1 oweroint Lecture Notes for Chapter 4 The Market Forces of Supply and Demand rinciples of Microeconomics 6 th edition, by N. Gregory Mankiw remium oweroint Slides by Ron Cronovich N. Gregory Mankiw Microeconomics rinciples of Sixth Edition 4 The Market Forces of Supply and Demand remium oweroint Slides by Ron Cronovich 2 This is perhaps the most important chapter in the textbook. It s worth mentioning to your students that investing extra time to master this chapter will make it easier for them to learn much of the subsequent material in the book. This is also one of the longest chapters in the textbook, and this oweroint file is one of the most graph-intensive. Many students taking economics for the first time have difficulty grasping the graphs, which are critically important in this and all subsequent chapters in the book. So an extra degree of hand-holding might be appropriate. Accordingly, this oweroint has carefully detailed animations that build many of the graphs with great care. For example, we show a demand or supply schedule next to the axes, and highlight each coordinate pair in the table as the corresponding point appears on the graph. lease be assured that the presentation of graphs is more streamlined in subsequent chapters. In this early chapter, though, we do not want to leave any students behind. If your students are already very comfortable with scattertype graphs, you may wish to simplify or turn off the animation on these slides, in order to get through them faster. In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions: What factors affect buyers demand for goods? What factors affect sellers supply of goods? How do supply and demand determine the price of a good and the quantity sold? How do changes in the factors that affect demand or supply affect the market price and quantity of a good? How do markets allocate resources? 1
2 Markets and Competition A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular product. A competitive market is one with many buyers and sellers, each has a negligible effect on price. In a perfectly competitive market: All goods exactly the same Buyers & sellers so numerous that no one can affect market price each is a price taker In this chapter, we assume markets are perfectly competitive. 2 In the real world, there are relatively few perfectly competitive markets. Most goods come in lots of different varieties including ice cream, the example in the textbook. And there are many markets in which the number of firms is small enough that some of them have the ability to affect the market price. For now, though, we look at supply and demand in perfectly competitive markets, for two reasons: First, it s easier to learn. Understanding perfectly competitive markets makes it a lot easier to learn the more realistic but complicated analysis of imperfectly competitive markets. Second, despite the lack of realism, the perfectly competitive model can teach us a LOT about how the world works, as we will see many times in the chapters that follow. Demand The quantity demanded of any good is the amount of the good that buyers are willing and able to purchase. Law of demand: the claim that the quantity demanded of a good falls when the price of the good rises, other things equal Demand comes from the behavior of buyers. 3 The Demand Schedule Demand schedule: a table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded Example: Helen s demand for lattes. Notice that Helen s preferences obey the law of demand. rice of lattes uantity of lattes demanded rice of Lattes $6.00 Helen s Demand Schedule & Curve uantity of Lattes rice of lattes uantity of lattes demanded
3 Market Demand versus Individual Demand The quantity demanded in the market is the sum of the quantities demanded by all buyers at each price. Suppose Helen and Ken are the only two buyers in the Latte market. ( d = quantity demanded) rice Helen s d Ken s d + 8 = = = = = = = Market d This example violates the many buyers condition of perfect competition. Yet, we are merely trying to show here that, at each price, the quantity demanded in the market is the sum of the quantity demanded by each buyer in the market. This holds whether there are two buyers or two million buyers. But it would be harder to fit data for two million buyers on this slide, so we settle for two. The Market Demand Curve for Lattes $ d (Market) Demand Curve Shifters The demand curve shows how price affects quantity demanded, other things being equal. These other things are non-price determinants of demand (i.e., things that determine buyers demand for a good, other than the good s price). Changes in them shift the D curve 8 Demand Curve Shifters: # of Buyers Increase in # of buyers increases quantity demanded at each price, shifts D curve to the right. 9 Income is the first demand shifter discussed in this chapter of the textbook. I chose to start with a different one (number of buyers), for the following reason: In discussing the impact of changes in income on the demand curve, the textbook also introduces the concept of normal goods and inferior goods. Students may find it easier to learn about curve shifts if the presentation focuses solely on a curve shift (at least initially) without simultaneously introducing other concepts. If you wish to present the demand shifters in the same order as they appear in the book, simply reorder the slides in this presentation.
