Impact of novel PCC solvents on existing and new Australian coal-fired power plants 1 st PCC Conference, Abu-Dhabi

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1 Impact of novel PCC solvents on existing and new Australian coal-fired power plants 1 st PCC Conference, Abu-Dhabi Dr Narendra Dave Principal Research Engineer CSIRO Energy Technology, North Ryde, Australia

2 Overview Introduction Australian power plant operating environment Impact of PCC implementation Solvent sensitivity Operating Condition Results for existing power plants Results for new power plants Conclusions

3 PF power plant with post combustion capture Boiler Generator Electricity Low CO 2 flue gas Pure CO 2 CO 2 C.W. Coal Absorber Stripper C.W. Flue gas pretreatment Fly-ash Flue Gas C.W. C.W. Reboiler

4 PCC Technology - Features Low System Pressure & Concentration Chemical Solvent Technology ABB Lummus, Fluor-Daniel, MHI etc.. Primary or Hindered Amine Solvents Solvent Regeneration Duty: 3 to 4 MJ/kg of CO 2 In-tolerance to Impurities SO X /NO X < 10 ppmv Particulates < 3 mg/nm3

5 Australian Power Plant Environment Almost All Subcritical Power Plants Black and Brown Coal Fuel Flue Gas SO X Content ~ ppmv (Black Coals) ~ ppmv (Brown Coals) Flue Gas NOX Content ~300 to 700 ppmv (Black Coals) ~100 to 300 ppmv (Brown Coals) No statutory FGD in Australia Limited Cooling Water Resource

6 PCC Integration Impact on Existing Brown and Black Coal Fired Subcritical Power Plants Assumptions: 90% CO 2 Capture, Capture Plant ON, on Demand Results: Brown Coal Plant (Fuel Price - $0.5/GJ) Black Coal Plant (Fuel Price - $1.0/GJ) Net Efficiency (%HHV) Without Capture Net Efficiency (%HHV) With Capture COE Without Capture ($/MWh net) COE With Capture ($/MWh net) Cost of CO2 avoidance ($/ton CO2)

7 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants CO 2 Capture Solvent Characteristics CO 2 Loading Rate of Absorption (Kinetics) Heat of Absorption/Desorption (Chemical Reaction) Sensible Heat (m.cp. T) Heat of Vaporisation (Stripping Steam Requirement)

8 Base Case Energy Breakdown - 30% w/w MEA Reboiler Duty Contribution MJ/kg CO 2 % Contribution H des % H vap H 2 O * moles H 2 O / moles CO % L * Cp * T / moles CO % Total Reboiler Duty % Condenser Duty 1.39 Trim Cooler Duty 1.57

9 Black Coal Fired Power Plant Integration Various Scenarios Subcritical Existing Power Plant Steam Conditions ~ 160bar/538 C 39bar/538 C Mechanical Draft Wet Cooled Power Plant and Capture Plant FGD Installed for Capture Plant Throttle valve at IP/LP crossover Supercritical Double Reheat (2RH) New Power Plant Steam conditions ~ 250bar/566 C 66bar/566 C 19bar/566 C Air Cooled Power Plant and Capture Plant FGD Installed for Capture Plant Throttle valve at IP/LP crossover

10 CO 2 Capture / Power Plant Economics CO 2 Plant Capital Cost ~ March 2008 New Power Plant Capital Cost ~ March 2008 Plant Construction ~ 3 years Interest Rate ~ 10% Amortisation Period ~ 30 years for new plants Existing plants assumed fully amortised Full Integration of Plants Calculation of Marginal COE ($/MWh) Calculation of Cost of CO 2 avoidance ($/tonne)

11 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants Solvent Impact on Net Efficiency of Existing Subcritical Power Plant

12 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants Solvent Impact on Water Consumption of Existing Subcritical Power Plant

13 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants Solvent Impact on COE of Existing Subcritical Power Plant

14 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants Solvent Impact on Cost of CO2 Avoidance of Existing Subcritical Plant

15 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants Solvent Impact on Net Efficiency of New Supercritical 2RH Power Plant

16 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants Solvent Impact on COE of New Supercritical 2RH Power Plant

17 Solvent Selection Analysis for Minimising PCC Integration Impact on Coal Fired Power Plants Solvent Impact on CO2 Avoidance of New Supercritical 2RH Power Plant

18 Solvent Sensitivity Analysis: Conclusions With improvement in the solvent characteristics for regeneration, the net power generation efficiency of a PCC integrated power plant, its cost of electricity generation and the cost of CO 2 avoidance, all improve considerably. Further improvement in the performance of a PCC integrated power plant is possible with solvents that have better kinetic rate characteristics compared to 30% w/w MEA.

19 CSIRO Energy Technology Dr. Narendra Dave Principle Research Engineer Phone: Web: Thank you Contact Us Phone: or Web:

20 CO 2 Capture Process Integration With Power Plants Fly-ash Lime Waste CO 2 Air Coal Ash PC Boiler Coal Mill Steam Air Heater ESP Ξ ID Fan Ξ FD Fan Air Ξ PA Fan LP Steam FGD CO 2 Plant To Stack CO 2 Compressor Generator Turbine Condenser Boiler Feed Water

21 Australia Specific Power Plant Conditions Typical Black or Brown Coal fired power plant Brown Coal ~ 62.2% Moisture 600 MW Gross Output with 85% Capacity Factor Water Or Air Cooled Power Plant GES Operating Conditions Excess Air to Furnace ~ 20% Cold CW Approach Temp. to Wet Bulb Temp. ~ 4.55 o C CW Temperature Rise in Condenser ~ 10.6 o C Hot CW Temp. Approach to Condensate Temp. ~ 2.0 o C Air Temp. Rise ~ 15.8 o C (Air Cooled Condenser) ITD ~ 24.8 o C (Air Cooled Condenser)

22 CO 2 Capture Plant Operating Conditions 30% by weight Aqueous MEA Solution MEA Solvent Temperature ~ 40 o C Flue Gas inlet ~ 45 o C CO 2 Loading of MEA inlet ~ 0.21 CO 2 Capture & Recovery ~ 90% Number of Theoretical Stages in Absorber ~ 4 Number of Theoretical Stages in Regenerator ~ 9 Reboiler Temperature ~ 122 o C Reboiler Heat Duty ~ 4 MJ/kg of CO 2 recovered Product CO 100 Bar and 40 o C

23 PCC Integration COE Sensitivity Black Coal- Fired Supercritical 2 Reheat New Power Plant 7% Interest Rate, Full Time Capture Power Plant Cost Variation

24 PCC Integration COE Sensitivity Black Coal-Fired Subcritical Existing Power Plant with Throttle Valve 7% Interest Rate, On Demand CO 2 Capture Power Plant Cost Variation

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