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1 Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0 Research Article ISSN Constraints in production and marketing of organic vegetable growers in Belagavi district of Karnataka Mahadevappa Muttalageri 1, Mokshapathy S 2 1- Research Student, IDS, Manasagangotri, University of Mysuru, Mysuru 2- Assistant Professor in Agri-Business Management, University of Mysuru, Mysuru ABSTRACT Constraints in production and marketing of organic vegetables in Belagavi district of Karnataka. The primary data were collected from 120 organic vegetable growers through structured questionnaire method for the study. Cent percent of the respondents had expressed problem of lack of literature or package of practices on organic vegetable production followed by low yield comparatively conventionally growing (96.66%). Majority of the organic vegetable growers noticed that lack of support from the government agencies and other relevant departments in the farm of subsidy and financial assistance (92.50%). Similarly 100% of the respondents expressed the problem of lack of minimum support price for organically grown vegetables, followed by non availability of market exclusively for organic produce (91.66%). Majority of them noticed that absence of premium price for organic vegetables in local market (78.33%) followed by inability to identify marketing networks for organic vegetables (60.83%). All organic vegetable growers suggested that the intensive research on organic farming and networking of research information, followed by supply of organic inputs at subsidized rate (97.50%). Majority of the vegetable growers were suggested that multiplication of indigenous seeds material (85.83%) for further production. Similarly, around 68% of the respondents suggested that co-ordination with animal husbandry department to increase the local cattle population for compost production. The entire organic vegetable growers had suggested that government has to fix minimum support price for organically produce vegetables followed by encourage setting up exclusive organic vegetable marketing centres (94.96%). Majority of the growers had suggested that developing organic vegetable supply chain system (90%). Keywords: Organic vegetable vegetables, constraints in production and marketing and organic vegetable growers 1. Introduction The main idea behind organic vegetable farming is zero impact on the environment. The motto of the organic vegetable farming is to protect the earth resources and produce safe and healthy vegetables. Organic farming is a production system that sustains the soil health, ecosystem and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local condition, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic vegetable farming combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The ill effects of chemicals used in vegetables production have changed the mindset of some consumers of different countries who are now buying organic with high premium for health. 558

2 Organic farming is a method of crop and livestock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones. Green revolution technologies, supported by policies, and fuelled by agrochemicals, mechanization and irrigation, are well known to have enhanced agricultural production and productivity. While these technologies have greatly helped to developing countries to address their food security needs, they also impacted the ecosystem due to use of pesticides, excessive use of fertilizers, mono-cropping, loss of microbial flora resulting in loss of sustainable produce. Farmers using these technologies have to depend on external inputs which constitute the major cost of vegetable production, thereby eroding their profits. The manufacture of fertilizers and pesticides, the two major inputs of green revolution technologies, need fossil fuels and/or expensive energy, and is associated with serious environmental and health issues. The necessity of having an alternative organic vegetable production which can function in an eco-friendly system while sustaining and increasing the crop productivity is being realized now. Organic vegetable farming is recognized as the best known alternative to the conventional vegetable production. Adverse effects of the modern vegetable production practices not only on the farm but also on the health of living organisms and human being and thus on the environment have been well documented all over the world. 2. Review of literature Kamble et al (1987) reported that 20.02% of farmers of Ahamadnagar district of Maharastra suggested for arranging training on organic method demonstration on the aspects treating seeds with bio-fertilizers. The need for supply of certified seeds on educating on organic cultivation result demonstration (18.20%) timely supply of bio fertilizers with wide publicity (16.36%) and organizing training classes (7.27%) were the other suggestions highlighted by organic growers. Saxena and Singh (2000) reported that, a high percent of organic farmers in Malwa region of Madya Pradesh (70.90%) had the problem of non-availability of bio fertilizers culture of good quality, followed by lack of knowledge and skill about improved methods of compost making (63.40%). Similarly lack of awareness about the time concentration and method of bio-fertilizers application (59.10%) and non-availability of vermicompost in adequate quantity (43.63%) were the other problems noticed with organic growing farmers. Thimmaredyy (2001) reported that, the majority of the farmers (70.00%) of North Karnataka expressed the problem of no separate market for organically grown produce followed by 40% of the respondents expressed the problem of decline in returns in the initial period (3-4 years) of organic farming. Similarly the labour problem was expressed by percent of the respondent whereas percent of the respondents expressed the problems of non availability of organic pesticides. Similarly(10.00%) of respondents expressed the problem of non availability of good quality compost, no support and encouragement from sugarcane factory management to produce sugarcane by organic methods, no remunerative price for organic produce and discouragement by people in continued adoption of organic cultivation. Sunil Kumar (2004) in a study conducted on tomato growers of Belgaum district in Karnataka reported that majority of respondents (75.83%) faced the problems of technical knowledge, whereas percent of the respondents expressed the problem of fluctuation in 559

