movement along the demand curve. c. a rightward shift of the demand curve. d. a leftward shift of the demand curve. 4. Everything else remaining unchanged, when the price of a normal good increases, consumers: a. purchase more of the good. b. purchase less of the good. c. purchase the same amount of the good. d. do not purchase any amount of the good. 5. Suppose good X is a substitute of good Y. Everything else remaining unchanged, an increase in price of good Y will lead to: a. an increase in demand for good Y. b. a decrease in demand for good X. c. an increase in demand for good X. d. a decrease in price of good X. 2-1

2 6. Which of the following events would lead to a decrease in demand for air travel? a. A decrease in the number of people who are afraid to fly b. A decrease in oil prices c. A decrease in rail fares d. An increase in income levels 7. Harry used work in a launderette and earned \$30 a day. After work, he normally had a chicken burger worth \$5 at McDonalds. However, his pay was lowered to \$20 some days later. Then after work he used to have a vegetable burger worth \$3. Here the vegetable burger is an example of a(n): a. inferior good. b. normal good. c. complement good. d. luxury good. 8. The value of price elasticity of demand for a normal commodity is negative because it indicates: a. the inverse relationship between the price and the quantity demanded for the commodity. b. that the value of the consumer surplus is negative for a normal good. c. that the changes in quantity demanded are much less compared to the changes in price for a normal good. d. the direct relationship between price and consumer surplus from the commodity. 9. Which of the following will cause a rightward shift of the market supply curve? a. An increase in the product price b. A decrease in input prices c. Change in consumers tastes d. An increase in national income 10. Which of the following is a unit-free measure? a. Consumer surplus when the demand curve is horizontal b. Producer surplus when the supply curve is vertical c. Market supply d. Price elasticity of demand 2-2

3 11. If a 1% increase in the price of DVD players leads to a 3% reduction in its sales, we can conclude that: a. the supply of DVD players is perfectly inelastic. b. DVD players are inferior goods. c. the demand for DVD players is relatively elastic. d. the demand for DVD s is relatively inelastic. 12. Suppose the price of a good is measured along the vertical axis and its quantity demanded is measured along the horizontal axis. A steep sloped demand curve would indicate that the price elasticity of demand for the commodity: a. equals unity. b. is greater than one. c. equals zero. d. is less than unity. 13. Which of the following is true of consumer surplus? a. It is graphically represented as the area under the equilibrium price and above the supply curve of a good. b. It is the net gain in economic well-being associated with producing and selling the equilibrium quantity of a good. c. It is used to measure the impact of a change in price on the economic well-being of the producers. d. It is the difference between the value that one places on a good and the price paid for the good. 2-3

4 Figure 2.1 Price (\$/unit) Supply Demand Quantity (thousands) The figure given above shows the demand and supply curves of a commodity. 14. Refer to Figure 2.1. At a price of \$70, the consumer surplus equals: a. \$6,000,000. b. \$8,000,000. c. \$5,000,000. d. \$10,000, Refer to Figure 2.1. At a price of \$70, the producer surplus equals: a. \$6,000,000. b. \$8,000,000. c. \$15,000,000. d. \$30,000, To maximize profit a perfectly competitive firm supplies a good up to the point at which: a. the marginal revenue is higher than the marginal cost. b. the marginal cost of producing the good is zero. c. the price of the good equals marginal cost. d. the average revenue equals average cost. 2-4

5 17. Which of the following groups is most likely to be benefitted when a country engages in free trade? a. All the domestic producers of the country b. The manufacturers of exportable goods c. The producers in the import-competing industries d. The workers employed in the import-competing industries 18. Which of the following is an example of arbitrage? a. A firm sells a box of cereal at \$10 when the average cost of producing it is \$6. b. Thomas buys a new stock issued by a firm on the stock exchange. c. A local salon charges 5 percent more for all its services than a competing salon in the same locality. d. Romi buys a DVD from Wal-Mart at \$10 and sells it on ebay for \$ An increase in the imports of clothing into the United States from India will benefit the and hurt the. a. U.S. clothing producers; Indian clothing producers b. Indian consumers; Indian clothing producers c. the U.S. consumers; Indian clothing producers d. the U.S. consumers; the U.S. clothing producers 20. Suppose country A and country B are the only two countries in the world. Country A imports good X from country B and exports good Y. In the absence of any transportation cost, at the world price of good X: a. country B s export supply curve is perfectly inelastic. b. both country A s import demand curve and country B s export supply curve are positively sloped. c. country A s import demand curve will be perfectly inelastic. d. country A s import demand curve will intersect country B s export supply curve. 2-5

6 Scenario 2.1 Suppose the domestic supply (Q S ) and demand (Q D ) for skateboards in the United States are given by the following set of equations: Q S = P Q D = 390 2P 21. Refer to Scenario 2.1. In the absence of international trade in skateboards, what will be the equilibrium price of skateboards in the United States? a. \$66 b. \$90 c. \$45 d. \$ Refer to Scenario 2.1. In the absence of international trade in skateboards how many skateboards will be sold in the United States? a. 138 b. 258 c. 210 d Refer to Scenario 2.1. If the United States can imports skateboards from the rest of the world at a per unit price of \$75, how many skateboards will be produced in the United States? a. 165 b. 240 c. 285 d Refer to Scenario 2.1. If the United States can import skateboards from the rest of the world at a per unit price of \$75, what will be the total demand for skateboards in the United States? a. 165 b. 240 c. 285 d

