# CHAPTER THREE DEMAND AND SUPPLY

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1 CHAPTER THREE DEMAND AND SUPPLY This chapter presents a brief review of demand and supply analysis. The materials covered in this chapter provide the essential background for most of the managerial economic problems to be studied in the coming chapters. The model of demand and supply is one of the strongest tools of analysis in economics. PRICES IN THE MARKET This chapter explains how prices are determined and how markets guide and coordinate choices. A market is a network or an arrangement that enables buyers and sellers to get information and exchange goods and services as well as resources, and respond to market prices. Prices are determined through the interaction between demand for and supply of the goods in goods markets or resources in resources market. Economists differentiate between two types of prices: money price and relative price. 1. The money price of a good or service is the amount of money needed to buy it; i.e., it equals the actual money paid for the good. 2. The relative price of a good is the ratio of its money price to the money price of the next best alternative good. A relative price is a measure of what you must give up to get one unit of a good or Page 1 of 31

2 service. Therefore, relative price is a measure of the opportunity cost of this good. Example: If the price of a TV is \$600 and the price of a PC is \$300, then The money price of the TV = \$600 The relative price of the TV = 600 = 2 PCs 300 Find the money price and relative price of the PC. The demand for and supply of a good depend, in part, on its relative price. DEMAND Demand refers to the quantities of a product that consumers are willing and able (ready) to buy at various prices within a given period, when other factors affecting demand are constant. Market demand is the sum of all individual demands. It is a horizontal summation of all individual quantity demanded at every price level Demand is an expression of consumers plans or intentions to buy an offer to buy not a statement of actual purchase. Actual quantities that will be purchased depend on the interaction between demand and supply through price adjustments. Demand includes all possible quantities demanded at different prices; while quantity demanded (Q d ) refers to one particular amount that people are ready to buy out of the entire set of possibilities. A quantity demanded is represented by a specific line in the demand schedule and a specific point on the demand curve at specific price. Page 2 of 31

3 Demand schedule is a table that lists the quantities of a good a consumer is willing and able to buy at each price level in a given time period, when all other things remain the same. Demand curve is a graphical representation of the demand schedule. Demand is represented by the entire demand curve while Qd is represented by a point on the demand curve at specific price. Demand curve can be considered as the willingness-and-ability-topay curve. It shows the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay for that quantity of a good or service. The maximum price a consumer is willing to pay for that quantity of a good or service is the measure of marginal benefit that the consumer receives for that unit of output. As the quantity available increases, the marginal benefit of each additional unit falls and the highest price the consumer is willing and able to pay also falls. DC indicates the opportunity cost of buying the good. The following schedule and figure show the quantities demanded of individuals A, B, C, and the market demand at different prices P D A D B D C D Market Page 3 of 31

4 P D A D B D C D M Q d Demand Function and Demand Curve: Demand function can be expressed as Dependent Variable Independent Variables (Explanatory Variables) Q d = f [ P - ;{ P s +, P c -, I +, -, Ex +, -, T +, -, N +,.}] Shifters Where: Q d : the quantity demanded over a given period of time, P: the product own price, P s : the price of a substitute product, P c : the price of a complement product, I: consumer average income, Ex: prices, income, and other factors expectations, T: consumers taste or preference, N: number of consumers or buyers. Signs above the independent variables show the direction of the relationship between the quantity demanded and each of these variables, when other variables are held constant. Page 4 of 31

5 For example, if Q d = 1-2P x + 0.8P s - 3P c +1.5I +1T When P s =2.5, P c =1, I=4 and T=2, demand curve is estimated as Q d = 1-2P + 0.8(2.5) 3(1) +1.5(4) +1(2) Q d = 8-2P Demand Curve Change in non-price determinants (for example, I) shift demand curve. If income increases from 4 to 6 then Qd = 11-2P P Q d The law of Demand: The law of demand shows an inverse (negative) relationship between price and quantity demanded everything else remains the same. Quantity demanded of a good increases in a given time period as its price falls, ceteris paribus. The opposite is true; consumers will buy less if the price of the good is high, ceteris paribus. Because of the law of demand, demand curve has negative slope (is downward sloping) Question: In spite of the continuous rise in cars prices, records show a remarkable increase in cars sales (cars demanded) year after another. Does that means the demand law may not work in real life? Page 5 of 31

