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2 Elasticity... allows us to analyze supply and demand with greater precision. is a measure of how much buyers and sellers respond to changes in market conditions

3 THE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND The price elasticity of demand is a measure of how much the quantity demanded of a good responds to a change in the price of that good. When we talk about elasticity, that responsiveness is always measured in percentage terms. Specifically, the price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in quantity demanded due to a percentage change in the price.

4 The Price Elasticity of Demand and Its Determinants Availability of Close Substitutes Necessities versus Luxuries Definition of the Market Time Horizon

5 The Price Elasticity of Demand and Its Determinants Demand tends to be more elastic: the larger the number of close substitutes. if the good is a luxury. the more narrowly defined the market. the longer the time period.

6 Computing the Price Elasticity of Demand The price elasticity of demand is computed as the percentage change in the quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price. Price elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded Percentage change in price

7 Computing the Price Elasticity of Demand Example: If the price of an ice cream cone increases from \$2.00 to \$2.20 and the amount you buy falls from 10 to 8 cones, then your elasticity of demand would be calculated as: Price elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded Percentage change in price ( 10 8) ( ) % 10% 2

8 The Midpoint Method: A Better Way to Calculate Percentage Changes and Elasticities The midpoint formula is preferable when calculating the price elasticity of demand because it gives the same answer regardless of the direction of the price change. ( Q Q ) /[( Q Q ) / 2] Price elasticity of demand = ( P2 P ) /[( ) / 2] 1 P2 P1 KrolTel Method: (Q2 Q1)(P2 + P1) (P2 P1)(Q2 + Q1)

9 The Midpoint Method: A Better Way to Calculate Percentage Changes and Elasticities Example: If the price of an ice cream cone increases from \$2.00 to \$2.20 and the amount you buy falls from 10 to 8 cones, then your elasticity of demand, using the midpoint formula, would be calculated as: (10 8) (10 8) / 2 22% ( ) 9.5% ( ) /

10 The Variety of Demand Curves Inelastic Demand Quantity demanded does not respond strongly to price changes. Price elasticity of demand is less than one. Elastic Demand Quantity demanded responds strongly to changes in price. Price elasticity of demand is greater than one.

11 Computing the Price Elasticity of Demand Price E D (100 50) (100 50)/2 ( ) ( )/2 \$5 4 Demand 67 percent 22 percent Quantity Demand is price elastic Thomson South-Western

12 The Variety of Demand Curves Perfectly Inelastic Quantity demanded does not respond to price changes. Perfectly Elastic Quantity demanded changes infinitely with any change in price. Unit Elastic Quantity demanded changes by the same percentage as the price.

13 The Variety of Demand Curves Because the price elasticity of demand measures how much quantity demanded responds to the price, it is closely related to the slope of the demand curve. But it is not the same thing as the slope!

14 Figure 1 The Price Elasticity of Demand (a) Perfectly Inelastic Demand: Elasticity Equals 0 Price Demand \$5 1. An increase in price Quantity leaves the quantity demanded unchanged Thomson South-Western

15 Figure 1 The Price Elasticity of Demand Price (b) Inelastic Demand: Elasticity Is Less Than 1 \$5 1. A 20% increase in price... 4 Demand Quantity leads to an 10% decrease in quantity demanded Thomson South-Western

16 Figure 1 The Price Elasticity of Demand Price (c) Unit Elastic Demand: Elasticity Equals 1 \$5 1. A 20% increase in price... 4 Demand Quantity leads to a 20% decrease in quantity demanded Thomson South-Western

17 Figure 1 The Price Elasticity of Demand Price (d) Elastic Demand: Elasticity Is Greater Than 1 \$5 1. A 20% increase in price... 4 Demand Quantity leads to a 50% decrease in quantity demanded Thomson South-Western

18 Figure 1 The Price Elasticity of Demand Price (e) Perfectly Elastic Demand: Elasticity Equals Infinity 1. At any price above \$4, quantity demanded is zero. \$4 Demand 2. At exactly \$4, consumers will buy any quantity At a price below \$4, quantity demanded is infinite. Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western

