Address for Correspondence

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1 Research Paper RECENT TRENDS IN WIND POWER GENERATION: INDIAN SCENARIO G.C. Biswal, S.P. Shukla Address for Correspondence Department of Electrical Engineering, BIT, Durg, CG, India ABSTRACT: In India, the wind power generation has gained a high level of attention and acceptability compared to other renewable energy technologies. New technological developments in wind power design have contributed for the significant advances in wind energy penetration and to get optimum power from available wind. The yearly percentage increase in wind energy installation is very high and now India ranks fifth in the world with an installed capacity of about MW. This paper reviews the developmental aspects of wind energy in India and moreover the future growth pattern and time period to achieve the technical wind potential are predicted and analysed. KEY WORDS: Growth in capacity addition, resources and commencement, accelerated depreciation (AD) benefit. INTRODUCTION: Wind power is the conversion of windenergy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Large wind farms consist of hundreds of individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. For new constructions, onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electricity, competitive with or in many places cheaper than fossil fuel plants. [1] Small onshore wind farms provide electricity to isolated locations. Utility companies increasingly buy surplus electricity produced by small domestic wind turbines. [2] Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land. [3] The effects on the environment are generally less problematic than those from other power sources. As of 2011, Denmark is generating more than a quarter of its electricity from wind and 83 countries around the world are using wind power to supply the electricity grid. [4] In 2010 wind energy production was over 2.5% of total worldwide electricity usage, and growing rapidly at more than 25% per annum. Wind power is very consistent from year to year but has significant variation over shorter time scales. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when used to supply up to 20% of total electricity demand, but as the proportion increases, a need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered ability to supplant conventional production can occur. Power management techniques such as having excess capacity storage, geographically distributed turbines, dispatch able backing sources, storage such as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, exporting and importing power to neighbouring areas or reducing demand when wind production is low, can greatly mitigate these problems. In addition, weather forecasting permits the electricity network to be readied for the predictable variations in production that occur. [5] Wind Power Trends: A steep increase in wind power installation capacity has been observed in India and across the globe as well in the past two decades. Figure 1: a & b shows the recent trends depicting the inclination for the green energy. Fig. a shows that about 50 times growth in the global installed capacity in about 15 years. (a)increasing Trends in wind power generation (global) (b) Trends in top 10 wind power generating countries Figure 1: Increasing Trends towards wind power generation Similarly fig. 1:b shows that India stands fifth in total installed capacity whereas maintains 4 th position in addition of wind power in the year 2012.Figure 2 below presents the market share of various companies in the world. GE Wind (USA) remains on top with 15.5% global share whereas Suzlon Group (India) stands 5 th with 7.4% share.

2 Figure 2: Market Trends in 2012 Indian Scenario in Wind Power: The table below gives a conclusion that total wind energy capacity in India was about MW till May Table: Renewable Power Generation Capacity of India The chart in the figure below indicates the wind power till financial year The comparison indicates a growth of about 8000MW in the installed capacity till May Fresh wind-based capacity installations in domestic market stood at 2349 MW in FY 2011, which was significantly higher than that witnessed in any other previous year. The increase could be attributed to higher demand from the IPP segment. This in turn was driven by improving regulatory clarity in the sector with the introduction of renewable portfolio obligation (RPO) and renewable energy certificate (REC) regulations. ICRA expects the share to increase to about 40~50% over the period of next three year period. This is also because accelerated Fig. 03 The wind power in India till financial year 2012 depreciation (AD) benefit, which is the key growth driver for financial (retail/corporate) investors, is likely to go away with the proposed introduction of Direct Tax Code by the Government of India. The IPPs have announced large-sized projects, with the trend towards higher average size per project (ranging above 50 MW) at a single location. However, it would still fall short by around 38,000 MW vis-à-vis the required level if estimated in line with RPO recommendation of 15% by 2020 the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC),

3 based on ICRA s estimates (assuming for share of wind as a source to remain at 70% of overall RE capacity). [6] Resources become more cost-competitive: With a sharp increase in prices of fossil fuels (i.e. coal and R-LNG) internationally and domestic fuel shortages expected to continue at least over the medium term leading to reliance on imported coal & R-LNG for the power sector, there has been an upward pressure on the overall cost of generation of power using fossil fuels. As a result, preferential tariffs offered to wind power plants in several states such as Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Karnataka are competitive with the tariffs of new conventional power plants. Table 1 below presents a comparison of conventional generation tariff with wind power tariffs. Commencement of REC trading: Trading of RECs (Non-solar) commenced in March 2011 on the Power Exchange of India Ltd as well as the Indian Energy Exchange Limited. Both the traded volumes/price of RECs (combined for both the power exchanges) have improved significantly to 105,000 Rs. 2.9/Unit) in November 2011 from 150 Rs. 1.5/Unit) in March 2011, which further signify a growing demand to meet RPO requirements from the obligated entities and the quarterly compliance requirements as stated in RPO regulations by SERCs in some states. Further, long-term certainty over the pricing range (floor/cap) for REC as per the order issued in August 2011 by CERC is a positive development. The floor price remains unchanged and the same along-with average power purchase cost (APPC) is likely to ensure the economic viability of wind assets in key states with high wind potential under the normative assumptions of the CERC. However, REC market is still evolving with the overall REC traded volumes corresponding to about 1% of the overall RE requirements in the country. ICRA hence believes the significant demand potential for RECs to continue in the long term. Even with a conservative assumption of RE requirement at 6% of energy demand (on an all-india basis) by FY 2017, and the preference for RECs for new windbased capacities (assuming about 50% of such capacities adopt the REC route), REC supply (from wind energy alone) by FY 2017 is expected to increase up to ~15 Million (i.e. estimated market size of Rs Cr., assuming average REC price of 2.4 Rs/Unit).[7][8] Increasing preference for the REC route: In the current regulatory framework, wind energy participants operating in the Indian market have two options for tariff determination: 1) Long-term PPA at SERC-determined preferential tariffs with discoms (in the location where the project is located) and 2) The REC route. ICRA expects an increasing preference by the new projects/ipp segment for the REC route, given that the overall realisation levels through the REC route are likely to remain higher than in the case of preferential tariffs as determined by SERCs in most of the states. The overall capacity registered for REC by the National Load Dispatch Centre (NLDC2) stood at 1643 MW3 as on 30 November In the REC route, given that an upward pressure on APPC of utilities is likely to continue due to increasing coal prices & dependence on short term traded power, ICRA expects the new wind projects4 to prefer to sell electricity at APPC (in which case, GBI benefit5 can also be availed), which offers more certainty of tariffs. This is also due to open-access and banking facility constraints and volatility in merchant tariffs, although the merchant option under the REC route is the most remunerative option available. [9][10]

