Role of Climate Smart Agriculture in achieving Land Degradation Neutrality in Sri Lanka. Champika S Kariyawasam

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1 Role of Climate Smart Agriculture in achieving Land Degradation Neutrality in Sri Lanka Champika S Kariyawasam

2 Land Degradation Neutrality- Global Developments UN Conference on Sustainable Development Rio+20 We recognize the need for urgent action to reverse land degradation. In view of this we will strive to achieve a land degradation neutral world in the context of sustainable development (Rio+20 Outcome Document, The Future We Want ) The United Nations General Assembly Adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development - 17 SDGs targets. Goal 15 Life on Land to protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss Target 15.3 Land Degradation Neutrality By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

3 2015 COP 12 of the UNCCD in Ankara, Turkey Defined LDN : State whereby the amount and quality of land resources necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security remain stable or increase within specified temporal and spatial scales. Invited all country Parties to formulate voluntary national targets to achieve LDN and to incorporate them in UNCCD NAPs. - LDN-TSP National LDN targets and associated measures

4 LDN-TSP The LDN indicator adopted is Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area. The monitoring of this indicator is based on the combined use of three sub-indicators, namely - land cover - land productivity - SOC above and below ground

5 Multiple benefits of LDN food and water security poverty eradication resource availability biodiversity conservation crop production soil fertility and stability climate regulation, climate change mitigation, adaptation and risk reduction maintain / improve ecosystem services : pollination recreation sustaining livelihoods

6 Linkages with other SDGs Source: Akhtar Schuster et al.

7 LDN Counterbalancing Mechanism LDN = no net loss = Challenges Land degradation use Losses Opportunities Avoidance Proactive measures Regulations, Planning Minimisation Mitigation through SLM- agro forestry, conservation agric. Reverse Rehabilitation and restoration of ecological services Gains Source: UNCCD SPI, LDN Conceptual Framework

8 Why CSA Supports LDN Strong causality relationship between land degradation and vulnerability to climate change Cost-effectiveness of land-based adaptation measures compared to other sectors Multiple-benefits of land-based actions, mainly poverty reduction and therefore resilient development

9 Strong causality relationship between land degradation and vulnerability to climate change Climate change driving force of land degradation Land Degradation driving force for increased vulnerability to climate change The average river runoff and water availability Increased frequency and intensity of drought and floods, Rising temperatures, Profound ecological shifts Food insecurity Reduced availability of clean water, Biodiversity loss, Presence of invasive species, pests, Loss of livelihoods -Poverty Human health issues Migration and sociopolitical insecurity

10 Ongoing Sri Lankan Projects supports to CSA and LDN Land Based Adaptation Ecosystem Approach Landscape Approach

11 CLIMATE RESILIENT INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT PROJECT CRIWMP Climate Resilient Integrated Land and Water Management Resilience of smallholder farmers to climate variability and extreme events through an integrated approach to land and water management in the dry zone Implementing Entities: Ministry of Mahaweli Development & Environment/UNDP Financing USD: M Financing Partners: GCF/GOSL Duration: (4 years) Beneficiaries: Small holder framers in Dry Zone Areas of Intervention: 03 river basins (Malwathu Oya, Yan Oya, Mi Oya) Components : Upgrading village irrigation systems and promoting climate resilient farming practices provide access to safe drinking water to vulnerable communities enhance adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods Increasing water availability and efficient use through water harvesting and irrigation Supported activities include: restoration of watersheds, rehabilitation of irrigation facilities, climate-smart and ecological agriculture, climate-smart marketing improvements small scale community managed water supply schemes with simple treatment Rain Water Harvesting Schemes Advanced drinking water filtering systems climate-smart Infrastructure Drought/Flood mapping and data transmission/information sharing Further Information

12 Healthy Landscapes Managing Agricultural Landscapes in socio-ecological sensitive areas to promote Ecosystem Health MANAGING AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES IN SOCIO- ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AREAS TO PROMOTE FOOD SECURITY, WELL- BEING AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH IN SRI LANKA Implementing Entities: Ministry of Mahaweli Development & Environment/UN Environment Financing USD: 8.0 M Financing Partners: GEF/GOSL Duration: (3 years) Beneficiaries: framers and communities Areas of Intervention: Village Tank Cascade System in Dry Zone (VTCS) Components : Implementation of biodiversity based options that improve sustainable landscape management Strengthened institutions, policies and integrated landscape planning Knowledge management, partnerships and capacity building in support of improved ecosystem services and ecohealth outcomes Supported activities include: Participatory sustainable integrated landscape management planning platforms Mapping Socio-ecological and biophysical system properties Sustainable Village models climate index compensation schemes Restoration of physical and ecological components of selected VTCSs Concept of Cascade Ecology Gender and vulnerable groups sensitive project monitoring and evaluation system Valuing cascade ecosystem health and services, Further Information

13 SRI LANKA INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Climate Smart Irrigated Agriculture Integrated river basin approach to water development management and protection Implementing Entities: Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources/World Bank Financing USD: -proposal stage Financing Partners: IDB/GOSL Duration: proposal stage Beneficiaries: framers and communities Areas of Intervention: Multi Level Components : integrated basin approach to water investment and management Modernize the water sector knowledge system Fill important policy gaps Develop additional and new capacity New principles and methodologies for water allocation, and sharing of water shortages Supported activities include: Reducing the risk of flood losses Managing threats to surface and groundwater water quality Managing environmental flows and services and low flow regimes Managing the river and stream channel network Managing and protecting private and community groundwater development Managing the upper watersheds that are the sources of water supply for all uses as well as the smaller catchments that supply small tanks and tank-cascades in the dry zone

