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2 MESSAGE FROM THE HON. PRIME MINISTER Eradicating poverty and hunger, responding to climate change and sustaining our natural resources are at the forefront of the Government s priorities in shaping national development. Food and agriculture lie at the heart of our 2030 agenda to achieve our Sustainable Development Goals. For this reason, our farming communities and agricultural extension strategies play a crucial role in achieving our agricultural development targets. International conference on transforming agricultural systems organized by the Participatory Rural Development Initiative Society (PRDIS), Hyderabad & Sri Lanka Agricultural Extension Association (SLAEA), Department of Agricultural Extension and the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Peradeniya, is indeed a valuable endeavour that safeguards the interests of farmers as we establish an integrated extension approach. I m confident that the farming community will benefit from the experience and expertise of the participants from both national and international organisations, at this event. I wish the organising committee and the participants the very best in their untiring efforts to transform the future of agricultural practices. Ranil Wickremesinghe Prime Minister May 04 th, 2018

3 INTENATIONAL CONFERENCE Transforming Agricultural Extension Systems: Towards Achieving Relevant Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for Global Impact 10 th &11 th May 2018 VENUE: OAK RAY REGENCY, KANDY, SRI LANKA Editors Dr. L.N.A Chandana Jayawardena Conference Coordinator & Senior Lecturer, Dept of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Prof. M.Suryamani Former Director, Extension Education Institute (EEI), GoI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 30, India & Prof. C Sivayoganathan Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Organizers Sri Lanka Agricultural Extension Association (SLAEA) Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Participatory Rural Development Initiatives Society (PRDIS) Branch office: H.No /75, Plot No 75, Sathsang Colony, Upparapally, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad , India In collaboration with Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agriculture University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad , India Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya Peradeniya, Srilanka


5 From the Editors In September, 2015, the member countries of United Nations agreed on 17 sustainable development goals (SGD s) with 169 targets that set the agenda for sustainable development interventions over the next 15 years. It is pertinent to note that most of the goals and targets relate with what the extension profession has been advocating and practicing for a long time. Agricultural extension could play a major role in achieving eight of the SDGs, especially. This compendium is a collection of insights focused on transforming Agricultural Extension systems based those eight SDG s, namely Poverty Alleviation, Food and Nutritional Security, Education and learning, Gender equality and empowerment of women, Water and sanitation management, Climate change, Eco-system sustainability, and Peace and well-being of farming communities. This text will serve as a repository of knowledge based on the scholary work of academics and practitioners in Agricultural extension throughout the world. We thank their efforts and commitment to the enhancement of Agricultural Extension systems in achieving the sustainable development goals. Dr L N A Chandana Jayawardena Professor M Suryamani Professor C Sivayoganathan May 10, 2018 Kandy, Sri Lanka

6 CONTENT S.No 1 Historical Evolution of Agriculture Extension System in Sri Lanka S A Arunapriya, J R Sudasinghe, W R W M S N P Weerakoon, R S C W M A B M Wijayathunga. Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka Page No 01 S.No Lead Papers Page No 1 Good Governance for Achieving Food and Nutritional Security R.M.Prasad, India 2 An overview of Education and Learning to meet the SGDs with special reference to the Agriculture Sector in Sri Lanka Dr Rohan Wijekoon and Mr Gamini Sisira Kumara, Sri Lanka 3 Gender Equality & Equity in Transforming Agricultural Extension Systems M Wijaya A P Jayatilaka, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka 4 Improving Water Use Efficiency is Key for Sustainable Development K.Yella Reddy, India 5 Climate Change and its Projections towards 2040 Sarath Premalal, Department of Meteorology, Sri Lanka 6 Extension Approaches for Sustainability of Agriculture and Food Eco-System Bharat S Sontakki, S Rao, and Bhuvana Rao, ICAR-NAARM, and PJTSAU, India 7 Towards Social and Environmental Justice: Centred Paradigm for the Revival of Agricultural Extension Services Jude L Fernando, Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA S.No THEME: I - Poverty Alleviation Page No Value Chain Strategies in Agriculture Dr. Hemnath Rao Hanumankar Community initiative in delivering extension services in Nepal: New structure of Government s Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS) Dr.Mahesh Jaishi Strengthening of Extension System for Poverty Alleviation and Promotion of Rural Livelihood Dr.S.Senthil Vinayagam Livelihood opportunities among Dairy farmers for their Economic Empowerment Dr.M.Srinivasa Reddy

7 5 Promotion of better livelihoods among vulnerable sections of farming community- A case in KVK Telanaga, India Dr.Samuel 106 S.No THEME: II - Food and Nutritional Security Page No Agricultural Extension Services and Doubling Farm Income: A Case Study of Select GI Products from Gujarat, India Dr.Lalitha Narayanan Reducing Food Loss and Waste in South Asian Countries: Issues and Interventions Dr.Saleh Ahmed Frugal House hold Nutritional Security Mr. Suresh Kumar, IAS Impact of Diversification in Agriculture on Food & Nutrition Security Dr.Vijaya Khader Promotion of pulses for food security -A success case of KVK Rudrur, Telangana, India Dr. C. Padma Veni Doubling the income of small scale producers with respect to redgram in Karnataka Dr.Raghupathi Would be influence of Livestock on the Cascade Tank: Village Farming System Mr Sunil Gamage S.No THEME: III - Education and Learning Page No Farmer s empowerment & enterprenurship through farmer s producers organizations a community initiative Dr.Eswarappa Agriculture Extension in the United States of America: History and Problem-Solving Dr.Babadoost, USA Leveraging Information and Communication Technologies for Strengthening Plant Health Extension Services Dr.Manju Thakur Modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Agricultural Extension and Rural Development in Ethiopia-An Overview Dr.Paul Mansingh Stimulating Vibrant Agricutlture in South Asian Region Through Skilling and Effective Agri extension Programme Dr.N.P.Singh ICT Tools Application in Agriculture for Accelerating Agricultural Growth TNAU Experiences Dr. Philip.H

8 Delivery of Livestock Extension Services An overview Dr.Sreenivasulu Re-vamping Extension for Quality Education and Learning of Farmers Dr.D.Thammi Raju Interactive Information Dissemination System (Iids) -an Innovative ICT model for AGRO Advisory Services to the Indian Farmers Dr. B Savitha Dynamics of Information Sharing Behaviour of the Innovative Farmers of Telangana State Dr. Jaganmohan Reddy Relative significance of different ICT gadgets S Dechmma S.No THEME: IV - Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women Grassroot Learnings for Catalysing Policies Towards Effective Participation of Farm Women Dr. P. S. Geetha Kutty Workload Distribution and Spouse s Help to Women Farmers of Dang District of Nepal Dr.Milan Subedi Womens potential unleashed in common interest groups Dr. A Sailaja Page No S.No THEME: V - Water and sanitation Management Page No Water and Sanitation Managmeent & SDGs Mr. K. Ravi Reddy Rainwater Harvesting: A fit option for water conservation in rainfed agriculture in India-Review Dr. D J Rangapara Water and Sanitation Management Dr N D K Dayawansa S.No THEME: VI - Climate Change Page No 1 2 Climate Change: Scenario Analysis and Consequence in Indian Agriculture Dr. B.S. Hansra Mitigating climate change impact through Technology dissemination Dr. Raji Reddy

9 3 4 5 Innovative Extension Approach for Weather Based Farm Advisory Services Dr.B.K.Singh Climate Smart Agro-Advisories and Agriculture Extension Activity: Enhance farmers income, A Case Study in Bhadra command Area of central Dry Zone (Agri-Zone-4) in Karnataka, India Dr.T.H.Gowda Climate Change Potential Impacts on Horticulture and Strategies to Sustain the Production Dr. K.N.Kattimani S.No THEME: VII - Eco-System Sustainability Page No Management of Agricultural Chemicals and Farm Residues to Reduce Adverse Effects on Human Health and Environment Dr.K.V.Seshu Reddy, India Agricultural Residue Control by Integrated Pest Managmeent in Spices Dr.K J Venugopal Transformation of Agricultural Extension Systems towards Ecosystem Sustainability Dr. S Pathmarajah Constraint Analysis among Beneficiaries of Bhoochetana Project in adoption of Soil Health Card Recommendations in Andhra Pradesh, India Dr. Ravi Kumar Theoder Sustainable Agriculture through Organic farming A case study Mr.Y.Venkateswara Rao Multiple Cropping System for Sustainable Resource Management in Mango orchard Dr. S. Rajshekar Naidu Participatory Management Process in Natural Resource Management (NRM) by Women Groups Dr. Waheda munvar, MANAGE S.No THEME: VIII - Peace and Well-being of Farming Page No Communities Extension Interventions Promotes Pride in Farming : Successful models in India 417 Dr. R Ratnakar Extension Strategies for Peace and Well-Being of Farming Community Dr.Venkataramaiah 423

10 Strategies For Promoting Pride, Profit And Prestige (Ppp) Among Farmers Dr. S.Prabhu Kumar and Dr. V.Veerabhadraiah Farmers suicides in India An overview M.B. Shanabhoga, Shivani Dechamma and B. Krishnamurthy Peace and wellbeing among farmers in the North and East: possibilities in the post conflict phase Dr. Dhammika Herath

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12 Historical Evolution of Agriculture Extension System in Sri Lanka Arunapriya.S.A 1, Sudasinghe.J.R. 2, Weerakoon. W.R.W.M.S.N.P 3, Wijayathunga. R.S.C.W.M.A.B.M. 4 Sri Lanka is a country which developed based on agriculture with hydraulic civilization. The historical legends of Sri Lanka reveal that the agriculture sector was established in river valleys with settlement of Aryans. It has been revealed that the evolution of agriculture sector goes to approximately 2000 years back. Furthermore, the irrigation system also developed gradually in line with adopting agriculture as a means of livelihood.subsequently, all the successive rulers of the country gave foremost place to the agriculture sector in their politicalagenda. Consequently, a self-sufficient economy was established with a well-developed irrigation system.the self-sufficient agriculture based economy of Sri Lanka began to collapse gradually with the invasion of Europeans in the last part of 17 th Century, and a commercial level agriculture economy based on plantation crops was established in the country. As a result, rice and cereal had to be imported because adequate food crop production was not carried out during British colonial era. During the era, foremost place was given to the plantation crops such as Cinnamon, Coffee, and Tea. The plantation sector was developed in Sri Lanka in British colonial era and an institutional set-up was developed by planters for the management of plantations. Accordingly, overall administration and management were carried out by the Superintendents of plantations. The other positions of the hierarchy of institutional set-up were Field Officer, Field Assistant, Supervisor (Kankanam) and laborers. Meanwhile, the British colonial government wanted to establish a separate institutional set-up in order to ensure the food security with the beginning of Second World War. As a result, four Agriculture Extension Officers were appointed for Sri Lanka in 1820 with a view to popularizing agriculture crops in the country. The agriculture crop production program was further strengthened by appointing Food Production Overseers to assist the above Extension Officers. During the above period, leaflets with the information on agriculture were printed and distributed by an institute established in Colombo. In the year 1940, Sri Lanka Agriculture Association was established and the Food Production overseers were attached to the above association. 1. Director (Extension and Training, Department of Agriculture/ Vice president SLAEA) 2. Additional Director (Extension) 3. Deputy Director (Extension HQ) 4. Provincial Agriculture Director (UVA Province) 1

13 Furthermore, the Department of Agriculture established in 1912 was also the very important institute which developed the food crops in the country. It was able to disseminate knowledge on the subject streams such as mycology, entomology, chemistry and landscaping to the stakeholders to promote plantation crops. In addition, a separate Agriculture Research Institute was established during the period concerned. Consequently, Tea Research Institute and Rubber Research Institute were established in On the other hand, Rice Research Institute was established in Bathalagoda in 1930 with a view to developing paddy cultivation in Sri Lanka. In addition, an Agriculture Officer was appointed for every province of the country. Furthermore, 74 Diploma holders in Agriculture were appointed to the post of Agriculture Instructor in 1939 in order to strengthen the agriculture extension system in Sri Lanka. By the year 1952, mobile cinema unit was used in agriculture extension system. During the period concerned, farmers were made aware of agricultural innovations by establishing field demonstrations. Moreover, appointing of District Agriculture Extension Officers with a view to launch the agriculture extension system at the district level by decentralizing the provincial level agriculture extension system was a very significant event that took place in the year Up to that time a special unit for agriculture extension was not established in the Department of Agriculture. In the year 1964, having recognised agriculture extension as a separate subject, separate division headed by Deputy Director of Agriculture (Extension) under the Department of Agriculture was established for agriculture extension and the responsibility of agriculture extension was entrusted to that division.the agriculture extension system developed quickly with the inception of the separate division of agriculture extension in the Department of Agriculture. Establishment of Agrarian Development Centers with a view to providing services for agrarian community under one roof was done with the appointment of Mr. Hector Kobbakaduwa to the office of the Minister of Agriculture in This was another crucial point in the evolution of agriculture extension in Sri Lanka. Accordingly, farmers were facilitated to obtain various services such as banking, extension, agriculture inputs, and other services required in land entitlements of farmers 2

14 under one roof. In the year 1972, the subject with regard to the export crops was separated from the Department of Agriculture and brought under the separate department by establishing the Department of Minor Export Crops. Thereby it was able to strengthen the extension activities with regard to minor export crops (spices) in addition, to the other food crops in the country. The training and visit extension system was introduced to Sri Lanka during the period of This system helped to develop a proper coordination among Extension Officers, Research Institutes and Training Institutes. During this period, adaptive researches were carried out in farmers' fields and thereby disseminating modern technology to farmers. Under the new extension system, the post of Subject Matter Specialist was established in training institutes of the Department Agriculture.Coordination of Extension Officers and Research Officers was carried out by the Subject Matter Specialists. The Krushi Viyapthi Sevaka (Agricultural Extension Workers) played a major role in the new agriculture extension system, and they rendered outstanding extension service atthe grass root level. As a result of Public reformation program, the post of Krushi Viyapthi Sevaka was abolished and they were appointed to the post of Grama Seva Niladhari in the last part of 1980s. The reformation adversely affected for smooth functioning of agriculture extension system of the country. The linkage between scientific cadre and the farming community was thus interrupted.accordingly, the decentralized agriculture extension system absolutely collapsed with the policy decision taken by the government. Later on, Second Agricultural Extension Project was implemented under the financial assistance of World Bank in 1993 with a view to redevelop the prevailed agriculture extension system in Sri Lanka. The project was terminated in the year 1998 and since then a proper agriculture extension system was not adopted islandwide. However, extension programs with regard to rice sector were implemented under the Yaya demonstration program. A revolutionary decision was taken by the cabinet in 2012 and 25 District Directors were appointed covering all districts. These District Directors were placed under the purview of the Government Agent/ District Secretary and the whole system was supervised by the Ministry of Agriculture under the central government. Those who were selected as District 3

15 Directors belonged to the Sri Lanka Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture. The main responsibilities of those new cadres were coordination of agricultural programs of the particular district, rendering technical expertise to the District Secretary who is the administrative head of the district, facilitation and rendering of the technical leadership at the District Agricultural Committee (DAC), facilitating all governmental, nongovernmental organizations in agriculture, farmer organizations of particular district. After the devolution of agricultural extension activities to the Provincial Councils under the 13 th amendment, there was a poor linkage between the central government and the provincial set-up in respect of agricultural development activities. The government expected to fulfill this gap by appointing senior agricultural professionals to districts as District Directors. The DAC was strengthened by this new carder. The linkage between the central government and the provincial system also strengthened by developing the direct linkage with districts by this Ministry of Agriculture through this new approach. Instead of the post of Krushi Viyapthi Sevaka which was abolished previously, the post of Technical Assistant was established under the Department of Agriculture in 2015 and Diploma Holders in agriculture were recruited for this post. The decision taken to empower the agriculture extension system by having the Technical Assistants attached to the Agriculture Instructors Division, was another crucial turning point of agriculture extension system in Sri Lanka. The Technical Assistants carry out their duties under the direct supervision of Agriculture Instructor of the respective divisions. Provincial Agriculture Extension System The centrally organized agriculture extension system was devolved to the provincial government in November 1987 by the 13 th amendment of the constitution and the Act of Provincial Council. Major features of this program: 01. All agriculture extension staff was attached to the Divisional Secretaries (DS). 02. Limited district level agriculture extension staff only worked with Provincial Director. 03. The Provincial Director only involved in policy matters, planning and financial management. 04. The Krushi Viyapthi Sevaka, who workedat the farmer level was attached to the Divisional Secretary office as Grama Niladari. Consequently the Department lost that carder of officers. As a result, the T & V system did not continue and the agriculture development activities were also affected. 4

16 05. The officers attached to the DS office did not conduct agriculture development activities. Some changes made by the 13 th amendment appear to have negatively affected the agriculture development activities.therefore, under a special circular issued in the year 1993, the attached Agriculture Instructors were reattached to the Provincial Department of Agriculture. Though the beginning of the provincial agriculture setup created lot of senior positions, it was difficult to fill the positions due to lack of officials. Most of positions were filled by acting officers. Due to the failures observed in the extension system, in the year 1993 second agriculture extension system was introduced. All extension related departments worked as stakeholders of this extension approach. The project basically used mass media to convince the farmers but the mass media facility was poorly used by the provincial agriculture system. And also the provincial officials' consent were not obtained in the planning process, monitoring and evaluation therefore the approach was not popular among provincial extension system. The limitations of grass-root level agriculture extension officers were the critical issues of provincial extension system. The new agriculture extension system came as a solution to this problem. The Agricultural Instructor Division was divided into five geographic areas based on the village and farmer organizations. The extension program was conducted through the nuclear point of a village or a farmer organization. Under this program. the producer groups were formed and some agriculture development activities were conducted through Producer Groups. The political issues and ownership of the farmer organization badly affected the program especially in the provincial areas. But, in inter-provincial areas, the approach was continued to some extent. At present there is no specific extension system in provincial agriculture departments. The finance commission provides allocations for agriculture development projects as provincial specific development grant (PSDG) with defined indicators. Provincial Department of Agriculture develops the development projects to achieve the targets of the indices provided by the finance commission. The activities of the projects are being conducted by the Agriculture Instructors at the ground level and the progress is monitored monthly at the Provincial, District and Assistant Director of Agriculture levels. The following strategies are used to implement the agriculture development projects and agriculture extension activities in field level: a. Providing some agriculture inputs with 50% farmer contribution for individuals and farmer organizations. b. Providing some grants when completing extension activity. c. Providing some agriculture inputs free of charge for farmer organizations. d. Farmer trainings, demonstrations, field days. e. Awareness through mass media. f. Farmer organization and producer group approach. 5

17 g. Farmer Company and value chain development approach. h. Cyber extension approach. i. Research and extension dialogues. Monitoring and Evaluation of Provincial Agriculture Extension/Development Program Provincial Technical Working Group (PTWG) The working group meeting was started with the T&V system and continued up to evaluates the progress of previous season and approves the coming season extension program after critical evaluation. The Provincial Director and the Deputy Director Agriculture Research are the Chairpersons of the working group. Respective district heads of agriculture extension in the province (Provincial and Inter-provincial Deputy Directors) should present the progress and the program. All other senior agriculture extension staff also participate in the working group. The research activity progress and the new research findings are presented by the research division of the province. Senior officers of the central Department of Agriculture (Extension, Training and Research) also participate in the working group. This is a very good program to coordinate central and provincial agriculture extension and is held in each season in each province. District Agriculture Committee (DAC) This committee meeting is held in each district in each month. District Secretary is the Chairperson of this committee, who gives the administrative leadership. The District Director of Agriculture, who is the representative of the ministry of Agriculture, gives the technical leadership for the DAC. All heads of the agriculture related institutes especially institutes of provincial and central Department of Agriculture, other agriculture related organizations, non-government organizations, and farmer organizations participate in this committee. The special and important agriculture problems are discussed in this meeting and policy decisions taken. The monthly progress review meetings are conducted by the Provincial Department of Agriculture to monitor the development activity plan in each district and provincial levels. Even after passing through many stages of agriculture extension systems namely Training and Visit System, Second Agriculture Extension Project, New Agriculture Extension Approach (Cluster Approach), we have not yet adopted a proper agriculture extension system which is suitable for existing global agricultural trends, agricultural entrepreneurs needs and ICT developments. Therefore, it is a timely requirement to upgrade the existing agriculture extension system by introducing a uniform extension system common to all provinces and interprovincial areas. Human resource development and development of infrastructures compatible with modern ICT provide immediate solutions for the problems at the grass-root level in the agriculture sector. 6

18 Good Governance for Achieving Food and Nutritional Security Introduction Prof. R M Prasad Former Associate Director of Extension, KAU, Kerala The United Nation s Zero Hunger Challenge (ZHC) is a global declaration that invites all nations to work for a future where everyone enjoys their right to food and all food systems are resilient. Meeting the ZHC involves investments in agriculture, which in turn requires ensuring adequate food, increase in small holder productivity and income and zero loss or wastage of food. Extension service has a definite role to play in this context to ensure food security. By definition, food security involves every individual gaining physical, economic, social and environmental access to a balanced diet that includes the necessary macro- and micro-nutrients, safe drinking water, sanitation, environmental hygiene, primary healthcare and education so as to lead a healthy and productive life. The food should originate from efficient and environmentally benign production technologies that conserve and enhance the natural resource base of crops, farm animals, forestry, inland and marine fisheries (Swaminathan, 2010). The definition covers nutritional security also, which is embedded in food security. The causes of existing food insecurity can be analyzed under three concepts namely- the traditional concept which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; socio-demographic concept which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias and politico-developmental concept comprising of factors such as lack of inter-sectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. (Upadhyay and Palanivel, 2011). The holistic definition of food security requires attention to its various dimensions such as availability, access, utilization, stability, safety and sovereignty. These dimensions are analysed based on politico-developmental concept of food security, of which extension service delivery forms an important part. A) Food Availability Food availability refers to supply side of food security, wherein biotic and abiotic stresses, lack of water availability and soil health problems pose challenges and determine the production and productivity. The Government of India has earlier initiated two programmes to increase food production- the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) and the National Horticulture Mission (NHM). RKVY provides considerable flexibility and autonomy to states in planning and executing programmes for incentivizing investment in agriculture and allied sectors. The States initiate the process of decentralized planning for agriculture and allied 7

19 sectors through preparation of District Agriculture Plans (DAPs) and State Agriculture Plan (SAP) based on agro-climatic conditions, availability of appropriate technology and natural resources to ensure accommodation of local needs, cropping pattern, priorities etc. The NHM provides an opportunity to introduce horticultural remedies to nutritional maladies. What is needed is mainstreaming the nutritional dimension in designing the horticulture programme in each agro-climatic area. Besides RKVY and NHM, other important programmes related to food availability implemented presently in India are- National Food Security Mission (NFSM) and National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) of the Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) of ICAR. Schemes/Program mes related to Availability National Food Security Mission- NFSM (Ministry of Agri & Farmer Welfare) National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture- NMSA (Ministry of Agriculture & Farmer Welfare) National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture- NICRA (Indian Council of Agriculture Research) Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana - RKVY (Ministry of Agriculture &Farmer Welfare) Objectives/Purpos e Increase production and productivity of wheat, rice, coarse cereals and pulses- Addressing yield gaps Organise strategies for climate mitigation & adaptation Enhance resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change & climate vulnerability through strategic research& technology demonstration. State Plan scheme of Additional Central Assistance for increased public investment in agriculture Technological/Service delivery Interventions Technological interventions and seed varieties related to Rice, Wheat, Coarse cereals, Pulses and commercial crops Dry land agriculture, Risk Management, Use of Biotechnology, PKVY, Soil Health, Promoting location specific integrated farming system, Promoting agrobiodiversity Research & Dissemination of information on adaptation and mitigation covers crops, livestock, fisheries and natural resource management, Pests and disease dynamics & Energy Efficiency. Infrastructure and Assets; Value addition linked production Principles/Governa nce mechanism Active engagement of all stakeholders at various levels; Participatory approach; Convergence with RKVY, PMKSY; Close monitoring of flow of funds Convergence and Co-ordination among key ministries and depts. at all levels of governance Network project; Responsiveness, Effectiveness and efficiency of resources Incentivizing States; Flexi funds; Flexibility and autonomy to states in planning and execution; Convergence 8

20 National Horticulture Mission - NHM (Ministry of Agriculture & Farmer Welfare) To enhance horticulture production, improve nutrition security and income support to farmers Fruits, vegetables, flowers, plantation crops, spices, medicinal plants Convergence among multiple programmes i. NFSM- This was launched in which aimedtoincrease production through area expansion and productivity, create employment opportunities and enhance the farmlevel economy to restore confidence of farmers. The strategies adopted by NFSM are- a) promoting improved technologies, b) focus on high potential and low productivity districts, c) cropping system based interventions, d) yield improvement through cluster approach and e) increasing pulse production through rice fallows, rice bunds and intercropping. Pulses are part of a healthy, balanced diet included under NFSM. The implementing agency at the state level is the State Food Security Mission, which would be responsible for developing a long term perspective plan. The District Food Security Mission is responsible for planning, implementing and monitoring of NFSM interventions at the district level. The District Plans are participatory in nature taking into account the block level plans. The plans also ensure convergence and specify the activities to be supported from other schemes such as RKVY, PMKSY, etc. ii. NMSA- The mission seeks to transform Indian agriculture into a climate resilient production system through suitable adaptation and mitigation measures in domains of both crops and animal husbandry. NMSA as a programmatic intervention focuses on promotion of location specific integrated/composite farming systems; resource conservation technologies; comprehensive soil health management; efficient on-farm water management and mainstreaming rainfed technologies. NMSA has identified ten key dimensions including farming practices, marketing, insurance, etc that covers both adaptation and mitigation measures through four functional areas, viz., Research & Development, Technology, products and practices, Infrastructure and Capacity building. The various schemes implemented earlier are restructured, converged and mainstreamed into a mission mode project under NMSA. iii. NICRA- This is a network project of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research launched in 2011, which aims to enhance resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change and climate vulnerability through strategic research and technology demonstration. The research on adaptation and mitigation covers crops, livestock, fisheries and natural resource management. Adaptation to climate variability and climate change requires long term strategic research in the area of Natural Resource Management, Crops, Pests and disease dynamics, Livestock, Fisheries & Energy Efficiency. The technology demonstrations have helped in enhancing the adaptive capacity of the farmers and also to 9

21 cope with climate vulnerabilities related to crop production, livestock and poultry and fisheries, which is essential to achieve climate resilience. iv. Other interventions- The other interventions relating to food availability are: widening the food basket by including local grain varieties like ragi, jowar and millets in the public distribution system; the promotion of community gene, seed, food and water banks in each village, and the establishment of community kitchens modelled on the Indira Gandhi Community Kitchen organised in Pune. These are particularly effective in combating malnutrition in urban areas. The widening of the food basket by including millets, legumes and tubers, which have greater tolerance to adverse conditions, is important in the context of climate change. In India, there is a welcome shift by the State Governments towards encouraging millet based farming systems in rainfed areas, primarily for their ability to survive and offer nutritious food. Millet crops are resilient, demand less inputs, can survive in unfavorable weather conditions and are highly nutritious. Their role in strengthening rural livelihoods and preservation of local culture is to be fully recognized. The diets that are adequate for human health must be composed of a diversity of foods, with agro bio-diversity being the key. One third of the world's population is suffering from hunger and micronutrient malnutrition, while obesity and diet-related chronic illnesses have reached critical levels. Agricultural bio-diversity can counter these trends. Diversity of diet, founded on diverse farming systems, delivers better nutrition and greater health, with additional benefits for human productivity and livelihoods. Agricultural biodiversity is also absolutely essential to cope with the predicted impacts of climate change. B) Food Access Access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food is a major dimension of food security. Food access is directly related to income, expenditure and buying capacity of households and individuals, which refers to demand side of food security. A key aspect of food access is that food should be within the reach of every person and every individual should have enough money (purchasing power) to buy sufficient and safe food. Another aspect of accessing food is also minimizing food losses during production, storage and transportation and waste of food by retailers and consumers. Availability of food is generally not the main cause of the unsatisfactory nutritional status of rural people. The issue lies in the lack of access to safe and nutritious food and in the way food is prepared and consumed. This is caused by volatile economic conditions such as high inflation and the lack of food safety regulations and knowledge. The absence of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is a further source of illness and resultant malnutrition. 10

22 National Food Security Act, POSHAN Abhiyaan, National Rural Livelihood Mission and MGNREGS are the important schemes implemented for ensuring access to food. Schemes/Programme s related to Food Access National Food Security Act-NFSA (Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution) Partnership and Opportunities to Strengthen and Harmonize Actions for Nutrition- POSHAN Abhiyan (Ministry of Women & Child Devt) National Rural Livelihood Mission- NRLM (Ministry of Rural Development) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act- MGNREGA (Ministry of Rural Devt) Objectives/Purpose Technological/Service delivery Interventions Provide food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach to people to live a dignified life Providing proper nutrition to children Promoting self employment and organisation of rural poor Enhancing livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year; Reducing rural urban migration PDS (subsidized food grains); ICDS (Nutritious meal, free of charge to pregnant women & lactating mothers and children up to 6 years of age; MDM (Nutritious meal, free of charge to children in the 6-14 years of age group; Village Grains Banks Scheme IYCF, Immunization, WASH, Food fortification, Dietary diversification Reducing poverty by enabling households to access gainful self employment and skilled wage employment opportunities Aajeevika, DDUGKY Creating rural assets Environmental protection Natural resources management Principles/Governance mechanism Disclosure of records relating to PDS, Social audits and setting up of Vigilance Committees to ensure transparency and accountability Addressing malnutrition through Convergence, use of technology and a targeted approach. Convergence between different Ministries is a crucial aspect Social inclusion Citizen s charter Grievance redressal system Social equity Social security Accountability Transparency Right to work 11

23 i. NFSA:The National Food Security Act, 2013 (Right to Food Act) aims to provide subsidised food grains to the poor and needy persons, which is a landmark legislation related to food access. It marks a paradigm shift in approach of food security from a welfare to rights based approach. The Act was passed with the objective to provide food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity. The Act provides for coverage of up to 75% of the rural population and up to 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized food grains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population. The Act also contains provisions for setting up of grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. Separate provisions have also been made in the Act for ensuring transparency and accountability. Though food security bill is part of a larger program that the Government of India has put in place to provide the poor and vulnerable with a safety net to help poor and vulnerable families, a major challenge is in the local implementation of these programs. This includes ensuring proper governance and accountability that goods are delivered without leakages and food the reach targeted populations. Supervision is often minimal at the local levels. As part of effective service delivery, many innovative delivery mechanisms like e-pds and e-pos and supply chain management and vehicle tracking system implemented in Telangana, m-pds implemented in Odisha covering four modules, viz, procurement, delivery, lifting and closing balance and fair price shop automation done in Jharkhand have been tried in India for better access by the people. ii. NRLM:This was launched by Ministry of Rural Development in 2011, which aims at creating efficient and effective institutional platform of the rural poor, enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancement and improved access to financial services. One of the focus areas of NRLM is improving health and nutrition of women. NRLM focuses on economically empowering poor women for eliminating poverty. Towards this, NRLM has launched Mahila Kisan Sashakikaran Paryojana (MKSP) where women farmers are being systematically organised in integrated farm and allied activities for attaining food and nutrition security in the poorest of the poor families. Recognising the implications of malnutrition on illness, malnutrition and poverty, NRLM measures are being systematically linked to selected health- nutrition sanitation initiatives. iii. MGNREGA:NREGA Act, 2005 later renamed as MGNREGA is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the right to work. It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. MGNREGA has generated huge person days of employment, a 12

24 major share going to women and SC & ST families. The priorities of work to be undertaken include watershed management, water conservation, drought proofing, land development, minor irrigation and rural connectivity. Such works are important to strengthen the ecological foundation of sustainable agriculture. With the initiation of the NREGA, the minimum purchasing power for food security is being created in families living below the poverty line. iv. POSHAN Abhiyaan:This envisages undertaking activities to be implemented to improve the service delivery system, capacity building of front line functionaries and community engagement for better nutritional outcomes. A National Council on India s Nutrition Challenges has been set up under Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog for policy direction, review, effective co-ordination and convergence between Ministries which have a sectoral responsibility for the challenge of nutrition. C. Food utilization This is often used interchangeably with nutrition, though it also includes food processing and storage and health and sanitation services. PMKSY, SBM, food fortification and NNM are important schemes related to utilization of food. Value chains have attempted to improve food utilization and achieve nutritional gains, mostly by targeting agricultural value chains. Schemes/Programme s related to Utilization Pradhan Mantri Krishi SAMPADA Yojana- PMKSY (Ministry of Food Processing Industries) Objectives/Purpose Technological/Service delivery Interventions Supplement agriculture by modernizing processing and decreasing agri waste Agro Processing Clusters Mega Food Parks Integrated Cold chain and value addition infrastructure Food safety and quality assurance Principles/Governance mechanism Supply chain management Swachh Bharat Mission - SBM (Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation and Ministry of Housing &Urban Affairs) To clean up streets, roads and infrastructure of cities, towns and rural areas; Eliminating open defecation Campaigns Construction of toilets at household level and community level Campaign Convergence Monitoring 13

25 Food fortification initiative of Food Safety & Standards Authority of India Draft standards for food fortification Standards for wheat flour Value addition National Nutrition Mission NNM (Miistry of Women & Child Devt) Reduce stunting, under nutrition, anaemia and reduce lower birth weight Holistic development and adequate nutrition for pregnant women, mother and children Convergence i. PMKSY: In India, the value of food wastage is estimated at around Rs. 92,000 crore per annum at 2014 wholesale prices. In the food value chain, 24 per cent of global food loss and waste occurs at the production stage, 24 per cent during handling and storage, and 35 per cent at consumption, and these three stages together account for more than 80 per cent of global food loss and waste. Quantifying food waste along the value chain by leveraging the recently released UN Global Food Loss and Waste Protocol as a framework can help India. ii. Swachh Bharat Mission aims to clean up streets, roads and infrastructure of cities, towns and rural areas and to eliminate open defecation through construction of toilets at individual household level and also at community level. The Mission, if implemented with community participation through panchayats and nagarpalikas, is expected to make a difference in promoting effective absorption of food in the body, particularly among children. iii. Fortified food: Seeking to address the problem of anaemia, scientists of DBT, India have developed an innovative way to fortify rice. The fortified rice, manufactured using broken rice kernel through DBT s technology matches the normal rice kernel in shape, size and sheen. It provides 50 % of RDA of iron to children when mixed with normal rice in the ratio of 1:100. The World Food Programme in India in partnership with Government of Odisha has successfully implemented a two year project ( ) in Gajapati district to improve nutrition through rice fortification in 1500 schools through the mid day meal scheme. iv. NNM:Though there exist a number of schemes directly/indirectly affecting the nutritional status of children (0-6 years of age) and pregnant women and lactating mothers, the level of malnutrition and related problems in the country still remains high. There is no dearth of schemes but lack of creating synergy and linking the schemes with each other to achieve common goal. National Nutrition Mission (NNM) through robust convergence mechanism and other components would strive to create the synergy. 14

26 NNM was set up during as an apex body which will monitor, supervise, fix targets and guide the nutrition related interventions across the Ministries. The Mission through the targets will strive to reduce the level of stunting, under nutrition, anemia and low birth weight babies. v. Focus on value chains:the integration of the value chain approach and food security is presented in terms of three recognized dimensions of food security- Consistent availability of appropriate food; Individual access to appropriate food from expending income or other resources, and Proper utilization of food, as determined by proper food processing and storage techniques and adequate health and sanitation services. Though value chains are not a new concept, very little has been done to ensure nutrition is included and linked into the chain. In this regard, Food Value Chains (FVCs) have an important role to play in terms of identifying innovative ways to improve the availability, affordability and acceptability of nutritious food both in the context of under and over nutrition. Thus FVCs can contribute to healthier consumption patterns (Fanzo et al, 2017). D. Food stability This refers to measures taken for protection of food from external chemical, physical and microbial injuries, which can profoundly modify the nutritional and sensory properties of food. Innovations in food packaging ensure food stability. At present, the value added by the food processing industry is extremely low, which is less than 10 % of the total food production. Only less than 3 % of horticulture products are processed, while more than one-third of fruits and vegetables are wasted due to lack of storage and processing facilities. Therefore, a significant opportunity exists for India if the primary agriculture could be transformed into secondary agriculture using appropriate technologies and building the needed rural infrastructure. The incidence of post harvest losses along the food chain reduces the quantity and quality of food available for human consumption as well as the overall economic well being of farmers and communities through reduced incomes. Postharvest innovationis a critical area related to food security that could support the poor in many ways through production, employment, value addition, and cheaper and safe food. Post harvest R & D offers the potential to support the livelihoods of the poor people in developing countries as farmers, small scale agro processing entrepreneurs, off farm labourers and consumers of food and agricultural products. E. Food safety This involves a much broader range of public health issues related to food production. Food safety concerns begin from on-farm production of food commodities. It is the key 15

27 entry point for the introduction of production and management practices that allow minimizing potential contamination with excessive residues of harmful chemicals in food, water and the introduction in food of harmful biological agents Food safety is a growing concern globally. With the innovations in the processing technologies, packaging techniques, agricultural practices, and change in food habits, industry and enforcement authorities are facing new challenges every day. Currently there are more than twenty Indian laws relating to food, which are administered by a number of different Ministries and Departments. Food processors have to comply with these rules. Among the more important food laws are: Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA) of 1954 and the PFA Rules of The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976, and the Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rule, 1977 The Fruit Products Order, 1955 Meat Food Products Order, Milk and Milk Products Order, The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 Food safety concerns begin with farm production of food commodities. Farms are therefore one of the key entry points for the introduction of management practices that allow for minimising potential contamination with excessive residues of harmful chemicals in food and water. Adoption of Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) can ensure that food is produced, packed, handled and stored as safely as possible to minimize risks of food safety hazards F. Food sovereignty Thisrefers to the right and freedom to grow diverse and nutritious food and the right to have access to save healthy adequate and affordable food. Food sovereignty grows from household, to the community, the regional and the national level. Itis critical because our current food and farm system is very much broken. Farmers' access to and rights over seeds are the very pillars of agriculture, and thus represent an essential component of food sovereignty. Three decades after the term farmers' rights was first coined, there now exists a broad consensus that this new category of rights is historically grounded and imperative in the current context of the expansion of intellectual property rights (IPRs) over plant varieties. However, the issue of their realization has proven so thorny that even researchers and activists who are sympathetic to farmers' rights now express growing skepticism regarding their usefulness. Local production and participation in farmers markets can influence the food system in broader ways than building social and economic capital. One way that farmers markets 16