19 Total Revenue and the Price Elasticity of Demand Total revenue is the amount paid by buyers and received by sellers of a good. Computed as the price of the good times the quantity sold. TR P Q

20 Figure 2 Total Revenue Price When the price is \$4, consumers will demand 100 units, and spend \$400 on this good. \$4 P P Q = \$400 (revenue) Demand Quantity Q 2007 Thomson South-Western

21 Elasticity and Total Revenue along a Linear Demand Curve With an inelastic demand curve, an increase in price leads to a decrease in quantity that is proportionately smaller. Thus, total revenue increases.

22 Figure 3 How Total Revenue Changes When Price Changes: Inelastic Demand Price Price An Increase in price from \$1 to \$3 leads to an Increase in total revenue from \$100 to \$240 \$3 Revenue = \$240 \$1 Revenue = \$100 Demand Demand Quantity 0 80 Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western

23 Elasticity and Total Revenue along a Linear Demand Curve With an elastic demand curve, an increase in the price leads to a decrease in quantity demanded that is proportionately larger. Thus, total revenue decreases.

24 Figure 3 How Total Revenue Changes When Price Changes: Elastic Demand Price Price An Increase in price from \$4 to \$5 leads to an decrease in total revenue from \$200 to \$100 \$5 \$4 Demand Demand Revenue = \$200 Revenue = \$ Quantity Note that with each price increase, the Law of Demand still holds an increase in price leads to a decrease in the quantity demanded. It is the change in TR that varies! 0 20 Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western

25 Elasticity of a Linear Demand Curve 2007 Thomson South-Western

26 Figure 4 Elasticity of a Linear Demand Curve Price \$7 6 5 Demand is elastic; When price increases from demand is responsive \$4 to to \$5, TR declines from changes in price. \$24 to \$20. Elasticity is > 1 in this range Elasticity is < 1 in this range. Demand is inelastic; demand is not very responsive to changes in price. When price increases from \$2 to \$3, TR increases from \$20 to \$ Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western

27 Other Demand Elasticities Income Elasticity of Demand Income elasticity of demand measures how much the quantity demanded of a good responds to a change in consumers income. It is computed as the percentage change in the quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income.

28 Other Demand Elasticities Computing Income Elasticity Income elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded Percentage change in income Remember, all elasticities are measured by dividing one percentage change by another

29 Other Demand Elasticities Income Elasticity Types of Goods Normal Goods (positive elasticity) Inferior Goods (negative elasticity) Higher income raises the quantity demanded for normal goods but lowers the quantity demanded for inferior goods.

30 Other Demand Elasticities Income Elasticity Goods consumers regard as necessities tend to be income inelastic Examples include food, fuel, clothing, utilities, and medical services. Goods consumers regard as luxuries tend to be income elastic. Examples include sports cars, furs, and expensive foods.

31 Other Demand Elasticities Cross-price elasticity of demand A measure of how much the quantity demanded of one good responds to a change in the price of another good, computed as the percentage change in quantity demanded of the first good divided by the percentage change in the price of the second good Substitutes goods (positive elasticity) Complementary goods (negative elasticity) Cross - price elasticity of demand %change in quantity demanded of good 1 %change in priceof good 2

32 THE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY Price elasticity of supply is a measure of how much the quantity supplied of a good responds to a change in the price of that good. Price elasticity of supply is the percentage change in quantity supplied resulting from a percentage change in price.