14 MAINSTREAMING AGRO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND USE IN SRI LANKAN AGRO ECOSYSTEMS FOR LIVELIHOODS AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE Managing Diversity for Resilience Using biodiversity options in agro-ecosystems to buffer against unpredictable climate change Implementing Entities: Department of Agriculture/UNEP Financing USD: -5.0 Financing Partners: GEF/GOSL Duration: Beneficiaries: framers and communities Areas of Intervention: 03 different agro ecosystems (Kandian Home Gardens, Peri-Urban, Dry zone rainfed village tank) interventions : Building on traditional practices & knowledge The adaptability of the current diversity Improving livelihoods New diversity for new conditions Building social institutions Looking to the future sustainability Local level food systems Supported activities include: Improve soil fertility Improve water quality Community Biodiversity Register (CBR) Community seed banks Participatory plant breeding New markets and value chain improvement Diversity fairs, Farmer field fora Local level indicators Biodiversity friendly audits CBO strengthening Resilient genetic resources Utilizing traditional knowledge Medicinal plant survey Integrated pest management SLM Household food security Mitigation of human animal conflicts Multi l level governance

15 Sustainable Land Management (SLM) Enhance Food Security and livelihoods REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED AGRICULTURAL LANDS IN THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS Implementing Entities: Ministry of Mahaweli Development & Environment/ FAO Financing USD: 11.0 million Financing Partners: GEF/GOSL Duration: (4 years) Beneficiaries: communities participating in SLM practices Areas of Intervention: Central Highlands Interventions: Increase the provision of ecosystem goods and services and enhance food security through the promotion of SLM Supported activities include: CSA practices Suitability mapping based on cropping pattern standardization of inputs SLM Policy SLM demonstration sites participatory land restoration/slm plans SLM funding mechanisms SLM training programme

16 Enhancing Adaptive Capacity of the Marginalized Agricultural Communities ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON MARGINALIZED AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITIES LIVING IN THE MAHAWELI RIVER BASIN OF SRI LANKA Secure community livelihoods and food security against climate change induced longer droughts and more intense rainfall Implementing Entities: Ministry of Mahaweli Development & Environment/ WFP/AF Financing USD: 8.0 million Financing Partners: AF/GOSL Duration: Beneficiaries: Marginalize agriculture communities two hazard-prone areas Areas of Intervention: two hazardprone areas in the Mahaweli Basin Components: Develop household food security and build resilient livelihoods for rain-fed farming households Build institutional capacity in village, local, regional service delivery to reduce risks associated with climate-induced rainfall variability Supported activities include: Develop diversified home garden-based agro forestry Introduce and promote drought tolerant crop varieties and agronomic practices Identify and promote climate resilient alternate income sources Promote improved post-harvest technologies Build community incentives/ Payment for Ecosystem Services Train and mobilize officers at multi level to design, and monitor local adaptation strategies Strengthen Farmer Organizations Piloted integrated watershed management models Design and implement early warning systems

17 Improving Climate Resilience CLIMATE RESILIENCE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT Reduce the Vulnerability of Exposed People and Assets to Climate Risk Implementing Entities: Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources Management / IDA Financing USD: 112 million Financing Partners: IDA/GOSL Duration: Beneficiaries: communities in 10 river basins Areas of Intervention: 10 river basins Strategic Interventions : Development of basin investment plans Building a climate risk-related knowledge base in ten selected river basins Increasing climate resilience of infrastructure identifying long term investments that will improve physical resilience to extreme hydro-meteorological events Supported activities include: comprehensive flood and drought risk modeling, including assessments of expected extremes of water scarcity and excess, inter-annual and intraseasonal variability of monsoons, duration of droughts, and depletion of ground water resources. Building on these assessments, the project is expected to finance prefeasibility studies to reduce disaster risk in selected basins. Benefitted with reduced annual crop losses due to weather related events in the selected scheme DEM and hydrometeorological data for the ten basins Flood and drought risk models Training of staff in modeling climate risks

18 REDD ++ REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION AND FOREST DEGRADATION, CONSERVATION, ENHANCEMENT OF FOREST CARBON STOCKS AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS (REDD+) Climate Smart Agriculture can strengthen REDD+ Integrated action across REDD+ and agriculture will help mitigation and food security Climate-smart agriculture that achieves the triple-win of food security, adaptation and mitigation will strengthen the impacts of REDD+

19 The Asia-Pacific Network on Global Change Research s (APN) project titled vulnerability of home garden systems to climate change and its impacts on food security in South Asia Kandyan home garden systems in Sri Lanka Home gardens ensuring food security in a changing climate The conclusion of the project is that home gardens are climate resilient

20 Village Tank Cascade System (VTCS) retarded negative consequences from chronic and recurrent droughts, seasonal flooding, land degradation and enhanced the food security while helping to attain self sufficiency specially in rice. The indirect benefits from VTCS include numerous environmental services from these naturalized habitats. Village Tank Cascade System (VTCS) in Sri Lanka Classic Example of CSA-LDN nexus -Landscape of a VTCS in Sri Lanka comprises of Multiple Ecosystem Services

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