28 shape food systems is by fostering free enterprise and ethically-grounded economic behaviour. Farmers markets can be a way of supporting the economic viability of producers who wish to operate outside of the industrial food system (Lapping, 2004). By providing producers with opportunities to sell their goods locally, farmers markets enable them to operate in a way they consider ethical, while opening a path for others to do so as well. Good Governance for ensuring food security Sharma (2017), famous Indian food policy analyst had highlighted the report of a survey conducted by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau which brings out a stark reality that rural India is eating less than what it used to 40 years ago. According to him, removing poverty, hunger and malnutrition is not possible without focussing on agriculture. He highlighted a recent US study which has established that investments in agriculture are five times more effective in removing poverty than investments in building urban infrastructure. This is very significant finding which the policy makers should consider related to food security. There are eight principles of good governance which have to be successfully integrated for effective service delivery in the food sector. They are: a) Participation people at the heart of development, b) Consensus-orientation- mediation of different interests in society, c) Accountability- to the public and society, d) Transparency available and accessible, e) Responsiveness serve all stakeholders, f) Equity and inclusiveness- no one is excluded, g) Effectiveness and efficiency sustainable use of resources and h) Consistency with the rule of law- well defined rights and duties. It is observed that schemes related to food security are being implemented by different ministries and an analysis of the different programmes revealed that principles of good governance and convergent actions have a definite role in the extension service delivery related to various dimensions of food security. It is seen that extension programmes are shifting from a delivery model that prescribes technological practices to focussing on building capacity among farmers to empower them to identify and take advantage of available technological and economic opportunities. Though many of the programmes focussed on principles like participation, accountability, transparency, effectiveness, efficiency and equity, there are many technologies, practices and programmes related to various dimensions of food security implemented by the different Ministries, which have to be properly converged. It was also observed that most of the programmes focussed on convergent partnerships and as such, convergence as a governance mechanism emerged as most important. As could be observed, convergence is the main governance mechanism that is emphasised under different programmes. In this context, Reverse Extension is the tool that is suggested to be employed to integrate the various dimensions of food security and understand the dynamics of convergence. Reverse Extension is borrowed from the concept 17

29 of Reverse Engineering, which is defined as a process in which a product, process or system is analysed in order to understand how it performs and applying these learnings to improve the performance. It involves a process of relating, reflecting and mainstreaming good practices in the field, which could be effectively utilized to understand the dynamics of extension service delivery related to food security. Here, an analysis is done just to showcase how the different dimensions of food security should be converged for effective service delivery. Conclusion Food systems include a wide range of actors and activities from production to consumption. Thus, governance processes include a wide range of stakeholders and parallel decision making processes related to food. These processes comprise of regulatory environments, infrastructure provisions, support mechanisms and education and awareness creation. The effective delivery of food security services with its various components needs a vibrant and cohesive governance mechanism. This is very evident from the different programmes implemented by the Government of India. The links between conventional food sources and alternative food initiatives also have to be identified and the multiple functions of private and public spaces should be addressed. There is need for the government to establish alliances with all sectors in order to develop programmes to improve food security and income generation among the poor. A rural agricultural extension/communication strategy should be tailored to embrace issues that include but go beyond those of production and access to food, thereby requiring linkages and collaborative efforts with other organizations, public and private (Thomas and David (2015). References Agarwal, Hari Prasad and Sinha, Radha (2017) Urban Farming- A Sustainable model for Indian Cities, International Journal on Emerging Technologies, Vol 8, No.1: Dupont (2016) Global Food Security Index 2015: Special Report: The role of innovation in meeting food security challenges FAO (2016) New directions for inclusive pluralistic service systems- Report of FAO Expert Consultation, FAO, Rome, May, 2016 FAO (2017) How close are we to Zero Hunger? The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, FAO, Rome. Fanzo, JC, Shauna, D, Quinu, EM, Saskia de Pee and Martin, WB (2017) Value chain focus on Food and Nutrition Security In Saskia de Pee, Douglas, T and Martin, WB (Eds) Nutrition and Health in a Developing World, SpringerLink, p Hannach Wittman et al (2010) Food Sovereignty- Reconnecting Food, Nature and Community, Books for Change, Bangalore 18

30 Lapping, M B (2004) Towards the recovery of the local in the globalizing food system: the role of alternative agricultural and food models in the US, Ethics, Place and Environment, Vol 7, No.3, Ravishankar and Shrivastava, Ashutosh (2016) Impact Assessment of Nutritional Food Security Mission in Paddy production, Lambert Academic Publishing Peschard, E Karine (2014) Farmers rights and food sovereignty: critical insights from India, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 41 (6): Sahu, Krushna Chandra (2017) Millet based mixed farming- Coping with weather extremities, LIESA INDIA, Vol No19, No.4 Sharma, Devinder (2017) Rural India is eating less than what it used to 40 years ago- Your Story Media Pvt Ltd. Snapp, Sieglinde and Pound, Barry (2008) Agricultural Systems: Agroecology and Rural Innovations for development, Academic Press, USA Sonnino, R (2016) The new geography of food security: exploring the potential of urban food strategies, The Geographical Journal, 182 (2): Songstad, D D, Hatfield, J L and Tomes, DT (2014) Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture, Springer, Heidelberg and New York. Srinivasa Rao et al (2016) National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Research Highlights , Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, 112 p Swaminathan, M S (2010) Synergy between Food Security Act and NREGA- Opinion. The Hindu, March 16, 2010 Thomas, Kipkurgat and David, Tuigong (2015) Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among small scale farmers in Wareng District, Kenya, International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies Vol.2, No.1, pp Upadhyay, R P and Palanivel, C (2011) Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India Iranian J of Public Health, 40 (4):31-36 Verma, D P S (2008) Secondary Agriculture- Value Addition to Primary Agriculture- Submitted to Planning Commission, Government of India Wayne, Robert (2013) The No-Nonsense Guide to World Food (New Edn), New Internationalist Publication Limited, Oxford, UK 19

31 An overview of Education and Learning to meet the SDGs with special reference to recent innovations of the agriculture sector in Sri Lanka Rohan Wijekoon (Senior Consultant, Agriculture Modernization Project of the World Bank, Former Director General of Agriculture 2013/2018) and Gamini Sisira Kumara (Additional Director General, Department of Agriculture) Out of seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), SDG 4 describes education for sustainable development; Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. Since colonial times, Sri Lanka has excelled in quality of education compared to other developing countries. With free primary and secondary education in place since 1938 and an extensive university system, Sri Lanka's education systems are at top level. Sri Lanka's literacy rate has exceeded 85 percent for more than 30 years and is currently 91 percent, while literacy levels in most countries in South Asia have been lower than 60 percent until quite recently. Sri Lanka still has the highest secondary school enrollment rate among developing countries in the benchmark group, and it ranks number one in South Asia on the United Nations Human Development Index Although SDG 4 indicates education in schools, universities and other academic institutes (not clearly described yet), this element has broader prospect and has strong bearing with agriculture education and training for youth, farmers, farm women, agriculture professionals etc. mainly because nine of SDG goals are directly or indirectly connected with farming, conferring a special multidimensional status to agriculture. If SDGs are going to change the world by the year 2030, Nelson Mandela s statement will be very important to consider; Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world. Education and training in agriculture today do not sufficiently prepare learners to contribute to sustainable development. Themes like climate change, biodiversity, land degradation, marketing and most of the current environment issues need to be integrated into teaching and learning. After considering current and anticipated burning issues in the future of the country, to meet the SDGs Ministry of Agriculture with the collaboration of FAO has recently released an Agriculture policy document for SriLankan Agriculture which was a long overdue in this country. The Department of Agriculture in Sri Lanka (DOA) had, as part of its contribution towards sustainable development, embarked on a process of developing a Policy on Agriculture in Sustainable Development. Agriculture policy in Sri Lanka also aims at integrating and harmonizing the three pillars of sustainable development viz. social (people), environment (planet) and economic (prosperity). Accordingly Agriculture policy in Sri Lanka also comprises of following three pillars: 1. Assuring food and nutrition security (SDGs 2 and 12) 2. Ensuring environmental sustainability (SDGs13, 14 and 15) 3. Developing economic opportunity (SDGs 1, 5 and 8) 20

32 Following are some of the education and learning innovations initiated by the agriculture sector in par with SDGs and the agriculture policy of the country. Since these innovations are still in the initial phase, a need arises to monitor and evaluate to see whether SDGs will be achievable by the year ) Training and Developing rural youth DOA was established in the year 1912 and in the year 1916 agriculture education was started in Peradeniya. Later the venue was changed to Kundasle and started offering Diploma in Agriculture. Since University education was not started, all the technical officers in agriculture were appointed with the basic qualification in Diploma. In the year 2013 nationally and internationally recognized qualification system for vocational & technical training/education was implemented by the DOAwith NVQ 6 (National Vocational Qualification) level certificates. NVQ is a unified System for Vocational & Technical training/education, a unified system to issue certificates and a unified system to issue quality and consistency education. The NVQ consists of seven levels (1-7), Level National Certificates, Level 5, 6 - National Diploma, and Level 7 Degree. NVQ focuses on what is expected from a worker in the work place rather than learning process. It focuses on ability to transfer and apply skill, attitude and knowledge to new situation and environment. Based on the Tertiary & Vocational Education Act, No. 20 of 1990; Schools of Agriculturelocated in Kundasale, Pelwehera, Angunakolapelessa, Vavuniya and Karapincha started NVQ 6 courses in the year 2015 / 16. NVQ 5 level courses were started in another four Schools of Agriculturean in the year 2016 in Wariyapola, Labuduwa, Palamune and Paranthan, NVQ 3and 4 level courses were started in another two training centres of Agricuture. This complete nationally recognized courses with new curriculum clearly states the readiness of educated youth for SDGs. NVQ 6 level courses are now being conducted in English medium to give opportunity for younger generation for global challenges in Agriculture. The majority of NVQ qualified staff are absorbed into DOA as Agriculture Instructors, Research Assistants and Technical Assistants mainly to support research and development work. This carder has excellent career path way as they will be able to follow university degree with paid leave, giving another opportunity to work as Research officers and Agriculture Officers in the DOA. In short DOA has systematic education system in agriculture to face future challengers in agriculture. However, curriculum of all NVQ education must be changed aiming at SDGs. 2. Improving quality of farmer education Farmer training is a mandate of DOA and while conducting traditional training for productivity improvement in DOA mandatory crops, integrated pest management integrated nutrient management, soil conservation, orchard management, nursery techniques etc., DOA introduced following special training during recent past and these 21

33 training programs are still in infant stage and need to be revised and modified in order to reach SDGs. a) GAP training (Good Agriculture Practice) (SDG 3 & 12) As a consequence of European Union s warning regarding export of fruits and vegetables due to fruit fly and Melon fly damages for export commodities to E. U, Department of Agriculture launched a massive extension training programme with specially designed curriculum for cucurbits, mango, papaw, guava, pine apple etc. in the year 2014 and interception due to fruit/melon fly was reduced from 350 per year to 12. The DOA is now moving to introduce GAP for most of the economically politically important crops. This initiation clearly indicated the readiness for some of the SDGs dealing with healthy and environmentally sustainable agriculture in Sri Lanka b) Plant-wise program of CABI (SDG 3 & 12) This is another innovation introduced by the DOA implementing Plant clinics and Plant doctors islandwide. Even e-clinics were established in pilot scale and prescription basis chemical recommendations are now possible unless otherwise farmers used to go to pesticide retailers for advice. Even pesticide retailers were trained islandwide on proper use of pesticide and no retailers can sell pesticide without proper certificate issued by the DOA after training program c) Training for mechanization (SDG 1, 2, 3 and 12) As a consequence of introduction of Yaya program DOA was able to gain self-sufficiency in rice and productivity was improved from 2mt/ ha in 1960s to 4.3mt/ha in the year Due to government decision to ban some pre-immerging weedicides, DOA implemented an alternative solution to control weeds by introducing mechanical transplanting and mechanical weeding in the year Not only rice, but also machineries were introduced to other crops such as row seeding and inter-cultivators for maize, mung bean and cowpea; harvesters, pod removers and decorticators for ground nut. This massive mechanization drive during past few years has created a demand for training in machinery. Farm Mechanization Training Centre with Farm Mechanization Research Centre have intensified their training programs with private sector machinery importers. Mechanization of rice has increased the yield from 180 bu/ha to 200bu/ha.This initiative will be a good move to achieve SDGs such as 1, 2, 3 and 12 d) Training for farm women to promote traditional food in Sri Lanka (Hela Bojun project) (SDG 3 & 5) Extension division of the DOA has been conducting training programs to promote healthy Sri Lankan foods through their Farm Women Extension program during past several decades and in the year 2004 the introduction of first food outlet at Gannoruwa AgroTechnology Park has now ended up with 52 outlets islandwide due to gaining demand of consumers. This has changed the food habit of Sri Lankan consumers. 22

34 Extensive training programs have been conducted to develop skills in women through this project. Private businessmen also have started food outlets after gaining training through DOA. This project has changed the food habit towards healthy foods in this country to achieve SDGs 3 &5. e) Training through oil Conservation Act (SDG 7) From the year 2012 DOA has launched training and demonstration prgrames in most vulnerable areas for soil erosion and land degradation through GOSL financial assistance for the soil conservation act. f) Agro technology Parks (Gannoruwa and Bata atha) as a living education site in agriculture (SDG 1, 2 &4) Agro-technology parks are quick information dissemination mechanism for farmers, school children and general public. It is a place to see and learn the latest recommendations of crop cultivation and technologies generated by both public (government departments and universities) and private institutions. Gannoruwa in particular demonstrates current research work of vegetables, fruits and root crops, so that farmers will be able to see the varieties and technologies to be received by them in near future. It gives not only education & training mechanism, but also aesthetically pleasing edible landscaping with tropical crops. Recently Department of Education has recommended Agro-technology parks as one of the destinations for school children to visit in their annual education tours. 3) Leveraging ICT for Agricultural Extension and Learning Over-shadowed by a long running war for past thirty years and the success of India s information technology industry, Sri Lanka was not recognised by most countries as a Centre for delivering IT, business process outsourcing (BPO), and other knowledge services during early 2010 and now situation has completely changed. The ICT sector developed in a significant manner and has acquired national importance since ICTA commenced implementation of the e-sri Lanka initiative. Today there is enhanced access to ICT and local language content in rural areas. The ICT/BPO industry became the 5th largest foreign exchange earner in the country. The Sri Lankan Ministry of Agriculture and the DOA having already realised the magnitude of the information need of the people, took steps to capitalise on the new innovations and developments in ICT for agriculture starting from cyber agriculture extension in early 2000 and now end up with introducing e-agriculture strategy for the country for the first time in the world. e-agriculture is an emerging field in the intersection of agricultural informatics, agricultural development and entrepreneurship, referring to agricultural services, technology dissemination, and information delivered or enhanced through the Information & Communication Technology. 23

35 Following are some of the ICT initiatives for agriculture in Sri Lanka: 1. Establishment of National agriculture Information and Communication Centre with a vision; Achieve excellence in information and communication technology (ICT) in agriculture for national prosperity.this centre works on wide spectrum of ICT activities with nearly 150 technical professionals in Radio, Television, Exhibition and ICT. This centre has facility for Web Radio and video programs, e- SMS, Toll free advisory service, electronic and print media, exhibitions, and street drama. Department of Agriculture broadcasts 30 radio programs and two television programs per week. Separate television and radio channel for agriculture will be the future target of this institute as future farmers will be seeking for quick and participatory information exchange mechanism. 2. Crop forecasting information system ( : This program is available as a mobile App.and this is a progress monitoring tool of National Food Production Program and provides the crop production forecast / harvesting schedule. Dataare uploaded by extension officers who were given smart phones. 3. Management Information Systems for capturing real-time data on seed & planting material availability, funded by JICA &Sri Lanka Government. 4. Phytosanitary Certificate issuing system for Department of Agriculture through Australian Assistance through E-Phyto System (still not implemented) 5. Mobile apps of the Department of Agriculture Crop Advisor GAP Crop Suitability App Variety Identification App Rice Doctor Govi weddura for identification of pest and diseases of rice 6. Govi mithuru program with Dialog This is one of the most popular mobile programme of DOA funded by the CABI and over 400,000 farmers got registered to get voice mail for 12 crops. 7. Toll Free Agriculture Advisory Service (hot number 1920) In the year 2000 Toll Free Agriculture Advisory Service with a dedicated hot line number (1920) was established at the Audio Visual Centre. A data base comprising Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) is being developed every week to analyse farmers burning problems of the week and then weekly television programs are designed to address these issues 8. Agriculture Wikipedia- Award winning Website for E-content creativity World summit award 2011 ( lk) 24

36 4. Indigenous Knowledge and Rural Innovations The DOA has given recognition to rural knowledge and rural innovations and HelaBojun program is one such program initiated by the DOA. Recent declaration of cascade system in Anuradapura district by the FAO as global heritage agriculture site is another remarkable achievement for Sri Lanka for preserving indigenous knowledge. Agro-bio diversity for climate change adaptation and Bio diversity nutrition for climate change are two programs to preserve indigenous knowledge. Considering most of the SDGs, Sri Lanka managed to get World Bank and European Union Assistance to modernize agriculture sector in Sri Lanka with the mission of achieving globally competitive production, processing and marketing enterprises through socially acceptable, innovative, market-oriented and state of the art agriculture, through sustainable management of natural resources in the project areas Challenges and recommendations for future: Even though various initiatives have been originated by the DOA to achieve sustainable development goals, sustainability of farming is debatable. Younger generation is moving away from farming and youth education in agriculture is not a demanding subject. Although DOA absorbs students for NVQ 5 and 6 courses during the academic years, there is a considerable dropout, creating underutilization of resources of the Schools of Agriculture. One of the main reasons for the dropout is attractive benefit of some of the other training programs, such as nursing. During the academic period, trainees following nursing are paid the salary. Since the DOA and other government departments have vacancies for middle level technicians, they also can apply the same. There are other institutes providing Diploma in Agriculture without NVQ standards and this low quality education is reflected when employed in DOA or elsewhere The major problem with other diploma courses is the lack of proper skill development training, DOA curriculum has given much attention to practical sessions as middle level technicians have to work in the field. This system has to be changed as recruitment of technicians for most of the agriculture based government institutes is done through a written examination. Problem of marketing The main focus of the Ministry of Agriculture is the improvement of productivity and not much attention is given for marketing. As a result both farmers and consumers have to face unpleasant situation and the politicians and administrators are always blamed for not addressing the issue. With the success of the helabojun concept, ministry has decided to expand the model to have one- stop centre. This model is a concept similar to farmer market in Japan, Canada, USA and EU countries. Farmer markets intend to sell foods directly similar to traditional Srilankan Village pola system. A recent farmer market established at Kurunagala is a role model for traditional villagepola. By selling directly to consumers, produce often needs less transport, less handling, less refrigeration and less time in storage. The Ministry of Agriculture has a 25

37 model to establish one stop shop based on farmer companies. This one stop shop, most probably in the same vicinity of Helabojun site can offer farmers increased profit over selling to wholesalers, food processors, or large grocery firms. Furthermore this place will be a customer hiring centre for farm machineries, sales centre for selling fruits and vegetables produced through GAP certification process etc. Therefore, training need of existing farmer organizations and farmer companies must be identified for the establishment of these institutions. 26

38 Gender Equality & Equity in Transforming Agricultural Extension Systems M.W.A.P. Jayatilaka 1 The principle of sharing benefits of socio-economic progress and development is a universal value espoused by social philosophers as well as leading development agencies. Global agencies, governments, and development organization continue to struggle to ensure that global and national progress is equally shared by all citizens. This goal is pursued while being particularly mindful of those who are at a disadvantaged position to compete with others to access resources and opportunities. The paper explores the following; 1. Clarify the concept of gender equality & equity (GEE) in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 2. Identify the gaps in GEE aspects of the SDGs 3. Suggest how the gaps may be filled by transforming in Agricultural Extension systems in order to achieve the SDGs. What is GEE? Even though very basic, still it is necessary to be clear of the basic concepts of gender equality and equity. In recent decades gender equity and equality (GEE) have become central in the socio-economic development discourse. Gender equality is achieved when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunities across all sectors of society, including economic participation, decision-making, and are able to pursue aspirations and needs that are equally valued and favoured. These equalities may be in economic, social, political, cultural or personal requirements. Wide consensus has been reached on the rationale for equality by those engaged in efforts to address the disparities that exist between women and men. These include the UN system, European Institute for Gender Equality, European Union and the Council of Europe, the World Economic Forum, and the Commonwealth, to name a few global development agencies. Gender Gender - The state of being masculine or feminine, used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones, which are primarily male or female. The biological difference is sex. equality, means that women and men, and girls and boys, enjoy the same rights, resources, opportunities and protections (UNICEF). Disparities and differences between women and men in terms of quality of life, the rights and privileges they enjoy are partly historical and also contextual. The global situation is periodically assessed by the UNDP in their Annual Human Development Reports. Many reasons can be attributed to the inequalities. Some indicators are in Table 01. In most countries, particularly the developing countries, the gender disparities are quite stark. Incomes earned, education achievements, employment, leadership positions held, health and nutrition status, victims of violence and abuse, leisure time for self are areas in which there is differences between women and men, with the former at a disadvantaged position than men. Gender Equity is a concept that is different to gender equality, it considers the fairness of distribution. Complete equality may mask the differences in needs of people due to their 1 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya Sri Lanka. 27

39 status or the unique positions held. Thus, equity considers fairness and impartiality towards all concerned, based on the principles of evenhanded dealing. Equity implies giving as much advantage, consideration, or latitude to one party as it is given to another. Gender equity means fairness of treatment for women and men, according to their respective needs. Thus gender equality means non-discrimination between men and women and equality of rights. While, gender equity means fairness and justice regarding benefits and addressing needs. What is the prevailing GEE status? The prevalence of gender inequalities in countries is well documented. The UNDP Human Development reports which are evidence based stand testimony to this reality. A quick perusal of the situation in five selected countries shown in Table Table 01. Development indicators of a few selected countries Gender Developme nt Index 1 Human Development Index (female) Life expectancy at birth (female) years 1. Norway Sweden USA India Japan Sri Lanka Nigeria Source: 01, shows the very stark differences. For example, for the seven countries considered, the HDI for females differ from a low (Nigeria) to a high value of (Norway), life expectancy at birth for females is a low at 53.4 years (Nigeria) to a high value of 86.9 years (Japan). Further, the Gender Development index varies for a low value of (Nigeria) to a high of (Japan). There would be similar variations within each country by region and other aggregates. Factors along which gender differences could be observed are class, caste, ethnicity, rural-urban, age etc. Thus strategies to bridge the gender gaps need to be identified. There is an overwhelming abundance of evidence illustrating the gender gap in all of the indicators related to the SDGs. Furthermore, according to the FAO Compared to male counterparts, females; Operate smaller farms, on average only half to two-thirds as large; Keep fewer livestock, typically of smaller breeds; Earn less from the livestock they own; Have a greater overall workload, includes burden of low productivity activities - fetching water & firewood; Less educated & less access to agric. information and extension services; Use less credit and other financial services; Less likely to purchase inputs such as fertilizers, improved seeds and technical equipment; If employed - likely part-time, seasonal and low-paying; Receive lower wages for same work, even with same experience & qualifications. The SDGs by themselves are lofty yet worthy goals to pursue. The 17 SGA also provide a framework to assess the context in which agriculture must be improved. More specifically it provides a framework to first asses the gender aspects of agriculture extension intervention and secondly a framework to identify suitable interventions to make agriculture relevant to address the SDGs in a gender sensitive manner so that the GEE concern are addressed avoiding gender blindness in planning and implementation. Global Goals - universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.see figure 1 below for the SDGs presented as a framework for context analysis. 28

40 Sustainable Development Goals 1. No poverty 2. Zero hunger 3. Good health & wellbeing 4. Quality education 5. Gender equality 6. Clean water and sanitation 7. Affordable clean energy 8. Decent work & economic growth 9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure 10. Reduced inequalities 11. Sustainable cities and communities 12. Responsible consumption and production 13. Climate action 14. Ife below water 15. Life on land 16. Peace justice and strong institutions 17. Partnerships for the goals Assessing the baseline situation with regard the SDGs provides a context in which development interventions need to undertaken. Assessing the Gender Equity and Equality aspects will provide information on the gender gaps that must be bridged. Figure 1 Strategies to Reduce GEE Gaps Gender equality and equity gaps once identified must be removed. The appropriate strategies must be identified. Selecting suitable interventions will require sound analysis and identification of causal factors based on which appropriate interventions are chosen. However, based on global studies several interventions are identified as essentials. These are based on FAOs (2013) global oversight work. Thus thirteen strategies have bene listed. Although crafted very broadly, they can be adapted and modified to fit the specific conditions of each country and nuanced accordingly. These can be enumerated as follows; 1. Maintainand analyze sex-disaggregated data. Data is essential for planning, monitoring and evaluation. 2. Strengthen capacity to develop, analyze and use sex-disaggregated data in policy analysis, programme and project planning and evaluation. 3. For development objectives, undertake gender analysis, develop gender action plans developed; measure progress on gender equality for all development outcomes. 4. Allocate required financial resources to implement related policy 5. Undertake gender assessments as part of programming. 29

41 6. A gender equality stock-taking exercise is conducted for all services, to provide a basis for better implementation of gender mainstreaming, including progress and performance measurement. 7. Incorporategender analysis is in the formulation of all field programmes and projects, and gender-related issues are taken into account in project approval and implementation processes. 8. All programme reviews and evaluations fully integrate gender analysis, and report on gender-related impacts in the areas they are reviewing. 9. A mandatory gender equality capacity development programme is developed and implemented for all professional staff and managers. 10. Minimum competencies in gender analysis are specified, and all managers and professional staff are required to meet them. 11. Each technical department establishes a gender equality screening process for all normative work, programmes and knowledge products. 12. An assessment of the contribution to achieving gender equality objectives is included in the Performance Evaluation and Management System (PEMS) of all professional staff. 13. Human and financial resources and normative and operational results related to gender equality are systematically tracked and reported to governing bodies. Based on the above suggestions, institutional mechanisms are required to ensure gender equality. Some important mechanisms are as follows; 1. Capacity development: Strengthen the capabilities of organizations responsible for GEE goals, by having appropriate performance and operational standards and clear operational procedures (SOPs). 2. Knowledge building (R&D): Undertake assessment of the knowledge / knowhow required to design required interventions. Identify GEE research needs and priorities. 3. Ensure effective communication with stakeholders to achieve GEE. Effective communication will ensure shared understanding and commitments required to achieve the SDG goals and action plans. 4. Successful effort to achieve the SDGs and GEE will require collaboration, cooperation among many stakeholders and or organizations. Strategic partnerships with suitable entities will greatly enhance the possibility of success of achieving the SDG / GEE mission of organizations undertaking development efforts. 5. Incorporating gender to the discourse and mainstreaming will require changes in the manner in which organizations and groups function. The changes will be in values, beliefs, interpersonal relationships, i.e. the organizational culture. The change dimensions are presented in the figure (Galtung, 1996). 6. Monitor the implementation of SDG operational plans where GEE strategy has been mainstreamed. The reports generated need to be used by the relevant oversight authorities to provide support for remedial actions to address any shortfalls in achievements. 7. Evaluate programs and all intervention to assess their efficacy in order to diagnose and take remedial actions. 8. Undertake periodic gender audits to assess GEE situation and take necessary actions to maintain the required gender balance. 30

42 9. The SG and GEE plans must be implemented with a suitable oversight agency that could monitor and provide necessary guidance. Individual Relational - Interpersonal Change Triangle Values - Culture Figure2 Furthermore, mechanism developed to manage the SDG / GEE work plan must have a strong and effective accountability framework to ensure that the planned efforts are undertaken with commitment and efficiency. The accountability framework developed must incorporate all levels of responsibilities as a cascade including the following; i. Senior executives at policy level ii. Executives at programme planning iii. Officials implementing programme / team leaders iv. Staff at operation levels Furthermore, an effective accountability mechanism should (i) link SDG / GEE outcomes to interventions and actions undertaken by staff and (ii) be inclusive to engage all entities / persons held responsible for the goals and outcomes. Goals of achieving GEE can be enumerated. For example, the goal of FAO s Policy on Gender Equality is to achieve equality between women and men in sustainable agricultural production and rural development for the elimination of hunger and poverty. IN order to achieve gender equality objectives by 2025, the following must be realized: 1. Women participate equally with men as decision-makers in rural institutions and in shaping laws, policies and programmes. 2. Women and men have equal access to and control over decent employment and income, land and other productive resources. 3. Women and men have equal access to goods and services for agricultural development, and to markets. 4. Women s work burden is reduced by 20 percent through improved technologies, services and infrastructure. 5. The share of total agricultural aid committed to projects related to women and gender equality is increased to 30 percent. Achieving SGD s (17) is a process of change management. The dispraises among the different countries has been assessed by the UN. 31

43 Gender in the SDG agenda; According to the UN, optimizing policy synergies demands that the 17 goals are met and that gender equality matters for all 17 SDGs. An integrated approach to implementation are pivotal to harnessing these synergies. The paucity of gender disaggregated data and sound analysis prevents effective monitoring progress of women and girls, which is essential knowledge in GEE work across all goals and targets. There is limited prioritizing of gender-responsive investments, policies and programmes to align action with the principles, values and aspirations of the 2030 Agenda. This gap must be filled.finally, there is very limited accountability through genderresponsive processes and institutions to ensure an integrated approach to implementation, follow-up and review with gender equality at its core. This situation must also be rectified if SDG and GEE are to be realized by member countries of the UN. SDGs in relation to GEE Under each SDG numerous contentious issues may be identified. Some of these are identified by various development organizations, highlighting the disparities that must be addressed. 1. The rush to invest in farmland in Africa is having an immediate impact on women s land-use options, on their livelihoods, on food availability and the cost of living, and, ultimately, on women s access to land for food production. Women s knowledge, their socio-cultural relationship with the land, and their stewardship of nature are also under threat. (OXFAM 2013) 2. Sixty to 80% agriculture labour fource participation is women. There is wide variation among countries (FAO 2011). When rearing poultry, small livestock and growing food crops, women are responsible for some 60% to 80% of food production in developing countries. 3. In many farming communities, women are the main custodians of knowledge on crop varieties. In some regions of sub-saharan Africa, women may cultivate as many as 120 different plants alongside the cash crops that are managed by men. (FAO 2009) 4. Educating girls help reduce malnutrition of children. In low-income countries, 46 million children suffer from stunting. If all women completed primary education, 1.7 million fewer children would be in this situation. If all women had access to a secondary education, 11.9 million children would be saved from stunting, equivalent to a decrease of 26%. (UNESCO 201) 5. In developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, women typically work long hours, 12 to 13 hours per week more than men; yet, women's contributions are often 'invisible' and unpaid. (World Bank 2013) 6. In the 97 countries assessed by the FAO, female farmers only received 5% of all agricultural extension services. Worldwide, only 15% of those providing these services are women. Just 10% of total aid provided for agriculture, forestry and fishing goes to women. (Inter Agency Task Force, 2012) 7. On average, women comprise 43% of the agricultural labour force in developing countries, ranging from 20% in Latin America to 50% in Eastern Asia and sub- Saharan Africa. If they had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20 30%. (FAO 2012) 8. Due to legal and cultural constraints in land inheritance, ownership and use, less than 20% of land-holders are women. In North Africa and West Asia, women represent fewer than 5% of all agricultural landowners; while across Sub-Saharan Africa, they make up 15%. This average masks wide variations between countries, from under 5% in Mali to over 30% in Botswana. Latin America has the highest share of female agricultural holders, which exceeds 25% in Chile, Ecuador and Panama (FAO 2011) 32

44 Strategies required for effective agricultural extension to improve GEE when achieving SDGs. Considering the SDGs, the context faced by women and required sensitivity, the strategies can be identified. However at the outset it is necessary to review the main impediments faced by Agricultural Extension to ensure GEE. The main impediments faced by women and the main challenges to be overcome are as follows; i. Many women are not having ownership and control of land. They have a disadvantaged position compared to men when accessing land. Furthermore, powerful agents are able to take control over land through use of political, financial power and manipulations, capitalizing on the disempowered status of women. Dealing with land grabs is a major challenge when urban expansion, spread and relocation industries, mining and infrastructure displaces rural women and families. ii. iii. iv. Women participate in the labour force at sub-optimum levels, particularly at the high end vocations. If SDGs are to be addressed by agricultural extension will have to expand their role beyond the traditional technology transfer role. The outcomes envisaged will have to be redefined in GEE norms. Women tend to dominate the small & medium enterprise sector. Agricultural technology production and knowhow need to be demand driven catering to the needs of the specificities of the SME agricultural producers. Traditionally women have worked closely with nature to extract family livelihoods. Over millennia they have developed and are the custodians of folk knowledge. This knowledge is on the climate, seeds, land use, crop protection, seasonal selections of crops, livestock husbandry, postharvest processing and preservation of produce etc. v. Many children in low income families suffer from malnutrition. Traditionally mothers take responsibly for their nutrition. It is a challenge to ensure food security and adequate nutrition at the household and community level. vi. vii. viii. ix. Many women in farm families work long hours and are over-worked, due to their multiple responsibilities for the family and the house hold economy. In spite of the dominant roles played by women in farm production, processing, marketing and value addition, they are not adequately targeted by agricultural extension and advisory services. Often the agricultural extension and advisory services are known to be gender blind. Development of technology required at the producer level is the responsibility of Research and Development Institutes in the National Agricultural Research System (NARS). The final beneficiary of research and know-how developed are the farmers. The link between research and technology use is agricultural extension. The education system in a country plays an important role in developing the human resources for agricultural production and extension and other related services. In recent years the high achievers in the secondary school system have been women who outnumber successful school leavers. They dominate the student population in tertiary education institutes. This phenomenon was observed extensively in the Caribbean countries in the 1990s. Sri Lanka is also characterized by a high level of 33

45 feminization of the university population in agriculture study programmes, and in the Schools of Agriculture. Agricultural extension services, gender equality & equity and SDGs The manner in which agricultural extension services could contribute to the realization of the SDGs and ensure GEE are inferred from the suggestions made by development agencies for the SDGs as well as those directly associated with GEE ( There are five main strategies that will ensure realization of the SDGs and achieve GEE goals. 1. Planning: Ensue planning and programme design is evidence based. Collect sex disaggregated data to establish base line status, programme processes and outcome measurements. Having valid and comprehensive data is a prerequisite. 2. Research: Develop a research agenda to fill knowledge gaps in in SDGs and gendered approaches to managing processes to achieve SDGs in agricultural extension and its link to the achieving of SDGs. Agricultural Extension is, supporting farmers through education, training and coaching to adopt improved agricultural practices and suitable technology (FAO). 3. Programme Quality Criteria: Implement programmes on the following, after considering their relevance in the context in which agriculture extension is been undertaken. i. Mainstream gender into all agricultural extension programme planning, specifically in relation to the SDGs ii. Ensure that the extension efforts are undertaken in an accountability framework, where women farmers & entrepreneurs have a recognized and institutionalized stake by having adequate numbers of women participating in all decision making structures. Also extension work is targeted at women farmers and entrepreneurs, making necessary adjustments to optimize women as beneficiaries, being mindful of small and medium scale women farmers and entrepreneurs. iii. Ensure that the transferred agricultural technology and know-how is demand driven and particularly sensitive to the needs of women. iv. Define clear goals, targets and responsibilities in agricultural extension, for the SDGs but ensure GEE as an important outcome. 4. Extension Approach: Select appropriate extension approaches to ensure that the SDGs are realized. The following approaches among others may be consider; i. Rights based vs. service delivery within an accountability framework. The former will require effective empowerment programs which will result in farmer driven and farmer centric extension systems. Service based approach requires strong professionalization of extension work with appropriate performance appraisals and accountability mechanisms. ii. The agricultural extension programs require gender disaggregated production target setting. This will ensue the desired gendered outcomes of the SDGs. 5. Human Resource Development: The success of realizing the SDGs will rest primarily on the competence, commitment and adequacy of personnel mobilized for the purpose. When human resource are made available the following conditions must be fulfilled to ensure successful results; 34

46 i. Agricultural extension personnel are recruited and deployed so that women farmers extension needs are met. Extension thereby is more inclusive in delivering its services. ii. The extension staff has a balanced gender composition, especially at the field level so that women fame and entrepreneurs have the possibility of interacting and being coached by competent women extension workers. Adequate numbers of women and men must be recruited as extension & advisory personnel. iii. All entities in the agricultural extension services including personnel, procedures, and products are gender sensitive. The SDGs for the country or target programme are gender disaggregated. iv. Success of agricultural extension work depends a great deal on the effectiveness of communication between the different stakeholders. Extension personnel must use appropriate tools and mechanisms to communicate skillfully with the stakeholders for optimum impact. v. Training and continuous professional development ensure adequate level of competence to undertake challenging tasks to realize the SDG and GEE targets. vi. Professional capacity development will need extension personnel to have an equity orientation. The MDGs and GEE goals are based on principles of equity and inclusion. In order to walk the talk the extension personnel must also internalize these values for greater credibility and efficacy. vii. All agricultural extension personnel must have a sound understanding and strong commitment to MDGs viii. Those entrusted with programme development and delivery responsibilities to achieve SDGs and GEE must be provided with clear guidelines on how their professional goals, programme targets and outcomes can be achieved. Such targets must be backed up with support, and effective accountability mechanisms. ix. Working to ensure successful realization of SDGs and GEE will require the coordinated effort of several agencies. Therefore agricultural extension services will have to work with different organizations and reach common understanding of their collective responsibilities and plan accordingly. x. The effectiveness of agriculture extension work is jeopardized during times of conflict. Such conflict can be of many different types varying from open war situations and community level conflicts between various factions due to caste, class, political or ethnic division. Agricultural extension may be required to integrate conflict transformation efforts. In conclusion, the seventeen SDGs are articulated to ensure that the world will be - rid of hunger, poverty and inequalities, and a sustained environment for all. The SDGs provide points of references for ensuring gender equity and equality. Stakeholders such as national governments, civil society organizations communities as well as activists have at their disposal several options on which to act to realize the SDGs. Planning and supporting the effort with human resources will help realize the goals. References: FAO (2010) Gender Equality. Galtung, J (1996) Peace b Peaceful Means: SAGE Publications Ltd. ILO (2015) Trends Econometric Models. July ILO. Geneva. 35

47 SIDA (2016) Gender Tool Box.. Hot issues: Gender Equality and Gender Equity. UN (2010) The World s Women New York UN (2019) The World s Women New York. UNWOMEN. (nd) Turning Promises into Action: Gender equality in the 2030agenda for sustainable development. 36

48 Improving Water Use Efficiency is Key for Sustainable Development Dr K Yella Reddy, FIE, Dean, ANGRAU and Vive-President, ICI 1. Introduction Next to air, the other important requirement for human life to exist is water. It is the Nature s free gift to human race. The use of water by man, plants and animals is universal. As a matter of fact every living soul requires water for its survival. The water plays important role in the agriculture, manufacture of essential commodities, generation of electricity, transportation, recreation, industrial activities, etc. The water can certainly inexhaustible gift of nature. But to ensure their services for all the time to come, it becomes necessary to maintain, conserve and use these resources very carefully in every sphere of life. When you know that nothing on Earth can live without freshwater, that a human can t survive after three days without it, you see how precious this resource is and how much we need to protect it. Limited Fresh Water Average annual precipitation over the whole globe is about 86 cm, of which 77% falls on the oceans and 23% on land. Evaporation (including transpiration by plants) from the land accounts for 16% of the total precipitation it receives, and 7% of global precipitation returns to the sea as river and groundwater flows. Although water is the most widely occurring substance on Earth, only 3 % of it is fresh water and the remaining 97 % is saltwater (Fig 1). Of the small amount of freshwater, only one third is easily available for human consumption, the large majority being locked up in glaciers and snow cover. Fig 1. Distribution of earth s water showing limited fresh water for direct use Water Usage 37

