# UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and Science APRIL/MAY EXAMINATIONS 2006 ECO 100Y1 Y. Duration: 3 hours

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3 4. If wheat farmers were faced with a demand curve of unit (or unitary) elasticity, then a) the total receipts of farmers would not change due to shifts in demand b) a shift in supply would have little effect on wheat prices c) a poor harvest would cause a drop in total receipts for wheat farmers d) a good harvest would cause an increase in the quantity demanded of wheat 5. The price of apples at a local market rises from \$2.95 to \$3.05 per kilo, and as a result the quantity of apples that households purchase decreases from 5100 to 4900 kilos/week while the quantity of oranges that households purchase increases from 3950 to 4050 kilos/week. The cross-price elasticity is a) b) c) 0.75 d) 1.33 e) insufficient information to know 6. The average product for six workers is 15. If the marginal product for the seventh worker is 18, a) marginal product is rising b) marginal product is falling c) average product is rising d) average product is falling e) marginal product is rising and average product is falling 7. Oranges are produced with a fixed factor land and a variable factor labour. Which one of the following statements is correct? a) when the average product of labour is increasing, the marginal product of labour must also be increasing b) diminishing marginal productivity [returns] starts at the labour input where total physical product starts to decrease c) diminishing marginal productivity [returns] starts at the labour input where a straight line ray is tangent to the total physical product curve d) diminishing marginal productivity [returns] starts at the labour input where marginal product of labour equals average product of labour are correct 8. Suppose fixed costs are \$100 and average variable costs are constant regardless of output. Which of the following is then true? a) marginal cost will equal average total cost b) average total cost will decrease when output is increased c) marginal cost will be less than average variable cost d) average total cost will be constant

4 9. Which one of the following statements is false? a) average total cost is total cost per unit of output b) average fixed cost plus average variable cost equals average total cost c) marginal cost is the increase in total cost resulting from a unit increase in output d) total cost equals fixed cost plus average total cost e) marginal cost depends on the amount of labour hired 10. When cost curves are drawn for a perfectly competitive firm, all of the following are generally assumed except that the a) firm is too small to influence factor prices b) marginal product of the variable factor eventually declines c) average variable cost initially declines, then rises at higher output levels d) average fixed costs are constant e) total fixed costs are constant 11. When one additional unit of labour is hired, total product increases from 100 to 110 units of output per unit of time. Marginal product must therefore be a) increasing b) positive c) decreasing d) constant e) zero 12. If the industry demand curve is downward-sloping and the market is perfectly competitive, an increase in the price of an input used to produce the good will: a) not affect consumer surplus b) increase consumer surplus c) reduce the price of the good d) increase the quantity bought and sold of the good 13. If the increase in the price of good A causes the demand curve for B to shift to the left, then a) A and B are substitutes b) A and B are complements c) the price of A must be higher than the price of B d) B must be a normal good e) Consumer preferences for B must have fallen 14. Suppose that the tuna fish industry has an upward sloping supply curve. The government now introduces an income tax cut such that disposable incomes increase. As a result, the price of tuna fish falls. We can therefore conclude that tuna fish: a) is a normal good b) the demand curve for tuna fish is elastic c) the demand curve for tuna fish is inelastic d) is a substitute good e) is an inferior good

5 15. When marginal product is increasing with increasing use of a variable input a) average product is rising and is greater than marginal product b) average product is falling and is greater than marginal product c) average product is falling and is smaller than marginal product d) average product is falling e) average product is rising 16. Let the supply curve for oranges be upward sloping. Suppose that bad weather conditions adversely affect this year s crop of oranges. However, it is discovered that orange producers have a higher level of total revenue. Given this information, which of the following statements is true? a) the supply curve for oranges is elastic b) the supply curve for oranges is inelastic c) the demand curve for oranges has unitary elasticity d) the demand curve for oranges is inelastic e) the demand curve for oranges is elastic 17. Recently, it has been revealed that there have been severe reductions in the fish stocks in the Atlantic fishing industry. As a result, a) we would expect to see increases in the demand for meat (e.g., beef), since this is a complement to fish b) we would expect to see reductions in the price of fish, leading to reductions in the demand for meat, since meat and fish are substitutes c) we would expect reductions in the price of fish, leading to increases in the demand for meat, since meat and fish are substitutes d) we would expect to see increases in the demand for meat, since meat is a substitute for fish e) we would expect to see increases in the price of fish, leading to reductions in the demand for meat, since meat and fish are complements 18. For a perfectly competitive firm, the marginal revenue curve a) is the same as the firm s demand curve and the average revenue curve lies below the firm s demand curve b) lies above the firm s demand curve and the average revenue curve lies below the firm s demand curve c) and the average revenue curve are both the same as the firm s demand curve d) lies above the firm s demand curve and the average revenue curve is the same as the firm s demand curve e) lies below the average revenue curve and the average revenue curve is the firm s demand curve 19. Assume that a perfectly competitive industry has a perfectly inelastic supply curve. The government introduces a specific commodity tax of \$2.50 per unit of output. As a result, which one of the following statements would be correct? a) the consumer price would increase by \$2.50 b) the consumer price would fall by \$2.50 c) the burden of the tax would fall completely on consumers d) the price received by the producer would decrease by \$2.50