4 Demand Curve Shifters: # of Buyers $ Suppose the number of buyers increases. Then, at each, d will increase (by 5 in this example). 10 Beginning economics students often have trouble understanding the difference between a movement along the curve and a shift in the curve. Here, the animation has been carefully designed to help students see that a shift in the curve results from an increase in quantity at each price. (A more realistic scenario would involve a non-parallel shift, where the horizontal distance of the shift would be greater for lower prices than higher ones. However, to remain consistent with the textbook, and to keep things simple, this slide shows a parallel shift.) Demand Curve Shifters: Income Demand for a normal good is positively related to income. Increase in income causes increase in quantity demanded at each price, shifts D curve to the right. (Demand for an inferior good is negatively related to income. An increase in income shifts D curves for inferior goods to the left.) 11 Demand Curve Shifters: Two goods are substitutes if an increase in the price of one causes an increase in demand for the other. Example: pizza and hamburgers. An increase in the price of pizza increases demand for hamburgers, shifting hamburger demand curve to the right. Other examples: Coke and epsi, laptops and desktop computers, CDs and music downloads rices of Related Goods 12 If you are willing to spend a couple extra minutes on substitutes and complements, and have a blackboard or whiteboard to draw on, here s an idea: Before (or instead of) showing this slide, draw the demand curve for hamburgers. ick a price, say $5, and draw a horizontal line at that price, extending from the vertical axis through the D curve and continuing to the right. Suppose = 1000 when = $5. Label this on the horizontal axis. Now ask your students: If pizza becomes more expensive, but price of hamburgers does not change, what would happen to the quantity of hamburgers demanded? Would it remain at 1000, would it increase, or would it decrease? Explain. Some and perhaps most students will see right away that people will want more hamburgers when the price of pizza rises. After establishing this, note that the increase in the price of pizza caused an increase in the quantity demanded of hamburgers. Then state the term substitutes and give the definition. Before giving the other examples (listed in the 3 rd bullet of this slide), do a similar exercise to develop the concept of complements. Finally, give the examples of substitutes and complements from the 3 rd bullet point of this and the following slides, but mix up the order and ask students to identify whether each example is complements or substitutes.
5 Demand Curve Shifters: rices of Related Goods Two goods are complements if an increase in the price of one causes a fall in demand for the other. Example: computers and software. If price of computers rises, people buy fewer computers, and therefore less software. Software demand curve shifts left. Other examples: college tuition and textbooks, bagels and cream cheese, eggs and bacon 13 Demand Curve Shifters: Tastes Anything that causes a shift in tastes toward a good will increase demand for that good and shift its D curve to the right. Example: The Atkins diet became popular in the 90s, caused an increase in demand for eggs, shifted the egg demand curve to the right. 14 Demand Curve Shifters: Expectations Expectations affect consumers buying decisions. Examples: If people expect their incomes to rise, their demand for meals at expensive restaurants may increase now. If the economy sours and people worry about their future job security, demand for new autos may fall now. 15 Summary: Variables That Influence Buyers Variable rice A change in this variable causes a movement along the D curve # of buyers shifts the D curve Income rice of related goods Tastes Expectations shifts the D curve shifts the D curve shifts the D curve shifts the D curve 16 Students should notice that the only determinant of quantity demanded that causes a movement along the curve is price. Also notice: price is one of the variables measured along the axes of the graph. Here s a handy rule of thumb to help students remember whether the curve shifts: If the variable causing demand to change is measured on one of the axes, you move along the curve. If the variable that s causing demand to change is NOT measured on either axis, then the curve shifts. This rule of thumb works with all curves in economics that involve an X-Y relationship, including the supply curve, the marginal cost curve, the IS and LM curves (not covered in this book), and many others, though it does not apply to curves drawn on time series graphs.