49 Water is vital for sustaining life on earth. It is crucial for economic and social development, including energy production, agriculture and domestic and industrial water supplies. Therefore each unit of water should be used efficiently, equitably and soundly. Water is intrinsic to our lives and to the ecosystems on which we all depend. Water is essential to life in every way, we need clean water for drinking, adequate water for sanitation and hygiene, sufficient water for food and industrial production, and much of our energy generation relies on or affects water supplies. Demographic and urban growth over the next century will mean a far greater demand for water for industrial production. Competition between users, and sectors, is therefore becoming increasingly important. World s water usage pattern in the previous century, which is growing at alarming rate, is shown in Fig 2. During the past century, the world population has tripled, and water use has increased six-fold. These changes have come at great environmental cost: half the wetlands have disappeared during the 20th century, some rivers don't reach the sea anymore, and 20% of freshwater fish are endangered Fig. 2 World s water use pattern in 20 th century In India more than 82% of the total water is used for agriculture with very low irrigation efficiencies. It is expected that in the next 7-8 years, there will be cut of about 10% irrigation water for meeting ever-increasing demand from domestic, industrial and other sectors Water Scarcity When country s renewable water supplies drop below about 1700 cubic meters per capita, it becomes difficult for that country to mobilize enough water to satisfy all the food, household, and industrial needs of its population. Countries in this situation typically begin to import grain, reserving their water for household and industrial uses. At present, 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Middle East are classified as water stressed, and all but two of them-south Africa and Syria are net importers of grain. Collectively, these water stressed countries import nearly 50 million tons of grain a year. By 2025, the number of 38

50 people living in water stressed countries is projected to climb from 470 million to 3 billion- more than six fold increase. Increasing population and higher levels of human activities, including effluent disposals to surface and groundwater sources, have made sustainable management of water resources a very complex task throughout the world. In addition, per capita demand for water in most countries is steadily increasing as more and more people achieve higher standards of living and as lifestyles are changing rapidly. Table 1 shows the population growth, annual renewable freshwater available and per capita availability for selected countries (Biswas, 1998). Table 1. Population and per capita water availability for selected countries Country Population, Millions Fresh water, Per capita fresh water, 1000 m 3 km Brazil Canada China Indonesia USA Bangladesh India Argentina Japan Turkey UK Egypt India, with 2085 km 3 of renewable water resources stands 7 th in the world, but due to its huge population over 1 billion, it attained 133 rd position in terms of per capita availability of water. India has moved from the relative sufficiency level to stress and heading towards scarcity Effects of falling water tables Lowering the groundwater level by one metre adds one metric ton of load per square metre to the subsoil. i) In Gujarat in northern India, groundwater supplies most domestic and more than three quarters of irrigation water. Over-abstraction has caused the water table to fall, in some places by as much as 40 metres. This has deprived many poor farmers of water since they can afford only dug wells, which are usually limited to depths of 10 metres. 39

51 ii) In Mexico City the water table has fallen so low that there has been widespread ground subsidence, involving costly rebuilding. iii) Parts of the Las Vegas valley, in the United States have fallen by more than 1.5 metres as a result of over-abstraction in an area where annual rainfall averages only 100 mm. Arizona is marked by a series of hundreds of fissures in the ground, which have disrupted roads, railways and housing. iv) In the southern province of Brabant, in the Netherlands farmers are not allowed to use groundwater for irrigation in part of the year, as over-abstraction is causing drying out of the local ecology. v) Bangkok is suffering from severe water problems as a result of the over-exploitation of the water table beneath the city. vi) In Beijing recently, over-abstraction caused the water table to drop by more than four metres in a year. vii) In many places of the world salt water has been moving in land and polluting coastal aquifers. This saltwater intrusion problem is for example happening in India, China, Mexico and the Philippines. viii) In Madras in India salt water intrusion has moved 10 km inland, causing many irrigation wells to be abandoned. 2. Virtual Water The Water Footprint and Virtual Water approaches are gaining importance for effective planning, development and management of water resources to improve the water use efficiency and enhance its productivity. The concept of virtual water links a large range of sectors and issues that revolve around relieving pressures on water resources, ensuring food security, developing global and regional water markets. The concept of virtual water emerged in the early 1990s and was first defined by Professor J.A. Allan as the water embedded in commodities. Producing goods and services requires water; the water used to produce agricultural or industrial products is called the virtual water of the product. Virtual water is an essential tool in calculating the real water use of a country, or its water footprint, which is equal to the total domestic use, plus the virtual water import, minus the virtual water export of a country. A nation s water footprint is a useful indicator of the demand it places on global water resources. By importing virtual water, water poor countries can relieve the pressure on their domestic water resources. At the individual level, the water footprint is equal to the total virtual water content of all products consumed. A meat diet implies a much larger water footprint than a vegetarian one, at an average of 3,500 liters of water per day versus 2,500. Being aware of our 40

52 individual water footprint can help us use water more carefully. Virtual water of some of the important products is shown in the Table 2 below. Table 2. Virtual water of some important products Commodity Virtual water 1 cup of coffee 140 liters 1 liter of milk 800 liters 1 kg maize 900 liters 1 kg of wheat 1100 liters 1 kg of rice 3000 liters 1 kg sugar 3200 liters 1 kg chicken 6000 liters 1kg beef liters For example, growing one ton of grain or wheat requires about 1,000 m3 of water; growing the same amount of rice requires up to thrice as much. The value of the water used for producing these food staples in water-poor countries turns out to be many times higher than the value of the product. Thus, instead of using their scarce water resources for water-intensive products, such countries can import cheap food, and relieve the pressure on their own water resources. Already a number of countries, such as Israel and Jordan, have formulated policies to reduce export of water-intensive products. Currently, 60 to 90% of Jordan s domestic water is imported through virtual water. Still, some countries are afraid of becoming dependent on global trade those with large populations, for example, such as China or India. What would happen if, for some reason, their food demands could not be met? This explains why they are trying, as far as possible, to fill their own food needs. Trade in virtual water Water moves from one country to other in the virtual form through goods and services. About 15% of the water used in the world is for export, in virtual form. Out of this i) 67% of the global virtual water trade is related to international trade of crops ii) iii) 23% is related to trade of livestock and livestock products 10% is related to trade of industrial products. 1.3 Sustainable Development The World Commission on Development (known as Brundtland Commission) in 1987 coined a term Sustainable Development and defined as Development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. For example, if sustainable water development is considered, it 41

53 has been known for more than a century that irrigation without appropriate drainage would result in water-logging and salinity, which would, in turn, progressively reduce agricultural yields over a period of time. Since, main objective of introducing irrigation is to increase agricultural yields, clearly any system that does not fulfill this purpose over the long term cannot be considered sustainable. Dublin Principles International Conference on Water and Environment (ICWE) held in Ireland in 1992 has made thefollowing recommendations (Dublin Principles) indicating the importance of water for sustainabledevelopment. 1. Freshwater is a finite vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and environment 2. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels 3. Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water. 4. Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good. Valuing water National Water Policy also makes a mention about the value of water. At present the farmers pay about Rs 200 towards water charges for irrigating one acre of paddy. If water is charged on volumetric basis at 1 paisa a liter, it costs about Rs. 1, 20,000 for growing paddy in one hectare land (Rs 48,000 per acre). It tells how valuable the water is and highlights the importance of arresting wastage of water in irrigation. By considering the present scarcity and growing demands of domestic, industry and other sectors, it is required to save water in irrigation and allocate to other sectors. One centimeter of water saved in one hectare area under irrigation projects is worth Rs 5,000, if that is supplied to other sectors at the rate of 5 paisa a liter. Water Resources Development in India India is endowed with water as a precious natural resource; however, its variability in different regions and over time limits its use for different purposes. Central Water Commission (CWC) has assessed India s surface water potential at 1869 billion cubic meters (BCM), of which 690 BCM is considered utilizable; Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) has assessed additional replenishable groundwater resource as 433 BCM. The National Commission on Irrigation and Water Resources Development (NCIWRD) projected both low and high water use requirements for three scenarios of 2010, 2025 and 2050 as given in Table 3 and concluded that India would fully utilize its water resources by

54 Table3. Gross water availability and requirements of all water use in India underdifferent scenarios Source Average Annual Requirements** (BCM) Utilizable Water Availability* (BCM) Last Low Hig Low Hig Low Assessed h h High Surface Water Ground Water Total Return Flows (SW+GW) Unutilized Surface Water Unutilized Ground Water Unutilized Total Source: * - CWC & CGWB; ** - NCIWRD Studies by the International Water Management Institute (Amarasinghe et al, 2007) found that as a result of rising water demand many river basins will be physically water scarce by Of the 19 river basins in India, 8 already have a potentially utilizable water resource of less than 1,000 m3/capita, with a further 7 currently with less than 1,500 m3/ha. Only the Narmada (2,448 m3/capita) and the Mahanadi (2,341 m3/capita) river basins have adequate water resources available into the foreseeable future. By river basins, with 75 percent of the total population, will have developed all of the potentially utilizable water resources with the consequence that water reallocation between sectors will be a necessary and common occurrence in these basins. It is predicted that in many basins groundwater, with the current levels of recharge and groundwater use patterns, will be in severe crisis; some already are at catchment and sub-basin level. Lower Performance of Irrigation Schemes The Central Water Commission (CWC) carried out Water Use Efficiency (WUE) studies for 30 major and medium irrigation (MMI) schemes which were analyzed and reviewed.. Improving the performance of completed MMI schemes has been the main focus of the National Water Mission (NWM) and the 12 th Five Year Plan and set a target of increasing the WUE by 20%. The 12 th FYP quotes figures from WUE studies carried out by the CWC on 30 MMI schemes in which the WUE on nine schemes was found to be less than 30 percent and the average 38 percent. The WUE values of 12 MMI schemes of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states are presented in Table 4. 43

55 Table 4. Project wise WUE values of 12 MMI schemes of AP &Telangana Water Use Efficiency, % S.No. Name of the project Reservoir storage Canal conveyance On-farm application Overall efficiency 1 Krishna Delta System Godavari Delta System KC Canal NA NSP Nizamsagar RDS Somasila SRSP TBPHLC TBPLLC Vamsadhara Yeleru With the NWM and 12th FYP target the average figure would need to rise to 46%. In the CWC summary report (CWC, 2010) the results of the studies for each scheme are summarized and an overall summary provided of the common reasons for low water use efficiency and common recommendations for improvement (Table 5). Table 5. Common reasons and recommendations for low WUE from studies of 30 Irrigation systems (CWC, 2010) Common reasons for low WUE i) Damaged structures ii) Silting in the canal system iii) Poor maintenance iv) Weed growth in the canal system v) Seepage in the system vi) Over-irrigation vii) Illiterate farmers viii) Changing the cropping pattern Common recommendations for improvement of WUE i) Rehabilitation and restoration of damaged/silted canal system ii) Proper and timely maintenance of the system Selective lining of the canal and distribution system iii) Realistic and scientific system operation iv) Revision of cropping pattern, if needed v) Restoration/provision of appropriate control structures vi) Efficient and reliable communication system vii) Reliable and accurate water measuring system viii) Conjunctive use of ground and surface water ix) Regular revision of water rate x) Encouragement for formation of Water Users Association xi) Training to farmers xii) Micro-credit facilities xiii) Agricultural extension services xiv) Encouragement to farmers for raising livestock 44

56 National Water Policy (2012) India recognizes water as a scarce national resource fundamental to life, livelihood, food security and sustainable development. Recognizing that the availability of utilizable water under further constraints is leading to competition among different users, there is a growing concern on spreading scarcity due to its life sustaining characteristics and its economic value, mismanagement, poor governance, minimum ecological needs, inefficient use and rising pollution. The National water Policy (NWP) thus takes cognizance of the situation and has sketched a framework of creation of a system of laws and institutions and has drawn a plan of action considering water as a unified resource. a) Priority on use of water NWP recognized the need for different use and suggests optimized utilisations for diverse use for which awareness on water as a scarce resource should be fostered. Governance institutions must ensure access to a minimum quantity of potable water for essential health and hygiene to all its citizens at their household. Ecological needs should be determined through scientific studies and a portion of water in rivers should be kept aside to meet ecological requirements. Regulated use of ground water should also consider contribution of base-flow to the river during lean seasons through regulated ground water use. b) NWP on impact of climate change NWP recognizes the importance of adaptation to the impacts of climate change by the community through resilient technologies and endorses adaptation to strategies on increasing storages, demand management, stake holder s participation, and paradigm shift in design of river valley projects in coping with strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change. c) Enhancing water availability for different use The availability of water should be periodically and scientifically reviewed and reassessed in various basins every five years considering changing trends in climate change and accounted for in the planning process. Integrated watershed development activities with groundwater perspectives need be adopted to enhance soil moisture, reduce sediment yield, and increase overall land use productivity of rural development schemes. d) Demand management The policy recommends evolution of a system of benchmarks for water uses for different uses, water footprints, and water auditing to promote and incentivize efficient use of water with clear emphasis on improving project and basin water use efficiencies through appropriate water balance and water accounting studies. Institutional arrangements for promotion, regulation and evolving mechanisms for efficient use of water at basin/sub-basin level need be established. 45

57 e) Regulation of water prices A water regulatory authority should be established in each state to fix and periodically review and regulate the water tariff system and charges according to the principles of NWP. Volumetric assessment and allocation, entitlement and distribution should be the criteria to ensure equity, efficiency and economic principles. WUAs need be given statutory powers to collect and retain a portion of water charges and reuse of recycled water should be incentivized. f) Project planning & implementation The policy document recognizes the need for planning the water resources projects as per efficiency benchmarks to address the challenge of impeding climate change factors. The projects should incorporate social and environmental aspects in addition to the techno-economic aspects through consultative processes with governments, local bodies, project affected people, beneficiaries and stakeholders. g) Data base and information needs The policy stresses the need for establishing a national water informatics centre to collect, collate and process all hydrologic and water related information and maintain all information in an open and transparent manner on a GIS platform. h) Capacity building, research and training needs The NWP emphasizes on the need for continuous research and advancement of technology, implementing newer research findings, importance of water balance in spatial and temporal context, water auditing for projects and hydrological systems, bench marking and performance evaluation. Need for regular training of the manpower for skill in water management is also recognized. The provisions of the new NWP are clearly endorsing the principles of IWRM and suggesting that the framework for water planning, development and management should be clearly governed by these principles. ICID Vision 2030: A Water Secure World Free of Poverty and Hunger The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), established in 1950 is a leading scientific, technical, international not-for-profit organization. ICID is a professional network of experts from across the world in the field of irrigation, drainage, and flood management. The main mission is to promote Sustainable agriculture water management to achieve Water secure world free of poverty and hunger through sustainable rural development. ICID is a knowledge sharing platform dedicated to issues that covers the entire spectrum of agricultural water management practices. In addition, 46

58 drainage of agricultural lands forms the core theme of commission s activities. Floods and drought; the two extremes of increasingly variable climate as a result of potential climate change, also form the focus of activities. Presently, ICID country membership network is spread over 76 countries across Africa, Americas, Asia and Oceania, and Europe, covering over 95% of the irrigated area of the world. Water being a direct or indirect part of 7 out of 17 Sustainable Development Goals, assumes inclusive dimension both as a natural resource for rural development and an essential input commodity for industrial and human (life-style) consumption. Due to increasing industrial prosperity over the last several decades and demographic changes taking place around the world, urban oriented socio-economic considerations have started attracting greater attention of policy makers and investors at the direct cost of rural water issues. The newly emerging and competing demands for water, coupled with the uncertainty of impact of climate change on food productivity, have challenged the ICID stakeholders and partners to redouble their efforts. ICID Vision 2030 for a water secure world free of poverty and hunger through sustainable rural development through its mission to facilitate prudent AWM by encouraging interdisciplinary approaches to irrigation and drainage management is an expression of intent of the network to help various stakeholders in moving towards a World we Want. ICID network, which serves National Committees (NCs), irrigation and drainage professionals, farmers, policy makers, irrigation and drainage industry, researchers and the academia, and the society at large, aims to advocate an enabling integrated policy environment for facilitating multidisciplinary innovations to increase land, water and crop productivities in a sustainable manner in a changing climate. Way Forward In view of the ever growing water demands for domestic use and commercial sectors, and by considering the present status of water use in the irrigation projects, there is an urgent need to improve water resources management and water productivity across all sectors. State Specific Action Plans are required to be developed based on the guidelines of the National Water Mission and Vision documents of organizations like International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage etc. In order to reduce water withdrawals for irrigation, upgrading of irrigation infrastructure through rehabilitation and modernization should be given priority. Other aspects like timely maintenance of irrigation and drainage infrastructure, investment in water storage and water saving technologies, combating the twin menace of water logging and salinity through drainage are required. Maximizing basin water productivity through multi-objective decision making process, developing a rapid innovative research agenda, capacity building at all levels and building of institutional support for local, regional and international markets will go a long way in achieving food and water security. External factors, like impacts of climate change, 47

59 virtual water trade, changes in agriculture markets and the prices of commodities will influence agriculture growth and allied activities. Such changes will require additional adaptations in the development of water management measures to sustain global food production to desired levels and avoid the probability of a severe crisis in the coming years. References Amarasinghe, U.A., Shah T., Turral, H. and Anand, B.K India s water future to : Business-as-usual scenario and deviations. Research Report 123, CWC Summary report on water use efficiency (WUE) studies for 30 irrigation projects. Performance Overview and Management Improvement Organisation (POMIO), Central Water Commission, Government of India, New Delhi GOI National Water Policy, Government of India, New Delhi ICID, A road map to ICID Vision International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, New Delhi. NWM Comprehensive Mission Document, National Water Mission under National Action Plan for Climate change, Government of India, New Delhi. NWUEISP Note on measures to improve water use efficiency and categorization of MMI schemes, Scoping Study for a National Water Use Efficiency 48

60 1. Introduction Climate Change and its Projections towards 2040 K H M S Premalal, Director General of Meteorology, Sri Lanka Sri Lanka is an island attributing sharp climatic variability by its location itself and also with undulating terrains, diverse climatology and high degree of bio-diversity. It was estimated that 60% of the land territory of this country is covered by a dry zone where the water balance is negative due to the evaporation being higher than the effective rain fall. Land cover of the wet zone is about 20% which consists of the south west part of the country and the central hilly region. The balance 20% of the land cover is called as intermediate zone or the transitioned zone from the dry zone to the wet zone. Due to its location within the tropics between ' to ' North latitude and between ' to ' East longitude, in addition to being in the Asiatic monsoon region, the climate of the island could be characterized as both tropical as well as monsoonal. The Southwest monsoon is from May to September and the Northeast monsoon from December to March. The inter-monsoon periods are from March to April and from October to November. In general, average annual rainfall above 2500 mm is denoted as wet zone and that below 1750 mm is denoted as dry zone And area where the annual average rainfall is between 1750 mm and 2500 mm is known as the intermediate zone. Total area of the country is counted as 65,550 square km out of which 5,500 square km are covered by natural and man-made waterbodies. In addition, high potential ground water terrains have been identified according to the country geology but not quantified fully. 2. Climate Change in Sri Lanka Recent analysis of temperature data in Sri Lanka shows significant increasing trend, both Maximum and Minimum. With the increase of temperature, extreme climatic conditions (Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution the range that has been seen in the past) related to temperature and rainfall with high seasonal variability ** have been established in Sri Lanka. ** Changes in rainfall pattern, short term extreme rainfall events with longer dry spells, increase in extreme temperature results in excessive evaporation, irregular onset of monsoons and agriculture seasons. A changing climate leads to changes in the frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration, and timing of weather and climate extremes, and can result in unprecedented extremes 49

61 increasing exposure of people and economic assets has been the major cause of long-term increases in economic losses from climate related disasters (IPCC SREX 2012). 2.1 Observed Change of Temperature in Sri Lanka Annual average temperature increased by one degree Celsius for the period 1900 to With that the following extremes have been identified: 1. Increase in number of warm nights 2. Increase in number of warm days 3. Decrease in number of cold days 4. Decrease in number of cold nights 5. Increase in Maximum of Maximum temperatures and Minimum temperatures 6. Decrease in Diurnal (difference between day and night) temperature range over most regions of the island. 2.2 Observed Changes of Rainfall Pattern in Sri Lanka Annual total rainfall pattern has not changed significantly, but it was observed that related extreme events show slight increasing trend in most places. Occurrence of heavy rainfall events (different periods) have increased (Table 1). Table 1. Rainfall pattern 2.3 Other Changes related to Onset of Monsoon Periods There is no clear indication for the change of monsoon onset and onset of the agriculture seasons. However, there are some indications for delayed onset of southwest monsoon. However, onset of agriculture seasons also shows some variability. Total annual average rainfall for the entire country is 1861 mm and it is equivalent to 122 km3 ((1861x10-6x65610) km 3. Out of this amount, only 10% are required for the domestic, industries and irrigation purposes. 50

62 Water Balance according to Ratnasara, 2006 (Irrigation Department) 60 % Evaporation - Evapo - transpiration - Considering 3mm /day due to evaporation and evapo-transpiration (note: Evapo -Transpiration can be increased with high temperature. Therefore value will be higher in future) 30% To the Sea 10 % Domestic, Irrigation and Industrial 37 % Runoff Figure 1 Water balance shown above is based on the data available in 2006, but more land use changes occurred during last few years and at present more runoff can be expected. Agricultural and other crops use ground water (Infiltration 63%). Therefore, ground water recharge is one of the most important part for water conservation to face the goal zero hunger in 2030 targeting Sustainable Development Goal. However, future climate projection with the possibility of having extreme weather condition have to be studied to get policy decision for future. 3. Future Climate Projections Climate change projections, also referred to as climate scenarios, are widely used for assessments of the potential impacts of climate change on natural processes and human activities, including assessments conducted at the local/regional scale. 51

63 Future projections indicate that the Annual rainfall anomaly is negative in Northeastern parts, and positive in Southwestern parts in , while Annual rainfall anomaly is positive and increasing thereafter under moderate emission scenario. Annual rainfall anomaly is positive and increasing under high emission scenario with increasing anomaly significant in the wet zone. Southwest monsoon rainfall anomaly is positive and increasing in both moderate and high emission scenarios with increasing anomaly significant in the wet zone (Fig 2). Figure 2: Multi model ensemble of change in Southwest-Monsoon rainfall (left) and Northeast -Monsoon Rainfall (right), relative to for moderate emission scenario (RCP 4.5) (upper) and high emission scenario (RCP 8.5) for time periods ( ), ( ), ( ). Northeast monsoon rainfall anomaly is negative for short term, medium term and long term projections and negative trend is observed under moderate emission scenario. Northeast monsoon rainfall anomaly slightly positive in short term projection , and negative thereafter for medium term and long term projections under high emission scenario. A negative trend is observed for high emission scenario. Decreasing anomaly is significant over the dry zone (Fig 2). First Inter-Monsoon rainfall anomaly is negative in , slightly negative in and positive except Northeastern parts under moderate emission scenario. First Inter Monsoon rainfall anomaly is negative in all 3 time frames with no significant trend under high emission scenario. Second Inter-Monsoon rainfall anomaly is negative in Northeastern parts, and positive in Southwestern parts in Second Inter Monsoon rainfall anomaly is positive and increasing under high scenarios with significant increase of positive rainfall anomaly over the Southwestern and Southeastern parts. 52

64 Multi model ensemble prediction indicates increase in Maximum temperatures as well as Minimum temperatures for all 3 time periods in , and for both moderate emission and High emission scenarios. 53

65 Extension Approaches for Sustainability of Agriculture and Food Eco-System2 Bharat S. Sontakki 1 I S. Rao 2 and Bhuvana Rao 3 1 Head, Extension Systems Management Division, ICAR-NAARM, Hyderabad, India ( 1 Professor & University Head, Department of Agricultural Extension, PJTSAU, Hyderabad, India ( 1 Ph. D. Scholar, Department of Agricultural Extension, PJTSAU, Hyderabad, India ( Introduction. The projected human population of 9.2 billion by 2050 casts tremendous pressure on agriculture to meet the food and nutrition requirements. To meet such demand increase of food production from land and water resources needs to increase by about 70% in the next three decades or so. And such increased production has to be harnessed from decreasing resources of land and water. Earlier attempts at intensification of agricultural production have allowed output to keep up with global demand but these have also created problems of sustainability such as decrease in soil health including through excessive soil nutrient mining, increase in soil erosion, excessive water use, decline and degradation of biodiversity, the impact on the environment of the overuse and inefficient use of fertilizer and especially pesticides, leading to pest resistance and pest outbreaks. In the process ecosystem services such as pest regulation, pollination, nutrient cycling and maintenance of aquatic and terrestrial biotopes are often disrupted, and agricultural inputs are often not used efficiently (Anonymous, 2010). The challenge gets confounded in the wake of the intensity and breadth of climate change effects. Hence, the sustainable use of agricultural and food ecosystem necessitates the highest priority in the development agenda. The Agriculture and Food Eco-System. The Agriculture and Food Eco-System (AFES) is a dynamic aggregation of natural (land, soil, water, air) and biological (flora and fauna) resources constantly interacting with socio-political and cultural milieu of humankind. 54

66 The AFES goes beyond the conventional land and water based production systems to include post-harvest handling, processing, transportation, distribution, access and affordability of food, fibre and fuel needs of human beings. In a way, AFES is a complete value chain in itself covering a complex interplay of ecosystem components of natural, biological and human resources, where efficiency or otherwise of one component will affect the efficiency of others (figure 1). Figure 1: The Agriculture and Food Eco-System 3 Eco-system sustainability. Every single component of the AFES be it natural, biological or human has an inherent carrying capacity. When our efforts of increasing food and nutrition availability to ever increasing population that too under conditions challenged by climate adversities and dwindling natural resources surpass this carrying capacity, the eco-system sustainability is negatively affected. Eco-system sustainability refers to judicious harnessing of the eco-system resources to optimize the productivity and production of food, fodder, fuel and fibre to meet the current and future requirements. The key dimensions of sustainable use of agricultural and food eco-system resources are, i) Increasing resource productivity by augmenting indigenous and modern science based knowledge systems, ii) Planned expansion of production regimes in otherwise unutilized resources without affecting the eco-balance, iii) Enhancing resource use efficiency of purchased inputs, 3 Adapted from accessed on 20 April

67 iv) Managing biodiversity and ecosystem services, v) Efficient resource recycling by waste management technologies, vi) Promoting responsible consumerism like avoiding food wastage vii) Strengthening livelihoods, Actuation of the above agenda requires committed and concerted actions by all the stakeholders in the development agenda. Moreover, such actions should unequivocally be backed by strong socio-political will at local, state, national, regional and global levels, and investment support by the governments. These actionable interventions should focus on the following sustainable ways of optimally harnessing the AFES resources: 1. Conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture 2. Conservation agriculture 3. Integrated pest management 4. Integrated plant nutrient management 5. Agricultural water management 6. Agricultural waste management 7. Pollination management Extension approaches for ecosystem sustainability. Agricultural extension (referred to as rural advisory services in some countries and agencies) works with with the peasant communities - the most vulnerable community likely to be adversely affected by unsustainable intensive farming practices. Agricultural extension has played important role in agricultural development, the world over. However, the newer challenges in the agricultural and food landscapes necessitate a new order in the way agricultural extension is professed and advisories delivered to the farmers. Global literature suggests that agricultural extension to remain relevant and render strategic contribution must reinvent itself with newer roles in addition to the conventional transfer of technology and agro-advisory. The Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS) has been continuously providing evidence-based policy advocacy on changing role of extension and rural advisory services to meet the emerging challenges. The New Extensionist (2012) publication of GFRAS mentions the following in this direction. These new challenges also mean that EAS need to tackle a diversity of objectives that include, but go well beyond, transferring new technologies. This encompasses the need to: link more effectively and responsively to domestic and international markets where globalization is increasingly competitive; reduce the vulnerability and enhance the voice and empowerment of the rural poor, promote environmental conservation; couple technology transfer with other services relating to credit, input and output markets, and enhance the capacity development role that includes training but also strengthening innovation processes, building linkages between farmers and other agencies, and institutional and organisational development to support the bargaining position of farmers (Sontakki & Subash, 2017 and Sontakki et. al. 2018). Addressing these global challenges require generation, adaptation, and use of new knowledge. This involves interaction and support from a wide range of organisations in the agricultural innovation system. Moreover, solutions for most of the new challenges would require new forms of interaction, organisation, and agreement between multiple actors. 56

68 Reaching out with science-backed and evidence-based arguments for garnering policy and public support is the primary objective of outreach strategies. This calls for multiinstitutional, inter-disciplinary and pluralistic action on the part of stakeholders. Outreach efforts should be focused on promoting the key dimensions to achieve eco-system sustainability. Outreach and advisory services public, private and non-government, with increasingly proactive producer collectives 4, thus, have a major role to play in providing farmers with information, technologies and education on how to sustainably harness AFES resources. This support is especially important for resource-scarce smallholders who play a major role in biodiversity conservation, a role hardly recognized by the development agencies. Discussed below are important extension approaches to foster eco-system sustainability Undertake participatory vulnerability assessment studies. It is evident that impacts of unsustainable development vary across macro, meso and micro levels in terms of agro-ecologies, demographics and socio-economic conditions. Vulnerability at macro and meso levels can be assessed based on analysis of long term spatio-temporal data on weather parameters for a nation, region or a state and historical profile analysis of calamities and disasters and then correlating the two to map which areas are more vulnerable to climate change induced disasters. However, micro-level assessment of vulnerability assumes greater significance to build resilience in the local communities to enable them to be climate smart. Multi-agency, interdisciplinary participatory approaches work very well for such mapping studies. The analysis could be enriched further by using techniques such as participatory geographical information system (PGIS). The fact that farmers do have their own local knowledge systems has to be taken advantage of in such micro-level assessments. Participatory management of AFES: Participatory technology development, assessment, refinement and application are needed to prioritize, test and promote new technologies and management techniques. While outreach must now go beyond such methods there is still a need for simple technology transfer in order to increase ecosystem sustainability. Farmers need a variety of new and additional information and knowledge on climatic information, forecasts, adaptive technology innovations or markets. Locally relevant and appropriate technologies and management techniques like IPM, INM, CA and Zero Tillage (ZT). Additionally, knowledge of cropping and management systems that are known to improve ecosystem sustainability like agroforestry, intercropping and sequential cropping also need to be promoted wherever they are appropriate. Some of these practices have the added advantage of improved natural resource management. Tree planting can also help to improve soil, prevent soil erosion and increase biodiversity. It is important to provide farmers with information about how the various options will potentially increase income and yields, protect household food security, improve soils, enhance sustainability and generally help to augment ecosystem balance. Blending of local and expert knowledge systems assumes critical importance here. This calls for a change in orientation of outreach from providing packages of technological and management advice to enabling farmers and other stakeholders with the knowledge and skills they need to choose the best option to deal with the AFES and to make informed decisions about how to engage in new markets for carbon emissions. 4 like the Self Help Groups, Commodity Interest Groups, Farmer Interest Groups, Farmer Producer Organizations, Cooperatives, Farmer Producer Companies 57

69 Capacity development. One of the major activities of outreach over time has been adult and non-formal education. This role becomes more important than ever to enable stakeholders for ecosystem sustainability. Proven farmer-led capacity development interventions like the Farmer Field School, Farmer School, Community Based Coastal Resource Management, etc. can be customized and organized as per the local requirements Capacities of outreach agencies and professionals also need be strengthened. They need to be equipped with competencies for innovative outreach activities based on adult-learning and lifelong learning philosophies. Recent innovative extension activities include experiential learning approaches utilized in farmer field schools an extension and education approach already working with farmers on issues of climate change. Climate Field Schools (CFSs) have been established in West Java and Indonesia to deal with climate change in agriculture. Another example is a multimedia campaign planned by True Nature Kenya and the World Agroforestry Centre that will show films and offer educational follow-up by extension agents to publicize grassroots solutions to the problems of climate change. The capacity of farmers to cope with different forms of risk will become ever more crucial and extension efforts must pay special attention to educate farmers about their options to enhance resilience and response capacity. Education must, thus, move beyond technical training to enhance farmers abilities for planning, problem solving, critical thinking, prioritizing, negotiating, building consensus and leadership skills, working with multiple stakeholders and finally being proactive. Capacity development is important within extension as well. Extension agents have traditionally been trained only in technical expertise and often lack soft skills such as communication, development of farmer groups, systems thinking, knowledge management and networking. To improve outcomes in rural development, farmers and extension agents need new skills that will require agricultural education and extension curriculums toinclude valuing and understanding the knowledge and experiences of rural people and co-learning (that is farmers and extension agents learning together rather than extension agents training farmers in a one-way information transfer). Because of their background trainings have to be based on the principles of training by doing and learning by doing like being followed by the Krishi Vigyan Kendras. Most of the trainings have to be in situ, off-campus/ village based as many farmers cannot afford to come for residential courses. The training strategy should be to reach farmers, farm women and young farmers including boys and girls with special priority to school dropouts. We must build training infrastructures/institutions nearer to the farming situations as best as possible. KVKs being promoted in India for each district is a good example in this respect (Singh and Grover, 2013). Facilitating, brokering and implementing policies and programs. Another extension approach which will be critical for ecosystem sustainability is that of acting as an honest broker bringing together different actors within the rural sector. Traditionally this has meant linking farmers to transport agents, markets and inputs suppliers among others. For sustainability concerns, it will be increasingly important for the extension system to link farmers and other people in rural communities directly with voluntary and regulated carbon markets, private and public institutions that disseminate resource conservation knowledge and. Convergence and coordination. Need for convergence and coordination is more imminent to deal with complexities of ecosystem sustainability. The range of subjects 58

70 and specializations and also the nature of effects make it imperative to bring together expertise from a wide range of stakeholders on a common agenda ecosystem sustainability. Coordination is required within the disciplines/specializations, between institutions and departments and in functional areas like research, extension and training. The old concept of people s participation and new thrust on participatory research and development bring farmers also in the framework of interactions at all levels. More allied agencies have to be brought together to serve the farmers on the lines of farming systems approach. Institutional reforms and infrastructure augmentation. According to Ozor (2009) there is need for change in roles and capacity in the extension system so as to accommodate the key dimensions of ecosystem sustainability. In order to provide practical solutions to hazards and sudden uncertainties in agricultural production there is need to establish emergency management units within every extension agency that will be trained to take charge of victims of disasters emanating from climate change risks such as flooding, erosion, acid rains, drought, submergence and poisoning from agricultural chemicals (insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, etc.). The role of extension in emergency management is advocated because they work very closely and live with the rural farmers and can provide at least the best first aid assistance before the arrival of experts. It therefore makes it important for extension to be linked to the state emergency services, health workers and the police. The primary role of extension is in the dissemination of innovations to targeted clientele ranging from farmers, pastoralists, fisher-folks, hunters, foresters, wine-tappers and other rural residents who depend on agriculture in one way or the other. Demonstration of appropriate technologies for ecosystem sustainability. Innovative approaches of teaching and demonstrating appropriate technologies like social marketing along with method demonstration, result demonstration, print media (for example, posters, leaflets etc.) and computer/telecommunication media (for example internet, television, cinema, radio, computer, etc.) are needed. Farmers learn by doing and practices learnt during a demonstration session could lead to adoption of the technology. Farmers perceive the use of demonstration methods as a significant role of extension in disseminating know-how, know-why and do-how of knowledge and technologies for ecosystem sustainability. Deployment of digital technologies. The role of digital technologies (also referred to as Information and Communication Technologies ICTs) to enhance food security and support farming cannot be ignored. Its role in agriculture which includes use of computers, Internet, geographical information systems, mobile phones, radio and television was endorsed at the World Summit on the Information Society A number of factors influence the decision whether or not to invest in ICT: higher costs, lack of competition, lack of relevant skills for effective use of ICT could be inhibitors (Caseli and Coleman 2001). The use of mobile phones has been found to reduce information asymmetries, enabling users to access arbitrage, marketing or trade opportunities (Jensen 2007). Agricultural decisions on timely land preparation, planting, weeding, irrigation, harvesting, storage and marketing have always been central concerns to agricultural stakeholders. New generation ICTs is the time of new generation digital technologies like Unmanned Arial Vehicles, Censor, Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality, etc. These technologies known as Internet of Things (IoTs) have the potential to bring in positive disruptions in our thinking, analysing, 59

71 decision-making and communication. ICT especially mobile telephones can speed the way farmers in rural areas get, exchange and manipulate information. They rework the way farmers interact with markets and cities. A variety of innovations that integrate ICTs into the dissemination of agricultural information to farmers (Farmers Information Services FIS) have been developed at local, national and regional levels. They have currently demonstrated a promising field of new research and application in e-agriculture whilst bringing new sources of information and new tools for local knowledge dissemination. They are increasingly enabling farmers to focus, search and extract useful and up-to-date market information. Because of its potential to ameliorate this old rural farming problem an evaluation of its usage among farming communities becomes necessary. The use of Kisan Mobile Advisory Services (KMAS) by Krishi Vigyan Kendras in which the farmers get message for the relevant crop pest attack or use of various technologies during growth stage of the crop is the example in this respect (Singh and Grover, 2013). Feedback role. Outreach professionals live and work with the people in rural areas. This affords them the opportunity to be knowledgeable on issues that border on ecosystem sustainability. These professionals, thereby have an innate advantage to voice the concerns and problems of the stakeholders they serve in remote areas and also performance feedback on the schemes and programs, technological interventions etc. in appropriate fora like meetings, workshops and also through mandatory or otherwise reports. The feedback, if well supported with documentary and research evidences can help in refining the technological interventions and reforming programmes and schemes for better impact. In this circumstance challenges such as flooding, drought, pest and diseases infestation, submergence by water and other catastrophic effects of unsustainable farming practices. Similarly, local practices which have helped a particular individual or community to sustainably manage ecosystem resources can also be reported and advertised, thereby creating the avenue for such practice(s) to be replicated and up-scaled in other areas. Social marketing. Social marketing refers to communication strategy using the commercial marketing principles and techniques to promote the adoption of a behaviour that will improve the health or well-being of the target audience or society as a whole. It involves developing a participatory comprehensive and multi-pronged communication strategy, pre-testing, implementation, evaluation and feed-back generation for revision to promote desirable behavioural changes with respect to issues having large scale societal impact. Many agencies both public and private have been effectively using social marketing as outreach approach to effect positive behavioural changes on programmes and issues related to health, education, agriculture, governance, etc. Mindful consumption. It is premised on a consumer mind-set of caring for self, for community, and for nature, that translates behaviourally into tempering the selfdefeating excesses associated with acquisitive, repetitive and aspirational consumption (Sheth et. al, 2011). It aims to harness marketing function to successfully implement the customer-centric approach to sustainability. Drucker (1973, p. 76) urged that Managers must convert society s needs in to opportunities for profitable business. The Customer Centric Sustainability (CCS) framework, with Mindful Consumption (MC) as its underpinning offers a fruitful avenue for converting sustainability as one of the most pressing concerns of the global community into an opportunity to ensure that business is both profitable and sustainable. 60