6 Change in the quantity demanded: The quantity demanded changes whenever any of the independent variables change while other variables are constant. Economist traditionally reserved changes in the quantity demanded to describe the change that takes place as a result of changes in the product own price while other factors are constant or fixed at certain levels. When the price changes, the change in the quantity demanded will show as a movement along the same demand curve, in the opposite direction to the price change. P in Q d P 1 in Q d D Q Q 1 Changes in Demand: Demand here refers to the whole demand curve or the entire demand schedule. The change in demand may happen as a result of a change in one of the other factors or determinants of demand and it is represented by a change in the entire demand schedule or a shift of the demand curve. Page 6 of 31

7 When any factor that influences buying plans other than the price of the good changes, there is a change in demand for that good. The quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, so there is a new demand curve (Q d moves from one DC to another at the same price). When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price so the demand curve shifts leftward. P in D in D P 1 D 2 D 1 D 3 Q Q 1 Non-Price Determinants of Demand: Some of the other determinants of demand (other than the product own price) are shown between parentheses in the above equation of demand. Those include Page 7 of 31

8 1. Change in Consumers Incomes: o The influence of consumers' income on demand depends on whether the good is normal good or inferior good. o For a normal good, an increase in income increases demand for the good and shifts the demand curve rightward. The opposite is true. (Examples include cloths, cars, vacations) o For an inferior good, an increase in income decreases demand for the good and shifts the demand curve leftward. The opposite is true. Examples of inferior goods include used cars or used furniture. Inter-city bus is another example of an inferior good If Income Demand for normal Demand for inferior 2. The Prices of Related Goods: o Goods are either related or unrelated to each other for consumers. o When two goods are unrelated, then the change in the price of one good will have no impact on the demand for the other good. For example, the change in the price of potatoes will not affect the demand for cars. o The availability and price of related goods affect the demand for goods and services. The effect of related goods depends on whether they are substitute goods or complementary goods. o Substitutes: Substitute goods in consumption are goods that can be used or consumed in place of one another. For example, Pepsi and Coke, black pen and blue pen that I usually use in class, oil fuel versus nuclear fuel, CDs and cassettes. Page 8 of 31

9 When two goods are substitutes in consumption, then a rise in the price of one good will increase demand (shifts demand curve rightward) for the other good and the opposite is true for the decrease in the price of the first good. o Complements: Two goods are complements in consumption if they are normally consumed together. For example, cars and gasoline, DVDs and DVD players, sugar and tea, etc. When two goods are complements in consumption, then an increase in the price of one of the goods will decrease the demand for the other good and the opposite is true. For example, the demand for rented DVDs would increase and the demand curve will shift rightward if the price of DVD players decreases. o If X and Y are related goods, then P (X) D(Y) Relationship Substitutes + Complements - 3. Expectations about the Future: o If the price of a good is expected to rise in the future, current demand increases and the demand curve shifts rightward. o If consumers income is expected to rise in the future, current demand increases and the demand curve shifts rightward. 4. Tastes and Preferences o Tastes and preferences refer to the personal likes and dislikes of consumers for various goods and services. Page 9 of 31

10 o They are affected by socioeconomic factors such as age, sex, race, marital status, and education level. o Advertisements, promotions and government reports are directed to influence customers tastes and preferences and thus have affect demand. 5. The Number of Buyers in the Market (Population) o The larger the population or the number of buyers of the good, the greater is the demand for the good. In addition, you may name any other factors that affect demand and added it to this group. Managerial Rule of Thumb: Demand Considerations Managers must 1. Understand what influences demand 2. Determine which factors they can influence 3. Determine how to handle factors they cannot influence SUPPLY Supply is derived from a producer's desire to maximize profits. Profit is the difference between revenues and costs. Resources and technology determine what it is possible to produce. Supply reflects a decision about which technologically feasible items to produce. The supply of a good or service refers to the quantities of a good or a service that producers are willing and able (ready) to produce (sell) at different prices in a given time period, ceteris paribus. Page 10 of 31