6 ACTIVE LEARNING 1 Demand Curve Draw a demand curve for music downloads. What happens to it in each of the following scenarios? Why? A. The price of iods falls B. The price of music downloads falls C. The price of CDs falls In each case, there are only three possible answers: - The curve shifts to the right - The curve shifts to the left - The curve does not shift (though there may be a movement along the curve) ACTIVE LEARNING 1 A. rice of iods falls rice of music downloads 1 1 D 2 2 uantity of music downloads Music downloads and iods are complements. A fall in price of iods shifts the demand curve for music downloads to the right. oint out to your students that there are no numbers or units on either axis, and we are using 1 and 1 to represent the initial price and quantity, rather than specific numerical values. Tell them that this is common, because in much economic analysis, the goal is only to see the direction of changes, not specific amounts. (Besides, if we put numbers on this graph, they d just have been made up, so why bother?) ACTIVE LEARNING 1 B. rice of music downloads falls Also point out the following: The price of music downloads is the same, but the quantity demanded is now higher. In fact, this is the nature of a shift in a curve: at any given price, the quantity is different than before. rice of music downloads 1 The D curve does not shift. Move down along curve to a point with lower, higher uantity of music downloads ACTIVE LEARNING 1 C. rice of CDs falls rice of music downloads 1 CDs and music downloads are substitutes. A fall in price of CDs shifts demand for music downloads to the left. D uantity of music downloads
7 Supply The quantity supplied of any good is the amount that sellers are willing and able to sell. Law of supply: the claim that the quantity supplied of a good rises when the price of the good rises, other things equal Supply comes from the behavior of sellers. 21 The Supply Schedule Supply schedule: A table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied. Example: Starbucks supply of lattes. Notice that Starbucks supply schedule obeys the law of supply. rice of lattes uantity of lattes supplied Starbucks Supply Schedule & Curve $ rice of lattes uantity of lattes supplied Market Supply versus Individual Supply The quantity supplied in the market is the sum of the quantities supplied by all sellers at each price. Suppose Starbucks and Jitters are the only two sellers in this market. ( s = quantity supplied) rice Starbucks Jitters + 0 = = = = = = = Market s Again, the assumption of only two sellers is a clear violation of perfect competition. However, it s much easier for students to learn how the market supply curve relates to individual supplies in the two-seller case.
8 The Market Supply Curve $6.00 S (Market) Supply Curve Shifters The supply curve shows how price affects quantity supplied, other things being equal. These other things are non-price determinants of supply. Changes in them shift the S curve Non-price determinants of supply simply means the things other than the price of a good that determine sellers supply of the good. 26 Supply Curve Shifters: Input rices Examples of input prices: wages, prices of raw materials. A fall in input prices makes production more profitable at each output price, so firms supply a larger quantity at each price, and the S curve shifts to the right. In the second bullet point, output price just means the price of the good that firms are producing and selling. I have used output price here to distinguish it from input prices. 27 Supply Curve Shifters: Input rices $6.00 Suppose the price of milk falls. At each price, the quantity of lattes supplied will increase (by 5 in this example). 28 Again, the animation here is carefully designed to help make clear that a shift in the supply curve means that there is a change in the quantity supplied at each possible price. If it seems tedious, you can turn it off. In any case, be assured that, by the end of this chapter, the animation of curve shifts will be streamlined and simplified.
9 Supply Curve Shifters: Technology Technology determines how much inputs are required to produce a unit of output. A cost-saving technological improvement has the same effect as a fall in input prices, shifts S curve to the right. 29 Supply Curve Shifters: # of Sellers An increase in the number of sellers increases the quantity supplied at each price, shifts S curve to the right. 30 Supply Curve Shifters: Expectations Example: Events in the Middle East lead to expectations of higher oil prices. In response, owners of Texas oilfields reduce supply now, save some inventory to sell later at the higher price. S curve shifts left. In general, sellers may adjust supply* when their expectations of future prices change. (*If good not perishable) 31 Summary: Variables that Influence Sellers Variable rice Input rices Technology A change in this variable causes a movement along the S curve shifts the S curve shifts the S curve # of Sellers shifts the S curve Expectations shifts the S curve 32