72 Extension is inevitable. Gathering information is expensive. Extension has proven itself to be a cost effective means of bringing about greater economic returns for farmers with significant and positive effects on knowledge, adoption and productivity. Studies of extension productivity report rates of return from 13 to 500 per cent. A recent study demonstrated that receiving at least one extension visit in Ethiopia reduced smallholders likelihood of being poor by 10 per cent and increased consumption growth by 7 per cent. Extension is thus a cost-effective tool that can play an important role in dealing with climate change while at the same time helping to increase productivity and reduce poverty (Singh and Grover, 2013). Hill (1998) concluded that it will be the awareness, empowerment, vision and values of people, and our appropriate use of science (and other ways of knowing) and technology, that will enable us to achieve sustainable food systems. We need to repeatedly remind ourselves that however powerful our science and technology might be, alone they will not be able to achieve sustainability this will only be realised through our own psychosocial evolution (Hill, 1990a, 1991b). Indeed, the ability of a single, aware and empowered individual to bring about meaningful change should not be underestimated assume you are that individual. Conclusion. Ecosystem sustainability is a multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional concept. It is the only plausible solution to meet the food, nutrition and livelihood securities of millions of poor and marginalized as well as other communities. It requires concerted efforts from all the stakeholders individuals and institutions. Hence, it is imperative that the profession and science of extension, which works with the aim to bring desirable changes in human behaviour, has its role cut out in promoting ecosystem sustainability. For this, we need outreach approaches and interventions by public, private and nongovernment institutions to enable the stakeholders for responsible farming and thereby aim at ecosystem sustainability. To capture this potential role, funding from various sources like the public, private and crowd-funding could be used to support outreach efforts that deliver new technologies, information and education about conservation and sustainable use of agricultural and food ecosystem resources. Traditionally extension has worked to promote new technologies and management techniques, educate farmers and act as a facilitator or broker for rural communities. It can continue its link role in the field with emerging concepts like social marketing and mindful consumption. Considerable expert judgment or accumulated experiences are available in farming communities who live with AFES resources over time. The availability of usable science-based indigenous and modern knowledge needs to be tailored to suit local ecosystem needs. To facilitate this process, there is a need to create a new cadre of outreach professionals who specialize in science-society integration. These integrators need to be part of the initial institutional set-up with specific responsibilities and terms of reference. All of these roles can be harnessed in a cost-effective way to help resource-poor smallholders deal with the issues of ecosystem sustainability that will so radically affect their livelihood and enable them for ecologically sound, profitable and dignified farming. 61

73 References Anonymous Impact of climate change, pests and diseases on food security and poverty reduction. Special event background document for the 31st Session of the Committee on World Food Security, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, May Anonymous Reengaging in agricultural water management: challenges and options. Directions in Development, World Bank, Washington, DC. Anonymous Adaptation to climate change in agriculture, forestry and fisheries: perspective, framework and priorities. Interdepartmental working group on climate change, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. Anonymous Water and the rural poor: interventions for improving livelihoods in sub-saharan Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. Anonymous An Ecosystem Approach to Sustainable Crop Production Intensification: A Conceptual Framework, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy [ eptual_framework.pdf] accessed on 18 April Caseli F and Coleman WJ Cross country technology diffusion: the case study of computers. NBER Working papers No 8130, National Bureau of Economic Research. Falkenmark M Global warming: water the main mediator. Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm Water Front, No 2, June 2007, pp 6-7. Grace PR, Harrington L, Jain MC and Robertson GP Long-term sustainability of the tropical and subtropical rice-wheat system: an environmental perspective. In: Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat systems: issues and impact (eds JK Ladha, J Hill, RK Gupta, J Duxbury and RJ Buresh). ASA special publications 65, ch 7, Madison, WI: ASA, pp Hill SB Redesigning Agroecosystems for Environmental Sustainability: A Deep Systems Approach. Systems Research and Behavioural Science Systems Research 15: Hill S B 1990a. Ecological and psychological prerequisites for the establishment of sustainable Prairie agricultural communities. In Martin, J. (ed.), Alternative Futures for Prairie Agricultural Communities, University of Alberta, Edmonton, pp Hill S B. 1991a. Changing ourselves to change the world (pp.1, 4); Problem-solving models: from shallow to deep sustainability (p.3); A personal strategy to implement change (p.5). Manna (Newsletter of the International Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture) 8(4), 8 pp. Iqbal Singh and Jagdish Grover Role of extension agencies in climate change related adaptation strategies. International Journal of Farm Sciences. 3(1):

74 Jensen Robert The digital provide: information technology, market performance and welfare in the south Indian fisheries sector. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume CXXII. Lal R Enhancing crop yields in the developing countries through restoration of the soil organic carbon pool in agricultural lands. Land Degradation and Development 17: McClean CJ, Lovett JC, Kuper W, Hannah L, Sommer JH, Barthlott W, Termansen M, Smith GF, Tokumine S and Taplin JRD African plant diversity and climate change. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 92(2): Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC Nelson GC Agriculture and climate change: an agenda for negotiation in Copenhagen Focus No 16, May asp. Ozor N Implications of climate change for national development: the way forward. Debating policy options for national development, Enugu Forum Policy Paper 10; African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE), Enugu, Nigeria, pp Parmeshwar Udmalea, Yutaka Ichikawaa, Sujata Manandharb, Hiroshi Ishidairaa, Anthony S Kiemc Farmers perception of drought impacts, local adaptation and administrative mitigation measures in Maharashtra State, India. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 10 (Part-A): Raleigh C and Urdal H Climate change, environmental degradation and armed conflict. Political Geography 26(6): Reddy GP, Sivaramane N, Dhandapani A, Sreekanth PD and Kumar KV Project report of National Initiative on Climate Smart Agriculture (NICRA) identify adaptation strategies, mitigate climate risks and estimate their potential costs and benefits. ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad, India, pp 189. (Unpublished). Sheth Jagdish N, Sethia Nirmal K and Srinivas Shanthi Mindful consumption: a customer-centric approach to sustainability. Joural of the Academy of Marketing Science 39: Sontakki BS and Subash SP Farmer Innovation System: Rethinking the Way We Look at Farmer Innovations, In Belavadi et. al., (Eds.), Agriculture under Climate Change: threats, strategies and policies, Bangalore, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., pp (ISBN ) Sontakki BS Mainstreaming farmer innovations: implications for extension with focus on partnerships, Presentation as Invited speaker in the 1st International Extension Congress on New Horizons of Extension-Challenges and Opportunities at ICAR-CIWA, Bhubaneswar during 1-3 February

75 Towards Social and Environmental Justice Centred Paradigm for the Revival of Agriculture Extension Services: Critical Thinking, Resistance, and Change. Jude L. Fernando Department of International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE) Clark University, Worcester, MA Agriculture is about humans existence as social and ecological beings. The appalling trends in agriculture globally-its role as a driver of hunger and malnutrition of nearly one billion people, diseases, ecological crises and conflict-thus, point to the multifaceted crises of human civilization. These crises need to be understood in relation to policies embedded in the narrative of neoliberal capitalism that posits growth-centered agricultural policies as the solution to global issues of food security and climate change. The failures of millennium development goals (MDGs) and widespread pessimism about the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to address these issues calls us to critically reflect on and seek alternatives to how neoliberalism transforms the agriculture in the image of the global market, and how it separate science from wisdom in the sense that the organization of means has become independent of the reflection of ends. The agrarian reforms in Sri Lanka, particularly since 1977 intended to promote marketbased productivity growth have aggressively marginalised agriculture, removing it from the centre of the country s development program. Many of the celebrated glories of Sri Lanka s hydraulic civilisation are thus only of symbolic significance, as they are being exploited to legitimise the continuing enslavement agriculture for the survival of capitalism. The multifarious crises resulting from this enslavement are themselves at the root of Sri Lanka s intractable social, economic and ecological problems. Collectively these crises are a manifestation of the moral decay of society as a whole, embodying as they do the values that shape how people relate to each other and to their natural environment. Such a predicament is unfortunate and unacceptable in a land that is blessed with 103 river basins, a vast network of watersheds, wide distribution of rich soil and an impressive knowledge base relating to sustainable agriculture. Just like the MDGs, SDGs and therein the role of agriculture extension services are vulnerable to failure as long as they are framed by neoliberalism. A paradigm shift in the world of agriculture is urgently needed if we are to make use of the rapidly vanishing opportunities for reclaiming agriculture with a view to improving societal and ecological well-being of the society. To this end, the intention of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on counter-hegemonic paradigms of agriculture centred on social and environmental justice that will improve the impact of agriculture extension services. It focuses on four different premises: critical thinking, resistance, and transformation. The claims of this paper are based on lessons learned from eight years of field and archival research on social and ecological change in selected villages in the Madawachichiya Divisional secretary's division of the Malwathu Oya river basin. 64

76 Critical Thinking Rethinking the role of extension services needs to begin with the critical reflection of the way we understand the agrarian crisis. Most influential conceptualisations of agrarian crisis, and the solutions they offer for averting it, distract society from the root causes of this crisis and legitimise the very policies responsible for it. This paper problematizes these conceptualisations as well as the indicators used to measure the success and failure of such remedial policies, with particular emphasis on how language, knowledge, practices and power nexuses pertaining to agriculture are part and parcel of neoliberal capitalism, bringing with them a host of implications for social and ecological well-being worldwide. Whose interests, this paper asks, are served by current agricultural knowledge systems and institutions and the practices built upon them? In answering this question, it argues that modern agricultural policies overriding emphasis on increasing economic growth as a natural, on-going and self-sustained process measured by gross domestic product (GDP) is the primary factor in the current agricultural crisis, far outweighing slow growth, lack of innovation, efficiency problems, overbureaucratization, and corruption. In fact, it can be argued that the latter reasons given for failures of agriculture sector are driven by the need to dismantle agricultural practices that do not directly contribute to economic growth. Neoliberalism s rediscovery, rather than neglect, of agriculture as a growth-promising sector is driving the current agricultural crisis. Indeed, neoliberal rationality s conception of trade, rather than lack of trade, is the primary driver of food insecurity, of the dispossession and marginalisation of peasants, and of heightened levels of inequality and impending environmental crisis. Indeed, the infusion of global financial capital into the peasant economy under various guises (e.g., microfinance, the empowerment of women), rather than a shortage of capital functions, is responsible for peasants debt-driven vulnerability. The global financial crisis, driven by its own growth imperatives, pushed nearly 100 million people into hunger in 2009, bringing the overall number of undernourished people in the world to over one billion. The issue of global food security does not result from an underproduction of food but rather from the commodification of overproduction of food, and dispossession of farmers of land used for growing staple food crops. Accordingly, global agrochemical and processing industry control of agriculture must first be understood in terms of its direct contribution to economic growth rather than its ability to increase agricultural productivity. Agriculture s rediscovery by neoliberalism has had consequences for social and ecological impacts of agriculture sector. All successive governments since 1977 prioritized exportled growth over feeding the people and food self-sufficiency as the primary goal of national agriculture policies. Imperatives of political expediency in the wake of economic and political crises generated by restructuring the economy under President JR. Jayewardene s government divided agriculture and livestock into two different ministries, 65

77 denying then existed integrated agricultural services to the farmers. Transnational and local capitalist alliances welcomed such measures, since they made it easy for them to exploit the growth potential of those services. Similar political imperatives under President Premadas s government saw the end of farmer-contented integrated extension services. Most attempts to politically decentralize agricultural services during this period meant further centralization and bureaucratization of those services and expanding local opportunities for the commodification of those services under political patronage. Politicization of those services was inevitable, as the farmers, without resources and time, found it convenient to access those services through their respective political representatives. The creation of a separate seed certification/quarantine unit at the Katunayaka International airport was, partly, a political response to the seed certification unit in Ganonoruwa denying a request of permission by an influential individual to import aricanuts to Sri Lanka. The request was denied on the grounds of preventing pests from harming coconut trees. The collapse of local seed production centers led to the need for foreign entities, and the politicization of agricultural reforms for seed certification policies was primarily driven by the growth imperatives of private sector seed importing companies. This trend is partly responsible for the decline of local varieties of vegetables and fruits, endangering the country s biodiversity. Moreover, the performance of Vap Magula an ancient agriculture ritual by former President J.R. Jayewardene was promised to revitalize the ancient civilization based on agriculture, irrigation, and religion, camouflaging the transformation of the agricultural sector according to the dictates of neoliberal institutions. The notion of culture, which is a derivative of agriculture, is now produced in response to the political and economic imperatives of global capital. The agricultural policies cannot possibly be ecologically responsible when administrative boundaries of agriculture production conflict with natural ecological boundaries of natural resources (e.g. forest, water supply). The performance of the agriculture sectors is measured within highly politicized administration. Each administrative unit carries agriculture, forestry, and mining practices depending on localized economic and political imperatives without any consideration of the broader social and ecological beyond the local areas. Most extension services today are preoccupied with integrating farmers into the global economy rather than being the critical voice of its excesses. For the most part, extension services have embraced the idea that more growth with aggressive implementation of neoliberal policies as the only option available to settle the agrarian crisis. Resistance Farmers are not passive victims of neoliberalism. Extension officers play an important part in the ways farmers articulate and express their resistance against injustices and inequalities they experience. Agriculture extension offices cannot avoid engaging with resistance. Unfortunately, today extension services have become agents of managing and 66

78 suppressing resistance on behalf of neoliberal institutions. Failure to make resistance against social and environmental injustices as a part of extension services is a recipe for their co-optation by neoliberal interest groups. We must not forget decline of extension services coincide with the declining resistance against the aggressive implementation of neoliberal policies in the agriculture sector. Current agricultural policies seek to socialise agricultural knowledge and practices, moulding them to the growth objectives of neoliberalism, which arose as a way for capitalism to consolidate its global hegemony since the 1970s. The complete subordination of agricultural extension, consultancy and education services to corporate interests have seen such services lose their autonomy and, as a result, their ability to think critically and in counterhegemonic ways. Thus knowledge and wisdom of agriculture practices found in vast body of vernacular literature and oral histories are marginalized as they do not satisfy the requirements of science and neoliberal economic policies. Sri Lanka s agricultural crises are thus local manifestations of the country s response to the accumulation and legitimisation crises of global capital that are associated with its own growth objectives. For this reason, alternative paradigms must simultaneously be critical and resistant against the subordination of agricultural knowledge as well as practices that primarily serve interests that are counterproductive to sustainable development. Resistance, defined as praxis, is a prerequisite for building resilience against social and environmental inequalities and injustices pertaining to agriculture and for creating pathways for socially and ecologically sustainable agriculture. Sri Lankan history since the colonial period provides many examples of peasant resistance against capitalist agricultural policies and of movements that have sought to organise farmer-centred agricultural practices. In fact, in the past, many extension offices have played a leading role in these movements. Social theorists, however, have generally minimised the centrality of peasant resistance as an important driver of social and political upheavals in Sri Lanka in the years since the 1818 Rebellion. Certainly, resistance is not treated as an integral part of agricultural education or policy. Rather, it is viewed negatively, being seen as having no value for sustainable agriculture. Yet capitalism s ability to marginalise resistance from the agricultural policies explains, in part, capitalism s remarkable creative power, with which it suppresses challenges to its survival by appropriating and exploiting the language and practices of its opponents. A revival of extension services would be a futile exercise without making resistance, especially against capitalism's exploitation of resistance to serve its own ends, as one of its integral parts. Transformation Extension officers are primarily agents of change. Their resistance against neoliberalization of agriculture is morally justifiable and can contribute to human and ecological well-being only to the extent to which it accompanies an agenda for change. To do so, we must locate the production of knowledge and practices outside the values and 67

79 conceptual apparatus of mainstream economics the knowledge production arm of neoliberal institutions. Unfortunately, today extension officers have become agents of translating the neoliberal knowledge into practice at the field level. Then decolonizing the agriculture knowledge production from neoliberalism, then, is a necessary prerequisite to creating counter-hegemonic spaces to address the social and ecological problems pertains to agriculture and grounded those spaces in transdisciplinary economic thinking committed for social and environmental justice. The ideas for an alternative paradigm suggested in this paper draw on Solidarity Economics, De-growth economics and global movements of food sovereignty and food justice as sources to articulate alternatives to neoliberal agricultural policies, in particular for their ability to accommodate culturally diverse systems that could be catalysts for sustainable agriculture. These new interventions do not offer a blueprint for change rather, they open conceptual space in which to imagine and enact alternative ways of organising agricultural practices. Even so, they share a common goal: abolishing growth as a social objective and downscaling of production and consumption as a means of preserving resources while re-engineering a more equitable society through voluntary transition towards a just, participatory, and ecologically sustainable society. The primary drivers of such transition in Sri Lankan context should be the field based and farmercentered agriculture extension services that integrate forestry, livestock, mining and farming at local and national levels. Notable socially and ecologically sustainable Sri Lankan agricultural practices (e.g., agriculture cooperatives, organic food and fair trade projects, the Hada Bima food project and U.M. Upawansa s Dutuwewa agriculture experiment) do not have a clear pathway to alternatives to neoliberal economic policies. Many survive only briefly, being often timeand aid-bound, although some have indeed created new opportunities for capitalist encroachment of capitalism and have provided popular legitimacy for and depoliticisation of resistance against the global economy. Ironically, capitalism after plundering and destroying traditional organic agriculture now encourages organic agriculture products which are inaccessible to the majority of the global population. At the same time, the replication of such practices on a wider scale is permitted only so long as they do not undermine the economy s growth objective. Finally, we need to accept the reality that the revival of interests in agriculture and therein the role of extension services are happening within the context of neoliberalism. The success of agriculture extension services will have a greater impact on MDGs only if those services are located in a paradigm that challenges the fundamentals of neoliberalism. A successful alternative paradigm will fundamentally depend on the development and mobilisation a broad range of stakeholders who are willing to take the risks, embrace the uncertainty and conflict, and make the sacrifices involved in experimenting with counterhegemonic ideas and practices that could contribute to human and ecological wellbeing. In this endeavour, extension staff occupies an important place because they catalyse change at the ground level and who could place farmer at the centre of change. 68

80 References Alier, Joan Martinez Socially Sustainable Economic De-growth, in Development and Change, 40(6), , Institute for Social Studies,, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. Moyo, S, & Patniak, U, (2005) The Agrarian Question in the Neoliberal Era: Primitive Accumulation and the Peasantry. Flipo, F. & Schneider, F. (Eds). (2008). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Economic De-Growth for Ecological Sustainability and Social Equity, Paris Harvey, D. (2005) A Brief of Neoliberalism, Oxford University Press Nandy, A (2005) Traditions, Tyranny and Utopias, Essays in the Politics of Awareness Quiroz-Niño Catalina and María Ángeles Murga-Menoyo, Social and Solidarity Economy, Sustainable Development Goals, and Community Development: The Mission of Adult Education & Training Task Force on Social and Solidarity Economy (2015) Social and Solidarity Economy and the Challenge of Sustainable Development, Inter-Agency 69

81 Introduction Value Chain Strategies in Agriculture Dr. Hemnath Rao Hanumankar Formerly Dean and Director, CPSRD at the Administrative Staff College of India Director (i/c) of the Development Management Institute (DMI), Patna, India. 1. The food and agriculture sector around the world presents a challenging picture to producers and policy makers alike. The challenges are daunting and worse, the sheer diversity and discontinuity of their manifestation calls for situation specific policies that render replication and scalability of lessons learnt from one part of the world least relevant to the other. With countries like South Sudan, Yemen and Somalia in the African Continent facing grim scarcity of food and food supply chains breaking down in Venezuela and elsewhere in South America at one end and the sight of farmers in Europe flooding streets with milk in protest or farmers in India committing suicides, at the other end, agriculture development policy is a conundrum that mocks at policy wonks across the spectrum. 2. Not surprisingly, therefore, in the United Nations (UN) Agenda for Sustainable Development- 2030, two out of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) address the need for eradication of extreme poverty in all its forms, everywhere while achieving food security to end hunger and malnutrition. The SDGs and the associated 169 targets provide an historic opportunity for both the developing and the developed countries to strategise and promote policy frameworks and stakeholder networks that can potentially tackle the problems of economic marginalisation, livelihoods, social inequity, malnutrition and environmental degradation through well targeted programmes of outreach and service delivery that benefit the farthest behind first. 3. The agriculture sector in India is expected to meet the food and nutrition needs of a burgeoning population besides supporting the livelihood for more than half of the country s population. Having set a very impressive record of agricultural production in regard to food grains as well as commercial crops during the last few decades, the country is keen to move beyond productivity and sustainability gains in agriculture towards a market based farming systems approach to help enhance income levels of the farmers. In keeping with the spirit of globalisation of agri-business markets around the world and the accompanying escalation in competition for procuring agricultural inputs as well as marketing agricultural produce, it is important to ensure the competitiveness of Indian agricultural produce, even as we seek productivity gains. If the farm production is not in tune with the shifting patterns of market demand, valuable opportunities for value addition and value realisation by farmers can be lost to competing countries. 70

82 Moving Beyond Production 4. The focus on optimizing production efficiencies has helped the country achieve food security as the states supported ably by the central government, chased productivity targets through enhanced major, medium and micro irrigation projects; seed improvement and input delivery systems; intensive and inclusive credit coverage; strengthening extension systems for technology diffusion; setting up marketing and processing facilities for agricultural produce and a host of other development interventions. Even the celebrated green revolution of the 1970s and 1980s is attributable to the laudable programmes and projects that were followed up on the above assumptions and interventions. Yet the production and productivity gains have not translated into economic gains and livelihood security for millions of farm households across the country. Nor has the country been able to carve out a leadership position in regard to a particular product or product line in the global marketplace. The lack of a strategic focus on holistic planning and goal setting that should have nurtured crop specific competitiveness and secured livelihoods for all those involved with the crop value chain stood exposed as a missing link in the agriculture development system that has been built over the decades. 5. The National Agriculture Innovation Project (NAIP) implemented by the Indian Council of Agriculture Research in the last decade with funding support from the World Bank, was the first ever initiative to capture integration and economies of scale through market-oriented research for sustainable improvement of selected agricultural production to consumption systems (PCS). Around 15 well financed consortia comprising public, private, civil society and farmers groups were encouraged to galvanize interest from different value chain partners in producing, harvesting, processing and marketing a particular product, capturing value through increased collaboration and openness. With this, a new paradigm of realigning research and development activities with the emerging global market scenario through a value chain based PCS was ushered in. It is important at the same time for academics, research and extension specialists to appreciate the genesis of the concept of value chain in the literature of business management so that agribusiness value chains can potentially be configured in more creative ways to harvest enhanced value in favour of the primary producers. Porter s Value Chain 6. The concept of value chain primarily has its genesis in the industrial economy linked strategic management literature of 1980s that evolved in the context of seeking out firm level competitive advantage in a given industry. While strategy consulting groups such as Mc Kinsey had their own version of an industrial firm s business system, Porter, M.E. (1985) posited the argument that competitive advantage cannot be understood by firms in any given industry without considering in great detail, the many discrete activities that a firm performs in designing, producing, marketing, delivering and supporting its product. Therefore, Porter believed that a systematic way of examining all the activities performed by a firm and how the activities interacted was the basis for analyzing the 71

83 sources of competitive advantage and propounded what has popularly come to be known as Porter s Value chain. The value chain disaggregates a firm into its strategically relevant activities so that one can understand the cost behaviour of the firm as well as identify the current and potential sources of differentiation which Porter considered were the principal sources of competitive advantage in an industry. 7. Porter s value chain displays total value formation in a firm with value activities, broadly split into two categories- primary activities and support activities. The five primary activities are those that are associated with the physical creation of the product, its sale and transfer of ownership to the buyer with necessary after sale assistance. Three out of the four support activities namely procurement, technology development and human resource management can be associated with specific primary activities as well as firm wide chain of operations. The fourth support activity described as firm infrastructure, however, supports the entire firm value chain seamlessly and hence cannot be linked to any discrete primary activity. Examples of firm infrastructure include activities such as compliance with regulatory provisions, firm level strategic planning or management information systems that aid corporate decision making. Value Chain Approach to Indian Agriculture 8. To impart increased gravitas to Indian agriculture and to combat the current agrarian crisis, it is necessary to ensure that no point in the value chain across the major agriculture crops/ commodities is allowed to go unexplored and unexploited in terms of economic value. While the value chain serves as a conceptual tool to strategise and operationalise secondary processing initiatives, the outcomes in terms of increased returns from farming, employment opportunities, checking migration and above all improving the sagging share of agriculture's share in the country's GDP, cannot be exaggerated. As gains from secondary processing become evident, price buoyancy of the primary produce will motivate farmers to strive for higher yields and productivity gains. In the current situation of distress enveloping farmers in most geographical parts of the country and segments of agriculture, the value chain based approach to crop planning, production and processing seems to be the way forward for sustainable growth. 9. Globally, the industrial models of value chain based business strategies have appealed to the imagination of agribusinesses and farming groups such as the soyabean industry, corn and cotton growers who have been deeply influenced and motivated to deploy value chain based approaches for enhancing returns from farm production. The results have been quite positive as certain industries like the wineries, tea and coffee processors have realized, which is prompting the farmers to adopt value chain based strategies across all crop and animal husbandry produce. The value chain based approach to planning crop production and secondary processing is very nascent to the Indian context. In fact, many African and Latin American economies seem far ahead of India on the learning curve. 72

84 Conclusion Indian agriculture has the potential to escape the pangs of the current distress impacting the rural economy in the country, if a new approach to agriculture development based on crop specific value chain and a commitment to harvest the value system across all agricultural products and product groups could be pursued. Globally, agribusinesses have demonstrated the utility of a value chain based strategy in creating competitive advantage across product lines such as soybean, corn, tea and coffee etc. In the process, agribusiness value chains are inching closer to the industry based generic value chain model advocated by Porter and the pre-cursor business system model popularized by the strategy consulting firm, Mc Kinsey. In India, an earnest beginning was made with the NAIP implemented by the ICAR oriented towards production to consumption systems along product based value chains. Indeed, the success of any strategy is predicated on the ability to manage change and build adequate capacity of all the involved actors including the extension staff in the field as well as at the front line. References The World Bank. (2006). Project Appraisal Document for National Agricultural Innovation Project. India Country Management Unit, South Asia Region. Porter, M.E.(1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, New York: The Free Press. 73

85 Community initiative in delivering extension services in Nepal: New structure of Government s Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS) Introduction Jaishi1 M., and R. Subedi1 & L. Shahi2 1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) Lamjung Campus, Nepal 2Helvetas Swiss Intrcooperation Nepal Agriculture faces formidable challenges of shrinking land and water, adverse impact of climate change, skewed development crisis in farm labor, stagnant productivity, increasing production cost dwindling resources, market uncertainties and weak technology delivery system across the state and sectors (Sadmate, 2018) Numbers of issues are to be considered in seeking more appropriate ways of managing extension service for agriculture development in Nepal (Jaishi, Allen & Shahi 2015). in Nepal agricultural research and extension is dominated by public sector, rather than to confining the research activity to research station alone conducting research in farmers field in a participatory way would contribute to solve the practical problems of farmers in more effective manner (Joshi, 2016). Unlike in the past where agriculture research and extension activities remained primarily a public sector undertaking, a number of non public extension and research service providers have been emerging in recent years In a rapidly changing world, farmers need a package of innovations and services, in addition to continuous access to knowledge and information. Having all this under one roof and in a rural setting can greatly accelerate adoption of innovations and increase benefits to farmers (Degrande et. al. 2015). The public support modality for agriculture development is changing fast in the world. There have been dramatic changes and reforms in the implementing actors and service providers. However, in Nepal it is still the responsibility of the government in implementing programs and providing agriculture research, extension and marketing services to the farmers and entrepreneurs. World have considerable accumulated experience of agricultural research and development activity based on the claims that farmer participation is critical to the generation of technologies that are relevant to farmers (Odi, 1994). It also focused evidences in working paper for considerable potential for involving rural people community organization in research and extension both as partners and as implementers. The public sectors needs to implement the national agriculture extension strategy (NAES) in coordination with the private sector for creating synergies, while also avoiding overlap, thus covering wider geographical area across the country (Joshi, 2016). Involvement of non public sectors service providers in mainstream extension system would also reduce the burden of human, financial and material resources on the part of public sectors institution. (Sulaiman, 2012) in his background paper argued that private sector participation in agricultural R&D has been on an increase in India. 74

86 Extension was treated essentially as a public good, and with only the public sector involved with technology development and transfer, the focus was on spreading the reach of extension (FAO, 2010). Extension has helped the communities sustain their livelihoods by dealing with the vagaries of climate and socio-economic factors(shivakumar & Sulaiman, 2016). Extension is taking a new dimension because of global movement for reforming the national extension system in developing countries that started in late twentieth century. New learning needs of farming communities are emerging as the world enters into era of globalization, democracy, privatization and decentralization, affecting the farmers of both developed and developing countries- albeit in different ways (Pandey et. al. 2016). Extension in developing countries indeed has a very new role to play and need the serious attentions of policy makers for its meaningful reform and modernization. In order to create more responsive and accountable management, fiscal and structural, and planning process needed to be restructured (Jaishi & Shahi, 2016). Extension services are increasingly part of the decentralization and devolution agenda which calls for engagement of local government units and grassroots organizations. In general, decentralized, demand-driven, and participatory programs tend to be more democratic in design and more successful in implementation (Jaishi, Shahi & Khatiwda, 2013). The recent decentralization efforts take place in a context of extension reconceptualizing and re-structuring which generally acknowledges that the supply-side extension should be abandoned for demand-driven approaches that are more responsive to farmers needs. Agricultural extension services are under increasing pressure to become more effective, more responsive to clients, and less costly to the government (Subedi and Kaplowitz 2016). Public agricultural extension services around the world are being forced to adapt to new funding mechanisms. Many efforts have been made to introduce institutional and methodological changes intended to make agricultural research and extension programmes more responsive to the needs of small scale producers. Yet evaluations of these initiatives suggest that in the absence of sustained political and social pressure from and on behalf of small scale producers, agricultural development institutions are unlikely to become more accountable or demand responsive (Odi, 1994). Materials and methods The paper presents an analytical and methodological framework that can be used when examining the strength of pluralistic approach and the potential for effective links between the local government and private and community initiatives in research and extension. In addition, a review of the experience and evolution of community initiatives in developing countries will identify issues that need to be addressed to understand the nature and potentials for various kinds of clients-the farmer 75

87 Current status and progress in the agriculturalsector in Nepal The features of Nepalese agriculture are unique in the sense of its complex nature of farming systems that are intertwined among the multiplicity of enterprises of crops, livestock, poultry, vegetables, fruits, spices, fisheries, agro-forestry and non-timber forest products (MoAC, 2007). To this day, majority of the farmers produce what they consume and consume what they produce. The average farm size is 0.8 ha with 47 percent landholdings of size less than 0.5 ha (Adhikari, 2013). Rice, maize, wheat, finger millet and barley are the major cereals grown. Different fruits and vegetables are cultivated in summer and winter seasons in different physiographic regions. Aquaculture is popular in the southern Terai flat land and river systems originating mostly from the Himalayas harbor indigenous fish species (MoAD, 2010). Table 1: Vision component, current situation and short term-long term indicators set in ADS Vision Indicators Current Target Component Situation Short Medium Long Self-reliant Sustainable Competitive Inclusive Growth Livelihood Food grain self-sufficiency 5% trade deficit 76 Term 0 % trade deficit term 0-5 % trade surplus Term 0-5% trade surplus Year-round 18% 30% 60% 80% irrigation coverage Soil organic 1% 2% 4% 4% matter Degraded land (Million ha) Forest cover 40% 40% 40% 40% Agri productivity (AGDP/ha) $1,804 $2,302 $2,938 $4,787 Agribusiness as % GDP 10% 12% 14% 20% Agri. trade - $350 - $310 - $181 + $690 balance (Million) Agri. Exports $248 $400 $700 $2000 (Million) % of farm land 10% 15% 30% 50% owned by women or joint ownership % of farmers reachesness Ave. annual growth AGDP AGDP/ Agricultural 12% 17% 25% 50% 3% 4% 5% 6% $794 $979 $1206 $1833

88 Table 1: Vision component, current situation and short term-long term indicators set in ADS Vision Component Indicators Current Situation labor Poverty in Rural Areas 77 Target Short Term Medium term Long Term 27% 21% 16% 10% Food security Food Poverty 24% 16% 11% 5% Source: ADS, 2014 The ADS action plan and roadmap are formulated in order to move towards the ADS vision formulated by stakeholders as follows: A self-reliant, sustainable, and competitive (MoAD, 2014), and inclusive agricultural sector that drives economic growth and contributes to improved livelihoods and food and nutrition security. Various indicators and targets to monitor progress towards the vision during implementation of the ADS are reported in Error! Reference source not found.. Extension and advisory services institutions in Nepal and their evolution The definition of extension advisory services (EAS) articulated by GFRAS as consisting of all the different activities that provide the information and services needed and demanded by farmers and other actors in rural settings to assist them in developing their own technical, organizational, and management skills and practices so as to improve their livelihoods and well-being. It recognizes the diversity of actors in extension and advisory provision (public, private, civil society); much broadened support to rural communities (beyond technology and information sharing) including advice related to farm, organizational and business management; and facilitation and brokerage in rural development and value chains. The establishment of institutions dealing with agriculture sector comprises one of the early initiatives taken with Nepal s modernization process in the 1950s. Initial efforts concentrated on developing the government institutions, and from 1970s onwards for an evolvement of the extensive network of agriculture offices that primarily played a part in extension of agriculture services and technology and in agriculture research. Through the political change of 1990, and with the adoption of liberal policies that also precipitated into the agriculture sector, the role of state agencies has given favor to that of the nongovernmental and private sectors. Still, however, the government agriculture extension and research system is extensive and has considerable role to play vis-à-vis other actors. A part of this development increasing role of non-state actors and gradual reduction yet substantial role of government agencies in agriculture is largely guided by the liberal outlook of the Nepal government over the past two decades and by such policies as long term Agriculture Perspective Plan ( ) and Agriculture policy (2004). This context provides new opportunities to harness national capacity for enhancing

89 agriculture productivity through intensification. With adoptions of liberal policies, private sectors have entered to agricultural sector. With involvement of private sectors in agriculture and government s approach of public private partnership, different new actors have emerged. Agro-vet, NGOs, private agro- farm, breeding centers, seed companies, fertilizer companies have grown considerably in the past decades in Nepal. Role of government is slowly getting orientated toward monitoring and regulating activities of private firms and NGO activities. Nepal agriculture policy 2004: Transforming farming systemcommercially& competitively. The long-term vision of the Agricultural Policy (2004) was to agricultural sector shall be to bring about an improvement in the standard of living through a sustainable agricultural development to be achieved by transforming the current subsistence oriented farming system into a commercial and competitive farming system. Nepal agriculture policy 2004 under section (4.1) emphasized as Agricultural access to resources and opportunities are covered: production and productivity shall be increased by utilizing the local potentialities, comparative advantages and special opportunities, and ensuring the development, extension and utilization of appropriate agricultural technologies. Besides, additional opportunities of income and employment shall be created by laying emphasis on the commercialization and diversification of agriculture. To transform the vision into action AP (2004) also emphasized to make local bodies to be more responsible. The local bodies shall be entrusted with the tasks of formulating, implementing and monitoring agricultural plans suitable to the local needs and priorities and such bodies shall be made responsible and competent. The policies also have emphasized to use farmer's groups to provide on-site extension services relating to food nutrition and agriculture technologies. Package programmes relating to extension of agricultural technologies shall be conducted in a coordinated manner by the agriculture and forest colleges in the influence area. Besides, information technology and means of mass communication shall also be used in the agricultural extension activities. National agriculture extension strategy is well defined (Joshi 2016). It is envisioned a participatory and competitive agricultural research and development system promotion with participation also of the private and non-governmental sectors in order to undertake such agricultural research activities as are needed from the viewpoints of geographical potentialities, comparative advantages and area specific structure. Agriculture research and development system shall be promoted to arrange for the investment required such system for the arrangement of investment required for such system, a highest institutional body of research shall be improved and systematized in accordance with the concept of the agricultural research and development fund (AP, 2004). The process of cooperating and exchanging technology and experts with international organizations connected with agricultural research and development activities shall also be encouraged. The policy also have ensured private investments in the field of agricultural research and development encouraged by providing for such appropriate allowing private and nongovernmental sectors to deduct as expenses for the 78

90 purposes of tax the funds spent by them on agricultural research and development activities (ADS, 2014). Nepalese agricultural extension services which is now at the edge of transition from production focused to people focused, from hard systems thinking to soft systems thinking and from transfer of technology types of approaches to that of participatory approaches which are driven by the ethos of participation and put people at their centre (DoE, 2007). With the devolution of agricultural extension function to the local elected bodies (District Development Committees) as per the spirit of the Local Self Governance Act 1999 (LSGA), the Ministry of Agricultural Development has formulated National Agricultural Extension Strategy (NAES) consistent with the LSGA, APP, national agricultural policy and national periodic plan. The work was initiated by the World Bank supported Agricultural Research and Extension Project (MOAC 2007). NAES was formulated with the mission of the efficient and cost-effective need-based participatory delivery of agricultural services, prioritized and targeted to the needs of different categories of farmers, particularly focused on small, poor and deprived. The overall objective of the strategy is to reform and reorient public sector agricultural extension service in order that it will strengthen decentralized agricultural extension services and ensure the access of the poor, deprived and socially excluded to the agricultural extension service (MOAC 2007). Restructure of extension system: Community initiative extension and local governance The contribution of agricultural extension to Nepal s agricultural development has been low over the past several decades. Poor performance of agricultural extension has been a matter of serious concerns at all levels. With the evidence of its weakness and poor performance, the public sectors extension service is under pressure for reform. Joshi (2016) outlined following of the aspects of reorientation of extension system. Table 2: Major force of change for reorientation of extension system in Nepal Institutional pluralism Participatory extension Value chain based extension Extension personnel capability Modality of using more than one institution either public or private for delivering extension services and many developing countries are already practicing pluralism in extension. Shifting of the model of technology transfer is imperative. More participatory approach of is to be preferred to directive approach so that the farmers decide type of support and they need from extension institution. The Number of commodity groups and subsector associations have been emerging across the country. Such market oriented agriculture demands extension information and skills on value chain concept for extension service The extension personnel capabilities including grassroots extension workers are not sufficiently qualified to undertake and fulfill their job responsibilities. It is necessary to technical and social skills need to be enhanced (GFRAS, 2012) 79

