# Preface. Chapter 1 Basic Tools Used in Understanding Microeconomics. 1.1 Economic Models

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1 Preface Chapter 1 Basic Tools Used in Understanding Microeconomics 1.1 Economic Models Positive and Normative Analysis The Market Economy Model Types of Economic Problems 1.2 Mathematics Review Functions and Graphs Types of Functions Equations and Identities Derivatives Rules for Finding Derivatives 1.3 Unconstrained Optimization Optimality Conditions With One Choice Variable Optimality Conditions With Two Choice Variables Comparative Statics Example 1-1 Maximizing Royalty Payments 1.4 Constrained Optimization Problems Optimality Conditions With Two Choice Variables A Special Case: A Linear Constraint Function Example 1-2 Allocating Study Time Corner Solutions Chapter 1 Exercises Chapter 2 Consumer Choice 2.1 The Budget Constraint The Intercepts of the Budget Constraint The Slope of the Budget Constraint The Budget Set Using A Composite Good Example 2-1 Buy One, Get One Free 2.2 Preferences Of Consumers Assumptions Utility Functions

2 2.2.3 Indifference Curves The Marginal Rate of Substitution Example 2-2 Introducing a New Product Line 2.3 Utility Maximization Optimality Conditions Interpreting the Optimality Conditions Corner Solutions Example 2-3 Kirk's Demand Functions for Golf and Tennis Example 2-4 Charitable Contributions 2.4 Expenditure Minimization and Value Functions Compensated Demand Value Functions Chapter 2 Exercises Chapter 3 Demand 3.1 Demand Functions and Demand Curves 3.2 Comparative Statics Normal and Inferior Goods Example 3-1 Quasilinear Preferences and Changes in Income The Law of Demand Substitutes and Complements Example 3-2 Comparative Statics Analysis and Cobb-Douglas Preferences 3.3 Income and Substitution Effects The Substitution Effect The Income Effect Summarizing the Income and Substitution Effects 3.4 Comparative Statics Analysis in Action Excise Taxes and Lump Sum Taxes Example 3-3 Taxing Gasoline Consumption Price Discounts

3 Example 3-4 Clipping Coupons In-Kind Subsidies Example 3-5: A Food Stamp Program 3.5 Market Demand Market Demand Curves and Demand Functions Elasticities Example 3-6 Revenue and the Price Elasticity of Demand 3.6 Consumer Welfare Consumer Surplus Example 3-7 Consumer Surplus and the Gasoline Tax The Consumer Price Index Chapter 3 Exercises Chapter 4 Topics in Consumer Theory: Labor Supply, Saving, and Endowments 4.1 Labor Supply Example 4-1 Income Taxes and Labor Supply 4.2 Saving Example 4-2: Lower Interest Rates, Borrowing and the Demand for Goods and Services 4.3 Endowments Example 4-3: Gains From Trade Chapter 4 Exercises Chapter 5 Cost Minimization 5.1 Firms Types of Firms The Firm's Objective: Profit Maximization Example 5-1 Historical Costs and Business Decisions

4 5.2 Describing a Firm's Technology Production Functions Diminishing Productivity and Returns to Scale Example 5-2 Pizza Production Isoquants The Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution 5.3 Cost Minimization Optimality Conditions Interpreting the Optimality Conditions Example 5-3 Determining the Cost-Minimizing Input Bundle for Eastwick Inc Cost Minimization with Fixed Inputs 5.4 Cost Functions and Cost Curves The Long-Run and Short-Run Cost Functions Example 5-4 Finding Eastwick's Cost Functions Short-Run Cost Curves Long-Run Cost Curves Example 5-5 Introducing a New Product Line 5.5 Public Policy and Long-Run Costs Input Taxes Example 5-6 Payroll Taxes and Costs Input Restrictions Example 5-7 Pesticide Regulation and Costs Chapter 5 Exercises Chapter 6 Profit Maximization: The Competitive Firm 6.1 Perfect Competition The Requirements for Perfect Competition Why Study Perfect Competition? Alternative Types of Markets

5 6.2 Profit Maximization and Output Supply Long-Run Optimality Conditions Example 6-1 Excise Taxes and Profit Maximization The Long-Run Supply Curve Short-Run Optimality Conditions Operating at a Loss in the Short Run Example 6-2 Short-Run Supply The Short-Run Supply Curve 6.3 Profit Maximization and Input Demand Optimality Condition with a Single Input Interpreting the Optimality Condition Example 6-3 Deriving a Firm's Demand for Labor Optimality Conditions with Two Inputs Example 6-4 Deriving a Firm's Demand for Capital and Labor Chapter 6 Exercises Chapter 7 Perfect Competition 7.1 Short-Run Competitive Equilibrium The Short-Run Market Supply Curve Supply and Demand Analysis: Price and Quantity in the Short run Example 7-1 Short-Run Competitive Equilibrium 7.2 Long-run Competitive Equilibrium The Long-Run Market Supply Curve: Constant Cost Industry Example 7-2 Deriving the Long-Run Market Supply Curve for a Constant Cost Industry The Long-Run Market Supply Curve: Increasing Cost Industry 7.3 Producer Surplus and Economic Rent Short-Run Producer Surplus Long-Run Producer Surplus or Economic Rent Example 7-3 Falling Mortgage Rates and Long-Run Producer Surplus

6 7.4 Perfect Competition in Action Example 7-4 The Cigarette Tax Chapter 7 Exercises Chapter 8 Monopoly 8.1 Monopoly Sources of Market Power Demand and Marginal Revenue for a Monopoly 8.2 Profit Maximization Long-Run Optimality Conditions Example 8-1 Licensing a Monopoly and Profit Maximization Short-Run Optimality Conditions 8.3 Perfect Competition and Monopoly Compared The Non-existence of Supply Curves Higher Price and Lower Output The Inefficiency of Monopoly Example 8-2 Excise Taxes: Monopoly and Competition Compared 8.4 Using the Monopoly Model Regulating a Monopoly: Marginal Cost Pricing Regulating a Natural Monopoly: Average Cost Pricing Example 8-3 Regulating an Electric Company Price Discrimination Example 8-4 Pricing Airline Tickets Peak-Load Pricing Example 8-5 Pricing Computer Time Cartels Example 8-6 The Diamond Cartel Chapter 8 Exercises

7 Chapter 9 Strategic Decision Making and Oligopoly 9.1 Game Theory Basics Elements of a Game Dominant Strategy Equilibrium Nash Equilibrium Subgame Perfect Equilibrium Example 9-1 Credible Threats and Entry Deterrence 9.2 The Cournot Model Profit Maximization Nash Equilibrium Prisoners' Dilemma Overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma Example 9-2 OPEC and the Prisoners' Dilemma 9.3 The Stackelberg Model Profit Maximization First-Mover Advantage Example 9-3 The First-Mover Advantage in the Rootbeer Market 9.4 Using Game Theory Example 9-4 Marketing Expenditures as an Entry Deterrent Example 9-5 To License or Not to License Chapter 9 Exercises

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