33 Figure 5 The Price Elasticity of Supply (a) Perfectly Inelastic Supply: Elasticity Equals 0 Price Supply 1. An increase in price... \$ Quantity leaves the quantity supplied unchanged Thomson South-Western

34 Figure 5 The Price Elasticity of Supply Price (b) Inelastic Supply: Elasticity Is Less Than 1 \$5 Supply 4 1. A 22% increase in price Quantity leads to a 10% increase in quantity supplied Thomson South-Western

35 Figure 5 The Price Elasticity of Supply Price (c) Unit Elastic Supply: Elasticity Equals 1 1. A 22% increase in price... \$5 4 Supply (If SUPPLY is unit elastic and linear, it will begin at the origin.) Quantity leads to a 22% increase in quantity supplied Thomson South-Western

36 Figure 5 The Price Elasticity of Supply Price (d) Elastic Supply: Elasticity Is Greater Than 1 Supply \$5 1. A 22% increase in price Quantity leads to a 67% increase in quantity supplied Thomson South-Western

37 Figure 5 The Price Elasticity of Supply Price (e) Perfectly Elastic Supply: Elasticity Equals Infinity 1. At any price above \$4, quantity supplied is infinite. \$4 Supply 2. At exactly \$4, producers will supply any quantity At a price below \$4, quantity supplied is zero. Quantity 2007 Thomson South-Western

38 The Price Elasticity of Supply and Its Determinants Ability of sellers to change the amount of the good they produce. Beach-front land is inelastic. Books, cars, or manufactured goods are elastic. Time period Supply is more elastic in the long run.

39 Computing the Price Elasticity of Supply The price elasticity of supply is computed as the percentage change in the quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in price. Price elasticity of supply = Percentage change in quantity supplied Percentage change in price

40 THREE APPLICATIONS OF SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND ELASTICITY Can good news for farming be bad news for farmers? What happens to wheat farmers and the market for wheat when university agronomists discover a new wheat hybrid that is more productive than existing varieties?

41 Can Good News for Farming Be Bad News for Farmers? Examine whether the supply or demand curve shifts. Determine the direction of the shift of the curve. Use the supply-and-demand diagram to see how the market equilibrium changes.

42 Figure 7 An Increase in Supply in the Market for Wheat Price of Wheat leads to a large fall in price When demand is inelastic, an increase in supply... S 1 S 2 \$3 2 Demand Quantity of Wheat and a proportionately smaller increase in quantity sold. As a result, revenue falls from \$300 to \$ Thomson South-Western

43 Compute the Price Elasticity of Demand When There Is a Change in Supply E D ( ) / ( ) / Demand is inelastic Thomson South-Western

44 Summary Price elasticity of demand measures how much the quantity demanded responds to changes in the price. Price elasticity of demand is calculated as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price. If a demand curve is elastic, total revenue falls when the price rises. If it is inelastic, total revenue rises as the price rises.

45 Summary The income elasticity of demand measures how much the quantity demanded responds to changes in consumers income. The cross-price elasticity of demand measures how much the quantity demanded of one good responds to the price of another good. The price elasticity of supply measures how much the quantity supplied responds to changes in the price.

46 Summary In most markets, supply is more elastic in the long run than in the short run. The price elasticity of supply is calculated as the percentage change in quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in price. The tools of supply and demand can be applied in many different types of markets.

47 Why Did OPEC Fail to Keep the Price of Oil High? Supply and Demand can behave differently in the short run and the long run In the short run, both supply and demand for oil are relatively inelastic But in the long run, both are elastic Production outside of OPEC More conservation by consumers

48 Does Drug Interdiction Increase or Decrease Drug-Related Crime? Drug interdiction impacts sellers rather than buyers. Demand is unchanged. Equilibrium price rises although quantity falls. Drug education impacts the buyers rather than sellers. Demand is shifted. Equilibrium price and quantity are lowered.

49 Figure 9 Policies to Reduce the Use of Illegal Drugs Price of Drugs Drug Interdiction Price of Drugs Drug Education S 2 S 1 S 1 It is amazing how useful knowledge of elasticities can be! D 1 D 1 D 2 Quantity of Drugs Quantity of Drugs But in one market the price In The each demand case, for the illegal change Interdiction in price shifts is the the same. supply, while education shifts the demand. goes up. The drugs changes is inelastic. quantities (and TR) are remarkable. And in the other it goes down Thomson South-Western

### Elasticity and Its Applications. Copyright 2004 South-Western

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