91 Inclusive development Major policies and programs of Nepal (AP 2004; NAES, 2007; ADS, 2014) have provisions to promote women participation in agriculture. The worldwide experiences of the good practice of community managed to signify how a community-based extension approach can complement public-run agricultural extension so that local realities are taken into account and to better meet farmers expectations. Extension system of Nepal is outcome of several efforts and reform made over the years passing through a major transformation for various domestic and global reasons (Shrestha, 2013). To ensure better service, public extension system need to be changed by structural reform and improving functions transferring ownership and sharing responsibility of it s with community Setting up local level structure: Avenue to devolve of agriculture service Agricultural extension services can and should play an important role in addressing many of the challenges. Perhaps, there is no agency at the ground level, other than agricultural extension services that can provide knowledge and materials support to farmers and other intermediaries who are supporting farmers. Considering the changing nature of agriculture and the evolving challenges, producers currently need a wider range of support, including organisational, marketing, technological, financial and entrepreneurial (Sulaiman V. 2012). But to play this role effectively, extension should expand its mandate beyond disseminating information on technologies so that it can better respond to the evolving demands for support and services of farmers. This includes, organizing user/producer groups, linking farmers to markets, engaging in research planning and technology selection, enable changes in policies and linking producers to a range of support and service networks. Flexibilities are required to be promoted to the field formations to respond to the emerging local extension challenges making extension operation accountable to the local situation and farming communities. Operational flexibilities may facilitate entering local MAU based PPP which are essential to make extension interventions effective at the local level (Sadamate, 2018) There has been a trend, perceptible throughout various extension systems undergoing adjustment, of greater flexibility and multiple partners in funding agricultural advisory services (OECD, 1989).The search for appropriate institutional arrangements for different situations echoes the larger debate currently under way on creative use of the private sector for supplanting or supplementing public services. Privatization represents one position in the debate over how public functions should be organized (Rivera and Cary 2005). From the discussion earlier, community agriculture extension service center (CAESC) in lowest administrative structure of the local body will be the best structure to delineate the aforementioned issues and potentialities of agriculture extension. While setting up new structured proposed in ADS (2014) by integrating closely related agencies in each local level after dissolving exisisting district level structures may require several 80

92 additional building, facilities, resources, in terms of knowledge, skills, experiences, funding are required for agriculture research and development. The center will be fully owned and managed by the communities and funded by combination of resources from the local government, cooperatives, private sector, and the provincial government. Membership will be open to all farmers, agro-enterprises and agriculture extension service providers in the community and their organization. The center will own and manage its own assets, hire its own staff, conduct meeting, formulate business plan, open a bank account, disburse funds, audit accounts and review activities periodically. Governance rules will establish the composition of the board and the way board members are elected by the members of society. The center will be entirely managed by community according to governance rules that are clearly established at the outset. The overall purpose of the center will be to facilitate extension services at the village level and to meet the demands and needs of technical services at the grassroots level. The center might sign memorandum of understanding or contract with project program, private institutions, and service providers as well. Table 3: Characteristics of Community Agriculture Extension Service Center (CAESC) Targeting Devolution Partnership Networking Structures Voucher system Market center Multiple extension Linkage ICT GESI sensitive Women JTA Nutrition By type of farmers, by commodity, by market, and agro-ecological region. To the lowest administrative level- based on resources and capabilities Major involvement of private and cooperative sector into various forms of public-private partnership modalities. Capacity building of a network of village extension workers. Establishment of CAESC in each local unit that are funded and managed by these unit or local communities Promotion of a voucher system on a pilot basis that would empower farmers to buy the best available extension and advisory services. Target agricultural market centers to provide extension services Adopt multiple extension methods including farmer field schools Facilitate linkages of farmer groups and organizations with other value chain actors and financial institutions, including commercial banks. Innovative forms of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Train resource person to be gender and social inclusion (GESI) sensitive Increase the representation of women as resource person. Introduce nutrition into extension programs, particularly targeted to women Source: ADS, 2014 A pervading development in new forms of financial support for extension is the trend to mixed sources of funding, reflecting strategies to gain access to additional sources of funding. In several developing countries, public-private extension coordination is already established (Rivera and Cary 1996). As per the proposed the contribution of the 81

93 GON to the CAESC consists of a seed funding that is intended to leverage local resources. The outcome will be a network of extension service centers that have the chance of reaching all local bodies in the country, are totally managed by the communities and therefore more likely to be responsive to the diverse needs of the farming population, and be responsible for raising funds and therefore more sustainable. This community approach requires considerable capacity building of service providers to enhance their capacity. It will also require specific programs to target poor farmers, socially excluded, and the marginal groups. This pro-poor decentralized approach to agricultural extension challenges both the wide scale privatization which implies removal of state subsidy and the domination by the state of the delivery of services. The approach is focused on identifying appropriate public and private roles and partnerships between them. On one hand, the approach introduces private-type performance and management practices into the public sector including charges for services and performance assessment by clients and an element of payment by results (ADS, 2014). Furthermore, this approach envisages a greater role for the local government as it is more directly in contact with people's needs and opportunities than is the central government. This assumes that local government is more able and accountable to respond to local people's needs and opportunities (Figure: 1). Conclusion and way forward Strengthening and encouraging synergies among pluralistic advisory service providers in community level is possible by approaching the diversity of actors in EAS public, private, NGO, and farmer-based organizations offer unique roles and capabilities that can be leveraged and layered for more effective overall system performance. Complementary partnerships allow scaling of innovative technologies and approaches to reach more people and achieve deeper impacts. Considering the way of challenges in improving extension in Nepal created by ADS has overwhelmingly supported the ideas of national extension straggly, national agricultural policy and strategic vision References Adhikari, J Land reform in Nepal: Problems and Prospects. Acton aid Nepal Degrande, A., Z. Tchoundjeu, A. Kwidja, and G. Fongang Rural Resource Centers: A Community Approach to Extension. GFRAS Good Practice Notes for Extension and Advisory Services. GFRAS: Switzerland. Dhital, P Agricultural extension in Nepal: Experiences and issues. Journal of advances in agri culture. 7(3): DoE, Nepal agriculture extension strategy Directorate of extension, Lalitpur Nepal. 82

94 FAO Agriculture Service Delivery System of Nepal. Food and Agriculture organization (FAO), UN Complex Pulchowk Nepal. GFRAS, The New Extensionist : Roles, Strategies, and Capacities to Strengthen Extension and Advisory Services. Available at: GoN, Local government implementation act Available/ Government of Nepal. Jaishi, M. and L. Shahi, Decentralized agriculture extension service provisions: policy initiatives of extension approach to local people. In Gadhei K. (eds.) Compendium on agricultural extension. Biotech Books New Delhi India. Jaishi, M., L. Shahi and B. Khatiwada Decentralized Agriculture Development Practice in VDCs: An Experience of Okhaldhunga District. Participation: Nepalese journal of participatory development, 15 (14): Jaishi, M., R. Allen & L. Shahi Challenges and issues of decentralized agriculture service at the VDC level: Experiences from Okhaldhunga district. J. Inst. of agric. Anim. Sci. 33&34: Joshi, N.N Addressing poverty by reorienting the agriculture research, extension and education in Nepal. In Pyakurel K.N. and Upreti B.R.(eds.). Land agriculture and agrarian transformation. Adroit Publisher, New Delhi. MoAC Nepal Agriculture Extension Strategy Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Shingah Durbar Kathmandu Nepal. Odi Farmer and community organisations in agricultural research and extension: Functions, impacts and questions. Network paper No 47. Overseas Development Institute, London OECD Survey on effects and consequences of different forms of funding agricultural services. Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) AGR/REE 89, 7, Paris. Pandey V., R. Mittal and Saroj Recent trend in extension education. In Ghadei, K. (eds.), Compendium on agricultural extension. Biotech Books New Delhi India. Rivera, W.M and J.W. Cary Privatizing agriculture extension. In Swanon B.E., R.P. Bentz & A.J. Sofranko (eds.) Improving agricultural extension: A reference manual, Daya publisher house Delhi. Sadamate, V.V Extension strategies and challenges for doubling farmers income. In Souvenir-extension strategies and challenges for doubling farm income, Sadangi et. al. (eds.) IEC 2018, Bhuwaneshor India. pp Shivakumar, P.S. and Sulaiman V.R Extension research in India: current issues and challenges. AESA working paper Centre for Research on Innovation and Science Policy (CRISP)/AESA 83

95 Shrestha, S Decentralizing Farmer-to-Farmer Extension Approach to local level. World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 11: Subedi and Kaplowitz, What every extension worker should know:core competency hand book. MEAS/.USAID Available at: Sulaiman V. R Agricultural extension in India: Current status and ways forward. Background Paper prepared for the Roundtable Consultation on Agricultural Extension, Beijing, March 15-17,

96 Strengthening of Extension System for Poverty Alleviation and Promotion of Rural Livelihood S. SenthilVinayagam, Principal Scientist (Agri. Extn.) ICAR- NAARM, Hyderabad Agriculture remains the important sector in Indian Economy and as a source of livelihood. While it output share fell from 28.3% in to 14.4% in , employment share declined from 64% to 48.9% over the same period. Therefore, strategy for poverty alleviation and providing livelihood opportunities for resource poor farmers has always a major challenges in agricultural sector in general and agricultural extension in particular, reflecting the fact that more than 65% of the population live in rural areas and more than 52% of workforce depends on agriculture as their primary source of income. In India, the focus was given to increase food grain production to ensure food security to all through Green Revolution during 1970 beginning with wheat and then expanding to rice. In 1980, the focus was shifted from food selfsufficiency to generate additional income in rural areas as a means of tackling the problem of poverty (Ahluwalia). Though India is selfsufficient in food, it is reported that more than 200 million people continue to suffer from malnutrition. Hence, it is convincingly indicating that achieving food security does not eliminate hunger or, to put it succinctly, hunger is a money problem, not a food problem (Swanson, 2004). In view of that the extension system in the country has made a paradigm shift from increasing food production to increasing farm income besides employment generation in rural areas. The trade of agricultural commodity has been dominated through global supermarket giants such as Walmart, Tesco, Carrefour and Ahold by Worldwide procurement and sale of food products including fruits, vegetables and dairy products with the aim to provide high quality and low cost food products to the costumers (Mekay, 2004). At the same time to avoid the exploitation of land less and marginal farmers, the public research and extension system should emerge for promoting collective approach towards development of modern production, processing and logistics approach. Therefore, the extension should be properly structured and focused to train small scale producers to utilize local resources and to assess consumer needs. This approach will enhance the skill and knowledge of farmers especially the youth so that they are better facilitated to take up off farm jobs and reduce rural poverty. Drivers of rural poverty reduction Rural growth was the most important driver of poverty reduction and reduced rural poverty, national poverty and even urban poverty (Ravallion and Datt, 1996). Agricultural growth has a larger effect on poverty reduction than the growth in economic sector (Warr, 2003). 85

97 Hence, to address this challenge in agriculture there is a need to reform the national extension system due to higher investment in R&D by private sector and declining investment in public sector with the aim to enhance farmers income and employment generation. This will facilitate the economic status of the farmers and national economy there by poverty will be alleviated. The suggested strategies to be followed in the extension system are: 1. Building social capital 2. Linking small farmers to markets 3. Decentralized extension programmes Building Social Capital Social Capital is the ability to facilitate collective action for mutual benefits through the organization and participation of farmers and rural people. From the point of farmers group, social capital is viewed has been economically useful since individual farmers are performing their activities through collective approach to enable them to achieve economics of scale and avoiding exploitation by the traders. Benefits of social capital can be seen by allowing farmers to capitalize on the volatile, virtual possibilities of today s business environment (Cohen and Prusk, 2001). Therefore, developing the process of linkages with outside group and bridging social capital for value addition of the commodity will open up new market opportunities. In India, formation of self-help groups by organizing rural women is one of the successful model for building social capital. These self-help groups are being linked with extension system for exploring new marketing opportunities. Participative Mechanism is the key element in farmers groups to build social capital. The feedback from farmers group will strengthen the extension programmes. The functioning of farmers groups is important in sharing the cost of the extension particularly for high-value commodities. The farmers groups are to be supported by National Agricultural Research and Education System (NARES) to provide technical, marketing and management information through various extension approaches with the focus on farmers centered and market driven. This will enable the farmers to enhance their farm income and to alleviate poverty in the national system. Linking small farmers to markets Small farmers do participate in the production of high-value commodities and make significant contribution to their total production despite few limitations. Increased demand for high value food commodities becomes an opportunity for small farmers to diversify towards these commodities. But many fear that small farmers may be displaced by large commercial producers in the market place. Small farmers usually have small marketed surpluses, rural local markets for high value commodities are thin, and trading in distance urban markets may not be profitable due to high marketing and high transaction cost(birthal et al, 2013). Hence, small and marginal farmers are to be assisted to producehigh value crops and livestock products with the support of public research and 86

98 extension system. Transfer of technologies for enhancing productivity and value added technologies for enhancing farm income are more important to strengthen high-value domestic and International markets. The factors such as comparative advantage, agroecological situation, local resources, availability of near by potential market, transportation, infrastructure etc are important for development strategies plan to determine the value crops, products, enterprises. Decentralized Extension System Another important strategy to alleviate poverty alleviation is decentralization of extension system. This provides the farming community to engage indifferent activities and identifying the farmers needs and priorities at the bottom level and will have greater control over local extension programmes in terms of planning, implementing and monitoring. Decentralization will strengthen the bottom up approach and to improve the extension system by seeking contribution from various stakeholders at the local level. Decentralized extension system in Venezuela, allowed the rural communities and poor farmers to participate in planning and implementation of extension programmes and to demand services to meet their needs (Savioff and Lindarte, 2002). Decentralized extension system can achieve their goals (Swanson and Samy, 2002). In India, decentralized extension programmes planning and implementation is being implemented by a new innovative institutional mechanism i.e., Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA). The combination of an integrated researchextension structure, combined with bottom-up, program-planning mechanism and procedures, represents a fundamental institutional and procedural innovation with in Indian Extension System (Sharma et al., 2001). Reducing Poverty:Role of Agriculture The focus on poverty alleviation to improve status of small and resource poor farmers was witnessed along with acceleration of agricultural growth by extending the productive revolution in non-irrigated area. This has supplemented the anti-poverty programmes of Government of India and addressed the needs of vulnerable groups and achieved considerable growth in GDP during 1980 (about 4.7%) compared with 1970 (only 1.4%). Agricultural growth was slowed down during 1990, which has resulted the economic growth of 5.5 percent against this target of 8 percent for the Ninth plan period. This has led to adoption of extensive process of structural reforms. Further the experience in the first three years of the Tenth plan ( ) has sounded some alarm bells average GDP growth was 6.5 percent and agricultural GDP was only 1.1 percent (Ahluwalia). Slow growth in agriculture has direct implications for poverty reduction in rural areas. Evidences of distress among farming community and leaving farming by the farmers has resulted slow growth in agriculture. The uncertainty associated with farming 87

99 such as poor monsoon, depressed agricultural commodity prices etc. havealso resulted the farming no longer sufficiently profitable. Evidence also shown that increased indebtedness arising from the inability to cope with uncertainty and risks. The challenges of farmers have been recognized by the Government, accordingly a comprehensive review on agriculture was undertaken in order to develop new strategies for agriculture and the rural economy in general. The strategies such as increased public investment in irrigation and rural roads, better management of existing irrigation systems and water resources in dry land areas, reform in agricultural research and extension system, strengthening of production and distribution of quality seeds, improvements in credit delivery system and innovative steps in marketing to support the diversification of Indian agriculture. Efforts were made by the Government to increase agricultural productivity and there by increase farm income and employment which are considered to be important instruments for poverty alleviation and rural livelihood. Meanwhile, these efforts are need to be supplemented by special targeted program aimed at improving welfare of vulnerable groups in rural areas. Providing skill to rural youth and employment in rural areas have been the most important antipoverty programme and India has a long history of such programmes. Realizing this importance, a Rural Employment Guarantee Act has been enacted which provides assurance of up to 100 days of employment at the minimum wage to each household in rural areas. Priorities were given to irrigation and water management projects to enhance agricultural growth under this programme. The other related special programmes i.e., provision of housing for poor, old age insurance and schemes for supporting self-employment and wage employment are also provided social security and reduced the rural poverty. Reducing Poverty: Role of Rural Development Livelihood approach have considerable potential for improving the focus of programmes and policies directed towards poverty alleviation by integrating and converging variety of existing programmes. Department of rural development is directly or indirectly connected with the development in agriculture as well as development of rural livelihood. In view of this, Government of India implemented number of programmes related to rural development, poverty alleviation and rural livelihoods such as Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP), Swarnajayanti Gram SwarozgarYojana (SGSY), SampoornaGraminRozgarYojana (SGRY), National Rural Employment Rural Guarantee Programme (NREGP), Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP), Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) and Desert Development Programme (DDP). Many of the programmes comprising selfemployment, programmes (IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM) and wage employment programmes (NREP,FFW, RLEGP) for the small and marginal farmers and landless labour etc. The IRDP covered about 35 million poor families during the eighties and NREP (1983) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP in 1983/84) generated 4664 million person days of employment for the poor. SGSY is the 88

100 largest self-employment programme for the rural poor, which was evolved by merging the earlier self-employment programmes such as IRDP and Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) in This programme has been enlarged and named as National Rural Livelihood Mission. Another flagship wage employment programme is NREGP, it is the rights based intervention in rural labour markets with focus on transparency, quality implementation and accountability of delivery system to the community. It aims at provision of 100 days of (unskilled) employment for adult members of the rural households who are willing to take up manual work at minimum wage. Under this programme million person days of employment have been provided to poor people from 2006/07 to 2008/09. The other ongoing programmes during are Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojana (PMGSY), Pradhan MantriAawasYojana-Gramin (PMAY-G), National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP), SansadAadarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY), DeenDayalUpadhyayaGrameenKaushalyaYojana (DDU-GKY) and Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP). Conclusions Agriculture is the major mean of livelihood.but there is a need of diversification in earning livelihood. Agricultural extension is the main core activities of the state department of agriculture. Since Community Development Programme (CDP), the extension programme has gone through several phases. The T & V system supported by World Bank during 1970 provided a filip to transfer of technology by the extension worker at the bottom level/panchayat level. But, over the years, the extension system of the country weakened both in terms of human resources and technological advancement.hence, a revival requires greater involvement of the states with adequate manpower deployed in the extension activity and focus on technology in the programme implementation. The extension approaches viz., building social capital, linking small farmers to markets and decentralized extension programmes are to be strengthen in the national extension system. Although dependency on agriculture is decreasing, but still there is a need to increase productivity. For this purpose, transfer of technology, irrigation facilities, agriculture input, credit facility, etc. have to be further stimulated.infrastructural facilities for agriculture development have a potential impact on livelihood contributing in GDP, increasing mobility of the people, expanding market facilities, speeding flow of information and ICT development. Poverty is closely associated with low levels of education and skills. Hence, the signification of education, both formal education and workplace skills have to be established for improving livelihood prospects besides investment in human has been observed that poverty has correlation with local participation, accountability and transparency and hence it is necessary to increase participation of marginalized groups in the democratic local-government institutions to safeguard their interest. 89

101 References Ahluwalia, M. S., Source: Birthal, S.P., Joshi, P.K and A.V. Narayanan (2013). Agricultural Diversification in India: Trends, Contribution to Growth, and Small Farmers Participation. Transforming Indian Agriculture (edited book) SAGE Publications. Pp-116. Cohen, D. &Prusak, L. (2001) In Good Company: How Social Capital Makes Organizations Work. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Mekay, E. (2004) Global Supermarkets Elbow aside Small Farmers. Available online at: Ravallion, M., and Datt, G. (1996). How important to India s poor is the sectoral composition of economic growth? World Bank Economic Review 10 (1): Savioff, M. &Lindarte, E. (2002) Reforming National Extension: The Recent Experience of Venezuela. Extension and Rural Development Workshop. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Sharma, R. Swanson, B.E. &Sadamate, V.V. (2001) Field-Testing New Methodologies for Planning and Implementing Extension Programs: A Comparison of Innovative Extension Projects in India and the United States. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education. Swanson, B.E. (2004) Extension Strategies for Poverty Alleviation in a Global Economy. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Agricultural Education and Environment, Suwon, Korea. Swanson, B.E. and Samy, M.M. (2002) Decentralization of Agricultural Extension Systems: Key Elements for Success. Workshop on Extension and Rural Development. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Warr, P. (2003). Poverty and economic growth in India. Economic Reforms and the Liberalization of the Indian Economy (K Kalirajan and U Shankar, eds). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham and Northhamption, MA. P

102 Livelihood opportunities among Dairy farmers for their Economic Empowerment M.Srinivasa Reddy*, D.Thammi Raju 5 and B.S. Kanthisri *Professor &University Head,Department of Veterinary & A.H. Extension Education,College of Veterinary Science, PVNR Telangana Veterinary University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India Introduction Animal Husbandry plays a significant role in improving the socio-economic status of a sizable section of the weaker and tribal population. It safeguards from crop failures in the event of natural calamities and in most cases dairy farming is the source of daily cash income for the subsistence of farmers as well as endurance of family purchasing power. This immense potential is limited by the traditional system of animal rearing and farming practices (traditional technologies) that unfortunately seldom assure, or generate adequate returns which can promote the development of more commercially oriented dairy production systems. If Animal Husbandry technologies developed for farmers are not transferred in appropriate manner and adopted accordingly, all the efforts by the researchers who developed new technologies would be in vain (Oladele 2004). This is probably why transfer and adoption of new technologies is perhaps one of the most popularly written about developing Animal Husbandry (Nell et al 1998). Among the commonly available livestock enterprises of Telangana state in India, dairy farming occupies a unique place; considered to be most encouraging and appropriate livestock enterprise to narrow down the gap between availability and requirement of milk in the state. Cows and buffaloes are reared by many families in the state especially by small farmers, marginal farmers and landless labourers. The production system of cattle in the state is characterized by low input; traditional management system suited to the local conditions. There is a need to identify technologies that are suitable for adoption in dairy farming to fill technological and adoption gaps among dairy farmers and suitable strategies are needed for better adoption of technologies. Mekonnen et al (2010) reported that, the adoption of dairy technologies led to increase in farm size, income and assets, which focus upon the need for such intervention in Telangana state so as to empower the dairy farmers in various aspects. This type of research paves the way for policy formulation to develop the livestock sector and to alleviate poverty in rural areas of the state. With this back ground the present study is contemplated. Objectives To characterise the socio economic status of Dairy farmers To identify the available technologies that are suitable for adoption in Dairy farming To unearth the technological gaps among the dairy farmers To undertake suitable interventions for adoption of above technologies To assess the benefits derived from adoption of technologies 91

103 Methodology An action research project was taken up to understand the benefits of adopted technologies among dairy farmers. Through a survey technique, socio-economic status of dairy farmers was ascertained. Further, identification of dairy technologies and adoption gaps was also done so as to develop strategies for better diffusion and adoption of appropriate technologies that result in improved livelihood security of dairy farmers. Mahaboobnagar district of Telangana state, India was selected and precisely three mandals viz. Achampet, Talakondapally and Amangal were selected randomly. Further from each mandal two villages i.e Bommanapally and Inole of Achampet mandal, Rampur and Talakondapally villages of Talakondapally mandal and Mangalpally and Jangareddy pally of Amangal mandal were selected by random sampling method. 15 dairy farmers were selected from each village by random sampling method, thus a total of 90 dairy farmers were selected finally for the study. The data were collected by personal interview method using structured interview schedule and the same were analysed and interpreted. Results and Discussion The results of the study were discussed in five sections, which are as follows. 1.Socio economic and livestock status of dairy farmers The different socio economic and livestock aspects such as age, socio economic status, occupation, education, family type and size, land holding, total livestock and income from different sources were presented in Table 1. Table 1: Socio economic and livestock status of dairy farmers S. Characteristic Category ( n=90) No Low Medium High F % F % F % 1 Age Socio economic status 3 Occupation Education Family type Family size Land holding Total livestock Income Agriculture 10 Income-Livestock Total income

104 The major portion of dairy farmers (52.22%) were in the young age group, followed by medium and high groups. Medium socioeconomic status was prevailing among the selected farmers. Majority of the farmers (65.56%) were in the medium level of education with medium land holding (41.11%), medium size of livestock possession (52.22%). Nearly 43% of dairy farmers were getting medium income from agriculture and nearly two thirds of the farmers were getting medium income from livestock. Similar trend was observed by Zanu (2012). Identification of suitable adoptable technologies Sixty three improved animal husbandry technologies / practices scouted from literature and dairy experts and sent to 60 judges constituting scientists of P.N.N.R.Telangana Veterinary University, Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Animal Husbandry department and progressive farmers for the degree of relevance of each technology for adoption at the farmers level. Of 63 technologies/practices 11 technologies/practices in breeding,11 technologies/practices in feeding,13 technologies/practices in management and 8 technologies/practices ( total:43) in health were identified as suitable adoptable technologies and were presented in Table 2. The technologies under breeding, feeding, management, heath were ranked based on weighted means and are presented in Table 2. Table 2: Ranking of Dairy Farming Technologies S. No Name of the Technology Weighted Rank mean I BREEDING 1 Artificial Insemination 2.87 I 2 Upgrading of Buffaloes 2.85 II 3 Cross breeding with exotic semen 2.83 III 4 Pregnancy Diagnosis 2.80 IV 5 Detection of oestrus and right time of 2.78 V insemination 6 Selection of bulls 2.77 VI 7 Age at first service 2.74 VII 8 Selective breeding 2.71 VIII 9 Inter calving period 2.62 IX 10 Culling of Unproductive animals 2.57 X 11 Drying of animals before 2 months of 2.55 XI calving II FEEDING 1 Complete feeds 2.88 I 2 Roughage: Concentrate ratio 2.85 II 3 Feeding of conc. as per milk production 2.84 III requirements 4 Addition of mineral mixture and salt to feed 2.79 IV 5 Conservation of surplus fodder 2.77 V 93

105 6 Chaffed green fodder 2.75 VI 7 Urea treatment of paddy straws 2.74 VII 8 Perineal fodder cultivation 2.72 VIII 9 Fodder tree raising 2.67 IX 10 Preservation of fodder for scarcity purpose 2.60 X 11 Use of Agro by products as feed 2.54 XI III MANAGEMENT 1 Colostrum feeding for new born calves 2.90 I 2 Care of pregnant animal 2.89 II 3 Post-partum reproductive management 2.88 III 4 Application of Tincture Iodine after cutting 2.85 IV of Umbilical card 5 Deworming 2.80 V 6 Care of new born calves 2.78 VI 7 Calf starter 2.77 VII 8 Dehorning 2.75 VIII 9 Use of disinfectants 2.71 IX 10 Fumigation of sheds 2.62 X 11 Clean milk production 2.57 XI 12 Low cost housing 2.51 XII 13 Maintenance of simple records 2.50 XIII IV HEALTH 1 Treatment of repeat breeders 2.88 I 2 Diagnosis and prevention of Mastitis 2.86 II 3 Treatment of sub fertile animals 2.83 III 4 Vaccination 2.80 IV 5 Care and management of sick animals 2.77 V 6 Control and prophylaxis against contagious 2.72 VI diseases 7 Control of ticks 2.61 VII 8 Segregation of infected animals from healthy animals 2.58 VIII The above table revealed that artificial insemination in breeding, complete feeds in feeding, colostrum feeding for new born calves in management and treatment of repeat breeders in health are most important adoptable technologies/ practices. The technologies viz. upgrading of buffaloes, cross breeding with exotic semen, pregnancy diagnosis, detection of oestrus and right time of insemination were given 2 nd,3 rd,4 th and 5 th ranks respectively in breeding. Whereas under feeding category, 2 nd,3 rd,4 th and 5 th ranks were given to roughage: concentrate ratio, feeding of conc. as per milk production requirements, addition of mineral mixture and salt to feed and conservation of surplus fodder respectively. In management category, care of pregnant animal, post partum reproductive management, application of Tincture Iodine after cutting of umbilical card and deworming are next in priority. In health domain, diagnosis and prevention of Mastitis was given 2 nd 94

106 rank, treatment of sub fertile animals as 3 rd and segregation of infected animals from healthy animals was given as last rank. Adoption levels of the dairy farmers Similarly, the extent of adoption of above prioritised technologies by the respondents either fully, partially and not at all adopted were also ascertained and the same were presented in table 3. Table 3: Adoption levels the dairy farmers S.No Name of the Technology Fully adopted Partially Not at all adopted adopted I BREEDING F % F % F % 1 Artificial Insemination Upgrading of Buffaloes Cross breeding with exotic semen 4 Pregnancy Diagnosis Detection of oestrus and right time of insemination 6 Selection of bulls Age at first service Selective breeding Inter calving period Culling of Unproductive animals 11 Drying of animals before months of calving II FEEDING 1 Complete feeds Roughage: Concentrate ratio Feeding of conc. as per milk production requirements 4 Addition of mineral mixture and salt to feed Conservation of surplus fodder 6 Chaffed green fodder Urea treatment of paddy straws 8 Perineal fodder cultivation Fodder tree raising Preservation of fodder for scarcity purpose 11 Use of Agro by products as feed

107 III MANAGEMENT 1 Colostrum feeding for new born calves 2 Care of pregnant animal Post-partum reproductive management 4 Application of Tincture Iodine after cutting of Umbilical card 5 Deworming Care of new born calves Calf starter Dehorning Use of disinfectants Fumigation of sheds Clean milk production Low cost housing Maintenance of simple records IV HEALTH 1 Treatment of repeat breeders Diagnosis and prevention of Mastitis Treatment of sub fertile animals 4 Vaccination Care and management of sick animals Control and prophylaxis against contagious diseases 7 Control of ticks Segregation of infected animals from healthy animals Majority of the dairy farmers were adopting the breeding technologies/practices like Artificial insemination, upgrading of buffaloes, cross breeding with exotic semen, pregnancy diagnosis, detection of oestrus and right time of insemination partially only. The technologies like selection of bulls, age at first service, selective breeding, inter calving period, culling of unproductive animals were not at all adopted by the farmers. Majority of the farmers ranging from % were not at all adopting/practicing the improved feeding technologies. Under the management domain, except the practice of care of new born calf, majority of the farmers belonged to the category of not at all adoption category. Under the health category, majority of farmers i.e %, 65.56% and 57.78% belonged to partial adoption category in case of vaccination, care and management of sick animals and segregation of infected animals from healthy animals respectively. The rest of the technologies/practices were not at all adopted by majority of farmers.similar trend was observed by Sah et. al (2002). 96

108 Diffusion strategies of dairy farming technologies Based on the extent of adoption of suggested technologies by farmers; diffusion strategies were worked through Focused Group Discussion involving progressive farmers and scientist and officers of Animal Husbandry department. Considering critical gaps in adoption, strategies were worked out while giving due weightage of strategic issues (Table 4). Table 4: Diffusion Strategies of Dairy Farming Technologies S. No Critical gap Strategic issue Extension diffusion strategy I BREEDING 1 Lesser adoption of Artificial Insemination Improvement of local breeds and milk production Result demonstration Film shows Training Exposure visit Literature 2 Rearing of indigenous buffaloes Upgrading of buffaloes Group discussion Result demonstration Film shows Training Literature 3 Non improvement of local breeds 4 Non adoption of pregnancy diagnosis after insemination 5 Non awareness of heat symptoms and right time of insemination 6 Improper selection of bulls 7 Unawareness about age at first service Improvement of local breeds Promoting practice of pregnancy diagnosis Detecting heat symptoms for increasing the conception rate Improving the breed quality Promoting insemination at proper age Group discussion Film shows Training Literature Lecture method Literature Method demonstration Flash cards Film shows Training Literature Training Method demonstration Posters Literature Result demonstration Training Literature 8 Selective breeding Breed improvement Group discussion Result demonstration Film shows Training 97

109 9 Unawareness of benefits of maintaining Intercalving period 10 Maintaining the unproductive animals 11 Non adoption of drying of animals before 2 months of calving II FEEDING 1 Improper feeding of the animals 2 Improper maintenance of roughage: concentrate ratio while feeding 3 Conc. feeding not as per milk production requirements 4 Unawareness of addition of mineral mixture and salt to feed 5 Lack of awareness about conservation of surplus fodder 6 Non adoption of feeding of chaffed green fodder 7 Non adoption of urea treatment of paddy straw 8 Non adoption of perineal fodder cultivation 9 Not raising the fodder trees Promoting practice of maintaining intercalving period Promoting practice of culling of unproductive animals Promoting practice of drying of animals before 2 months of calving Popularisation of using complete feeds Promoting practice of roughage: concentrate ratio while feeding the animals Promoting conc. feeding as per milk production requirements Promoting the addition of mineral mixture and salt to feed Skill up gradation in conservation of surplus fodder Promoting feeding of chaffed green fodder Popularisation and skill up gradation of urea treatment of paddy straw Popularisation of perineal fodder cultivation Popularisation of raising fodder trees Lecture method Group discussion Literature Group discussion Lecture method Literature Lecture method Group discussion Result demonstration Film shows Literature Group discussion Film shows Flash cards Literature Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Group discussion Film shows Literature Result demonstration Film shows Lecture method Literature Training Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Method demonstration Result demonstration Film shows Literature Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Film shows Literature Film shows Literature 98

110 10 Lack of knowledge about preservation of fodder for scarcity purpose 11 Unawareness of use of Agro by products as feed III MANAGEMENT 1 Non adoption of colostrum feeding for new born calves 2 Improper management of pregnant animals 3 Improper post-partum reproductive management of animals 4 Not practicing the application of tincture iodine after cutting umbilical card Creating awareness and skill up gradation about preservation of fodder for scarcity purpose Popularisation of use of agro by products as feed Promoting colostrum feeding for new born calves Training for proper management Training for post-partum reproductive management of animals Popularisation of practice of application of tincture iodine after cutting umbilical card Lecture method Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Training Film shows Flash cards Literature Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Training Film shows Flash cards Literature Training Film shows Flash cards Literature Training Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature 5 Cal mortality Popularisation of deworming Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature 6 Improper care of new born calves 7 Non adoption of calf starter 8 Not practicing dehorning Training for proper care of new born calves Promoting the use of calf starter Popularisation of dehorning Training Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Group discussion Method demonstration Film shows Literature 99

111 9 Improper use of disinfectants 10 Non awareness of fumigation of sheds 11 Lack of knowledge about the benefits of clean milk production 12 High cost of construction of sheds Promoting proper use of disinfectants Intensification fumigation of sheds of Skill up gradation of clean milk production Popularisation of low cost housing 13 Non maintenance of simple records Promotion of maintenance of simple records IV HEALTH 1 Repeat breeding Training for proper management of repeat breeders 2 Lack of awareness about diagnosis and prevention of Mastitis Training for early detection and prevention of mastitis 3 Sub fertility in animals Improvement of fertility through proper feeding and better management 4 Non adoption of preventive vaccination 5 Improper care and management of sick animals Promotion of vaccination of the animals Training for proper care and management of sick animals Training Method demonstration Film shows Literature Training Method demonstration Film shows Literature Training Method demonstration Film shows Exposure visit Literature Training Method demonstration Film shows Exposure visit Literature Group discussion Method demonstration Training Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Training Method demonstration Film shows Flash cards Literature Method demonstration Film shows Literature Literature Posters Lecture method Group discussion Training Film shows Flash cards Literature 100

112 6 Less adoption of control and prophylactic measures against contagious diseases 7 Lack of awareness about control of ticks 8 Non practice of segregation of infected animals Promotion of taking prophylactic measures against contagious diseases Promoting tick control measures Popularisation of practice of segregation of infected animals Literature Posters Lecture method Literature Posters Lecture method Method demonstration Literature Posters Lecture method Changes due to diffusion strategies The identified technologies and the extent of critical gaps, the different technologies were diffused using different strategies or combination of extension methods / approaches. Post implementation of suggested strategies after a year, the adoption levels were once again ascertained from the respondents. Table 5: Diffusion strategies changes in socio economic status, income and adoption levels of the dairy farmers S.No Characteristic Low category Medium category High category F % F % F % 1 Socio economic status 2 Total income II Name of the Fully adopted Partially Not at all Technology adopted adopted I BREEDING F % F % F % 1 Artificial Insemination 2 Upgrading of Buffaloes 3 Cross breeding with exotic semen Pregnancy Diagnosis Detection of oestrus and right time of insemination 6 Selection of bulls

113 7 Age at first service Selective breeding Intercalving period Culling of Unproductive animals II FEEDING 1 Complete feeds Roughage: Concentrate ratio Feeding of conc. as per milk production requirements 4 Addition of mineral mixture and salt to feed Conservation of surplus fodder 6 Chaffed green fodder 7 Urea treatment of paddy straws 8 Perineal fodder cultivation 9 Fodder tree raising Preservation of fodder for scarcity purpose 11 Use of Agro by products as feed III MANAGEMENT 1 Colostrum feeding for new born calves 2 Care of pregnant animal 3 Post-partum reproductive management 4 Application of Tincture Iodine after cutting of Umbilical card 5 Deworming

114 6 Care of new born calves 7 Calf starter Dehorning Use of disinfectants Fumigation of sheds Clean milk production 12 Low cost housing Maintenance of simple records IV HEALTH 1 Treatment of repeat breeders Diagnosis and prevention of Mastitis 3 Treatment of sub fertile animals 4 Vaccination Care and management of sick animals 6 Control and prophylaxis against contagious diseases 7 Control of ticks Segregation of infected animals from healthy animals Table 5 clearly indicated that majority of the respondents (56.66%) were in high socio economic status and were in high income group(52.22%) in breeding, majority of the dairy farmers fully adopting the technologies/practices like artificial insemination (51.11%), upgrading of buffaloes (50.00%), cross breeding with exotic semen (57.77%), pregnancy diagnosis (78.88%), detection of oestrus and right time of insemination (76.66%), drying of animals before 2 months of calving (51.11%) and selective breeding (45.55%). Majority of the dairy farmers partially adopting the technologies/practices like age at first service (45.55%). The technologies like selection of bulls (54.44%), culling of unproductive animals (44.44%) were categorised under not at all adopted category. In feeding category, majority of farmers fully adopting the technologies/practices like complete feeds (50.00%), feeding of concentrates as per milk production requirements (53.33%), addition of mineral mixture and salt to feed (48.88%), chaffed green fodder 103

115 (56.66%), urea treatment of paddy straw (43.33%) and fodder tree raising (40.00%). Majority of dairy farmers partially adopted the technologies/practices like roughage: concentrate ratio (36.66%). Under management category, except the practice of calf starter and dehorning calves, majority of farmers belonged to fully adopted category. In health category, majority of farmers i.e %, 61.11%, 67.77%, 65.55%, 60.00%, 64.44%, 67,77% and 65.55% belonged to fully adoption category in case of treatment of repeat breeders, diagnosis and prevention of mastitis, treatment of sub fertile animals, vaccination, care and management of sick animals, control and prophylaxis against contagious diseases, control of ticks and segregation of infected animals from healthy animals respectively.the results are inline with the results of Ghosh(2005) and Rao et.,al(2008). Conclusion Dairy farmers economic empowerment, to a significant extent, is dependent on the adoption of suggested technologies related to breeding, feeding, management and health care of dairy animals. The study proved the adoption levels of selected technologies is based on carefully designed diffusion strategies. These strategies should also consider the nature of technology, available resources, with a combination of extension methodologies with appropriate weightage socio economic status of adopters. The approach followed in this study will lead to improved milk production, better health which leads to economic empowerment of dairy farmers and dairying assumes a significant livelihood option especially small and marginal farming community. It is concluded that livelihood opportunities, socio economic status and income levels of the respondents were increased after exposure of the farmers with latest adoptable technologies with feasible strategies. References: Ghosh R K, A Goswami and A K Mazumdar 2005 Adoption behaviour of the dairy farmers in relation to artificial insemination in co-operative farming system, Livestock research for Rural development. 17(3)2005. Mekonnen H, Dehninet G, Kelay B Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.Trop. Anim Health Prod. Feb;42(2): Nell, W.T., Schalkwyk, van H.D., Sanden, J.H., Schwalbach, L. and Bester, C.J Adoption of Veterinary Surgeon Service by Sheep and Goat Farmers in Qwaqwa, Agrekon, 37 (4): Oladele, I.O Farmers Feed back on Pig Production Technology in Kwara State, Nigeria. Livestock for Rural Development retrieved from: /5/olad 145.htm. Accessed on May 13. Sah, A.K. and Ranchand 2002 Adoption of dairy innovations and their socio- economic correlates. J. Extn. Edu. 13 (4):