10 ACTIVE LEARNING 2 Supply Curve Draw a supply curve for tax return preparation software. What happens to it in each of the following scenarios? A. Retailers cut the price of the software. B. A technological advance allows the software to be produced at lower cost. C. rofessional tax return preparers raise the price of the services they provide. Tax return preparation software means programs like TurboTax by uicken and TaxCut by H&R Block. ACTIVE LEARNING 2 A. Fall in price of tax return software rice of tax return software 1 2 S curve does not shift. Move down along the curve to a lower and lower. 2 1 uantity of tax return software ACTIVE LEARNING 2 B. Fall in cost of producing the software rice of tax return software 1 S 2 S curve shifts to the right: at each price, increases. 1 2 uantity of tax return software ACTIVE LEARNING 2 C. rofessional preparers raise their price rice of tax return software This shifts the demand curve for tax preparation software, not the supply curve. uantity of tax return software
11 Supply and Demand Together $6.00 D S Equilibrium: has reached the level where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded 37 We now return to the latte example to illustrate the concepts of equilibrium: shortage and surplus. Equilibrium price: the price that equates quantity supplied with quantity demanded $6.00 D S D S $ Equilibrium quantity: the quantity supplied and quantity demanded at the equilibrium price $6.00 D S D S $ Surplus (a.k.a. excess supply): when quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded Example: $6.00 D Surplus S If = $5, then D = 9 lattes and S = 25 lattes resulting in a surplus of 16 lattes 40
12 Surplus (a.k.a. excess supply): when quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded $6.00 D Surplus S Facing a surplus, sellers try to increase sales by cutting price. This causes D to rise and S to fall which reduces the surplus. 41 Surplus (a.k.a. excess supply): when quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded $6.00 D Surplus S Facing a surplus, sellers try to increase sales by cutting price. This causes D to rise and S to fall. rices continue to fall until market reaches equilibrium. 42 Shortage (a.k.a. excess demand): when quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied $6.00 D S Example: If = $1, Shortage then D = 21 lattes and S = 5 lattes resulting in a shortage of 16 lattes 43 Shortage (a.k.a. excess demand): when quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied $6.00 D S Facing a shortage, sellers raise the price, causing D to fall and S to rise, Shortage which reduces the shortage. 44
13 Shortage (a.k.a. excess demand): when quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied $6.00 D S Facing a shortage, sellers raise the price, rices continue to rise until market reaches equilibrium. Shortage causing D to fall and S to rise. 45 Three Steps to Analyzing Changes in Eq m To determine the effects of any event, 1. Decide whether event shifts S curve, D curve, or both. 2. Decide in which direction curve shifts. 3. Use supply demand diagram to see how the shift changes eq m and. Step 1 requires knowing all of the things that can shift D and S the non-price determinants of demand and of supply. 46 EXAMLE: The Market for Hybrid Cars price of hybrid cars 1 1 quantity of hybrid cars 47 EXAMLE 1: A Shift in Demand EVENT TO BE ANALYZED: Increase in price of gas. STE 1: D curve shifts because STE 2: price of gas affects demand for D shifts right hybrids. because SSTE curve 3: high gas price makes does hybrids not shift, The shift because causes price an more attractive of increase relative gas does in price to other not cars. affect and quantity cost of of producing hybrid cars. hybrids D 2 48
14 EXAMLE 1: A Shift in Demand Notice: When rises, producers supply a larger quantity of hybrids, even though the S curve has not shifted. 2 1 Always be careful to distinguish b/w a shift in a curve and a movement along the curve. 1 2 D 2 49 Terms for Shift vs. Movement Along Curve Change in supply: a shift in the S curve occurs when a non-price determinant of supply changes (like technology or costs) Change in the quantity supplied: a movement along a fixed S curve occurs when changes Change in demand: a shift in the D curve occurs when a non-price determinant of demand changes (like income or # of buyers) Change in the quantity demanded: a movement along a fixed D curve occurs when changes 50 Supply refers to the position of the supply curve, while quantity supplied refers to the specific amount that producers are willing and able to sell. Similarly, demand refers to the position of the demand curve, while quantity demanded refers to the specific amount that consumers are willing and able to buy. If you d like to be a rebel, delete this slide and all references to the jargon it contains, and just use the terms movement along a curve and shift in a curve. Note, however, that this is not the official recommendation of Cengage/South-Western or Dr. Mankiw. If you d like to cover this slide but make it move more quickly, delete the text next to each second-level bullet (starting with occurs when ). Instead, give the information to your students verbally or rely on them to read it in the textbook. EXAMLE 2: A Shift in Supply EVENT: New technology reduces cost of producing hybrid cars. STE 1: S curve shifts because STE 2: event affects cost of production. S shifts right D because curve does not shift, STE because 3: event reduces cost, production The shift causes makes production technology is price not to more profitable one fall of the at factors and quantity any given that price. affect to rise. demand S 2 51