3 the market price followed by high transportation cost (62.53%), labour shortage and high wage (55.83%) and lack of irrigation facilities and power shortage (46.66%). Shashidhara (2006) in a study on management of eco friendly practices by vegetable growers in North Karnataka observed that more number of respondents expressed that the suggestions like availability of pest resistant varieties (83.12%) and organizing training on eco-friendly practices (73.75%) around two third of respondents expressed the need for encouraging farmers to grow organic vegetables through subsidies, technical guidance etc (68.75%), strict quality control measures for pesticides (65.62%) and use of bio-pesticides and bio-fertilizers (61.85%). Use of bio agents to control pest (56.87%), premium price for organically grown vegetables (53.75%), educating public and farmers about environmental issues (36.25%) and introducing environmental education at secondary level (26.62%) were the other suggestions expressed to promote organic training. K. Guruswamy and K. Balanaga Guruna (2010) have done a study on SWOT Analysis of organic farming management in India, to analyze the internal environment and identifying external opportunities. SWOT analysis of organic farming,reveals that organic farming practices provide number of valuable benefits like poison less food, harmless water, soil restoration to the natural condition, creating friendlier environment and total employment for farmers. 2.1 Justification or Importance of the study Inorganic farming affects the environment in multiple ways. Pesticides sprayed on vegetables not only destroy pests and contaminate the vegetables but also kill beneficial insects. The residue of these pesticides affects the health of human being. Organic farming on natural resources favours interactions with in the agro ecosystem that are vital for both vegetable production and nature conservation. Ecological services derived include organic farming and conditioning, soil stabilization and waste recycling. Organically grown food is dramatically superior in mineral content. So, Constraints in production and marketing of organic vegetables growers in Belagavi District of Karnataka State is most appropriate. 3. Objectives of the study 1. To study the constraints in production and marketing of organic vegetable growers and obtain their suggestion 3.1 Scope of the study This study would help the common people to understand the importance of organic vegetable production. Study may also help the organic vegetable growers or cultivators to take up appropriate steps to increase their income by the application of various production practices and marketing methods given by the organic vegetable growers. This study would help the both horticulture and policy makers to understand the easy organic vegetable production practices and marketing by the farmers. Thereby programmes, policies and incentives can be designed by the Government to minimize the constraints in production and marketing of organic vegetable growers. 3.2 Methodology 560