116 Viroji Rao, S.T., Thammi Raju,D and Ravindra Reddy,Y Adoption of sheep husbandry practices in Andhra Pradesh, India. Livestock Research for Rural Development 20(7)2008. Zanu, H.K., Antwiwaa, A. and Agyemang, C.T Factors influencing technology adoption among pig farmers in Ashanti region of Ghana. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012 Vol. 8(1):

117 Promotion of better livelihoods among vulnerable sections of farming community- A case in KVK Telanaga, India Introduction Dr. G. Samuel Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Prof. Jayashankar T S Agricultural University, Hyd-30. India is essentially an agricultural country with a prominent agrarian society. The contribution of the sacred profession to National Domestic Product (GDP) is at 16.1% in 2015 and could provide employment to 56.0% of work force even though it has been gradually declining from 55.1% since Agriculture not only supports economic growth of the country, but also provides employment and food security through different forms of livelihoods to the small and marginal farmers who constitute for more than 80%, but their share in farming operated area accounts to only 44.0%. The major percent of farmers belong to scheduled caste and scheduled tribe categories out of which the vulnerable tribal sects peculiarly accustomed to live in remote and isolated areas. These vulnerable sections depend on the abundantly available natural resources for their livelihood, but are less accessible to the socio-economic and technological developments being witnessed by the modern society. Among the total tribal population the prominent sects namely gonds, kalams, pradhans, andh and chenchu are yet to reach and acquainted with modern technologies in agriculture because of their introvert behaviour and conservative mindset. They mostly sustain on naturally available biotic and abiotic forest produce and following still the age old traditional shifting cultivation practices. The Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK s) of ICAR extension system and State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) otherwise known as Farm Science Centres (FSC s) play a vital role in narrowing the extension gap through dissemination of location specific and resource based unreached technologies particularly to the most vulnerable sections of the society ensuring balanced development in agriculture and allied sectors in the districts in which they are located. The technology is better adopted by an end user if it is need based, the impact of it is visible, provide immediate result and has less complexity for its adoption. For better adoption of farm innovations particularly by the illiterate vulnerable groups the necessity of a specific need of the technology should be ascertained first taking in to account the technological, organizational and socioeconomic constraints that are hindering them in accessing the technologies. An attempt was made by the Krishi Vigyan Kendras(KVKs) of Adilabad and Palem in Telangana State which focussed more on the predominant tribal sects and put forth efforts to identify the major constraints being faced by them in adoption of improved technologies. 106

118 Transfer of Technology models adopted by KVKs Feedback model Close interaction between research and extension Understanding farmers problems by research and extension Scientist values target groups problems and reactions Farming Systems Research model Emphasis on farmers discoveries and constraints Ensure ToT to resource- poor and their constraints. Feedback mechanism between farmers and scientists The KVKs concentrating on the farming systems research and feedback models of technology transfer focused more on resource poor and unreached farmers and various constraints being faced by them in adoption of modern technologies. The constraints pertaining to technological, organizational and socio-economic aspects of 120 randomly selected farmers were obtained through survey method. The responses of the farmers for each constraint in three aspects was recorded on a five(5) point continuum as strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree and the same is furnished in tables from1 to 3 as; Table: 1 Technological constraints S.No Constraint SD DA N A SA Rank 1 Lack of technical know-how /IV 2 Lack of soil testing facility Lack of location specific recommendations 4 Lack of timely and need based training programmes /II 5 Failure to organize /I demonstrations on improved technologies 6 Poor management of soil due to lack of proper awareness 7 Lack of awareness on post harvest management of agricultural produce 8 Lack of sufficient knowledge on /III available natural resources and their management 9 Lack of knowledge on usage of improved farm implements for different agricultural operations

119 10 Insufficient knowledge on different methods of pest management Table: 2 Organizational constraints S.N Constraint SD DA N A SA Rank 1 Poor coordination among /IV developmental departments 2 Low credibility of ext. workers /I 3 Lack of knowledge on availing agricultural credit from banks 4 Non-availability of improved /II inputs 5 Lack of knowledge on proper marketing of crop produce Lack of supervision and /III monitoring on farm operations by extension officers 7 Lack of crop insurance facility under natural disasters 8 Lack of storage facility for farm produce 9 Poor transportation facility for general transport and also marketing of produce Table: 3 Socio-economic constraints S.No Constraint SD DA N A SA Rank 1 Lack of innovative thinking in farmer /I 2 Lack of knowledge on availability of different mass media sources 3 Lack of minimum education Non-availability of minimum cultivable land Lack of positive /II responsiveness 6 Lack of entrepreneurial behaviour 7 Lack of achievement motivation in life 108

120 8 Poor information sources due /III to conservatism 9 Low commitment to farming /IV SD=strongly disagree DA=Disagree N=Neutral A=Agree SA=strongly agree Based on the availability of resources and the intensity of problems to be addressed immediately the constraints were prioritized in three different categories and the feasible strategies were proposed to carry out the interventions in the KVK adopted villages as; Organizing location specific and need based technology demonstrations in order to stimulate resource poorfarmers take a shift from traditional to modern farming. Creating awareness on improved inputs, post harvest management and organizing capacity building programmes on cultivation of different crops. Creating awareness on natural resources like soil, water, vegetation, climate and their utilization for sustainability agriculture. Providing technical know-how on different farm enterprises. Ensuring food and nutritional security through value addition interventions and improving marketing networks to farm produce. Strengthening extension services in remote and isolated areas in the district for retaining the credibility of extension system Strategies adopted for farmers participation Because of remote and isolated inhabitants with negligible literacy levels the tribal sects were not actively participating in reception and implementation of technological interventions. The rapport developed through frequent visits and interactions of KVK scientists with the farmers facilitated in changing the introvert and conservative behaviour of the farmers and made it possible Improving their confidence levels, who otherwise more prone to superstitious beliefs hindering them inaccessible to the technology. Actively participate in the traditional rituals and ceremonies of tribal farmers All these sincere efforts of the KVK scientists which went on for more than a year made it possible for introducing need based technological interventions in the adoptied villages. The better rapport developed with the farmers paved the way for promoting livelihood interventions in different thematic areas like; Natural Resource Management Food and nutritional security including value addition to farm produce Income generating activities Soil health management Improved inputs (i.e HYVs seed as an innovation to the tribal farmers). 109

121 A. Natural Resource Management (farm pong technology) Adilabad district receives highest rainfall in Telangana and the illiterate resource poor farmers particularly the Gond and kalam tribal sects have very less awareness on efficient utilization of readily available water resource. Due to the undulated topography and poor knowledge of farmers the precious water is not arrested and utilized for productive purposes. In order to create awareness on better utilization of rain water motivation programmes have been organized on farm pond technology. For demonstration of the technology two farm ponds one at individual and another at community level were taken up in Garkampet village of Adilabad district. The size of the farm pond was 17x13.5x4 mt. The four beneficiaries of community farm pond namely Kanaka Chitru, Kanaka Esru, Uike Jaithu and Namdev have been convinced about the utility and the added advantages of the technology. The farmers were successful in cultivation of vegetables, fodder crops, maize, bengalgram, chilli including fish rearing duly replacing mono cropping of cotton in the farm pond area. They could easily earn an amount of Rs 70,000/-(Rupees seventy thousand only) in an year by adopting the technology where in they didn t realize more than Rs 1000/(Rupees thousand only) from a single crop of cotton. The impact on the technology was interesting to their fellow farmers since one of the beneficiaries i.e Namdev could clear off his debts in bank, repair old house, perform brother s marriage and could celebrate Deewali festival in that particular year because of adoption of farm pond technology. The message was spread throughout the district including. Due to the heavy demand from the farming community the district administration was forced to submit a proposal to the government for sanction of about 1000 farm ponds in the ensuing financial year. B. Natural Resource Management (promotion of natural colors) Butea monosperma commonly known as flame of the forest is found abundantly avail in Adilabad forests. Though it is available in plenty its utility was not felt by the farmers and left unutilized for any useful purpose. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra initiated an innovative intervention of adding value to the flowers by extracting the natural colour for celebrating Holi festival. The farm women and landless labourers were trained on extraction of natural colour during the summer.. Intern after attaining They have gained expertise in extraction of natural colour from butea plant flowers and have demonstrated the technology in the capital city of earstwhile Andhra Pradesh i.e. Hyderabad during the Holi festival in the year 2009 and created awareness among the urban people on usage of natural colors instead of using synthetic, since the people were suffering from skin itching, eye diseases and other health problems with synthetic colors. About 933 man days employment was created to 361 tribal women with the intervention during the lean period of summer season. Because of the intervention the tribal woman of Adilabad district achieved empowerment and improved their entrepreneurial abilities. 110

122 C. Balanced nutrition (cotton and Bengal gram) Indiscriminate use of fertilizers and neglecting the application of micronutrients for realizing higher yields in cotton and bengalgram crops was observed among the farmers of Adilabad district. This gap has been filled by application of micro- nutrients based on the soil test results.the soil samples from 15 farmers fields have been tested in collaboration with ICRISAT Hyderabad and found deficient in zinc, boron and gypsum elements. Based on the soil test based recommendations per acre 20 kg zinc sulphate, 1 kg boron and 80 kg gypsum was advocated for application by all the farmers. The impact of the intervention was seen in the form of enhanced yields in cotton by noticing bolls per plant where as it was only in farmers practice. Due to the significant results of the intervention all the farmers have decided to apply the recommended doses of micronutrients for the crop in the succeeding years. Because of the significant impact of the technology all the tribal farmers of surrounding villages took a decision unanimously to start a new cooperative fertilizer shop in the center village in order to ensure regular supply of micronutrients and other inputs. The same dose of micro nutrient recommendation was also given for Bengalgram during the Rabi season of They could also realizesignificantly higher yields compared to their own practice. D. Crop rotation for higher returns The practice of mono cropping with regard to cotton was discouraged among the tribal farmers in Nagarkurnool district of Telangana and motivated them towards new innovative farm enterprises especially the floriculture. The farmers were given capacity building programmes and were shown the on farm trials laid in selected farmer fields on floriculture particularly the cultivation of marigold replacing cotton crop. They have been created awareness on appropriate time of nursery raising, transplanting the seedlings, fertilization, plant protection, time of harvesting and even marketing channels. They were also enlightened about the cost and benefit ratio in both the practices ie mono cropping cotton as well as cotton rotation with floriculture. The farmers who adopted the innovation ie growing marigold instead of cotton could realize almost four folds of additional returns. Seeing the impact of the technology other farmers also taken up the same intervention in the next ensuing season. E. Value addition to farm produce The farm women farmers were trained in preparation of different types of food products from soy bean like soy laddu, soy roti, soy chudua, soy pakoda, soy meal maker and also soy milk. Also differen products like jowar laddu, muruku, chudua, pakoda in addition to roti were prepared by them. The women entrepreneurs who involved in value addition programmes were provided with good marketing networks for selling their products and improving livelihoods. Some of the women farmers have become a good entrepreneurs and job providers particularly to the rural youth. 111

123 F. Other income generating activities For the landless personnel whose only livelihood was seasonal casual labour work which was not sufficient and could not provide assured income in all the seasons an intervention as proposed by themselves ie raising model forest nursery was promoted as a group activity. They have been created awareness on appropriate time of nursery raising, transplanting the seedlings, fertilization, plant protection, time of marketing including marketing channels. A group of four landless persons through enterprise could earn an amount of Rs10,440/-( Rupees ten thousand four hundred and forty only) within a short period of 45 days by raising and supplying subabul, glyricidia, jatropha and wild castor plantings to forest department. G.Improved seed a critical input to tribal farmers Due to lack of awareness on improved seed and very poor extension contact of tribal farmers, high yielding variety seeds in different crops has been remained as an innovation up to the recent past for them. The Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Adilabad and Nagarkurnool felt lack of awareness on improved seed itself as a major extension gap. To abridge the gap as a top priority KVKs introduced improved varieties and hybrid seed of different crops i.e. maize (DHM-117), redgram (PRG-158, PRG-100 MRG-66), castor(haritha,pch-111), bengalgram (ICCC-37,JG-11) in to the system. Conclusion The technology dissemination strategies would not be the same to all the farmers of different micro locations because of the differences in literacy levels, traditions, culture, socio-economic status, innovativeness and the available resources etc. The peculiar tribal sects mostly confined to isolated places in forest areas need to be given more focus through individual contact extension teaching methods mostly in informal means. The challenge to extension system is to develop better rapport through frequent interactions and win their confidence levels. It will become an important input for promoting new technologies in to the system. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to refocus the extension efforts from road side to road inside extension because the isolated conservative farmers could not reach the main stream on par with others. 112

124 THEME : II - Food and Nutritional Security 113

125 Agricultural Extension Services and Doubling Farm Income: A Case Study of Select GI Products from Gujarat, India Abstract 1 N. Lalitha, 2 MadhusudanBandi and 3 SoumyaVinayan. 1 Professor at Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad 1 Assistant Professor at Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad 1 Assistant Professor at Council for Social Development, Hyderabad One of the strategies suggested for doubling farmers income is to diversify towards high value crops like horticulture and spices, sugarcane etc. Under the Geographical Indication (GI) system of protection in India, already a number of fruits, vegetables, spices and flower varieties have been registered from the different states of India. Some of the products have export incidence too. While there are opportunities like brand building, value addition and export potential present in a number of horticultural crops, there exist issues of concern too as some of the unique GI protected varieties encounter threats from natural, climatic factors and human practices and the area of production under these crops have witnessed reduction and decline in yield. Governance in the form of code of practices for different crops and technical guidance through extension services to adopt such practices play a vital in improving productivity for the farmers and increasing their income. This paper, taking two interesting cases from Gujarat Kesar Mango (horticulture crop) and Bhalia wheat ( food grain ) which have been registered under GI in India, compares and contrasts the productivity differences due to technical guidance provided by extension services. In Kesar mango, due to the technical guidance given to mango farmers, farmers are now adopting high density planting and keeping a plant height of about 5 foot instead of the traditional way of maintaining mango orchids. By doing so, farmers are now able to get yield from the 5th year of planting a tree. On the other hand, the Bhal region of Gujarat, due to high salinity in the soil, only un-irrigated agriculture is possible. Wheat cultivated in un-irrigated tracts of land after a period of good rain results in high quality wheat yield that has consumer loyalty and also has a price advantage over the wheat cultivated in irrigated land. However, in order to increase farm income, farmers are using ground and canal water to irrigate their farm land to cultivate cash crops like cotton and paddy. This shift in cropping pattern is going to have long term adverse implication on agricultural productivity in general and farming in particular. While stressing on the importance of extension services, the paper suggests that programs like My Village My Pride and strengthening farmer producer organizations would significantly help in increasing farmers income. 1. Introduction In India, though agriculture is a major economic activity for a sizeable population, its dwindling share in the gross domestic product of the country is a concern for the policy makers. According to the consumption expenditure data of NSSO, 22.5 per cent of the farm households at all India level have income below the poverty line. The low and fluctuating farmer income causes distress for farmers and also force farmers to leave 114

126 farming which will have serious impact on the future of agriculture in the country (Chand 2017). The reasons for such fluctuating farm income ranges from climate induced factors to anthropogenic activities. Government of India has set a goal to double the farmers income by and a variety of strategies within and outside the agriculture sector have been proposed. Of the strategies discussed within agriculture include diversification towards high value crops (HVC, that includes fruits and vegetables) and to increase the area under HVCby 5 per cent every year(chand, 2017). Diversification towards HVCs is a viable strategy asthe demand for nutritive and quality products has been increasingdueto rising per capita income and changes in life styles among certain sections in the country. Importantly for fruits, vegetables, pulses and livestock products, the income elasticity is positive and has become very high in India (Acharya 2015). Further, compared to the 77 percent gross cropped area (GCA) occupied by the staple crops such as cereals, oilseeds and pulses but which contributed 41 per cent of the total output, HVCs occupied 19 per cent of the GCA and contributed almost the same to the total output (Chand, 2017). In order to achieve the goal of doubling farm income, it is essential to reduce the adverse impact of factors that influence the farm income, where extension services play a crucial role. Agricultural households access to technical advices in the field of agriculture is avery important aspect that may positively influence their situation by changing theirpreferences and farming practices by way of adopting better quality seeds, timely preventivemeasures against crop loss due to controllable causes resulting in better yield, giving usefulinformation regarding the marketing of their crops and helping them to cut the potential lossby insuring their crops (Government of India 2016). In this paper, a discussion is presented emphasizing the need for extension activities by taking the case of two agricultural products which have been recognized for their uniqueness by registering with the Geographical Indications (GI) Registry. This paper is organized as follows. In the second section following this introduction, the concept of GI is explained and a brief highlight of the products registered with GI is the third section, a profile of the GirKesar mango and Bhalia wheat, the two products registered with GI is presented. The role of extension services and the differences that have been made to/ expected to make due to extension services are also presented. Role of GI registration is discussed in Section 4. Section 5 presents the areas of concern. Section 6 recommends the course of action to be under taken. 2. Geographical Indications in India Geographical Indications (GIs) in simple terms indicate the link between a region and a product. The link could be a natural resource, climatic factor or human skills in processing or a combination of all these to produce a unique product. GIs can function as an effective branding strategy as it encompasses information regarding quality of the product linked to the region, which the producers may use to inform the consumers. There are successful evidences from European countries, where GI for agricultural products 115

127 originated. Champagne is a celebrated example from France, Columbian Coffee is an example from the developing country. India adopted the sui-generis legal framework for providing protection to origin linked products. The Act was introduced and passed in the Parliament of India in 1999 as Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 and came in to practice in Section 2(3) of the GI Act defines geographical indications as follows: geographical indication, in relation to goods, means an indication which identifies such goods as agricultural goods, natural goods or manufactured goods as originating, or manufactured in the territory of a country, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of such goods is essentially attributable to its geographical origin and in case where such goods are manufactured goods one of the activities of either the production or of processing or preparation of the goods concerned takes place in such territory, region or locality, as the case may be. 1.1 GI Protected Agricultural Products 1.2 As of March2018, 320 products were protected with GI Registry, which includes the logo and products from foreign countries. Out of this, 89 were agricultural/horticultural products. Maharashtra leads the rest of the states in the total number of registered agricultural products (23 out of 89) closely followed by Karnataka (16) and Kerala (12) (Table 1). Thus, these three states account for 58 per cent of total agricultural products registered in the country. Assam Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh (3% each), West Bengal (7%) and Tamil Nadu (6%) account for additional 22 per cent of total agricultural products registered. Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Sikkim, Mizoram, Manipur, and Uttarakhand have one agri GI each and Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir together hold the Basmati GI. A quick look at the description of the GI protected products indicate that it consists of HVCs namely 32 fruits (39%), 13 spices (16%), 13 food grains (16%), and the rest belong to other categories like flowers and bewerages. Further break down of the broad agricultural GIs indicate the following HVCs: Fruit GIs consist of different varieties of oranges (6), banana (5), mango (8), pineapple (2), grapes (2), lemon (2) and 1 each of coconut, strawberry, litchi, custard apple, pomegranate, fig, guava and chickoo. The different constituents of spices are: chilly (5), cardamom (3), ginger (1), pepper (1) kokum (1), Tejpata (1), and turmeric (1). There are 11 rice varieties and one variety of wheat under the food grains. As mentioned earlier, the benefits from HVCs are higher than the commercial crops, besides they are also exported from India as indicated by the figure mentioned below. 116

128 3.2 Export of Agri Products from India: India has an established export market for products like fresh fruits, vegetables, rice, wheat, horticulture and value added products like mango pulp (Figure 1.). Source: PWC, 2015, page 11, Figure 6 Major export markets for agri commodities are : Bangladesh (11.12)6, Iran (8.33), Vietnam (5.98), Indonesia (5.39), UAE (5.26), Korea (5.10), Malaysia (4.05), Saudi Arabia (3.81), Pakistan (3.12), Benin (2.91), Nepal (2.90), USA (2.21) and Thailand (1.92) (PWC, 2015). Among the different products exported to each of these countries, fresh vegetables and fruits find a mention ( PWC, 2015, p 13) except in the case of Vietnam, Indonesia, Korea and Benin. Hence, promotion of HVC along with the emphasis on their geographical uniqueness will certainly lead to the farmers earning more economic returns. 3. GIs from Gujarat: Agriculture plays a major role in Gujarat. For 68 percent of the agricultural households, agriculture and livestock is the main source of income. 69 per cent of the agricultural HH have less than 1 hectare of land. Gujarat has 4.4 per cent share in the total agricultural households in the country and agricultural HHs constitute 66.7% of the total rural HHs in the state( NSS report No. 569 statement no 3.1). Girkesarmango and Bhalia wheat are the two products registered with GI from Gujarat in the year Both the GIs are owned by the Gujarat Agro Industries 6 Figures in parentheses indicate percentages. 117

129 Corporation. In the following paragraphs first we highlight the features of Kesar mango followed by Bhalia wheat. 3.1 Kesar mango: The uniqueness of the kesar mango is its richness in taste, saffron in colour and it is fibreless. Junagadh and GirSomnath districts are the two districts where major production of kesar mango takes place, though kesar mango is also grown in Kutch and other parts of South Gujarat.Kesar harvest starts in mid April and goes on till end of May. About farmers are engaged in mango cultivation. Of this only 3.6 percent or 362 farmers have registered with Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Authority (APEDA), for exporting their product. More than 70 per cent of the farmers are small holders of less than 3 hectares. Mango farming in more than 200 hectares known as corporate farming is also prevalent and carriedout by a handful of big landholders. Total production is estimated between 8-9 metric tonnes. Farmers cultivate mango using saplings that are prepared by either using soft wood graft or approach graft. Saplings using the soft wood graft where a branch of kesar mango and a local variety of mango branch is used and the resultant plant can be planted after six months. In the approach graft, two plants rub against each other and eventually seal together. This process is done either in a garden or in green house. In the approach grafting, it takes 2 years to develop the plant that is ready for sapling. The difference between the two is that while it takes 5 years to yield for the sapling planted obtained through soft wood grafting method, it takes only 4 years to get yield through approach grafting method. Table 2 gives the area, production and yield ofkesar mango in Figures in parentheses indicate percentages. 3.2 Bhalia wheat Bhalia wheat is cultivated now mainly in Ahmedabad and Surendranagar district, though at the time of GI registration, area under Bhalia wheat was estimated to be around 2.79 lakh hectare and included Bhavnagar, Ahmedabad, Surendranagar, Kheda districts. The exact area under Bhalia wheat cultivation is reducing every year. The uniqueness of Bhalia wheat is it is cultivated under un-irrigated conditions and grown in Bhalregion - which means saline areas. The method of cultivation is as follows. Farmers create bunds on their farm land to collect rain water. The first rain water is used to wash away the top salinity of the soil. The subsequent rain water is stored in the field for about two to three months or till the time the farmers are sure the moisture has seeped well in the soil. After this the water is either drained or allowed to dry on its own. Following this, the land is ploughed a couple of times to aerate the soil and sowing takes place in the months of October or November. Farmers either use the farm saved seeds or the local varietyknown as G313 made available through the AnandAgricultual University (AAU). Along with sowing, farmers fertilise the land using the chemical fertilisers. After this the crop does not require any special care in terms of any plant protection mechanisms and harvest takes place in late February or in the month of March. If there had been inadequate rainfall, then the farmers go for one or a maximum of two irrigation if they have access. Otherwise it is 118

130 cultivated under unirrigated conditions only. The wheat thus produced is golden in colour with a white tinge in the tip and the bread made out of this wheat stays fresh for long hours. Thiswheat is superior to other varieties of wheat in quality and taste and even commands a higher price than the other varieties of wheat. These unique features of Bhalia wheat have been recognized by GI registration. Bhalia wheat yields in the range of 6 or 7 quintal per acre, where as the other varities of wheat give 13 or 14 quintals per acre or even more. 3.3 Need for extension services: There are a number of studies which have pointed out the positive correlation between agricultural extension services (AES) and agricultural productivity on the one hand and on the other, the challenges in extending AES that range from inadequate funds to the wide spread geographical spread of farmers which affects the reach of extension service and difficulty in maintaining AES staff in far away places ( (Sulaiman and Ban 2003), (Ferroni and Zhou 2012), (Birkhaeuser, Evenson and Feder 1991). Gone are the days when the state Department of Agriculture (DOA) was primarily responsible for agriculture extension services which was the case till the 1960s. The agricultural extension service now has a variety of players that includes, government (including agricultural universities), private input manufacturers, dealers, civil society organisations, voluntary certification bodies, agencies engaged in export of agricultural products, private value chain actors, farmer organization and so on. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) got into agricultural extension services (AES) through the demonstration programs and introduced a variety of programs through setting up krushivigyankendras (KVKs), lab to land programs and the World Bank funded Training and Visit (T&V) program. The T&V program though was successful in the irrigated areas did not function well in the non-irrigated areas (Sulaiman and Ban 2003). With the advent of contract farming a variety of large scale industry players have started providing AES with or without fees but these are limited only to those farmers who have agreed to enter into an agreement with the industry. Similarly, voluntary social and environmental standards such as Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance, Better Cotton Initiative (also known as standard setting bodies) have their own standards for production which are implemented through the local producer or contract organisations that are exporting or marketing their products through such certification agencies. Hence the producer or contract organisations provide extension services to implement the standards specified by the standard setting bodies. Similarly in the case of agricultural products that are exported from India, APEDA sets standards for the different products to ensure quality and traceability in case of problems identified. Such standards are implemented by the export houses which purchase the products from the farmers identified by the state horticulture department and registered with APEDA. 119

131 In the following paragraphs, the extension services that are provided in the case of Girkesar mango is discussed Extension service provided in the case of Kesar mango. The horticulture department of the state along with the Junagadh agricultural university (JAU) has been providing useful extension services for the mango cultivators. According to the faculty of Department of Horticulture of JAU (DHJAU), there are about 15 lakh trees in the Gir area alone and according to the officials of Horticulture Department of Government of Gujarat, (HD GOG) the area is increasing by 200 to 300 hectare every year. The contribution of the HDGOG has been in setting up the Centre of Excellence (CE) in Talala in Girtaluka, where the modern high density plantation (HDP) is practiced. HDP is a method followed in orchids in Israel. The HD GOG tries out new techniques in its own farm in the CE and then trains the farmers. For instance the HDP is a technique which optimizes the area. Under this technique compared to the old method of plantation where distance between two trees is more than 10 feet, in the HDP the technique adopted is to grow 5by5 or 3 by 5 (meter distance). The farmer will be able to cultivate more than 3000 trees in a hectare by following HDP of 3by 3. In HDP canopy management is very essential and this is where the extension service provided by the HDGOG matters. After the harvesting season is over, farmers are advised to prune the tree from top. The advantage of maintaining the HDP and canopy is that yield is more and the quality of the yield is better. As the height of the tree is maintained at around 5 feet with pruning every year, the fruits can be harvested by hand and the chances of damaging is very less. The other important input provided through extension is the management of pest and plant protection mechanisms. There are two major issues in mango- mango hopper insect and the fruit drop. Mango hopper insect is a type of sucking pest which affects the production and productivity. Officials fromboth DHJAU and the HDGOG mentioned that production was reduced by nearly 30 per cent due to pests and farmers have dependedonly onchemical plant protection mechanisms. It is essential that the farmers follow the prescribed pesticides to avoid heavy residues of pesticide. It may be interesting to note here that Maldaha mangoes of West Bengal which are much sought after in the export markets of Europe and UAE face a threat due to the relatively high pesticide residue content in the mangoes. The Ministry of Climate Change and Environment UAE had expressed its concern and as a result UAE now requires that each consignment to be accompanied by the phyto sanitary certificate regarding the levels of pesticide residue and these tests need to be carried out by any APEDA certified laboratory. As evident from Table 3, UAE tops the list of mango exports from India with more than 70% share in total quantity that is exported and the pest issue caused a reduction which is reflected in the sharp reduction in the export to UAE from MT in to in Hence, India cannot afford to ignore the concerns of UAE. In 2014, the EU countries placed a ban on mango exports from India which resulted in the drastic reduction of quantity from 3381 MT in to 330 Mt in

132 15. This ban was withdrawn in 2015 after satisfactory corrective measures were undertaken. Despite that, the export of Maldaha mangoes reduced from 63.5 thousand tons in to 43 thousand tons in Instances like ban by a major importing country would adversely affect the brand image and export of such products from the country. With as many as 32 fruit varieties in the GI list, some of which are also exported specifying and adhering to the plant protection standards and post-harvest handling would significantly boost the trade. The last aspect requires strong extension mechanisms. Fruit drop or the stenospermo carp is a situation where no pollination takes place and the embryo aborts. This disease loosens the connection between the fruit and the stem and the fruit drops. This happens primarily due to climate change. The HDP helps to a considerable extent in maintaining the temperature. The DHJAU and the HDGOG observed that for healthy flowering to take place, the temperature has to be between 12 and 18* during night and the day temperature should not exceed more than 25*. If the temperature increases beyond this level, then only vegetation increases and no flowering occurs had been particularly of a period of brief winter followed by rise in the day temperature. Hence both the officials predicted a reduction in the yield. When canopy management is done appropriately, the tree starts yielding from the 5 th year and the regular income starts after 10 th year. After 15 years, production stagnates. To arrest this situation, university standards for cultivable practices are given in applying the regulated quantity of fertilizers by building a bund around the tree. The officials of HDGOG also play a significant role in providing guidance to those farmers who are registered with APEDA and export their mango yield. HDGOG conducts training programs to follow the APEDA it helps in maintaining India s rankat number 2 in the global mango exports (PWC, 2015) and it is essential that farmer follows the APEDA guidelines so that the consignments are not rejected. It should be noted that majority of the farmers export through private companies which are well established in the export of horticulture products like Desai foods and J K exports. Hence, these exporters also ensure that the farmers follow the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and documentation has to be maintained about the different GAP followed. Hence Officials from HDGOG visit the farmers fortnightly and advise the farmers. GAP consists of pre andpost-harvest measures. Pre-harvest measures include the cleanliness of the orchids and the pest management. Maturity indices need to be observed at the time of harvest. Farmers use a chemical ripening agent ethrel (which is WHO approved) which helps in uniform ripening of the mangos. Farmers are also taught to do the sorting of mangos according to the size, shape and weight. The exporter examines each mango before taking the harvest to the pack house. In the pack house the mango harvest undergoes the hotwater and cooling treatment. Hotwater treatment at 50*centigrade is provided for 5 minutes which will speed up the ripening process and also addresses the fruitfly problem. The fruitfly eggs are just 5 accessed on June 23,

133 behind the skin. At the ripening the age of the fruit, the eggs turn to larve and the fruit is unfit for consumption. Farmers through training and technical advice sessions are told about the importance of adhering to these practices to sustain the exports : Extension Service Required in the Case of Bhalia Wheat An advantage of Bhaliawheat is that it comes to the market well before the other wheat harvests from northern India arrive and hence, it can have good market. But as mentioned earlier, farmers who do not have access to any irrigation facility are cultivating Bhaliawheat, which enjoys a limited market from consumers and traders who are aware of the unique features of the wheat. But now because of the limited yield from Bhalia and access to irrigation through Narmada canal, many farmers have shifted to cultivating paddy and cotton as they yield better and profit obtained from these crops is much better than what is derived from Bhalia. Particularly it emerged from the primary field survey that farmers prefer the short duration rice varieties as they can cultivate more than once. The need for extension arises here in arresting the trend of farmers leaving the Bhalia wheat cultivation. One of the reasons for the lower yield of Bhalia wheat is that, farmers do not change the seeds and do not change the crop. According to the researchers at the Anand Agricultural University scientists at Arnej, the yield is better, if the farmers change their seeds every fourth year. But as the farm saved seed continues for long, the yield is less. Secondly, when farmers continuously cultivate the same crop in a plot of land then the yield from the plot of land reduces. Also when continuous irrigation is used in the saline land, productivity of the land starts decreasing and the land becomes totally unfit for cultivation over a period of time. 4. Role of GI Registration Both the products have been registered with the GI Registry by Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation and the products are well known in Gujarat as a place good. While Kesar Mango has larger demand and is also exported, in the case of Bhalia wheat the demand is local within Gujarat and stretches up to Mumbai in Maharashtra. In such a case, following code of practice (CoP) which is a set of measurable voluntary practices for the production of GI product that every producer should comply with.cop authenticates the origin from where the product has come from and the quality of the product. There are several examples outside India. The CoP regarding production practices in the case of GI of Kintamani coffee of Bali, Indonesia include specification regarding density, shade, varieties, fertilization, pruning, pest or disease control and plantation diversification. CoP regarding processing methods include: sorting of red cherries and time between harvest and processing, cherries floating and pulp removing, fermentation time, washing and drying, storage, hulling and sorting, roasting and packaging (Vandecandelaere, P.54). Fulfilment of the CoP of Kintamani coffee depends on three levels of control by (1) 122

134 farmers (2) producer group and (3) the collective organisation called Community for Geographical Indication Protection, which comprises of producers and processors. It is also considered that the statement of case provided for each of the product is the CoP(Naidu 2014). A typical statement of case in the GI registry contains the following: name of the applicant, address, list of association of persons, type of goods, specification, nature of GI, description of goods, GI area and production map, proof of origin and method of production, uniqueness, inspection body, and other related information. Going through the different statement of cases it is observed that there has been no uniformity in the presentation of cases and few important aspects like packing and transportation, labeling rules and control/verification system are not detailed which are essential to create an edge over competing products. Within India, Basmati farmers particularly those who export are registered with APEDA follow the COP mentioned in the Similarly, the registered Darjeeling tea plantations follow fixed CoP that ensures quality, authenticity and traceability, which reflects in the high price that the product gets. In terms of CoP, GirKesar Mango has a better chance than the Bhalia wheat producers particularly for those farmers who export their mangoes. Because, these farmers already follow certain codes of practices that were elaborated in section and as the APEDA registered farmer, the APEDA registration number of the farmer is mentioned on the box. This label ensures traceability, as in the event of any quality issue concerning the consignment, suitable action may be initiated against the farmer. Importantly, in the export market, mentioning of the GI would add more value in the context of demand from Indian diaspora and other consumers. Table 4 gives the export of fresh mangoes from Gujarat. The table shows there has been fluctuating trend in the quantity exported which could be perhaps due to the decline in production and the quality of mangoes. Though the registration had taken place in 2010 for these products, there has not been any follow up in both the products to increase awareness with the producers as well as the consumers. In the case of Girkesar mango, kesar mango cultivated in Ahmedabad, Kheda and Kutch are also sold as Girkesar mango and consumers buy the product falsely believing that they are from Gir. This is because, all the mangoes are sold in boxes which mention that the product is GirKesar Mango. In the case of Bhalia wheat also, the farmers do not know the GI status and often we came across the farmers reporting the adulteration of Bhalia wheat with other varieties of wheat by traders to increase the price of the product. These facts highlight the lack of awareness of GI certification among the producers and the consumers. 5. Issues of Concern Pests, diseases and reducing area under cultivation are the major issues before the agricultural products generally and GI protected agro products are not an exception. 123

135 However, such products which are firmly anchored in an area due to climatic reasons and resources endowment face the threat of becoming extinct because such products may not be cultivated in all climatic regions Reducing Area due to Pests, Diseases, Climatic and Human Factors: Between 1995 and 2004, less rainfall, prolonged hot season, repeated white fly attack and reducing water tables resulted in reducing the area under orange in Nagpur division from ha to ha. The intense heat in 2010, where the temperature hovered around 48 degrees for a week, resulted in 1.76 and 2.9 million trees dying in Nagpur and Wardha districts respectively. This led to an all-time low yield of the orchards of the region yielding only 20 per cent fruits. 8 Nagpur mandarin is one 9 of the best mandarins in the world. Production of this fruit crop in central and western part of India is increasing every year. Mrig crop (monsoon blossom) which matures in February-March has great potential for export since arrivals of mandarin fruit in international market are very less during this period. The area under Coorg orange, grown mostly among the rich coffee plantations is steeply declining as many coffee estates removed the orange trees following a rise in the price of coffee. Virus attack on the orange trees and the use of chemical plant protection methods are other reasons for their reducing number. The area under Kamalapur red bananas which is known for its rich nutrients and low sugar content is reducing and is said to be cultivated only in fifty acres of Kamalapurtaluka of Gulbarga district. As this variety of banana tree grows very tall, the likelihood of farmers suffering loss due to strong winds/rains is very high. 10 Hence only a few farmers are cultivating the same and hence, the chance of this variety becoming extinct grows by the day. Solapur which is the leading producer of pomegranates was another victim of drought and insufficient rains affecting lives of several farmers who had switched to pomegranate cultivation 11. The unique Appemidi mango discussed earlier is going scarce due to the illegal felling of these trees in their natural habitat. Efforts to grow 5000 Appemidi mango trees in fifty different locations by the Karnataka forest department for nearly 25 years 12 has not borne any fruit. The details here show that production areas of some of the unique varieties that have been registered with GI are shrinking and efforts need to be taken to check the natural causes and the human practices. Registering such products with GI ensures that the production practices are documented and there are chances for revival of the product with appropriate measures. 6 accessed on June 23, accessed on July 25, accessed on June 23, articleshow/ cms, accessed on June 23,

136 6: What needs to be done: It is evident from the description of both Bhalia wheat and Kesar Mango mentioned here, that both the products enjoy consumer loyalty and adding GI status with a brief description of the region would authenticate the product and ensure consumers are buying the original product. Consumers who know value authenticity would actually be willing to pay premium for the original product, which will increase the farm income for the farmers. To achieve this awareness needs to be created with the producers, traders, other stake holders in the value chain and the consumers. Creating awareness among the different stake holders would also help in ruling out/reducing the adulteration of the product with the similar products. In the GI list of products, it was mentioned that the list contains a number of high value fruits and vegetables from specific regions of the country. A few products that already earn foreign exchange through exports are grapes, mango, banana and pomegranate. According to the PWC (2015) report, in the last 10 years, India s grape exports increased from tonnes to tonnes. Nasik in Maharashtra produces 80 per cent of Grapes consumed in the country, which is registered with GI. Bangalore rose onion is preferred in the export market for its pungency. However, for the purpose of exports, the onion should be of 28 mm in diameter and should have one single bulb. As not all the harvested products match this specification, only a certain percentage qualifies for export and the rest of the harvest is offloaded in the domestic market. 13 Failure to achieve such specifications could be affecting the chances to widen the market for small producers, which emphasizes the need for extension. There is need for extension facilities particularly from the view of point of GI and in aspects that causes reduction in production and productivity due to anthropogenic factors. Highlighting the region would attract more consumers. Here having a common logo for the GI products would be of immense help as consumers can relate the logo with authenticity and quality. Though a competition for the GI logo was held in November 2017, it is not clear whether any particular logo has been finalised. Government of India has set up the Cell for the Promotion of Intellectual Property, which has started promoting awareness regarding different intellectual property rights. Amongst the different intellectual property rights, GI requires focused nurturing as these products are produced by small producers in relatively small holdings. Government intervention in popularising the product through helping the farmers to form farmer producer organisations with required capital and consumer awareness would help the farmers to double their income. Of the 89 agricultural products that are registered with the GI registry nearly about 40 per cent of the applications have been filed by the farmer producer organisations 11 accessed on June 23,