15 EXAMLE 3: A Shift in Both Supply and Demand EVENTS: rice of gas rises AND new technology reduces production costs STE 1: Both curves shift. STE 2: Both shift to the right. 2 1 STE 3: rises, but effect on is ambiguous: If demand increases more than supply, rises. 1 2 S 2 D 2 52 EXAMLE 3: A Shift in Both Supply and Demand EVENTS: price of gas rises AND new technology reduces production costs S 2 STE 3, cont. But if supply increases more than demand, falls D 2 53 ACTIVE LEARNING 3 Shifts in supply and demand Use the three-step method to analyze the effects of each event on the equilibrium price and quantity of music downloads. Event A: A fall in the price of CDs Event B: Sellers of music downloads negotiate a reduction in the royalties they must pay for each song they sell. Event C: Events A and B both occur. Important note about Event B: The royalties that sellers must pay the artists are part of sellers costs of production. Typically, this royalty is a fixed amount each time one of the artist s songs is downloaded. Event B, therefore, describes a reduction in sellers costs of production. ACTIVE LEARNING 3 A. Fall in price of CDs STES 1. D curve shifts 2. D shifts left 3. and both fall. 1 2 The market for music downloads This is an extension of Active Learning exercise 1C, where we saw that a fall in the price of compact discs would cause a fall in demand for music downloads, because the two goods are substitutes. D 2 2 1
16 ACTIVE LEARNING 3 B. Fall in cost of royalties STES 1. S curve shifts (Royalties are part 2. S shifts right of sellers costs) 3. falls, rises. 1 2 The market for music downloads 1 2 S 2 NOTE: Don t worry that the text on this slide looks garbled in Normal view (i.e., edit mode). It works fine in Slide Show (i.e., presentation mode). Event B: Sellers of music downloads negotiate a reduction in the royalties they must pay for each song they sell. This event causes a fall in costs of production for sellers of music downloads. Hence, the S curve shifts to the right. ACTIVE LEARNING 3 C. Fall in price of CDs and fall in cost of royalties STES 1. Both curves shift (see parts A & B). 2. D shifts left, S shifts right. 3. unambiguously falls. Effect on is ambiguous: The fall in demand reduces, the increase in supply increases. It s not necessary to draw a graph here. The answers to steps 1 and 2 should be clear from parts A and B. The answer to step 3 is a combination of the results from A and B. CONCLUSION: How rices Allocate Resources One of the Ten rinciples from Chapter 1: Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. In market economies, prices adjust to balance supply and demand. These equilibrium prices are the signals that guide economic decisions and thereby allocate scarce resources. In the textbook, the conclusion of this chapter offers some very nice elaboration on the second bullet point. There is also an In the News box with a very nice article titled In raise of rice Gouging. 58 SUMMARY A competitive market has many buyers and sellers, each of whom has little or no influence on the market price. Economists use the supply and demand model to analyze competitive markets. The downward-sloping demand curve reflects the law of demand, which states that the quantity buyers demand of a good depends negatively on the good s price.
17 SUMMARY Besides price, demand depends on buyers incomes, tastes, expectations, the prices of substitutes and complements, and number of buyers. If one of these factors changes, the D curve shifts. The upward-sloping supply curve reflects the Law of Supply, which states that the quantity sellers supply depends positively on the good s price. Other determinants of supply include input prices, technology, expectations, and the # of sellers. Changes in these factors shift the S curve. SUMMARY The intersection of S and D curves determines the market equilibrium. At the equilibrium price, quantity supplied equals quantity demanded. If the market price is above equilibrium, a surplus results, which causes the price to fall. If the market price is below equilibrium, a shortage results, causing the price to rise. SUMMARY We can use the supply-demand diagram to analyze the effects of any event on a market: First, determine whether the event shifts one or both curves. Second, determine the direction of the shifts. Third, compare the new equilibrium to the initial one. In market economies, prices are the signals that guide economic decisions and allocate scarce resources.
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5 Elasticity and its Application R I N C I L E S O F ECONOMICS FOURTH EITION N. GREGORY MANKIW oweroint Slides by Ron Cronovich 2006 Thomson South-Western, all rights reserved In this chapter, look for
EC 201 Lecture Notes 1 Page 1 of 1 ECON 201 - Macroeconomics Lecture Notes 1 Metropolitan State University Allen Bellas The textbooks for this course are Macroeconomics: Principles and Policy by William
The text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under the CC BY-NC-SA without attribution as requested by the works original creator or licensee 3.3 Demand, Supply, and Equilibrium LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.