11 Market supply is the sum of all individual supplies. It is the horizontal summation of quantities supplied at different prices Supply is an expression of seller s plans or intentions an offer to sell not a statement of actual sales. Supply is represented by the whole supply schedule and the entire supply curve The quantity supplied (Qs) of a good or service is one particular amount that producers plan to sell during a given period of time at a particular price assuming other factors influencing the production of goods and services are constant. Quantity supplied is represented by a specific line in the supply schedule and a specific point on the supply curve. Time is important element here. Without time dimension, we cannot tell whether the quantity supplied is large or small. Supply curve is a graphical representation of the supply schedule that shows the relationship between quantity supplied of a good and its price when all other influences on producer's planned sales remain the same. We can view the supply curve as a "minimum-price-supply" curve. For each quantity, the supply curve shows the minimum price a supplier must receive in order to produce that unit of output. When quantity supplied rises it increases the cost of production. So price of the good has to increase to compensate for the increased marginal cost. What Determines Selling Plans? The amount of any particular good or service that a firm plans to supply is influenced by 1. The price of the good, 2. The prices of resources needed to produce it, Page 11 of 31

12 3. The prices of related goods produced, 4. Expected future prices, 5. The number of suppliers The Implicit Supply Function: Dependent Variable Independent Variables (Explanatory Variables) Q s = f [P + ; {Ps -, P c +, P i -, Ex +, -, T +, N +,.}] Shifters Where: Q s : the quantity supplied over a given period of time, P: the product own price, P s : the price of a substitute (in production) product, P c : the price of a complement (in production) product, P i : the price of input i, Ex: prices, income, and other factors expectations, T: cost saving technological progress, N: number of sellers. Signs above the independent variables show the direction of the relationship between the quantity supplied and each of these variables, when other variables are held constant. The law of Supply: The law of supply shows a positive (direct) relationship between price and quantity supplied. The quantity of a good supplied in a given time period increases as its price increases, ceteris paribus. The law of supply results from the general tendency for the marginal cost of producing a good or service to increase as the quantity Page 12 of 31

13 produced increases. Producers are willing to supply only if they at least cover their marginal cost of production. Because of the law of supply, supply curve has positive slope (is upward sloping.) Question: Prices of PCs are falling dramatically over the years, but more of it is being supplied to our local markets. Sellers professional practices do not conform to the law of supply. Comment! Changes in the Quantity Supplied: The quantity supplied changes whenever any of the independent variables change while other variables are constant. Economist traditionally reserved change in the quantity supplied to describe changes that take place as a result of changes in the product own price, while other factors are constant or fixed at certain levels. When the price changes, the change in the quantity supplied will show as a movement along the demand curve, in the same direction of the change in the price. P S P 1 in Qs in Qs Qs Q 1 Page 13 of 31

14 Changes in Supply: Supply here refers to the whole supply curve or the column of the quantity supplied in the supply schedule. The change in supply may happen as a result of a change in one of the other factors or determinants of supply. When any factor that influences selling plans other than the price of the good changes, there is a change in supply of that good. The quantity of the good that producers plan to sell changes at each and every price, so there is a new supply curve. When supply increases, the quantity that producers plan to sell increases at each and every price so the supply curve shifts rightward. When supply decreases, the quantity that producers plan to sell decreases at each and every price so the supply curve shifts leftward. P S 3 S 1 in S in S S 2 Q Page 14 of 31

15 Non-Price Determinants of Supply: Some of the other determinants (other than the product own price) of supply are shown between parentheses in the above equation of supply. Those include 1. Prices of productive resources (Cost of Factors of Production) o A supplier combines raw materials, capital, and labor to produce the output. The costs of production are the primary determinant of supply. o If the price of resource used to produce a good rises, the minimum price that a supplier is willing to accept for producing each quantity of that good rises. So a rise in the price of productive resources decreases supply and shifts the supply curve leftward o Conversely, if input costs decline, firms respond by increasing output, which will in turn increase supply (supply curve shifts rightward). 2. Technology o Advances in technology develop new products, increase production of existing products, or lower the cost of producing existing products, so they increase supply and shift the supply curve rightward o Computer prices, for example, have declined radically as technology has improved, lowering their cost of production. Advances in communications technology have lowered the telecommunications costs over time. With the advancement of technology, the supply curve for goods and services shifts to the right. Page 15 of 31

16 3. Price of Related Goods: Similar to demand where goods are related in consumption, goods are also often related in production. The prices of related goods or services that firms produce influence supply. It depends on whether the goods are substitutes or complements. Substitutes in production: o The two goods are substitutes in production when both goods can be produced using the same resources. For example, corn and wheat, leather built and leather shoes. o A rise in the price of corn will increase the quantity supplied of corn and, as a result, decrease the supply of wheat and shift its supply curve leftward. Complements in production: o The two goods are complements in production if one good is produced as a by-product of the other good. o For example, an increase in the production of gasoline will increase the production of other goods, like kerosene and motor oil. This is because gasoline is produced by refining crude oil. The refining process produces a fixed proportion of a number of products including gasoline, kerosene and motor oil. o Another example is beef and cowhide. If the price of beef rises the quantity supplied of beef will increase and as a result the supply of cowhide will increase and its supply curve will shift rightward. P (X) S(Y) Relationship Substitutes - Complements + Page 16 of 31