137 (FPOs), and the rest have been filed by commodity boards and government organisations. Some of the progressive FPOs may move toward setting standards of production for their products. The Government of India through the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has launched a scheme My Village My Pride. Under this scheme, villages from different parts of India are adopted by ICAR scientists to provide technical and other information to farmers. GI products could be chosen for this purpose. Bhalia wheat farmers who are suffering from decline in the yield and Girkesar mango producers who have to deal with the climate change issues would benefit immensely by such guidance. Extension services have by and large concentrated on the irrigated areas of the country. This trend has to change to benefit the farmers who farm under challenging conditions. GI registration reveals that specific regions of most states of India have unique agricultural products, which are produced in limited areas by households who depend on them for their livelihoods. This paper highlighted the opportunities and issues of concern for the farmers and also detailed a few of the areas for better governance. While the natural factors that restrict the area under crop should be addressed by suitable technological interventions and extension services, strict actions should be taken against human practices that affect the area under these unique crops. GI is an emerging area but it is a powerful rural development tool. However, it takes time and consistent efforts to build the market based on goodwill and reputation. Introducing product standards but maintaining the uniqueness of the product at the same time, evolving CoP implementing and monitoring are some of the key aspects which would require technical guidance and couple of years to adopt. But these aspects would improve credibility, visibility and profitability of the product. It is necessary to popularize the GI product along with the common logo that consumers can instantly associate with quality and uniqueness. The Ministry of Agriculture has been now appropriately renamed as Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. If utilized properly as a marketing tool, GI can be very effective in converting farming in to agri business enterprises and result in improving farmers income. Table 1: Agricultural Products Registered with GI by State Name of the State Andhra Pradesh Agriculture Guntur Sannam Mangoes Chilli, Banaganapalle Total no of % to total products agri GIs 2 2 Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Orange

138 Assam Assam (Orthodox) Logo, Assam 3 3 KarbiAnglong Ginger, Tezpur Litchi, Joha Rice of Assam Bihar BhagalpuriZardalu, Khatani Rice, Magahi 3 3 paan Gujarat GirKesar Mango, Bhalia Wheat 2 2 Himachal Pradesh Kangra Tea 1 1 Karnataka CoorgOrange,Mysore Betel leaf,nanjanagud Banana, Mysore Jasmine, Udupi Jasmine, HadagaliJasmine,Coorg Green Cardamom,DevanahalliPomello, Appemidi Mango, Kamalapur Red Banana, Byadagi Chilli, UdupiMattuGullaBrinjal, Bangalore Blue Grapes, Bangalore Rose Onion, Monsooned Malabar Arabica Coffee, Monsooned Malabar Robusta Coffee Kerala Navara Rice, PalakkadanMattaRice,Malabar Pepper, Spices Alleppey Green Cardamom, Pokkali Rice, Vazhakulam Pineapple, Central Travancore Jaggery, WayanadJeerakasala Rice, WayanadGandhakasala Rice, Kaipad Rice, ChengalikodanNendran Banana, Nilambur teak Maharashtra Mahabaleshwar Strawberry, Nashik Grapes, Kolhapur Jaggery, Nagpur Orange, AjaraGhansal Rice, MangalwedhaJowar, Sindhudurg&Ratnagiri Kokum, WaghyaGhevada, NavapurTur Dal, Vengurla Cashew, Lasalgaon Onion, Sangli Raisins, Beed Custard Apple, Jalna Sweet Orange, Waigaon Turmeric, Purandar Fig, JalgaonBrinjal, Solapur Pomegranate, BhiwapurChilli,Ambemohar Rice, DahanuGholvadChikoo, Jalgaon Banana, MarathwadaKesar Mango, Manipur Kachai Lemon 1 1 Meghalaya Khasi Mandarin, MemongNarang 2 2 Mizoram Mizo Chilli 1 1 Nagaland Naga Mircha, Naga Tree Tomato

139 Odisha GanjamKewdaRooh, GanjamKewda 2 2 Flower Sikkim Sikkim Large Cardamom 1 1 Tamil Nadu Eathomozhy Tall Coconut, 5 6 Nilgiri(Orthodox) Logo, Virupakshi Hill Banana, Sirumalai Hill Banana, Madurai Malli Tripura Tripura Queen Pineapple 1 1 Uttar Pradesh Mango MalihabadiDusseheri, Kalanamak 3 3 Rice, Allahabad Surkha Uttarakhand UttarakhandTejpat 1 1 West Bengal Darjeeling tea, LaxmanBhog Mango, 6 7 Khirsapati (Himsagar) Mango, Fazli Mango grown in the district of Malda, TulaipanjiRice, Gobindabhog Rice Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, HP, UK, Basmati 1 1 parts of western UP and J&K Total Source: Compiled from Table 2. Area, Production and Yield details of Kesar Mango in Particulars GirSomnath Junagadh Taluka name Area Production Yield Taluka name Area Production Yield Girgadhada Junagadh Veraval Bhesan Sutra pada Visavadar Una Mendarda Talala Vanthali Kodinar Manavadar Total Maliya Mangrol Keshod Total Note: Area in hectare, production in Metric tonne and yield per hectare Source: Horticulture department, Government of Gujarat. 128

140 Table 3. Top five countries that import fresh mangoes from India Importing Countries Qty Rs. Qty Rs. Qty Rs. Qty Rs. Qty Rs. Crore Crore Crore Crore Cror e U Arab Emts U K Saudi Arabia Qatar Kuwait Top 5 Total Other Countries Total % Share of Top 5 Countries Note: Figures have been rounded off Source: accessed on 20th April. Table 4. Export of fresh mangoes from Gujarat through Ahmedabad Aircargo complex Year Qty in MT Value in Rs. Crores % change in qty exported * Note: Statistics relate to April- January. Source: Compiled from on 20th April, References Acharya, SS. Second Phase of Agricultural Marketing Reforms and Research Issues. Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing 29, no. 2 (2015):

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142 Reducing Food Loss and Waste in South Asian Countries: Issues and Interventions Md.Saleh Ahmed 1 and Md.Shamsuddoha 3 Chairman, Kernel International Ltd. Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh Managing Director, Kernel International Ltd. Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh Abstract Food loss and waste (FLW) is prevalent in South Asia and has significant implications for the region s environmental and economic security. It is estimated that the region losses and wastages of food approximately 23 and 33 percent respectively, but accurate estimates are not available due to dearth of quantitative information. FLW occurs at all stages of supply chains from the point of production to post-harvest, retail and consumption. Effective interventions to prevent and minimize the losses exist but are not widely implemented in South Asia. Reducing FLW can contribute to food security and sustainability. Measuring food loss and waste, identifying where in the food system it occurs, and developing effective policies along the value chain are essential toward addressing the problem. In the context of that, an attempt has been made in this paper to briefly highlight the issues and possible interventions to reduce food loss and waste in South Asia and provide some recommendations to address food loss and waste in South Asia. In this paper, the present status of global food loss and waste, its impact and importance in South Asian countries have been discussed. Information is also provided on the current status of South Asia s food vulnerabilities. Major causes of FLW and emerging challenges on reducing food loss and waste are also briefly focused. The paper also indicated possible solutions in turning the challenges into opportunities that will help to reduce the current food loss and waste in the region and briefly suggested some interventions to address the emerging issues of FLW in South Asia and also outlined recommendations to reduce food loss and waste in South Asian countries. Introduction For food, nutritional and economic security, the world including South Asia cannot afford to continue to food loss and waste (FLW) at an estimated rate of 23 and 33 percent. In the food chain, the causes of FLW along South Asian supply chains ae relatively similar to the global scenario, yet known interventions to prevent and minimize FLW are not widely implemented. Accurate, up-to-date on the extent of food loss and waste in the region is not available, and this is both a cause and an effect of the relative of attention given to the issue by policy makers and the private sector (Paul and trethewe, 2012). FLW occurs at all stages of supply chains from the point of production to post-harvest, retail and consumption. This situation of FLW is alarming in many countries of the world including SA region. Food loss and waste refers to the edible parts of plants and animals that are produce or harvested for human consumption but that are not ultimately consumed by people. In particular, food loss refers to food that spills, spoils, incurs an abnormal 131

143 reduction in quality such as bruising or wilting, or otherwise gets lost before it reaches the consumer. Food waste refers to food that is of good quality and fit for human consumption but that does not get consumed because it is discarded - either before or after it spoils UNEP (2013). Food is lost or wasted throughout the supply chain, from initial agricultural production down to final household consumption. In medium- and high-income countries food is to a significant extent wasted at the consumption stage, meaning that it is discarded even if it is still suitable for human consumption. In South Asian countries food is lost mostly during the early and middle stages of the food supply chain and much less food is wasted at the consumer level. It is reported that the per capita food waste by consumers in Europe and North-America is kg/year chains in developing countries including South Asian region need to be strengthened by, inter alia, encouraging small farmers to organize and to diversify and upscale their production and marketing. Investments in infrastructure, transportation, food industries and packaging industries are also required. This paper reviews present situation of global food loss and waste including South Asia, its impact and importance, identify major causes of loss and waste, challenges and opportunities. It discusses possible interventions for reducing food loss and waste in South Asian countries. Present Status of Global Food Loss and Waste The FAO of the UN estimates that, 32 percent of all food produced in the world on weight basis are lost or wasted. When converted into calories, global food loss and waste amounts to approximately 24 percent of all food produced. Essentially, one out of every four food calories intended for people is not ultimately consumed. Roughly one-third of the edible parts of food produced for human consumption, gets lost or wasted globally, which is about 1.3 billion tons per year. Food is wasted throughout the entire food chain. In medium- and high-income countries food is to a great extent wasted, meaning that it is thrown away even if it is still suitable for human consumption. Significant food loss and waste do, however, also occur early in the food supply chain. In low-income countries food is mainly lost during the early and middle stages of the food supply chain; much less food is wasted at the consumer level (FAO-2011). Figure 1 shows that, cereals comprise the largest share of global food loss and waste by caloric content (53%). Meat is a relatively small share (7%). However, not all loss and waste is created equal. Figure 1: Share of Global Food Loss and Waste by Commodity (2009) The relatively large environmental impacts of meat in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, land use, and water consumption per calorie combined with the high economic costs of meat suggest that reducing meat loss and waste should receive at least as much attention as other commodities, despite comprising a smaller share of caloric losses. On a calorie basis, cereals comprise the most food loss and waste relative to other food commodities, fruits and vegetables are the largest source of loss and waste on a weight 132

144 basis (Figure 1). This variance primarily results from differences in water content; much of the lost and wasted weight in fruits and vegetables is water. Nonetheless, reducing the loss and waste of fruits and vegetables is clearly important since these foods provide people many essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin C, and potassium needed for leading healthy lives. Similarly, in terms of percent of kcal lost or wasted for each food commodity, roots and tubers experience the greatest amount of loss and waste (63%). Forty-two percent is the rate for fruits and vegetables, and about a quarter of cereals and seafood, meat (19%), milk (18%) and oilseeds and pulses (10%) produced are lost or wasted. Lipinski, (2013) stated that regionally, about 56 percent of total food loss and waste occurs in the developed World - North America, Oceania, Europe, and the industrialized Asian nations of China, Japan, and South Korea-whereas the developing world accounts for44 percent of the loss. On a per capita basis, however, North America and Oceania stand out from other regions with about 1,500 kcal per person per day lost or wasted from farm to fork. In terms of stages of the food value chain, 24 percent of global food loss and waste occurs at production, another 24 percent during handling and storage, and 35 percent at consumption. These three stages taken together account for more than 80 percent of global food loss and waste. The distribution of this food loss and waste varies significantly between developed and developing regions with developed countries seeing more at consumption and developing countries seeing more during production and handling and storage. Importance of FLW in South Asian Countries Food systems in South Asian countries are currently being transformed by a number of demographic and social factors. The population continues to increase across the sub-region and urbanization is increasing. Food produced in rural areas must travel longer distances from farm to markets to supply the nutritional requirements of the growing urban population; many still shop at traditional wet markets for their fruits and vegetables. At the same time, the rapid growth of supermarkets has caused a growing demand for safe, high quality produce, which has opened up new market opportunities and greater income for smallholders who can adopt better practices and differentiate their fresh produce to target these markets, while still supplying traditional fresh markets. The economic and nutritional importance of traditional agro-commodities particularly fruits and vegetables supply chains, therefore, warrants governments specific focus to address deficiencies related to postharvest systems in these supply chains (FAO, 2017). In South Asia, smallholder farmers participate primarily in the traditional supply chains that are highly driven by production. They lack technical knowledge and competitive and organizational capacities to address the challenges of meeting market requirements for safety, quality, consistency and timeliness of supply, as well as the capital to invest in acquiring new technologies to upgrade their practices that leads to 133

145 FLW of 6-11 kg/year (FAO. 2011). Food loss and waste have many negative economic and environmental impacts. Economically, they equate to a wasted investment that reduces the economic wellbeing of actors in the food value chain. Environmentally, food loss and waste represent unnecessary greenhouse gas emissions and wasted water and land. Globally, the amount of food loss and waste in 2009 was responsible for roughly 3,300 5,600 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent), the upper end of which is almost equivalent to the amount of carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption by the United States (CGIAR,2012). Major Causes of FLW The significant causes of food losses and waste in low-income countries are mainly connected to financial, managerial and technical limitations in harvesting techniques, storage and cooling facilities in difficult climatic conditions, infrastructure, packaging and marketing systems. Given that many smallholder farmers in South Asian countries developing countries live on the margins of food insecurity, a reduction in food losses could have an immediate and significant impact on their livelihoods. Smallholders in this region, who produce only small surpluses, often face substantial market failures that contribute to food loss and waste. The causes of food losses and waste in medium/highincome countries mainly relate to consumer behaviour as well as to a lack of coordination between different actors in the supply chain. Food can be wasted due to quality standards, which reject food items not perfect in shape or appearance. At the consumer level, insufficient purchase planning and expiring best-before-dates also cause large amounts of waste, in combination with the careless attitude of those consumers who can afford to waste food. South Asia s Food Vulnerability Current food production systems critically threatened by environmental factors such as, water scarcity, degradation of land and pollution. The region is extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate change. These factors, coupled with competition for land non-food production uses, put food availability at risk. Gradual increase of urbanization continues to be key trend, with a high proportions of the region s population growth projected to occur in cities. South Asia s urban population is expected to outnumber its rural population by next years. As income rises these city dwellers will demand more food and also require various types of food item including more wheat, meat, dairy products, fishes, fruits and vegetables which would increase the pressure on existing food systems that will obviously increase food loss and waste at retail and consumption levels. Major Challenges in Food Loss and Waste Reduction The major challenges in reduction of food loss and wastages across the South Asian countries are; lack of technical knowledge; un-availability of appropriate 134

146 technology and information; weak infrastructures, limited knowledge and skills of postharvest handlers and small-holders; particularly in the areas of quality assurance, business management and marketing. Interventions for Reducing FLW in South Asian Countries Strengthen human resource and institutional capacities to support post-harvest systems development Strengthen capacities of farmers and stakeholders in the food supply chains Develop capacities in extension systems to address food loss and waste reduction, quality management and safety assurance in food supply chains. Strengthen educational and research institutions to include extension approaches within their post-harvest curricula. Support training and capacity development for local SMEs that engage in the fabrication of post-harvest technologies for local markets. Support the organization of smallholders for capacity development and better access to improved technologies and practices. Promote and support knowledge sharing and learning exchange on post-harvest systems at the local, national and regional levels as a mechanism for sharing experiences, good practices and innovations. Provide an enabling environment to support post-harvest systems development In view of the importance of agro-commodities and their supply chains to nutrition, public goods should be provided - electricity, water, transport systems, communication technology and standards - to support the development of post-harvest systems in agro-commodities supply chains. Smallholder organizations and supply chain stakeholders should be assisted when accessing finance, for example through credit schemes that have been designed to support the acquisition of post-harvest technologies such as plastic crates for bulk packaging, harvesting tools, hot water treatment tanks to eliminate pests and diseases. Campaigns could be supported and implemented that would promote the economic, social (including nutritional) and environmental benefits of reducing FLW in food supply chains. FAO Regional Initiatives and Actions FAO launched the Save Food Initiative, as a global initiative on food loss and waste reduction under which, the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP), in December 2012, established collaboration with the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand to launch a region-wide Campaign under the banner, Save Food Asia-Pacific. The Save Food Asia-Pacific Campaign was launched on 28 August 2013, during a High-Level Multi-Stakeholder Consultation on Food Losses and Food Waste in Asia and 135

147 the Pacific Region, convened in Bangkok, Thailand. The Campaign seeks to draw attention to the high levels of post-harvest losses and the growing problem of food waste, and to promote sustainable food consumption in Asia and the Pacific region. Active participation on this Campaign can improve the situation. South Asian countries can participate with a regional integrated approach in the campaign to reduce FLWs in the region. Recommendations Some recommendations to reduce PHLs and food waste in South Asian countries that are worth exploring include the following: The Governments of the region must recognise the strategic importance of reducing FLWs and particularly post-harvest losses and food waste as a measure to address food security in the region Prioritise the reduction of food losses - particularly post-harvest losses and food waste issues in their country strategic plans for agricultural development. Create an enabling environment by the member countries that would be supportive to food loss reduction and provide better climate to stimulate private sector to invest in the food industry for food loss reduction. Develop basic and post-harvest specific infrastructure, food safety and quality regulations. Establish a South Asian regional network for knowledge sharing and learning exchange at the local, national and regional levels as a mechanism for sharing experiences, good practices and innovations would help in reducing food loss and waste in the region Need to develop concrete targets at regional and country levels to reduce food loss and waste and focus should be food loss, but also consider best practices for reducing waste in the longer term.establish active collaboration with The Save Food Asia-Pacific Campaign. Conclusions Reducing food loss and waste can contribute to food security and sustainability. Measuring food loss and waste, identifying where in the food system it occurs, and developing effective policies along the value chain are essential first steps toward addressing the problem. Agri-food systems across the South Asia are currently facing growing and changing market opportunities. The population of this region is increasing faster than the growth in the food supply, and the resources used for creating food are all becoming increasingly scarce. Reducing postharvest food losses and wastes must be an essential component in any strategy to make more food available without increasing the burden on the natural environment. Incentives are needed to encourage the reduction of Food Loss and Waste. 136

148 References Ahmed, M.S (2017a). Keynote paper presented on Reducing Wastage in Fruits and Vegetables Export Supply Chain through Improved Postharvest Management, held in Dhaka on 15th November,2015; organized by Export Promotion Bureau, Ministry of Commerce, Bangladesh Ahmed, M.S (2017a). Supply Chain and Value Chain Management in Agro-Products. Seminar paper, presented in National Agricultural Training Academy held on 18 March,2018. Ahmed, M. S (2017b). Keynote Presentation on Postharvest and Value Addition of Horticultural Produce in Developing Countries of Asia: Opportunities and Constraints; AFACI Program Workshop on Horticulture 2017, held in Dhaka on 18 July, 2017; organized by Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI). Ali, N Post-Harvest Technology for Employment Generation in Rural Sector of India. Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India. P: FAO (2012). Value chain development and post-harvest loss reduction for smallholder farmers; Report on FAO Regional Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Vietnam. FAO (2013). Report On the high-level Multi-Stakeholder consultation on food losses and food waste in Asia and the Pacific Region August 2013 Bangkok, Thailand. FAO (2017). Technical Cooperation Project: tcp\ras\3502 Reduction of post-harvest losses in horticultural supply chains in SAARC countries. CGIAR (2012). Food Waste. Accessible at: food-waste Hodges, R.J, J. C. Buzby and B. Bennett (2010). Postharvest losses and waste in developed and less developed countries: opportunities to improve resource use Jour.Agril. Science, Page 1 of 9. Cambridge University Press Lipinski, B, C. Hanson, J. Lomax, L. Kitinoja, R. Waite and T. Searchinger (2013): Reducing food loss and waste, World Resources Institute - Teng, P and S. Trethewe (2012). Tackling and urban and rural food wastage in Southeast Asia: Issues and Intervention. Policy Brief No. 17, Singapore: RSIS Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies. WRI analysis based on FAO Global food losses and food waste - extent, causes and prevention. Rome: FAO. 137

149 Frugal Household Nutritional Security Suresh Kumar IAS (retd) Former Principal Secretary (Agriculture) and Director of Agriculture, Maharashtra Chairman 12 th Plan Working group on Agriculture Extension The concept note argues that nutritional security has to be considered in totality on a life cycle basis for the household and the community and not for individual groups such as women and children and further that frugal nutritional security for all, without huge resource commitment, is possible and only possible, through integrating household food and nutritional security in agriculture planning. It suggests a framework for such household, food and nutritional security including, among others, assessing total requirement, production, loss and consumption of nutrients and meeting the gap in nutrient availability by minimizing loss and increasing availability of nutrients. Minimizing loss in nutrients is recommended by using every available part of plant instead of throwing away nutritional parts of the plants due to prevailing food preferences; better cooking practices to minimize destruction of nutrients during cooking and improved eating habits to avoid waste of nutrients due to wrong eating habits. Promotion of urban farming and edible greening are suggested to increase production of food and nutrients while layering of nutrition map over resource map for preparation of agriculture production plans is suggested for integrating nutrition in agriculture planning. Home science discipline needs to play a central rather than a marginal role in ensuring house hold food and nutritional security both for integrating nutrition into agriculture planning and providing the critical household counseling, support and mentoring and hence needs to be strengthened at each level in academic institutions and government recommends the article. Nutritional security on life cycle basis for family and community:nutritional status being intergenerational, nutritional deficiencies of mother are passed on to the children. On a life cycle basis, childhood nutritional deficiencies determine the nutritional status during the life cycle. Nutritional status of the children depends upon the nutritional status of the family. Supplementary nutrition through schools is useful but is not enough. Nutritional security has to be provided for at the household level which again depends upon total availability of nutrition in the village and the area. Nutritional security has to be planned for the country, state, district and sub-district level right up to village and the household. Nutritional Equity is basic to livelihood equity: Lack of access to balance nutrition risks creating nutrition haves and nutrition haves not, those with personal dietician to plan every meal and those having do with whatever is available with resultant life time nutritional and health deficiencies.rome Declaration on World Food Security 1996 had committed to provide safe and nutritious food. Nutritional Security is, therefore, implicit in Food Security and needs to be considered as access to balanced nutrition 138

150 carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals consumed as per nutritional needs and deficiencies. Frugal Nutritional security is possible: Nutritional security is possible and only possible from foods which are locally available or can be grown locally by the households and the community to be supplemented by appropriate harvest, storage and transport practices as also appropriate eating preferences, cooking practices and eating habits to minimize loss of nutrients. While some foods shall be brought from outside it cannot be a major component and a long-term solution. Working group on agriculture extension for the 12 th plan has made a detailed recommendation regarding promoting household food and nutritional security through a comprehensive mechanism including integrating nutritional planning into agriculture planning, nutritional budgeting and minimizing loss of nutrients, household counseling and support as also urban farming and edible greening to produce and obtain the required nutrients. Nutrition Budgeting and Balance Sheet: Assess production of nutrients Assess actual consumption of nutrients Assess total loss of nutrients from production to consumption Assess total Loss of nutrients at each stage from production to consumption Assess total requirement of nutrients Assess gap in requirement of nutrients Nutrient Mandate to departments: Nutrition being the main outcome of food, the departments i/c of production should be given targets for both production of food as at present as also targets for production of nutrients. The research System need to be similarly mandated. Assess & report production of nutrients: Food production statistics from crop and animal sources at each level from national level to village level should indicate physical production and the related nutrient production from each item for each food category with the help of ready reckoners as suggested below. Preparation of Plant/Animal/Fish Nutrient Ready Reckoner: This should among others include Identify parts of every fruits, vegetables, cereals, pulses and oilseed plants such as leaves, fruits, seed, bulb, peel and bark, flowers. Each part of each plant should be subjected to edibility test in terms of whether it is edible or otherwise and also what should be done to make it edible. For each edible part the nutrient value should be indicated. Information about parts of various food products are already available from various sources. Some rough and ready values could be determined to make a beginning before fine tuning. Similar ready reckoners should be 139

151 constructed for other food groups including dairy, fish and meat products. In case of fish, for instance, it should be done for each type of fish. Nutritional Grading Ready Reckoner: Nutritional value is different in different areas and stages. Nutrient Ready Reckoners should in course of time be prepared for i) different production areas ii) at each stage of food chain i.e. storage at farm level, wholesale level, retail level and household storage as also during transportation, iii) Each fruit, vegetable, fish and animal is cooked and prepared in hundreds of ways depending upon local habits and individual preferences. Each of these should be standardized and coded eg steamed, fried in various ways. Nutrition grading of each dish needs to be ascertained and a ready reckoner of nutrition value of each dish prepared. Beginning may, however, be made with available information. Assess actual consumption of Nutrients in the food/ fruits/ vegetables/ fish/ dairy/ meat products being consumed. This can be done through surveys which could be conducted by home science wings of academic institutions as also KVKs. Consumption should be assessed for each specific eating preference, cooking practice and eating habit standardized and coded. Assess Loss of total nutrients: This shall be equal to the total production of nutrients minus the actual consumption of nutrients. Assess Loss of nutrients at each stage from production to consumption: Some of the stages and reasons could be: harvesting, storage, transport, parts thrown away due to eating preferences, cooking practices, eating habits. Nutrients may not only be where we think they are and in the form they are: Nutrition is not limited to the traditional portions commonly eaten as per eating preferences. Every part of plant including leaves, flowers, stem, bark, seed and peel, has nutritional value often more than the parts consumed. Not only banana fruit but banana peel, banana leaves, banana stem have high nutritional value.drumstick leaves have a calorific value of 92 compared to 26 for pods and calcium 15 times that of pods. Proposition of discards such as leaves, bark, seeds and peels being the order of the nature for nutrition consumption and other parts being consumed today as being intended to be discarded makes for interesting and serious examination. Are we destroying nutrients during Cooking: Huge loss of nutrients due to incorrect cooking and nutrition enhancement due to various methods of cooking needs to be studied and authoritative recommendations issued. Losing nutrients while consuming: Which item should be consumed during what time of the day? Which items should be consumed together and which consumed separately? Which fruits and vegetables should be consumed hot and which should be 140

152 consumed cold? If consumed cold should it be at room temperature or ice cold? Everything influences and determines the nutrition content and medicinal value. Water is food: For a common person water is an integral part of food although it is not considered so at both international and national level due to different organizations dealing with food and water. Water is required both for consumption and preparation of food. Provision of prescribed quantity of water of requisite quality significantly affects nutrition and therefore should form an integral part of nutritional security. Nutritional Mapping: Mapping nutritional deficiencies is basic to frugal nutrition and also frugal healthcare. Prescribing both standard supplements and foods is a waste on one hand and a contributor to toxicity on the other hand. Why pop a supplement or eat food if there is no related deficiency? This testing has to be across individuals, family, community, district, state and nation. Mapping nutritional deficiency by itself shall cut down costs of health care dramatically. The costs of nutritional testing could be reduced dramatically through establishing testing facilities in public domain as in case of soil testing facilities. Nutritional mapping has been also reportedly recommended by the eminent scientist Dr. M. S. Swaminathan. Assess requirement of nutrients at various levels at household levels as also at the macro level i.e. village, district, state and national level. This has to be based upon the nutritional recommendations based upon local habits and local produce. Nutritional tables need to be prepared for each region after detailed discussions and consultation. Integrating nutritional mapping in agriculture planning: Nutritional maps thus prepared should be superimposed on resource map and production map of the area. This will involve issues such as: What is the requirement of nutrients in different areas with reference to nutritional mapping? How much nutrients are available at production stage with present production plans? How should the nutritional requirements be integrated into agriculture planning? How much nutrients are actually consumed? How much is lost at each stage and for what reason? How can it be preserved and more importantly enhanced? Agriculture research should also need to consider nutritional parameters in addition to the production and yields. Methodology of integrating nutrition planning into agriculture planning and research also needs to be determined and put into practice. A personal nutritional advisor for every household: The need for selecting right foods, cooked and eaten in the right way, is known and is being advised in every newspaper and is also otherwise known. There is need to design recipes considering local habits & local foods, counsel & train households in selection of right foods considering individual needs, preferences, availability of local foods and affordability. It takes time to change life-time habits. Households also require advice on what to grow in their courtyard and house for their nutritional needs. The best way would be through the women s groups and kitchen gardening associations who could be assisted by the government. Working group on agricultural extension for 12 th Plan had recommended providing assistance. 141

153 Training, testing and certification of women and other entrepreneurs as nutritional counselors would also promote paid nutritional counselors in a big way. Edible greening for household and community counseling: The requirement of nutrition can be met through a basket of initiatives for nutrient enhancement at the family and community levels. This includes courtyard farming and bringing open public spaces, fallow land and community wasteland in villages and open areas with institutions and residential complexes in urban areas under cultivation. Concept of edible greening needs to be evolved and operationalized. Landscaping and other greening initiatives will serve the purpose of greening the area while producing food products instead of greening for aesthetics and environmental considerations. Concept of nutrition gardens needs to be operationalised. Marketing fruits and vegetables, fish, dairy and livestock products as health care products: wholesome, nutritious, filling, safe, and tasty with preventive medicines instead of as commodities. For instance marketbitter gourd and fenugreek as an anti-diabetes package?, Carrots as package for improving eyesight? and fish as a safe remedy for improving memory and preventing greying of hair? This shall require standardizing nutritional properties and marketing agriculture commodities with nutritional value and proper methods of cooking and consumption as in case of medicines. Conducteconomic analysis of nutritional values of food products:capture their rich healthcare properties and determine economic rate of return through frugal health care. This shall make agriculture production viable and also provide requisite funding support. Institutional mechanism: Household food and nutritional security requires an integrated approach involving agriculture extension, agriculture planning, household food and nutritional security, urban farming, edible greening, enhancing women s role in farming. There is also the issue of the role of discipline of home science and the food and home science wings of academic institutions. There are a large number of issues which will get addressed in the course of time. MANAGE the National Institute of Agriculture Extension Management eg has established Centre Of Women, Household Food and Nutritional Security, Urban Farming and Edible Greening. Strengthening Home Science Wings: Home science wings may be established in agricultural departments and in agriculture and general universities and research institutions where these do not exist and strengthened to play a central role in agriculture planning. The state departments of women and child development responsible for tackling malnutrition of children and women also need trained resource persons from home science wings. 142

154 Way Forward What is indicated above is an idea to start the thinking process. The concept needs to be firmed up and framework formulated. FAO may play lead role in this and piloting the same through various countries considering its mandate and resources. Taking pilot projects through various institutions attending the conference in areas in their jurisdiction suffering from severe nutritional deficiency. 143

155 Impact of Diversification in Agriculture on Food & Nutrition Security Prof. (Mrs.) Vijayakhader FormerDean, Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar,Hyderabad Abstract Intervention of various technologies to improve the food & nutritional status of the population proved the following facts: Promotion of malt based small scale food industry not only provides opportunity for rural women to develop entrepreneurship and employment, but also provides food and nutritional security through income generation. To address this several technologies were developed under NATP like value addition to fish & prawn products, artificial pearl culture, processing of salted fish, which helped the self help group women of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu to improve their economic status. Received two patents & licensed the technology which helped the women to reduce their drudgery and also preserve the fresh fish for a longer time without getting spoiled. Product development can be taken as income generating activity in the rural areas by the illiterate women. Products can be included in supplementary feeding programs in order to improve the nutritional status of the vulnerable groups of the population. The horse gram which is commonly used for cattle feed can be diversified for human consumption with less investment. Mothers as well as Anganwadi workers preferred amylase rich supplementary foods which reduced Grade 111 and grade 1V malnutrition in Pre- school children significantly. The studies revealed that spawn multiplication can be done by women as a co-operative venture and mushroom cultivation can be undertaken at household level as an income-generating activity. Introducing red palm oil is beneficial to overcome vitamin A deficiency. Formers are encouraged to grow back yard nutrition garden... Impact of women s supplementary income on family s nutritional status showed that the supplementary income of women has a positive impact on the socioeconomic status of the family. This impact is particularly felt on the food and nutrient intake of the familycontributing towards food & Nutrition security. Keywords:Product Development, Technology Intervention, Nutrition Security, Health Security& Economic Empowerment. Introduction India has the second largest population after China. Agriculture occupies nearly 45% of the total geographical area and is the primary occupation of 64% of the total population. The Green Revolution in the1960s has made India a food surplus country. National Nutrition Policy (1993), National Nutrition Plan of Action (1995) and National Nutrition Mission (2001) have not at achieved nutrition goals. The reason is nutrition is a poor cousin even in health and agriculture planning and execution. Nutrition improvement is not a stated goal with measurable parameters in National Food Security Mission, National Horticulture Mission and National Rural Health Mission.This paper deals with 144

156 the diversification of Agriculture, intervention of Horticulture,Dairy, Fisheries, Mushroom, Value addition, Women empowerment &Nutrition education for food & nutrition security. Experimental methodology used starting from Surveys, Chemical analysis, Biochemicalestimations, bio-availability studies on rats as well as human subjects; clinical observations and histological studies were used as per the study design. Product development, value addition, Technology transfer, Entrepreneur skills development, income generation activities and creating awareness through Nutrition Education were also used. Results & Discussion: Research carried out on impact of agriculture diversification on nutrition security is discussed under Diversification of Agricultural ; Horticulture ; Mushrooms; Dairy ;Fisheries; Value addition; Nutrition Education; Welfare Programs ; Economic Empowerment of Women and unexploited biodiversity. A) Agricultural Diversification: Integrated Crop Management (ICM) Modified form of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) designed and promoted by the Food and Agricultural Organization is an effective strategy to realize the maximum of the potential yield of a crop variety.according to the World Health Organization, an estimated 334 million children in developing countries are malnourished. In 2020, one out of every four children in these countries will still be malnourished. It is recognized that modern agriculture must diversify production and achieve sustainable higher output to supplement food security. Crop diversification / cropping systems Intercropping of ragi and redgram in 8:2 ratio is found to give additional income of Rs.5,500/- ha compared to sole crop of ragi. Ground nut intercropped with either red gram (4151 kg / ha) or castor (4238 kg/ha) in 7:1 ration recorded maximum Redgram based cropping systems, redgram+ clusterbean (3263 kg /ha) in 1:7 ration gave highest redgram Among different alternate crops tried to groundnut during late rabi, blackgram recorded maximum net returns (Rs /ha) and followed by sesasum (Rs /ha) Cluster bean and field bean are excellent alternative crops for rain fed groundnut in bad years. Home based low cost energy protein rich preparations using Horse gram for vulnerable groups (Vijayakhader & P. Ashlesh, 1998)The horse gram which is commonly used for cattle feed can be diversified for human consumption with less investment. Processed horse gram flour was prepared using Puffing and Roasting, 145

157 Processed Soya bean flour was prepared by Dehulling and Roasting. The low cost energy protein rich products namely RAGINA and EPRF were prepared using the simple home scale processing methods like germination, roasting and puffing, to improve the nutritional status. Horse gram has been identified as potential food resource for the tropics and also occupies an important place among pulses because of its ability to resist severe drought conditions. Soya bean (Glycine max) is one of the best vegetable proteins and has tremendous potential to meet the protein deficiency in the cereal based Indian Diets at a low cost. Product development can be taken as income generating activity in the rural areas by the illiterate women. Products can be included in supplementary feeding programs in order to improve the nutritional status of the vulnerable groups of the population. Nutrient intake, morbidity and nutritional status of preschool children are influenced by agricultural and dietary diversity in western Kenya(Mary Walingo Khakoni,2013) A cross sectional survey was set up to assess the influence of agrobiodiversity and dietary diversity on morbidity, nutrient intake and the nutritional status of preschool children in Western Kenya. About 34.8% preschool children were severely stunted, 21.5% severely underweight and 8.3% were severely wasted. There was a positive and strong relationship between agricultural biodiversity, dietary diversity and caregivers' level of education. Morbidity level and dietary diversity had significant influence on underweight levels and stunting. Consideration of agro biodiversity in terms of dietary diversity can improve the nutrition and health status of a preschool child. B) Horticulture intervention: This will focus on increasing the supply nutrient-rich crops, in part through the promotion of home gardening. Horticulture intervention will involve the Ministry of Agriculture for the supply of seeds, extension, and storage support. Vitamin A and Iron Nutritional status of nutritionally vulnerable segments of population subsisting on Horticulture crops and dairy farming in East Godavari district of A.P.( Aruna,1997) showed very significant improvement in their nutritional status. Significant impact of Nutrition Garden / Home garden reflected on Iron & Vitamin status of the families under study. Transfer of home level preservative techniques of selective fruits and vegetables to rural women in Guntur district (Vijaya Khader and Bharathi, 1994):There was a significant, negative correlation between age of the respondents and gain in knowledge.there was a significant positive correlation of socio economic variables such as educational status, family income, and land holding on gain in knowledge. 146

158 Operational feasibility of RPO supplementation to pre-school children in Anganwadi centers of ICDs Project (Vijayakhader and Aruna, 2008): Vitamin A deficiency causes many health problems especially among children. A study was undertaken to screen the effect of supplementation of Red Palm Oil (RPO) obtained from the fruits of tree Leis guineensis Jac.The oil is rich in B-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A.Supplementation of crude RPO to Anganwadi Children increased the attendance of children, increase in heights and weights of children. Decrease in Grade 11 and Grade 111 malnutrition was observed in respect of sex. Effects of dried Gymnema Sylvestre leaf powder showed a significant reduction on blood glucose, lipid profile and blood pressure in newly diagnosed type 11 diabetic subjects- a pilot study (Aparna Kuna & Vijayakhader,2010) C) Mushrooms : Rural Women as Entrepreneurs in Mushroom Cultivation (Vijaya Khader, 1994) Every woman is an entrepreneur as she manages, organizes and assures responsibility for running her house. It has been increasingly realized that women possess entrepreneurial talent which can be har nessed to create employment opportunities. In the rural areas a woman can easily manage 4-10 beds depending on the space available, helping them to earn Rs.180 to Rs.450 per month. The results of the studies revealed that spawn multiplication can be done by women as a co-operative venture and mushroom cultivation can be undertaken at household level as an income-generating activity. D) Intervention of dairy: Impact of dairy programme on the nutritional status of women and preschool children in Vihiga District, Kenya Africa (Mary Khakoni Walingo & Vijayakhader, 2000): The dairy programme in Kenya has a significant impact on the overall improvement of the family in specific to improving production, consumption and marketed surplus of milk. Food and nutrient intake and nutritional status of women and preschool children from participant households improved.the prevalence of under nutrition in preschool children in participant households was lower (1.7%) than that of children in non participant households(2.9%).stunting was 8.7 % and 21.4% in preschool children from participant and non- participant households respectively. Less percent (6.7%) of women in participant households had body mass index less than 18.5, whereas 7.3% of women from non- participant households fell below this cut - off point. E) Fishery Intervention: Role of Women in Fisheries in Coastal Eco-System of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. (Vijaya Khader, R.Sathiadas and H.Mohamad Kasim 2005).Fish eaters in the study area comprise 47 per cent of the total population ranging from 237 per cent in Tamil Nadu to 85 per cent in Kerala. Though the position of Tamil Nadu in terms of number of coastal districts 147