4 The present study was conducted in Belagavi district of Karnataka. Primary data were collected from 120 organic vegetable growers / farmers through structured questionnaire method at Belagavi district of Karnataka. The collected data was tabulated and analysed by using frequency and percentage. The constraints being faced by organic vegetable growers for increased production of vegetables were identified by asking the organic vegetable growers to indicate the problems in the areas of production and marketing aspects and obtain their suggestions for improvement. Accordingly the responses were recorded and quantified using frequency and percentage of distribution. 4. Result and discussion Table: 1 Constraints of organic vegetable growers related to production aspects. (N=120). Sl.No Problems related to production aspects Number Percentage 1 Lack of literature or package of practices on organic vegetable production Low yield comparatively conventionally growing Lack of support from the government agencies and other relevant departments in the farm of subsidy and financial assistance 4 Lack of research support in providing scientific rationality of practices More incidence of pests and diseases Non availability of sufficient quantity of organic inputs Limited and Irregular power supply Lengthy organic certification procedure and high cost Limited and Irregular power supply Lack of literature on Local language Non availability of labour Insufficient of water for irrigation Drastic reduction in cattle population Source: Primary data The table 1 revealed that all the respondents had expressed problem of lack of literature or package of practices on organic vegetable production followed by low yield comparatively conventionally growing (96.66%). Majority of the organic vegetable growers noticed that Lack of support from the government agencies and other relevant departments in the farm of subsidy and financial assistance (92.50%). Lack of research support in providing scientific rationality of practices (85.33%) and more incidences of pests and diseases (69.16%) expressed by the respondents respectively. Similarly the respondents were expressed Non availability of sufficient quantity of organic inputs (60.00%) and limited and irregular power supply (53.33). More than 40% of the farmers noticed that lengthy organic certification procedure and high cost, limited and irregular power supply and lack of literature on local language. Few of the respondents expressed the problem of non-availability of labour (35.83%), insufficient of water for irrigation (26.66%) and drastic reduction in cattle population (14.16%). 561

5 Table 2: Constraints of organic vegetable growers related to marketing aspects. (N=120) Sl.No Problems related to marketing aspects Number Percentage 1 Lack of minimum support price for organically grown vegetables Non availability of market exclusively for organic produce Absence of premium price for organic vegetables in local market Inability to identify marketing networks for organic vegetables Lack of infrastructure facilities like cold storage, packaging material and processing unit for organic vegetables 6 High commission charges Non availability of organic vegetable price information High cost of transportation Delayed cash payment Source: Primary data Table 2 revealed that 100% of respondents expressed the problem of lack of minimum support price for organically grown vegetables, followed by non availability of market exclusively for organic produce (91.66%). Majority of the farmers noticed that absence of premium price for organic vegetable in local market (78.33%) followed by inability to identify marketing networks for organic vegetables (60.83%). Similarly lack of infrastrucre facilities cold storage, processing unit and packing material (55.00%) and high commission charges (39.16%) and non availability of organic vegetable price information were expressed by the respondents. Finally high cost of transportation (21.66%) and delayed payment (10.33%) were expressed about marketing problems by the organic vegetable growers. Table 3: Suggestions obtained from the organic vegetable growers related to production aspects (N=120) Sl. No Suggestions related organic vegetable production Number Percentage 1 Intensive research on organic farming and networking of research information Supply of organic inputs at subsidized rates Identification and multiplication of indigenous seed material Co-ordination with animal husbandry department to increase the local cattle population 5 Reintroduction of mixed farming system with sheep, goat and poultry Establishment of organic hubs to serve as

6 information centres and collection centres Improved credit facilities for organic farming 7 through banks Simplifying certification procedures, reduced 8 cost of certification and encouraging group certification. Implementing more government policies that 9 support organic farming. Introduction of organic farming curriculum at 10 school and college level. Introducing separate courses on organic 11 farming in concerned universities Source: Primary data Table 3 revealed that 100 percent of the respondents suggested the intensive research on organic farming and networking of research information followed by supply of organic inputs at subsidized rate (97.50%). Majority of the growers were suggested that identification and multiplication of indigenous seeds material (85.33%) followed by Co-ordination with animal husbandry department to increase the local cattle population (67.50%) for preparing compost. Similarly, reintroduction of mixed farming system with sheep, goat and poultry (62.50%) and establishment of organic hubs to serve as information centres (53.33%) were suggested by the respondents. More than 40% of the growers suggested that Improved credit facilities for organic farming through banks and simplifying certification procedures, reduced cost of certification and encouraging group certification. Finally, implementing more government policies that support organic farming (35.83%), introduction of organic farming curriculum at school and college level (27.50%) and Introducing separate courses on organic farming in concerned universities (20.00%) were suggested by the organic vegetable growers for promoting the organic vegetable production and marketing. Table 4: Suggestions obtained from the organic vegetable growers related to Organic vegetable marketing aspects. (N=120) Sl.No Suggestions related organic vegetable production Number Percentage 1 Government has to fix minimum support price for organically produced vegetables Encourage to set up excusive organic vegetable marketing centres Developing organic vegetable supply chain system Rythu Bazars (Kisan Mandis) should be involved in organic vegetable marketing Arranging organic vegetable producers and buyers meet regularly Arranging better transportation facilities for organically grown vegetables by using refrigerated vehicles. 7 Organization of organic vegetable mela / Exhibition by the government, NGOs and Organic farmers club 8 Wide publicity should be made through mass