4 KEY CHALLENGES FOR WIND ENERGY SECTOR: Increased concerns over counter-party credit risks pertaining to state discoms: In ICRA s view, the counter-party credit risks of state utilities in most of the states having wind energy potential have increased significantly as evident in case of states such as in Tamil Nadu. Among all the states with high wind energy potential, Tamil Nadubased IPPs are the worst affected, given the significant deterioration in the financial position of state utility6, which in turn caused delays in payments of wind energy participants for more than month period. Target RPO levels across the states: This in turn have had an adverse impact on the financials of most of the wind asset owners in the state which would result in restructuring of loans availed by such wind asset owners as well as renegotiation of PPA terms, if the delays by the utility in Tamil Nadu continue further in the near term. All the seven states (except for Gujarat) with wind energy potential continued to record cash losses since FY 2008, with cumulative cash losses of Rs. 20, 653 Cr7 in FY 2010 and the same has deteriorated further in FY This could be attributed to a mix of factors such as a) shortfalls in meeting distribution loss level targets as set by SERCs, which result in disallowance of power purchase cost. [10][11] As illustrated in Chart 3and 4 above, target RPO levels vary widely from 1% to 11%, as set by SERCs across states for FY 2012, and are not in line with the recommended level of 7% suggested by the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), In fact, it is observed that SERCs in a few states such as Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have revised their target RPO levels between 27% and 85% for FY The SERC revised the RPO requirements of the state of Tamil Nadu (despite being rich in wind energy) to 9% in FY 2012 from 14% in FY The regulations of SERC were also amended, bringing more obligated entities (that is, open access customers and captive power plants) instead of only distribution licensees. The Maharashtra State Electricity Regulatory Commission (MERC) 10 has relaxed the provisions of RPO requirement for FY 2011 for all the distribution licensees in the state of Maharashtra vide order dated October 2010 on the grounds of lack of sufficient availability of RE power mainly for distribution licensees other than Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd (MSEDCL) and absence of an REC market. This is also in view of the fact that discoms in only a few states such as Gujarat (2.5%, actual), Tamil Nadu (13.8%, actual) and Karnataka (11 %, actual) have been able to meet their respective RPO targets for FY [12,13,14] CONCLUSION: It has been concluded that installation is very high and now India ranks fifth in the world with an installed capacity of about MW. In this paper the development of wind energy in India and five potential Indian states such as Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka have been discussed. Wind power is one of the most important alternative to fossil fuels and is available in plenty. It is renewable, widely distributed and clean.in addition to this; it does not produce any green house gasses. REFERENCES:- 1. R. Rechsteiner, Wind power in context A clean revolution in the energy sector, Energy Watch Group, pp , Dec (press conference of Energy

5 Watch Group). 2. L. Harrrison, Wind rock solid as uncertainly reigns, Wind Power Monthly, pp , Jan S. Krohn, P. E. Morthorst, and S. Awerbuch, The economics of wind energy, European Wind Energy Association, pp , Mar India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) 5. DOE/GO , A Consumer s Guide - Get Your Power from the Sun,The National Renewable Energy Laboratory - US Department of Energy, Washington, DC, Dec Future marine energy - Results of the marine energy challenge: Cost competitiveness and growth of wave and tidal stream energy, The Carbon Trust, E. Ela, "Using economics to determine the efficient curtailment of wind energy," National Renewable Energy Laboratory, pp. 1-2, Feb "Global wind power market potential," Energy Business Reports, pp. 1, Jan REEEP [Renewable Energy \& Energy Efficiency Partnership], Policy and Regulatory Review, Special Report on India and Indian States. Available at: B. Nengsheng and N. Weidou, "Current situation and development of wind power in china," Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China, vol. 1, no. 4, pp , I. Kubiszewsk, C. Cleveland, and P. Endres, "Metaanalysis of net energy return for wind power systems" Renewable Energy, Vol. 35,no.1, pp , Compendium of Environment Statistics India, 2006, Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India (Website: N. Kautto and A. J. Waldau, "Renewable energy snapshots 2009," Institute for Energy, Renewable Energy Unit, pp , Mar Bhattacharyya, Subhes C. Energy access problem of the poor in India: Is rural electrification a remedy? Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK.

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