6 20. Which one of the following would cause the demand curve in an industry to increase? a) the price of a substitute product decreased b) disposable income increased and the good was an inferior good c) the price of a complementary product increased d) disposable income decreased and the good was a normal good 21. Assume that apples and oranges are substitute goods. Given the initial supply and demand curves for apples, a reduction in the price of oranges will tend to a) increase the price of apples b) increase the demand for apples c) increase the demand for oranges d) decrease the demand for oranges e) decrease the price of apples 22. A perfectly competitive firm is currently producing an output level where price is \$10.00; average variable cost is \$6.00; average fixed cost is \$4.00 and marginal cost is \$8.00. In the short-run, in order to maximize profits this firm should? a) not change output b) decrease its output c) increase its output d) shut down e) increase its market price 23. If a competitive industry is facing a decrease in demand for its product, the theory of perfect competition predicts that in the long-run a) newer, more efficient firms will enter the industry and earn normal profits b) existing firms will modernize plant and equipment in order to increase efficiency c) existing firms will expand output as a means of recovering losses d) the industry will raise its price to earn higher revenue e) capacity in the industry will gradually shrink 24. Predictions regarding a perfectly competitive firm s long-run profit-maximizing position include all of the following except: a) price equals marginal cost b) price equals marginal revenue c) price equals minimum short-run and long-run average total cost d) economic profits are greater than zero e) economic profits are zero 25. Comparing the short-run and long-run profit-maximizing positions of a perfectly competitive firm, which statement is true? a) price will equal marginal cost in the short-run, but not necessarily in the long-run b) economic profits may exist in the short-run and in the long-run c) in order to profit-maximize, the firm must always produce at the minimum of average total cost in the short-run and in the long-run d) the price must equal average total cost in the long-run, but not necessarily in the short-run

7 26. Consider a perfectly competitive firm in the following position: output = 4,000 units, market price = \$2, fixed costs = \$10,000, and variable costs = \$1,000. To maximize profits in the short-run, the firm should a) reduce output b) expand output c) shut down d) increase the market price e) not enough information to determine 27. In the short-run, a decrease in a perfectly competitive firm s fixed costs should lead to a) a decrease in output b) a decrease in the number of sellers c) an increase in price d) lower variable costs 28. A perfectly competitive industry is in short-run equilibrium with n identical firms and each firm is earning zero economic profits (i.e., earning normal profits). Assume that firms ATC, AVC, and MC curves have the traditional U-shape. Under these circumstances, which one of the following statements is correct in the short-run? a) with a decrease in fixed costs, each firm would suffer losses and firms would exit the industry b) with an increase in variable costs, each firm would make economic losses c) with a decrease in industry demand, each firm would make economic losses and would produce a higher output d) with a decrease in variable costs, each firm would make economic profits and would produce a lower output e) with an increase in industry demand, each firm would make economic profits and would produce a smaller output 29. A perfectly competitive industry is in short-run equilibrium. Which one of the following statements is correct in the short-run? a) if fixed costs were to increase, then the industry price would increase and industry output decrease b) if fixed costs were to increase, then the industry price would decrease and industry output would increase c) if fixed costs were to decrease, then industry price would increase and industry output would fall d) if fixed costs were to decrease, then industry price would decrease and industry output would increase