7 media like television, radio, newspaper and posters to create awareness among public on organic vegetable production and marketing. Incentives in prices over and above the MSP rates 9 for organically produced vegetables. Formation of clusters/collection centres for 10 Forward and Backward linkages of organic vegetables Creation of better infrastructure facilities like cold 11 storage, processing and packaging etc Facilitating contract farming for organic vegetable 12 production and marketing with super market and multinational companies Increasing consumer awareness on the values of 13 organically grown vegetables Source: Primary data The table 1.4 revealed that suggestions were obtained from the organic vegetable growers for improving the marketing for organically grown vegetables. The entire organic vegetable growers had suggested that government has to fix minimum support price for organically produced vegetables followed by encourage setting up exclusively for organic vegetable marketing centres (94.16%). Majority of the growers had suggested that developing organic vegetable supply chain system (90%). Similarly, organic vegetable growers expressed that Rythu Bazars (Kisan Mandis) should be involved in organic vegetable marketing (69.16%). More than 50% of the respondents had suggested that arranging organic vegetable producers and buyers meet regularly and arranging better transportation facilities for organically grown vegetables by using refrigerated vehicles. Organic vegetable growers had noticed that organization of organic vegetable mela / Exhibition by the government, NGOs and organic farmers club (48.33%) and wide publicity should be made through mass media like television, radio, news paper and posters to create awareness among public on organic vegetable production and marketing (42.50%). Similarly many of the respondents had suggested that incentives in prices over and above the MSP (Minimum Support Price) rates for organically produced vegetables (37.50%) and formation of clusters/collection centres for Forward and Backward linkages of organic vegetables (27.50%). Finally, Creation of better infrastructure facilities like cold storage, processing and packaging etc (18.33%), facilitating contract farming for organic vegetable production and marketing with super market and multinational companies (15.83%) and increasing consumer awareness on the values of organically grown vegetables (10.83%) had suggested by the organic vegetable growers for strengthening the organic vegetable marketing. 5. Conclusion Belagavi district had developed vast and rich traditional vegetable production knowledge since ancient times and presently finding solutions to constraints created by over use of agrochemicals. Today s modern farming is not sustainable in consonance with economics, ecology, equity, energy and socio-cultural dimensions. Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, weedicides and pesticides has resulted in various environmental and health hazards along with socio-economic problems. Chemical base farming system is no more beneficial as it requires high input and low return, resulting migration of youth from rural area to urban area in search of other jobs. In order promote organic vegetable farming in the district; there 564

8 is a need to frame out proper policies for implementing and synergizing various organic vegetable farming programmes, policies and incentives. There is a need for proper coordination among different stake holders and synergizing various schemes under organic vegetable farming in order to develop proper production and market linkages for strengthen the production and marketing of organic vegetables in the district. 6. References 1. Kamble, L.P., Patil, P.S. and Khupse, T.S., 1987, Adoption of Bio fertilizers in Rahuri, Maharastra journal of extension education, 6: Guruswamy.K and Balanage Gurunathan.K (2010), SWOT analysis of Organic farming management in India Southern Economist, 49(8), pp Saxena, K.K and Singh, R.L., 2000 Adoption of Organic farming practices of farmers of Malwa region, Maharastra, Maharastra Journal of Extension Education 19: Shashidhara, K.K. 2006, A study on Management of Eco friendly practices by Vegetable growers of North Karnataka. Ph.D Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. 5. Sunil Kumar, G.M., 2004, Study on Knowledge and adoption of production and post harvest technology in Tomato crop of Belgaum district in Karnataka. M.Sc(Agri) Thesis University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad 6. Thimmareddy, K.S. 2001, Case Studies on Organic Farming M.Sc (Agri) Thesis University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad. 565

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