17 4. Expectations about the Future: o If the price of a good is expected to fall in the future, current supply increases and the supply curve shifts rightward. o If firms anticipate a rise in price, they may choose to hold back the current supply to take advantage of the higher future price, thus decreasing market supply and the supply curve will shift leftward. 5. Number of Sellers: o The larger the number of suppliers of a good, the greater is the supply of the good. An increase in the number of suppliers shifts the supply curve rightward. 6. Weather conditions o Bad weather will reduce the supply of an agricultural commodity while the good weather will have the opposite impact. In addition, you may think of any more factors to be added to this group. Managerial Rule of Thumb: Supply Considerations Managers must 1. Examine technology and costs of production 2. Find ways to increase productivity while lowering production costs Page 17 of 31

18 MARKET EQUILIBRIUM Equilibrium is a situation in which opposing forces balance each other. A market equilibrium is a situation in which: o Quantity demanded equals quantity supplied at a single price called market (equilibrium) price (P*). Price adjusts when plans do not match. o Demand curve intersects supply curve, and o The market just clears and there is no tendency to change since the price balances the plans of buyers and sellers. o At the market equilibrium, the price accepted by producers for the last unit (marginal cost) is equivalent to the price the consumer is willing and able to pay (marginal benefit). Equilibrium price (P*): The price that equates the quantity demanded with the quantity supplied. Price regulates buying and selling plans. Equilibrium quantity (Q*): The amount that buyers and sellers are willing to offer at the equilibrium price level. The interaction between buyers and sellers through price adjustment, which results in equilibrium quantity, determine the answer to what to produce. "How we produce" is determined by profit seeking behavior and using resources efficiently (using the least-cost methods of production). The answer to "for whom" question includes only those people willing and able to pay market price (P*). Market equilibrium does not make everyone fully satisfied but it is efficient. (optimal but not perfect) Market Equilibrium can be shown using tables, diagrams and mathematical equations through the following example. Page 18 of 31

19 A. Tabular Illustration of Equilibrium, Surplus, and Shortage P Qd Qs (Qs Qd) Market situation surplus surplus surplus equilibrium shortage shortage shortage B. Graphical Illustration of Equilibrium, Surplus, and Shortage P Surplus S 5 P * = 4 3 Shortage D 200 Q* = Q The market is at equilibrium (i.e., clear) at market price of P* = 4 and equilibrium quantity of Q* = Qd = Qs = 300 and there is no surpluses or shortages. Whenever the market price is set above or below the equilibrium price, either a market surplus or a market shortage will emerge. Page 19 of 31

20 Surplus: o If P > P* Qs > Qd, surplus producers P in attempt to excess inventory; Qs and Qd. Shortage: o If P < P* Qd > Qs, shortage producers P and Qs while Qd. To overcome a surplus or shortage, buyers and sellers will change their behavior. It is the price competition, by firms when a surplus exists and by consumers when a shortage exists, that moves a market back to the equilibrium. Price adjustments serve to clear the market of the imbalances. The clearing process continues until equilibrium is achieved. Only at the equilibrium price will be no further adjustments required. C. Mathematical Illustration of Equilibrium, Surplus, and Shortage Our first step is to build the demand curve equation and the supply curve equation The law of demand states that there is an inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded. Assuming a straight-line demand curve, it can be described by the following equation: P = a b Qd o a and b are positive numbers o a is the intercept on y-axis (where Qd = 0 and P = a). o If Qd > 0, P < a. o b is the slope of the demand curve. It has negative sign to reflect the inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded. Page 20 of 31