CHAPTER 2 THEORY OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY Unit 3 Supply Learning Objectives At the end of this unit you will be able to : understand the meaning of supply. understand what determines supply. get an insight
Bremen School District 228 Social Studies Common Assessment 2: Midterm AP Microeconomics 55 Minutes 60 Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements in this exam is followed by five
Economics Lecture notes- Semester 1: Lecture 1: What is economics? The word economy comes from the Greek word meaning one who manages a household. Households and economies have much in common; both face
Economics 2 Spring 2019 rofessor Christina Romer rofessor David Romer SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO ROBLEM SET 1 1.a. Opportunity cost is defined as the value of what is forgone to undertake an activity. What you
Econ321 Chapter 2 Review of rinciples Demand and Supply The Demand-Supply Model Is used for analyzing competitive markets What is a competitive market? Is an equilibrium model Can illustrate the use of
Econ 3144 Spring 2006 Test 1 Dr. Rupp 25 multiple choice questions (2 points each) & 5 discussion questions (10 points each) Name Sign Pledge I have neither given nor received aid on this exam Multiple
Principles of Macroeconomics, 8th Edition - Instructor's Manual - Chapter 2 CHAPTER TWO Demand and Supply: An Introduction Overview Comments This chapter covers one of the most important subjects in economics.
oweroint Lecture Notes for Chapter 5: Elasticity and its Application rinciples of Economics 5 th edition, by N. Gregory Mankiw remium oweroint lides by Ron Cronovich C H A T E R 5 Elasticity and its Application
Chapter 1- Introduction A SIMPLE ECONOMY Central PROBLEMS OF AN ECONOMY: scarcity of resources problem of choice Every society has to decide on how to use its scarce resources. Production, exchange and
OCR Economics A-level Microeconomics Topic 2: How Competitive Markets Work 2.3 Supply and demand, and the interaction of markets Notes A market is created when buyers and sellers interact. A sub-market
ECON 202 - MACROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES Instructor: Dr. Juergen Jung Towson University J.Jung Chapter 2-4 - Introduction Towson University 1 / 69 Disclaimer These lecture notes are customized for the Macroeconomics
AUBG, Fall 2015, Micro 101 with P. Stankov Sample midterm ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that
Practice Test Time 90 Minutes 80 Questions For each of the questions below, choose the best answer from the choices given. 1. In economics, the opportunity cost of an item or entity is (A) the out-of-pocket
ECON 200. Introduction to Microeconomics Homework 2 [Multiple Choice] Name: 1. A change in which of the following will NOT shift the demand curve for hamburgers? (b) a. the price of hot dogs b. the price
4 THE MARKET FORCES OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND WHAT S NEW IN THE SIXTH EDITION: The In the News feature Price Increases after Natural Disasters has been updated with a new article. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: By the
Chapter 4 Demand and Supply 4.1 Demand 1) What is the "quantity demanded"? A) the amount of a good people desire B) the amount of a good people are able and willing to buy during a specific time period
1 Appendix to Chapter 22 Connecting Product Markets and Labor Markets It should be obvious that what happens in the product market affects what happens in the labor market. The connection is that the seller
Supply and Demand Study Guide Fill in the blank Demand 1. If price increases, quantity demanded. 2. If the number of buyers decreases, demand. 3. Increasing demand causes the demand curve to shift to the.
HOMEWORK 1 (Demand and Supply) ECO41 FALL 2013 UDAYAN ROY This homework assignment tests your understanding of the theory of supply and demand. Any textbook on the principles of economics will cover this
Managerial Economics and Business Strategy 9th Edition Baye SOLUTIONS MANUAL Full download at: https://testbankreal.com/download/managerial-economics-and-businessstrategy-9th-edition-solutions-manual-baye-prince/
OCR Economics AS-level Microeconomics Topic 2: How Competitive Markets Work 2.3 Supply and demand and the interaction of markets Notes A market is created when buyers and sellers interact. A sub-market
Factors of Production and Factor Markets Factors of production: the inputs used to produce goods and services. Labor Land Capital: the equipment and structures used to produce goods and services. Prices
Introduction to Equilibrium Lesson-8 Equilibrium of Supply and Demand In economic theory, the interaction of supply and demand is understood as equilibrium. We may think of demand as a force tending to
Lecture # 2 -- The Basics of Supply and Demand I. The Market Mechanism A market is the collection of buyers and sellers that, through their actions or potential interactions, determine the price of a product