7 25. Refer to Scenario 2.1. If the U.S. engages in free trade and the international price of skateboards is \$75, it would import skateboards from the rest of the world. a. 65 b. 85 c. 75 d Refer to Scenario 2.1. In the absence of trade with the rest of the world, the consumer surplus in the United States skateboard market equals and the producer surplus equals. a. \$7,050; \$11,525 b. \$31,500; \$9,450 c. \$20,474; \$7,350 d. \$11,025; \$7, Refer to Scenario 2.1. Calculate the change in consumer surplus when the United States engages in free trade and imports skateboards from the rest of the world at a per unit price of \$75. a. +\$2,850 b. \$2,850 c. \$6,300 d. +\$3, Refer to Scenario 2.1. Calculate the change in producer surplus when the United States engages in free trade and imports skateboards from the rest of the world at a per unit price of \$75. a. +\$2, b. -\$2, c. +\$3,375. d. -\$3,

8 Scenario 2.2 Suppose the domestic supply (Q S ) and demand (Q D )for MP3 players in the United States are given by the following set of equations: Q S = P Q D = 875 5P 29. Refer to Scenario 2.2. In the absence of international trade in MP3 players, what will be the price of MP3 players in the United States? a. \$60 b. \$65 c. \$90 d. \$ Refer to Scenario 2.2. In the absence of international trade in MP3 players, how many MP3 players will be sold in the United States? a. 825 b. 575 c. 608 d Refer to Scenario 2.2. If the United States can import MP3 players from the rest of the world at a per unit price of \$50, how many MP3 players will be produced in the United States? a. 625 b. 475 c. 925 d Refer to Scenario 2.2. If the United States can import MP3 players from the rest of the world at a per unit price of \$50, what will be the total demand for MP3 players in the United States? a. 625 b. 475 c. 925 d

9 33. Refer to Scenario 2.2. If the U.S. engages in free trade and the international price of MP3 players is \$50, it would import MP3 players from the rest of the world. a. 150 b. 250 c. 475 d Refer to Scenario 2.2. In the absence of trade with the rest of the world, the consumer surplus in the United States MP3 player market is. a. \$22, b. \$30, c. \$33, d. \$19, Refer to Scenario 2.2. The consumer surplus will by when the United States engages in international trade and the an international price for MP3 players settles at \$50. a. increase; \$2,625 b. increase; \$6,000 c. decrease; \$7,150 d. decrease; \$13,500 Scenario 2.3 Suppose the domestic supply (Q S U.S.) and demand (Q D U.S)for bicycles in the United States are given by the following set of equations: Q S U.S. = 2P Q D U.S. = 200 2P. Demand (Q D ) and supply (Q S ) in the Rest of the World are given by the equations: Q S = P Q D =160 P. Quantities are measured in thousands and price in U.S. dollars. 36. Refer to Scenario 2.3. In the absence of international trade, thousand bicycles will be sold in the United States at a per unit price of. a. 50; \$50 b. 100; \$100 c. 150; \$50 d. 100; \$50 2-9

10 37. Refer to Scenario 2.3. In the absence of international trade, thousand bicycles will be sold in the Rest of the World at a per unit price of. a. 80; \$80 b. 100; \$100 c. 50; \$100 d. 100; \$ Refer to Scenario 2.3. After the opening of free trade with the Rest of the World, if the world price of the bicycles settles at \$60, the U.S. will: a. export 40,000 bicycles. b. export 60,000 bicycles. c. import 60,000 bicycles. d. import 40,000 bicycles. 39. Refer to Scenario 2.3. After the opening of free trade with the United States, if the world price of the bicycles settles at \$60, the Rest of the World will: a. export 40,000 bicycles. b. export 60,000 bicycles. c. import 60,000 bicycles. d. import 40,000 bicycles. 40. Refer to Scenario 2.3. After the opening of free trade between the U.S. and the Rest of the World: a. neither the U.S. nor the Rest of the World gain from trade. b. both countries gain from trade, but the U.S. gains more than the Rest of the World. c. both countries gain from trade, but the Rest of the World gains more than the U.S. d. the net change in total surplus in the U.S. is zero but the Rest of the World gains. True/False Questions 41. An increase in demand for a good will lead to a larger increase in price if the supply is relatively elastic. ANSWER: FALSE 2-10

13 Price Figure A Price Figure B P 1 P 1 P 2 P 2 Demand Demand 0 Quantity 0 D 1 D 2 D 1 D 2 Quantity Figure A shows an elastic demand curve where the price elasticity for the good is greater than one. This implies that a unit change in the price of a good will result in a greater change in the quantity demanded. Figure A shows that a change in price from P1 to P2 has led to a much greater change in quantity demanded. From the figure it is evident that D1D2 is much greater than P1P2. Figure B on the other hand shows an inelastic demand curve where the price elasticity of demand for the good is less than one. This implies that a unit change in the price of a good will cause a change in the quantity demanded by less than one unit Figure B shows that a change in price from P1 to P2 has led to a lesser change in quantity demanded. From the figure it is evident that D1D2 is less than P1P2. Therefore, an elastic demand curve is relatively flatter than an inelastic demand curve, when price and quantity demanded are measured along the vertical and the horizontal axes respectively. 57. In a two-country world, the opening of free trade does not make everyone in the two countries better off. What assumption(s) must be made in order to make the claim that both countries do in fact benefit from the free trade? POSSIBLE RESPONSE: It is true that free trade does not benefit everyone within a country. However, if we accept the one-dollar-one-vote metric, and measure the national well-being of a country, we will find that there are net national gains from trade. That means that the gainers are gaining more than the losers are losing. Among the gainers are the consumers in the importing country, who enjoy lower prices, and possibly a wider variety of the product, and the producers in the exporting country, who are expanding their production as they are receiving a higher price in the international market. Among the losers are the consumers of the export-oriented industry and the import-competing producers. 2-13

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