21 The law of supply states that there is a positive relationship between price and quantity supplied. Assuming a straight-line supply curve, it can be described by the following equation: P = c + d Qs o c and d are positive numbers o c is the intercept on y-axis (where Qs = 0 and P = c). o If Qs > 0, P > c. o d is the slope of the supply curve. It has positive sign to reflect the direct relationship between price and quantity supplied. Demand and supply determine the market equilibrium. We can use these equations to find the equilibrium price (P*) and equilibrium quantity (Q* = Qd = Qs). So, P* = a b Q* P* = c + d Q* Since the left-hand side is equal, the right hand side must be equal a b Q* = c + d Q* Solve for Q* a c = b Q* +d Q * a c = (b + d) Q* a c Q* = b + d To find P* substitute Q* in either demand or supply equation P* = a - b Q * a - c b = a - b = a - b + d b + d ab + ad - ab + bc = b + d ad + bc = b + d ( a - c) a ( b + d) b( a - c) = b + d Page 21 of 31

22 Example: Suppose the demand equation is P = Q d, and the supply equation is (a) Find Q* and P* P = Q s Since at equilibrium there is only one market price accepted by buyers and sellers and since Qd = Qs = Q*, then we rewrite these two equations as P* = Q* P* = Q* Since the left-hand side in both equations is equal the right-hand side must be equal. So equate the right-hand side of the two equations Q* = Q* 7 1 = 0.01Q* Q* 6 = 0.02 Q* 6 Q* = = To get the equilibrium price substitute the equilibrium quantity in either demand or supply equation So, P* = (300) = 4 (using demand equation), or P* = (300) = 4 (using supply equation) (b) Find Q if P = 5 Using demand equation: 5 = Qd Q d = -2 2 Q d = = Using supply equation: 5 = Qs 0.01 Q s = 4 Page 22 of 31

23 Since Q s > Q d surplus Q s = 400 (c) Find Q if P = 2 Using demand equation: Using supply equation: Since Qs < Qd shortage 0.01 Qd = 5 2 = Qd 5 Qd = = = Qs 0.01 Qs = 1 Qs = 100 Example: Given Q d = 65-10P and Q s = P Then: P* = 4 and Q* = 25 If P > 4 surplus If p < 4 shortage Exercises: 1. Suppose the demand curve for a good is Q d = P And the supply curve is Q s = P a. Determine the equilibrium price and quantity of the good b. Determine whether there is a surplus or shortage at P = 5 c. Determine whether there is a surplus or shortage at P = 2 Page 23 of 31

24 2. Suppose the demand curve for a good is Q d = 16 2P And the supply curve is Q s = P a. Determine the equilibrium price and quantity of the good b. Determine whether there is a surplus or shortage at P = 3 c. Determine whether there is a surplus or shortage at P = 6 3. Suppose demand and supply equations are P = Q d P = Q s a. Determine the equilibrium price and quantity of the good b. Determine whether there is a surplus or shortage at P = 5 c. Determine whether there is a surplus or shortage at P = 2 Page 24 of 31

25 Comparative Static Analysis: Comparative Static Analysis is a commonly used method in economic analysis to compare various points of equilibrium when certain factors change. It is a form of sensitivity, or what-if analysis. Changes in demand or supply create surplus or shortage and as a result price adjusts towards equilibrium, both in the short-run and the long-run. Process of comparative static analysis 1. State all the assumptions needed to construct the model. 2. Begin by assuming that the model is in equilibrium. 3. Introduces some event that affects the demand side, the supply side or both sides of the market causing curves to shift. In so doing, a condition of disequilibrium is created. 4. Find the new point at which equilibrium is restored. 5. Compare the new equilibrium point with the original one to assess the impact of that event on the market equilibrium price and quantity. Question: What is the difference between static and dynamic analysis? SR Market Changes: The Rationing Function of Price The short run is the period of time in which: o Some factors are variables, others are fixed. o Sellers already in the market respond to a change in equilibrium price by adjusting variable inputs. o Buyers already in the market respond to changes in equilibrium price by adjusting the quantity demanded for the good or service. Page 25 of 31

26 Price performs its SR rationing function in response to changes in demand or supply The rationing function of price is the change in market price to clear the market of any shortage or surplus. SR adjustments are represented as movements along a given demand or supply curve as a result of changes in demand or supply changes in P* and Q*. In SR when non-price determinants change, P* and Q* change. LR Market Analysis: The Guiding or Allocating Function The long run is the period of time in which: o All factors are variable. o New sellers may enter a market o Existing sellers may exit from a market o Existing sellers may adjust fixed factors of production o Buyers may react to a change in equilibrium price by changing their tastes and preferences or buying preferences o Price perform its guiding or allocating function We know that when demand or supply changes due to changes in non-price determinants, Q and P change in SR. But what will happen as a result of changes in P? The guiding or allocating function of price is the movement of resources into or out of markets in response to a change in the equilibrium price. Guiding is a LR function of price. LR adjustments are represented as shifts in a given demand or supply curve. Market mechanism through price adjustments signal to producers and consumers whether to increase or decrease supply or demand. Page 26 of 31