8 30. Suppose a typical competitive firm has the following data in the short-run equilibrium: price = \$10; output = 100 units; ATC = \$12; AVC = \$7. Which of the following statements is correct? a) in the long-run the industry will expand because of economic profits b) in the long-run the industry will contract because firms are suffering losses c) the size of the industry will remain the same in the long-run d) price will fall in the long-run e) there is not enough information to formulate an answer about the long-run 31. In the long-run production period, which one of the following statements is correct according to conditions of long-run equilibrium? a) both the firm in pure (perfect) competition and a pure (unregulated) monopolist could each make economic profits b) both the firm in pure (perfect) competition and a pure (unregulated) monopolist would profit maximize where price equalled marginal cost c) the firm in pure (perfect) competition would profit maximize where price equalled marginal cost and the pure (unregulated) monopolist would profit maximize where price exceeded marginal cost d) the firm in pure (perfect) competition would profit maximize where price equalled marginal cost and the pure (unregulated) monopolist would profit maximize where price was less than marginal cost 32. Suppose all of the firms in a perfectly competitive industry form a cartel and agree to restrict output, thereby raising the price of the product. Individual firm A will gain the most from the existence of the cartel if a) all firms, including A, cooperate and restrict output b) firm A restricts output, while the other firms do not c) all firms, except A, cooperate and restrict output d) no firms restrict output e) all firms revert back to their competitive outputs 33. A profit-maximizing monopolist will not produce the output level at which marginal cost equals price because a) profit would be zero in that case b) fixed cost would be maximized c) entry into the industry keeps the price lower than that level d) the monopolist always charges the highest price the market will bear 34. A pure (unregulated) monopolist is in short-run equilibrium with economic profits. Which one of the following statements is correct? a) an increase in rent (a fixed cost) will cause an increase in the monopoly price and a decrease in the monopolist s output b) an increase in rent (a fixed cost) will cause an increase in the monopoly price and an increase in the monopolist s output c) the monopolist s price will equal its marginal cost at the equilibrium output d) the monopolist s marginal revenue will equal its average revenue at the equilibrium output

9 35. When the monopolist charges a price where the price elasticity of demand equals 1, his a) total receipts are rising, although marginal revenue is falling b) total receipts are falling c) total profits are at a maximum d) total receipts are at a maximum 36. If the monopolist operated in the inelastic range of his demand curve, a) he would be operating where his AR is negative b) his marginal revenue would be greater than marginal cost c) his marginal revenue would be negative d) his marginal revenue would be negative although his total receipts would be at a maximum e) he could raise his total receipts by lowering his price 37. If the government imposes a lump-sum tax [e.g., a tax of \$10,000 per year] on a monopolist, it will reduce profits because the tax a) shifts the demand curve to the left and at the same time increases all costs b) shifts the demand curve to the right and at the same time increases all costs c) increases the price consumers pay but also reduces the price the monopolist receives d) increases the average total cost but not the marginal cost, leaving price and output unchanged e) increases both the average total cost and the marginal cost, leaving price and output unchanged 38. Which of the following is included in the calculations of current GDP? a) the purchase of a second hand automobile b) pizza purchased by college students for dinner c) volunteer work undertaken by Mary Smith d) the purchase of a 1939 painting e) welfare payments 39. Nominal GDP fell from 100 to 95 during the year. At the same time, inflation was 10 percent. Therefore real GDP a) fell by 10 percent b) was unaffected c) rose by 10 percent d) fell by 15 percent 40. Assume a simple model without government and without an external sector. If an increase in exogenous investment of 40 leads to an increase in consumption of 160, then the marginal propensity to save is a) 0.10 b) 0.20 c) 0.25 d) 0.40 e) 0.75

10 41. If a household s disposable income increases from \$10,000 to \$15,000 and its consumption expenditures increase from \$8,000 to \$11,000, then a) the household is dissaving b) the slope of the consumption function is 0.6 c) the marginal propensity to consume is 0.4 d) the average propensity to consume over this range of income is negative e) the average propensity to consume over this range exceeds The sale of government bonds by the Bank of Canada will cause a) a decrease in the rate of interest b) a decrease in the (cash) reserves of banks c) an increase in the supply of money d) an increase in bank loans to the public 43. Suppose that a hypothetical economy has achieved price stability but unemployment is too high. Assume that the consumption function is: C = 45, Y and that investment and government spending are autonomous expenditures only. Initially, there is no international trade, taxes or transfer payments. The government introduces an autonomous tax of \$500 million and then uses these funds to increase autonomous government expenditure on domestically produced goods. As a result of both of these transactions, taken together, the final impact on Y would be: a) no change in Y b) an increase of \$2,500 million in Y c) a decrease of \$2,500 million in Y d) an increase of \$500 million in Y e) a decrease of \$500 million in Y 44. If there is an appreciation of the Canadian dollar in the foreign exchange market, then Canadian goods a) are more expensive to Canadian b) are more expensive to foreign buyers c) are less expensive to Canadian d) are less expensive to foreign buyers 45. If desired expenditures exceed actual expenditures, a) inventories will build up, causing national income to rise b) national income will fall, because desired expenditures are less than actual expenditures c) shortages of goods and reductions in inventories will cause producers to increase output and national income to rise d) national income may increase or decrease, depending on the relative sizes of the average propensity to consume and the average propensity to save

### UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and Science. August Examinations 2007 ECO 100Y1 Y. Duration: 3 hours

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