27 It is the use of market prices and sales to signal the desired output (or resource allocation). This is what Adam Smith refers to as the invisible hand, resource allocation through market forces. Example 1 Consider the market for apple and orange (substitute goods) where equilibrium price and quantity in both markets are P1 and Q1. Suppose tastes and preferences change in favor of apple and against orange. P A Apple S 1 P O Orange S 1 P 2 P 1 Surplus P 1 Shortage P 2 D 1 D 1 D 2 D 2 Q 1 Q 2 Q A Q 2 Q 1 Q O In SR: (The Rationing Function) D for apple shortage at original P 1 P in apple market to P 2 to eliminate shortage. While D for orange surplus at original P 1 P in orange market to P 2 to eliminate surplus. This is the rationing function that clears shortage and surplus. Page 27 of 31

28 In LR: The Guiding Allocating Function of P P A Apple S 1 P O Orange S 2 S 1 S 2 P 2 P 1 & P 3 P 1 & P 3 P 2 D 1 D 1 D 2 D 2 Q 1 Q 2 Q A Q 3 Q 1 Q 3 Q 2 Q O The increase in P of apple will encourage existing producers to produce more, and new firms will enter the market as it seems more profitable than other markets more resources will be devoted to apple production apple supply SC shifts rightward P and Q The higher SR price has guided more resources into the market. The opposite will happen to orange supply. Follow-on adjustment: o movement of resources into the market o rightward shift in the supply curve to S 2 o Equilibrium price and quantity now P 3,Q 3 Thus, o Apple Market: Q, P S P and Q o Orange Market: Q, P S P and Q Page 28 of 31

29 So, price is fulfilling its guiding or allocating function Example 2 Assess the short and long run impacts of the 11Sebtember attack on P O airline market in the USA S 2 S 1 P 2 P 1 & P 3 D 1 D 2 Q 3 Q 2 Q 1 Q O 1. Before the attack, the market was in initial equilibrium at P 1 and Q Shortly after the attack, insurance premiums for airliners have risen to reflect the higher risk introduced in this industry, causing the supply curve of air trips to shift leftward to S At the initial price P 1 the market then suffered a shortage that pushed air tickets price up to P In the short-run: o Responding to the price increase, consumers demanded less air trips by economizing on their consumption, delaying some recreational travel, better planning business trips to make more visits and meetings on the same trip, and by trying other modes of transportation. Page 29 of 31

30 o This is the rationing role of price, where the higher price level served to ration the available supply amongst the most valued uses. o In this example, the rationing function of the price shows as a movement upward along the demand curve. 5. In the long run: o As the crisis continues to exist, some structural changes in consumers tastes and preferences have taken place. o Some consumers discovered some fun in driving their cars on vocational trips, spending time on the road, enjoying natural sites, making as many stops as they prefer. Others found local tourism to be safer than traveling to distant places. o All these changes of other factors reduced demand for airline trips causing the demand curve to shift leftward. Eventually, the market reached long run equilibrium at P 3 lower than P 2 and Q 3 less than Q 2. o As the production of air trips decreases, some resources have been moved from this industry to the now expanding industries as local hostelling and passengers car industry and bussing industry. o That is the allocation function of the price, where the rise in price, resulted in the long run, in some changes in consumers tastes or preferences and then reallocate their resources accordingly. o In this example, the allocation function of the price shows graphically as a shift of the demand curve to the left. Page 30 of 31

31 Changes in P and Q when D, S, or both shifts Shift P* Q* Remarks D SR shifts (shortage at old P*) D SR shifts (surplus at old P*) S SR shifts (surplus at old P*) S SR shifts (shortage at old P*) D & S LR allocation of resources D & S LR allocation of resources D & S LR allocation of resources D & S LR allocation of resources Supply, Demand, and Price: The Managerial Challenge In the extreme case, the forces of supply and demand are the sole determinants of the market price. o This type of market is perfect competition In other markets, individual firms can exert market power over their price because of their: 1. Dominant size 2. Ability to differentiate their product through advertising, brand name, features, or services Page 31 of 31

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