159 and possession of coast line including the number of landing centers is envious, the number of fish eaters in the state is minimal. Andhra Pradesh employs 32 per cent of its fisherwomen in fish curing/drying/net making and 27 per cent in processing plant works. Studies on Fisher Women in the Coastal Eco System of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Vijaya Khader, 2004): Two Equipments I) Low Cost Ice Cream Freezer,II) Fresh Fish Vending and Display Table have been fabricated and received Patents and the technology was licensed to Smt.G.Varalakshmi, W/o. Sri G.Satya Kiran, M/s. Yogi Industries, and Secunderabad for manufacturing these two equipments for a period of two years. She is the sole authority to manufacture in the country. After expiry of two years the technology on low cost ice cream freezer was licensed second time to another women entrepreneur namely Mrs. Lakshmi Bhuvaneswari W/o Devi Hariprasad, D.No.23/321, Bachupeta, Hindu College Road, Machilipatnam on 16th September, 2006 for a period of 6 years. These equipments were fabricated mainly to improve the Health & Nutrition Security. Health &Nutritional status of preschool children in coastal fishing villages of South India Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Vijayakhader,,2005): The consumption of vegetables, fruits was found to be low, milk consumption was fairly low among the preschool children & fish consumption was found to be 34 gm/ CU. The intake of nutrients in case of preschool children was found to be less than the RDA. It was observed that macro nutrient intake was fairly better when compared to the micro nutrient intake.31 % of preschool children were anemic. The other clinical symptoms like angular stomatitis, chelosis & dryness of skin were 35 % on an average.the reason for high anemic might be due to low consumption of iron rich foods, poor health,hygiene & sanitation and also might be due to lack of nutritional awareness. F) Value addition : To study the effect of feeding malted food on the nutritional status of vulnerable groups (Vijayakhader & Umamaheswari, 2012) Amylase Rich Malted Mixes (ARMM) two types were formulated using Ragi / Wheat and suitable products namely Laddu, Roti, Kheer, and Porridge were prepared using formulated malted mix. The ARMM s found to be nutritional dense. For the supplementation of malted mixes 8 villages of Lepakshi Mandal, Ananthapur District was selected. Preschool children (400), pregnant women (100) and Lactating women (100) were selected and fed with two types of malted mixes (Ragi / Wheat) for a period of 3 months. Anthropometric data, Food intake showed a significant increase in the preschoolers, pregnant women and Lactating mothers. Clinical assessment showed considerable reduction i.e. (50%) in nutritional deficiency symptoms and morbidity rate of all the subjects. Training programmes 148

160 were conducted to 40 members by lecture and method demonstrations using developed education material such as Posters, Flip book, Manual and CD-Rom. After the training 60-70% improvement was observed in Knowledge, Attitude and Practices scores of the trainees, project profile for bulk production was also developed. Supplementation of ARMM s helped to improve the nutritional status of the vulnerable groups of population in rural areas especially with regard to protein, energy, iron, and calcium and B-complex vitamins. Promotion of malt based small scale food industry not only provides opportunity for rural women to develop entrepreneurship and employment but also provided Food and Nutritional Security through income generation. Therapeutic food supplementation in ICDS projects of Andhra Pradesh (Yasoda Devi & Vijayakhader, 2004)Total 2267 children of age range of 1-3 years were selected (892 children from rural ICDS project, Saravakota; 507 children from new ICDS project, Kottem; and 778 children from tribal ICDS project, Seethapeta) for a period of 1 year. The three types of supplements were prepared and distributed by A.P. Foods, Hyderabad. The supplements were distributed either in the form of Laddu or as in the form of powder. Nutritive value of 100g of supplements provides 400 to 480 Kcal 12.5 to 13.8 g proteins. It was very encouraging to note that 92% of grade III children showed improvement in their weight and height; 80% of moderately malnourished; 42% of mildly malnourished and 44% with normal grade showed improvement. It was also observed that there was positive correlation between the calorie and protein intake and also improvement in weight and height. All 100% of mothers as well as Anganwadi workers preferred these supplementary foods better as compared to earlier supplied food i.e. ready to eat food. G) Nutrition Education: Tribal mother s attitude towards lactation performance (Vijayakhader,, 1996) Tribal women are mostly involved in food preparation (25%) where as men are involved in occupational activities. Majority (85%) of tribal women do not think lactation as a necessity to take special care about either food because they were lactating. Majority of mothers (66%) were aware of the reason for decrease in lactation performance. Only a small number of mothers (5%) knew that sickness and insufficient food (2%) played a role in decreasing the lactation performance. As nursing mothers, they do not receive any special attention from the family members regarding the additional intake of food. A positive change was observed in lactating mothers through Nutrition Educationas a tool. Health Status of Tribal sof Chinthapalli Block (Vijayakhader,,1996)health problems of the tribal s are related to number of factors which include illiteracy, ignorance of the disease and its prevention,poverty,poor nutritional status Poor environmental sanitation and poor personal hygiene, non- 149

161 availability of safe drinking water, which make people more vulnerable to infections. Superstitions and beliefs add to the health problems and complicate the situation. Malnutrition leading to tuberculosis and goitre are major disease in tribals.vomiting; diarrhoea and consequent dehydration are causes for death among infants and children. Skin diseases especially scabies and heat boils are common. H) Welfare Programs: Effect of Jawahar Rojgar Yojana Programme during lean season on the Nutritional Status of Women in Landless Labour Families of Drought prone areas (Uma Maheswari and Vijaya Khader, 2001)The study was conducted in eight villages of four interior Mandals having low rainfall ( mm) in Ananthapur a drought prone district of Andhra Pradesh. A household survey was conducted to screen the families having at least one women of child bearing age from the eight selected villages of the four Mandals. A total of 120 families were selected for the study of which 60 families were JRY beneficiary families where at least one member of the family was being employed under JRY scheme and 60 families were non-jry beneficiary families. The study showed that the additional income gained by the landless labourer families during the lean season from Jawahar Rojgar Yojana (JRY) programme had beneficial effect on the nutritional status as assessed by the anthropometric measurements as well as clinical observations. The results indicated the past malnutrition status of the population in Ananthapur district because of the repeated and prolonged droughts. Effect of Jawahar Rojgar Yojana scheme during lean season on the Expenditure (Uma Maheswari and Vijaya Khader,2001a) A significant positive trend towards improvement in the quality of food taken by the landless labour families with the additional income generated through welfare programme i.e., Jawahar Rojgar Yojana in lean season as evinced by better food and non-food expenditure pattern of the JRY beneficiary families over the counterpart non JRY families in dryland and drought prone areas of Ananthapur district, Andhra Pradesh. Coping mechanisms adapted for food security at household level in drought prone areas of Ananthapur, Andhra Pradesh (Uma Maheswari & Vijaya Khader, 2003)Astudy was carried out in eight villages of four interior Mandals having low rainfall ( mm), in Ananthapur a drought prone district of Andhra Pradesh. Families having at least one women of child-bearing age were enumerated. Two rounds of survey were conducted to understand the difference in coping mechanisms operating between peak and lean seasons. The study centered around the empirical examination of eight major groups of coping mechanisms comprising of land, livestock, economic, food procurement and production, food consumption and distribution, food storage, social and health based mechanisms 150

162 adapted by the families. The various economic activities under taken by the women in the study area included Agriculture, Agriculture labour, basket making, Beedee making, brick making, broom making, cattle rearing, firewood collection, flour mill, fodder collection, forest produce collection, goat / sheep rearing, laundering, mat weaving, non-agricultural labour, petty trade, pottery, poultry rearing, ring making, sericulture, tailoring, tamarind peeling, vegetable vending and weaving clothes etc. Most often children especially girls were involved in home based trades like groundnut shelling, beedi making, tamarind peeling etc. A few of the mechanisms were found to be beneficial and can be encouraged. I) Economic Empowerment Of women: Family income and nutritional status of pre-scholars in rural areas of Tenali division (Vijayakhader & Kavitha, 1993)The increase in the annual per capita income of the family increased slightly the nutritional status of pre-scholars.the results also reveal that no significant difference was observed between the body weight of children and income of the parents in all the age group. In spite of having high purchasing power, lower educational status of the mothers and also low nutritional awareness, majority of the children are in Grade 1 degree malnutrition. Impact of women s supplementary income on families nutritional status (Vijaya Khader, 1999) The study was carried in 4 villages of Rajendarnagar Mandal & Ranga Reddy District on vegetable vendera, Shop Keepers, Washers, Fruit venders, Tea & Snack Venders. The results reveal that the supplementary income of women has a positive impact on food & nutrient intake of the family. J) Un exploited biodiversity: 2,50,000-3,00,000 species of plants exist, 10,000-50,000 are edible are used as animal food. Three species rice, maize and wheat supply almost 60% of the calories and protein humans derive from plants. Conclusions: Strategies for food and dietary diversification: Promotion of mixed cropping and integrated farming systems; Introduction of new crops (such as soybean);promotion of underexploited traditional foods and home gardens; Small livestock raising; Promotion of fishery and forestry products for household consumption; Promotion of improved preservation and storage of fruits and vegetables to reduce waste, post-harvest losses and effects of seasonality; Strengthening of small-scale agro-processing and food industries; Income generation;nutrition education to encourage the consumption of a healthy and nutritious diet year round. 151

163 Strategies to address micronutrient malnutrition: Three of the main strategies for addressing micronutrient malnutrition are dietary diversification, fortification (including bio fortification) and supplementation References: Aparna Kuna & Vijayakhader.2010.Effects of dried Gymnema Sylvestre leaf powder on blood glucose, lipid profile and blood pressure in newly diagnosed type11diabetic subjects- a pilot study. Journal of Research,ANGRAU.38(3/4)pp Mary Khakoni Walingo and Vijayakhader Impact of Dairy programme on the Nutritional status of women and pre-school children in Vihiga district --- (Ph.D. thesis) Mary khakoni Walingo.2013,Nutrient intake, morbidity and nutritional status of preschool children are influenced by agricultural and dietary diversity in western Kenya,Pakistan Journal of Nutrition,212(9) pp Uma Maheswari K and Vijaya Khader.2001a.Effect of Jawahar Rojgar Yojana Programme during lean season on the Nutritional Status of Women in Landless Labour Families of Drought prone areas J.Dairying. Foods & H.S. 20 (1) : pp Uma Maheswari and Vijaya Khader.2001 Effect of Jawahar Rojgar Yojana scheme during lean season on the Expenditure (Food and Non-Food) pattern of Landless Labour Families in Drought prone areas of Ananthapur district, Andhra Pradesh Economic Affairs, Vol.46(2)pp Uma Maheswari K. and Vijaya Khader A study on coping mechanisms adopted for food security at Household level in Drought prone areas of Ananthapur, A.P., J.ResearchANGRAU,31(2)pp Vijaya Khader, R. Sathiadhas and H. Mohammad Kasim.2005.Role of Women in Fisheries in Coastal Eco-System of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu; J. Res.ANGRAU 33(1)pp Vijaya Khader, R.N. Kumar, J.Lakshmi, K.DhanapalH.M.Kasim,R.Sathiadas and N. S. Sudhaka.2004.Studies on Fisher Women in the Coastal Eco System of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu,World Fish centre, Global Symposium on Gender and Fisheries Seventh Asian Fisheries forum,, Penang, Malaysia Vijayakhader, K.Dhanapal & J.Lakshmi,2005, Anthropometric Measurement of fisherman and preschool children, Rural India, Vijayakhader & P.Ashlesh Home based low cost energy protein rich preparations using Horse gram (Dolichos Biflorus) for vulnerable groups Indian Oil Palm Journal, Vol.VIII, No.46, pp Vijayakhader & Umamaheswari to study the effect of feeding malted food on the nutritional status of vulnerable groups: accepted for publication in the International Journal for Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research.Vol.4(4) pp Vijaya Khader Rural Women as Entrepreneurs in Mushroom Cultivation, Indian Farming, March,pp

164 Vijaya Khader Impact of Women s supplementary incomes as families Nutritional status. The Indian Journal Social Work, vol. 60(3) pp Vijayakhader Studies on nutritional awareness of Mothers and Child mortality rate in selected urban slums and rural areas of Guntur district. The Andhra Agric.J.43 (2-4) pp Vijayakhader and Aruna.2008.Operational feasibility of RPO supplementation to preschool children in Anganwadi centers of ICDs Project, Natural Product Radiance, and Vol.7 (4) pp Vijayakhader and Kavitha.1993.Anthropometric measurements of pre-school children in the rural areas of Tenali division. Asian Journal of Psychology and Education. Vol.26 No.1-2, PP Vijayakhader and V.V. Bharathi.1994.Transfer of Home level preservative techniques of selective fruit and vegetables to rural women in Guntur district. Asian Journal of Psychology and Education. Vol.27 No.3-4, PP Vijayakhader, V.Vimala, G, Sarojini and P.Rajyalakshmi.1996.Tribal s of Andhra Pradesh and their Nutritional Status, Book published by Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University,Rajendranagar,Hyderabad-30. Yasoda Devi & Vijayakhader.2004.Therapeutic food supplementation in ICDS of Andhra Pradesh, Every man s science Vol.39 (3) pp projects 153

165 Promotion of pulses for food security -A success case of KVK Rudrur, Telangana, India Dr. C. Padma Veni Dr. Bandaru Venkata Rajkumar 1, Dr. D. Vijaya Lakshmi 2, Dr. M. Swetha 4, Mr. P. Vijay Kumar, Dr. M. Bhavya Manjari6 and Dr. K. Dattatri7 Principal Scientist (Agril. Extension) & Programme Coordinator, 2. Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture), 3. Subject Matter Specialist (Agril. Extension), 4. Subject Matter Specialist (Plant Protection), 5. Research Associate (Home Science) KVK, Rudrur, 6. Scientist (Soil Science), RS&RRS, Rudrur, 7. Principal Scientist (Agril. Extension), ATARI, Zone-X, Hyderabad A B S T R A C T Food security tops the Government agenda as production stagnates and prices continue to be high. Pulses on account of their vital role in nutritional security and soil ameliorative properties have been an integral part of sustainable agriculture since ages. Presently, the pulses are grown in 23 million hectares with million tonnes of production in the country. National Food Security Mission on pulses, a centrally sponsored scheme is implemented in the country during 2007 with a goal to increase production and productivity in pulse crops by providing farmers the high yielding variety seeds with improved technology as the Hon ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi ji emphasised in seven points strategy document for doubling the farmer s income by This paper describes the sequential extension methods adopted in Cluster Front Line demonstration (CFLD) by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nizamabad, Telangana State for the promotion of Bengal gram and Green gram under National Food Security Mission (NFSM) during in 381 demonstration plots in ha to enhance the farmers yield and income. The extension methods used to disseminate the scientific production technologies during different crop stages in CFLD resulted in enhancing the farmers average yield and income in Green gram (8.82q/ha) with % increase & Bengal gram (15.56q/ha) with % increase in comparison to farmers practice. Besides, these CFLDs also expanded the area under pulses in the district as Nizamabad district is dominated by paddy crop. The high yielding varieties of Green gram and Bengal gram helped the farmers in realizing benefits with assured income especially when paddy could not be taken up in the district during severe drought period ( with rainfall % & with rainfall %). I. Introduction Food security tops the Government agenda as production stagnates and prices continue to be high. Pulses on account of their vital role in nutritional security and soil ameliorative properties have been an integral part of sustainable agriculture since ages. Presently, the Pulses are grown in 23 million hectares with million tonnes of production in the country. National Food Security Mission on Pulses, a centrally sponsored scheme is implemented in the countryduring 2007 with a goal to increase production and productivity in Pulse crops by providing farmers the high yielding variety seeds with improved technology as the Hon ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi ji emphasised in seven points strategy document for doubling the farmers income by

166 Though a number of improved Pulse varieties and production technologies have been developed over a period of time, the full potential of these varieties and technologies could not be exploited due to lack of availability to the farmers which limited the pulse productivity and cannot be overlooked. Research and extension programmes need to be diverted to produce value additive pulses. The concept of Front Line Demonstration in cluster modewas put forth under National Food Security Mission on Pulses by scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK), State Agricultural Universities(SAUs), Indian Council of Agricultural Research Institutes (ICARs) and NGOswhich would indirectly contribute to enhance farmers income by increasing production andproductivity and reducing the cost of productionwith the promotion ofimprovedseedand scientifictechnologydemonstrated on the selectedcropand ensuring remunerative price totheproduceproduced. Over the last few years,with contributing effect,the area and production of pulses in Nizamabad District increased due to inception of ClusterFront Line Demonstration concept at farmers field as paddy is dominant crop in the district. In this connection Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nizamabad conducted Cluster Front Line Demonstrations since six years (6) ( to ) using extension methods to demonstrate the scientific technologies sequentially during different stages of crop in Green gram and Bengal gram and realised the benefits. II. KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA METHODOLOGY As a mandate, Krishi Vigyan Kendra conducts Technology Assessment and Refinement (TAR) onsix (6) micro locations of farmers farm (0.1 ha each location)called On Farm Testing (OFT) that move to Demonstration three years afterproving sucessful called Front Line Demonstration (FLD). These FLDs areconducted in ten (10) locations of farmers farm (0.4 ha each location) in close supervision of scientists so as to establish production potentials. Similarly theconcept of Cluster Front Line Demonstrationsunder NFSM (National Demonstrations) is to conductthe demonstrations in cluster mode approachtaking into consideration 10 ha as one cluster tocreate better and visible impact of a technologyin a larger scalethrough wide publicity. 1. Sequential Extension Methodology and Technology For the development of Sequential Extension Methodology and Technology the sources of growth and strategies for improving the farmers income through Pulse crops and their improved varieties, different stages of CFLD before and during implementation including various crop stages, crop technologies with appropriate extension methods, audio visual aids / ICT and farmers feedback were identified and incorporated as shown in the Figure No

167 A. Before Implementation of CFLD The ground work for identifying the following areas before implementation was done a. Sources of Growth in Farmers Income 1. Improvingproductivity 2. Increasing resource use efficiency 3. Saving cost of cultivation 4. Increasing cropping intensity b. Strategy for Improving Farmers Income Conducting ClusterFront Line Demonstrations by 1. Selecting improved variety & technology 2. Developing Sequential Extension Methodology andtechnology c. Pulse crops along with Technologies, Farmers Practice and Extension Gap identified The pulse crops along with improved varieties and technologies to be demonstrated through CFLD during 6 years to were identified in consultation with Principal Scientist (Pulses) from SAUs & ICAR and thoroughly reviewing the literature as shown in below given table 1 and 2. Later the literature was developed on both the crops in local language and distributed to the farmers. Table: 1. Technologies Identified, Farmers Practices and Extension Gap under CFLD on Green gramduringkharifseason Particular Technological intervention in CFLD Farmers practices Extension Gap s of Greengra m Variety Improved varieties LGG-460, Eakasila (WGG-37), Yadadri (WGG 42) and Madira Pesara (MGG-347) Local/own seed Full gap Seed rate kg/ha kg/ha Partial gap (High seed rate) Seed treatment Fertilizer dose Weed manageme nt Plant protection 3.0g/kg. seed, No seed treatment 500 g/ha seed 25 kg Urea & 300 kg SSP Excess use of fertilizer 2.5 L/ha and one hand DAS, 2.5 L/ha Spraying Carbendizum + Mancozeb 2.5g/l. for control of powdery meldew (control of insects with 2 sprays of insecticide at vegetative stage and pod development stage) Need based and timely spraying of above chemicals 156 Improper measures & biopesticides spraying Full gap Partial gap Partial gap Full gap

168 Table: 2. Technologies Identified, Farmers Practices and Extension Gap under CFLD on Bengal gramrabiseason Particulars of Technological Existing Extension Gap Bengal gram intervention in CFLD practices Variety Improved varieties JG-11, Local/own seed Full gap Nandyal Shanaga-1 (NBeG-3) and Dheera (NBeG-47) Seed rate 62.5 kg/ha 75 kg/ha Partial gap (High seed rate) Seed treatment Trichoderma No seed Full gap 6g/kg seed and Corboxin 75% seed. 500 g/ha seed treatment Fertilizer 25 kg Urea & 300 kg SSP No use of Full gap dose/ha fertilizer Weed management 2.5 L/ha and one hand DAS 2.5 L/ha Partial gap Plant protection Installation of bird Improper Full gap perches 30-40/ha. measures & Spraying of insecticide 2ml/lit. at pod development stage to control pod borers. bios spraying Need based timely spraying Harvesting Mechanized harvesting in Dheera (NBeG-47) No mechanization Full Gap d. Crop stages identified (For example Bengalgram Nandyal Senaga-1 and Dheera) 1. Pre sowing 2. Sowing 3. Early vegetative (15 Days After Sowing) 4. Vegetative (30-35 Days After Sowing) 5. Flowering Before implementation of CFLD 6. Pod formation (55-65 Days After Sowing) 7. Pod development (75-80 Days After Sowing) Days crop duration 9. Before harvesting (100 Days crop duration) 10. Harvesting 157

169 e. Extension methods selected 1. Participatory Rural Appraisal Methods (PRA) 2. Brain storming sessions 3. Surveys 4. Skill Teaching During implementation of 5. Interaction with Principal Scientist (Pulses) CFLD cum literature review 6. Orientation meetings 7. Demonstrations 8. Interaction meeting 9. Lecture cum Discussion 10. Monitoring visits 11. Skill Teachings 12. Field days 13. Field visits f. Selection of Demonstration plots and farmers: Participatory Rural Appraisal Methods like Social and Resource mapping were conducted to identify uplands suitable for the promotion of Pulses Brain storming and Interactive sessions were conducted and suitable demonstration plots on cluster approach along with interested and ideal farmers based on their active participation were selected. 1)Size of CFLD plot: The size of each demonstration plot 0.4 ha was considered for implementation of CFLD. 2) Number of farmers: The number of farmers selected equalled the number of demonstration plots. Every year ha. were considered as one cluster and demonstrations were conducted in 10 to 20 ha. in one or two clusters in each crop. Soil Samples from the selected demonstration plots were collected in coordination with Department of Agriculture and distributed the Soil Health Cards for soil test based fertilizer management. B. During Implementation of CFLD A total of 381 Cluster Front Line Demonstrations in 6 years ( to ) were conducted in the KVK adopted and non adopted villages with active participation of farmers to demonstrate the improved technologies of Green gram and Bengalgram in different villages taking Farmers Practice as a Check so as to establish production potentials and expand the area under these crops in the district as a contributing way of doubling the farmers income Orientation meetings were conducted and the literature was distributed on the crops during Pre-sowing stage involving the selected farmers. Critical inputs along with technologies to be demonstrated at every stage of the crop were delivered using appropriate extension method. Field days were conducted involving Demonstration holding farmers, Neighbouring farmers, Scientists from University and Agricultural 158

170 Technology Application Research Institute, Officials from Department of Agriculture and local extension functionaries to demonstrate the superiority of the technology of each crop. Crop yields were recorded from the demonstration and check plots at the time of harvest to identify the yield gaps between demo and check plots The yield data was collected from both the demonstration and check plots by random crop cutting method for comparison. The technology gap and technological index (Samui et. al., 2000) were calculated by using formula as given below. 1. Technology gap = Potential yield Demonstration yield 2. Technology Index= Potential Yield-Demonstration Yield X 100 Potential Yield 3.Percent increase yield= Demonstration yield - farmers yield X 100 Farmers yield Mechanized harvesting: Cost reduction with mechanized harvesting in Dheera (NBeG-47) in comparison to Nandyal Shanaga-1(NBeG-3) in one acre was calculated A model of Sequential Extension Methodology and Technology in accordance with technologies demonstrated developed for CFLD in Bengalgram varieties Nandyal Shanaga-1 (NBeG-3) and Dheera (NBeG-47) during is presented in Figure.No

171 Figure.No.1 160

172 161

173 162

174 III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table: 3. Performance of Green gram under Cluster Frontline Demonstrations and Farmers Practice (check) during Kharif season from to (Pooled data) Year Demo No. of Area Yield (q/ha) % increase B:C ratio Potential Technology Technolo yield gap gy index Variety Demos (ha) Demo Check over check Demo Check (q/ha) (q/ha) (%) LGG :1 1.99: Eakasila :1 1.88: Eakasila :1 1.88: Yadadri (FLD) : : Madira Pesara :1 2.75: Yadadri Crop failed due to heavy rainfall Average Total Table 3 depicts theyields recorded in Green gram under rain fed situation duringkharifseasonvaried from 6.10 to q/ha with an average of 8.82 q/ha in CFLD plots which were more than check wherein, the yields varied from 5.34 to q per ha with an average of 7.61 q per ha. The green gram crop during could not be harvested due to uneven distribution of rainfall (73.4 mm) during the month of September, 2017 coincidingthe harvestperiod which damaged the crop completely. The results indicated that the Clusterfrontline demonstrations shown good impact on the farming community of Nizamabad district as they got motivated by the new agricultural technologies disseminated through CFLD in Greengram. The variation in overall yield of Green gram from to was due to fluctuations in ground water table and weather conditions in Nizamabad district. The increase in yield over check ranged from per cent (in ) to percent (in ) with an average of per cent. 163

175 Table:4. Performance of Bengal gram under Cluster Frontline Demonstration and Farmers Practice (check) during Rabi season from to (Pooled data) Year Yield (q/ha) B:C ratio Technol Potential Demo No. of Area % increase Technology ogy yield Variety Demos (ha) Demo Check over check Demo Check gap index (q/ha) (%) JG : : JG : : JG :1 2.01: JG : : Nandyal Shanaga :1 2.20: Nandyal Shanaga-1 & Dheera Average Total Mechanized Harvesting: Dheera (NBeG-47) had an advantage of saving the harvesting cost by 50 per cent in comparison to Nandyal Shanaga-1(NBeG-3). Table 4 depicts the yields recorded in Bengal gram during rabi seasons varied from 8.13 to q/ha with an average of q/ha in CFLD plots which were more than check wherein, the yields varied from 6.25 to q per ha with an average of q/ha. The increase in yields over check varied from 7.10 per cent (in ) to percent (in ) with an average of per cent. The variation in overall yields of Bengal gram from to was due to weather conditions prevailed where this crop grows under residual moisture andatmospheric dew. 164

176 As a contributing way for Food and Nutritional Security, the Sequential Extension Methodology and Technology played a key role in Improvingthe productivity, Resource use efficiency, Saving in cost of production and Increasing cropping intensity in Greengram and Bengalgram crops. Variation in yields in Greengram and Bengalgram over the years as shown in the Table.3 & 4 was due to influence of weather conditions during different crop stages. September 2016 excess rains (295.9 %), turned Greengram (Madira Pesara) as Green Manuring as the crop on some demonstration plots got completely submerged. KVK scientists intervened at this point in fertilizer management in Rabi Paddy to reduce the dose of nitrogen fertilizers and facilitated the farmers in reducing the cost of cultivation on which a Case Study was documented. Similarly uneven distribution of rainfall 73.4 mm during September 2017 coinciding with harvesting period of Greengram (Yadadri) completely damaged the crop. Apart from mere technology dissemination with appropriate methodology, the real education provided at every stage of the crop enabled the farmer to understand and adopt technologies and reap good yields realising the nutritional benefits of pulses. The varietal replacement with high yielding, pest and disease resistant characters like Yellow Mosaic Virus in Greengram varieties Madira Pesara and Yadadri (short duration days) and Wiltresistant and Bold seeded Bengal gram Varieties Nandyal Shanaga-1 (NBeG-3) and Dheera (NBeG-47) helped the farmers to realize the benefits of getting high yields in Green gram (8.82q/ha) with % increase & Bengal gram (15.56q/ha) with % increase in comparison to Farmers Practice and motivated them in spreading the technology in the district. Proper Audio VisualAid and ICT use, obtaining farmer s feedback at every crop stage and video films covering crucial crop management aspects imparted knowledge to the farmers for timely management of pests and diseases. Capturing and spreading the farmer innovation like growing crop on raised beds with high 30q/ha motivated the fellow farmers to adopt and practice the same for realizing the benefits. The Field Days conducted at economic part development stage (pod development) with the involvement of demonstration holding farmers, neighbouring farmers, Scientists from SAU and ICAR-ATARI, Agriculture department officials, local extension functionaries with wide publicity using print and electronic media demonstrated the superiority of technology over farmers practice in both crops and enabled the farmers to spread the technology of the crops in the district. The resource poor and distressed farmers especially, realized the benefits with assured income during severe drought period ( with rainfall % & with rainfall %) where paddy could not be taken up in the district. Iv.Conclusion Doubling the farmers income cannot be focused per se. Front Line Demonstration s conducted in cluster mode (area approach) which is farm centric under NFSM aimed at enhancing production and productivity for food security that give the farmers a sense of income security over a period of time. Income security of farmers is a broader subject that demands both farm centric and farmer centric approaches which requires generating income from integrated agricultural and non agricultural enterprises over a period of time from the base year. The effort of KVK, Nizamabad in conducting CFLD s on Greengram and Bengalgram with appropriate strategy for improving farmers income by following Sequential Extension Methodology and Technology enabled the farmers to improve the 165

177 productivity, resource use efficiency, saving cost of cultivation (good B.C ratio) and increasing cropping intensity which indirectly might have contributed in enhancing their income. Implementation of any extension activity as a contributing way of doubling the farmer s income over a period of set time from the base year demands adequate and timely fund flow mechanism. As saying goes Research without Extension is only a hobby and Extension withoutresearch is folly, adopting well designed Sequential Extension Methodology and Technology so as to reachresearch output to the farmersthrough Extension is the need of hour. Successful implementation of extension activity like Cluster Front Line Demonstrations through KVKs definitely contribute to envision the dream of Hon ble Prime Minster Sri Narendra Modi ji come true as emphasized in 7 points strategy document for Doubling the Farmers Income by References Samui, S. K., Maitra, S., Roy, D. K., Mondal. A. K. and Saha, D. (2000). Evaluation on front line demonstration on groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.). Journal of Indian Society Coastal Agricultural Research. 18:

178 Doubling the income of small scale producers with respect to redgram in Karnataka Mr.Mohd Riyaz and Dr. Raghupathi D. M. Sc (Agril. Extension), UAS, Bengaluru. Professor & Head, Dept. of Agril. Extension College of Agriculture UAS(B), VC Farm Mandya, Karnataka INTRODUCTION Pulses are rich source of protein and constitute about per cent India s food grain diet. Keeping in view of its maximum benefits for human health, United Nations has proclaimed 2016 as the International Year of Pulses. Thus, due attention is required to enhance the production of pulses not only to meet the dietary requirement of protein but also to raise the awareness about pulses for achieving nutritional, food security and environmental sustainability. Pulse crops are important component to sustain the agriculture production as they possess wide adaptability to fit into various cropping systems, improve the soil fertility being leguminous in nature and physical health of soil while making soil more porous due tap root system. Major pulses grown are Redgram, Black gram and Green gram. Redgram (Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp) is a protein rich staple food and consumed in the form of split dal. Besides the human diet, the green leaves and dry seeds of redgram are used as fodder for animals. Majority of Indians are vegetarians and on an average consume 70 to 80 grams of pulses per day for nutritional requirement. It is single woody stemmed plant grows about four meter in height and has a strong deep root system, which makes drought resistant type. It ranks second among pulse crops next to Bengal gram. Redgram is cultivated on a wide range of soils from black clay to sandy soil, but very sensitive to waterlogged conditions. Being a drought tolerant crop it is suitable for dryland farming and predominantly used as an intercrop with other crops like cotton, sorghum, groundnut, black gram, soyabean, maize, cowpea etc. India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world accounting for 33 per cent of the world area and 22 per cent of the world production. Redgram production is largely concentrated in Asia, particularly in India. The Production in India accounts for about 65 per cent of the total global output as per the latest FAO statistics. Myanmar contributes about 17 per cent followed by Malawi at 6 per cent, Tanzania 5 per cent, Uganda 2 per cent, Kenya 2 per cent, and others 3 per cent to the total global output. The total geographical area of Karnataka is lakh ha of which lakh ha is the net cultivable area of the state. Redgram is grown in an area of 4, 75,396 ha with production of 2.96 lakh tonnes. It is largely grown in the northern parts of the state especially in Kalaburgi district and Bidar district. North-East Karnataka region is called as Pulse bowl of Karnataka and Redgram is one of the most important pulse crop grown in this region. In the state Redgram occupies an area of about 0.82 million hectares with the production of 0.60 million tonnes, having an average productivity of 733 kg per ha. While Bidar having an area of thousand hectares, production thousand tonnes, with average yield of 780 kg per ha, 167

179 which is less than national average yield of 849 kg per ha, so there is a yield gap of 69 kg per ha. Bidar district is located in the in the northern part of the Karnataka State at an Altitude of 764 meters, a latitude of N and longitude E. This District comes under agro-climatic zone of North eastern transition zone comprising of 5 taluks viz., Aurad, Bhalki, Basavakalyan, Bidar, and Humnabad. The total geographical area of the district is sq.kms. The soils of the District are deep black, with texture varies from loam to clay. And lateritic soils are pale to bright red in colour and clay to clayey loam in nature. The average annual rainfall is mm. The total population is 17, 03,300. The total cultivable area in the 3, 54,305 hectares. The crops like Jowar and Wheat are major cereal crops. Black gram, Bengal gram, Green gram and Redgram are the major pulses grown in the district. Whereas Groundnut, Sunflower, Soybean, Safflower, Sesamum are major oilseeds and Sugarcane is the major commercial crop grown in the district. The lower productivity of redgram in the region is due to many factors, among which the loss due to severe incidence of pests and diseases, lack of water scarcity, unavailability of labours and sterility mosaic virus are predominant in recent years. In India, redgram is prone to attack by more than 200 species of insect pest among which the pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) causes enormous losses. The losses have been estimated to vary from 46.6 to 63.6 per cent. And also agricultural technology is never completely accepted by the farmers in all aspects, as such there always appears to be a gap between the recommended technology by the scientists and its modified form at the farmer s level. The technological gap is thus the major problem in the efforts of increasing agricultural production in the country. A need of the day is to reduce the technological gap between the agricultural technologies recommended by the scientists and its application by the farmers on their field. Methodology Locale of the study: The study was conducted in the Bidar district of Karnataka in the year The study area was purposively selected for the study as it is having second highest area (66.40 thousand ha) under redgram cultivation after Kalaburgi district in Karnataka. Selection of taluks, villages and respondents: The Bidar district was purposively selected as it is having second highest area under redgram production. Out of five taluks, three taluks namely Aurad, Bhalki and Basavakalyan were selected for the Study. Since these three taluks had maximum area under redgram cultivation. The lists of villages were prepared from the selected taluk and from this list, two villages from each taluk six villages were selelcted viz., Mudhol,Ekamba, Khatakchincholi, Halbarga, Ujalamb and Narayanpur. From each village 20 respondents were selected randomly. Thus, total sample size constitutes 120 respondents. 168

180 Research design: In the present study, Ex-post facto research design was used. This design was considered appropriate because the phenomenon has already occurred (Kerlinger, 1973). Variables for the study: Dependent variable. Considering the objectives of the study; Technological gap of redgram growers was considered as dependent variable. Independent variables: Independent variables selected for the study were education, economic status, land holding, farming experience, marketing channel, extent of benefits received, innovative proneness, social participation, mass media participation, extension participation, extension contact, cell phone utilization, scientific orientation and management orientation. the Specific objectives of the study were, to analyze the technological gaps between recommended and existing practices of redgram cultivation; to find out the relationship between socio-economic profile characteristics and technological gap; to document the constraints and suggestions of redgram growers regarding the recommended technologies for their refinement; Technological gap: It is operationalized as the gap between the technology or inputs recommended by the research stations and the inputs actually being used by the Redgram growers in their field. Hypothesis of the study The study proposes an alternative hypothesis assuming that there will be a significant relationship between the dependent variable technological gap and the selected fourteen independent variables for the study. The Variables were measured by following the procedures with slight modifications where ever necessary. Technological gap (Ray et al. 1995), Education (Shashidhara 2003). Economics status (Prakash 2000), Land holding (Maraddi 2006), Farming experience (Binkadkatti 2008), Marketing channel (Schedule developed), Extent of benefits received (Schedule developed), Innovative proneness (Feaster 1968), Social participation (Saravanakumar 1996), Mass media participation, Extension participation (Rajashekhar 2009), Extension contact (Sakharkar 1995), Cell phone utilization (Structured schedule), Scientific orientation (Supe 1969) and Management orientation (Samanta 1977) Operationalization and measurement of dependent variable Technological gap: Technological gap has been defined as the proportion of gap in the adoption of practices recommended and it is expressed in percentage (Ray et al. 1995). In the present study technological gap was operationalised as the proportion of gap in adoption of 14 recommended redgram cultivation practices by the farmers and expressed in percentage. Extent of technological gap was the dependent variable. And technological gap was conceived as difference between the package of practices of redgram cultivation which are recommended by University of Agricultural Sciences, 169

181 Raichur and the extent of adoption of these practices at farmers level. This package included the recommendations on following fourteen major cultivation practices such as; preparatory tillage, recommended varieties, Sowing time, FYM / compost application, Seed rate, Seed treatment, Spacing, Transplanting,Use of fertilizers, Irrigation, Nipping operation, Use of herbicides, Plant protection measures and Harvesting. The per cent technological gap for each selected major practice was worked with the help of following formula: Standard score - Actual score Technological gap (Practice wise) = x100 Actual score On the basis of overall technological gap, the respondents were categorized into three groups viz. low, medium and high considering the mean and standard deviation as measure of check. Results and Discussion The results of the study are discussed under the following sub headings Technological gap analysis in redgram cultivation. Relationship between socio-economic profile characteristics and technological gap. Constraints and suggestions of redgram growers regarding the technologies for refinement. Technology application gaps analysis ( cultivation practice wise) The table-1 reveals that, there was no technological gap was observed in preparatory tillage. Because farmers were well known about the importance of preparatory tillage. There was minimum application gap of (15.00%). The reason could be that, recommended varieties are easily, timely available at affordable price. With respect to Sowing time, the gap was monomial (20.41%). Because the farmers are well aware of when to sow the seeds considering rainfall, soil moisture and other climate conditions. A large gap (67.91%) found in use of organic manures. The reason for lesser application is due to less availability of FYM in the village. If available, it was high cost, cost involved in its transportation adding up to the total cost of production, etc., must have been the reason for not applying the recommended levels of organic manure in field. Further, the cattle population is decreasing as their maintenance cost was costly. It was observed that some farmers adopt sheep penning to add enough organic manure in the farm of sheep manure and urine. This can be an adaptable practice. With respect to Seed rate, a considerable gap (47.50%) was observed. The reason may be due to unaware of recommended seed rate and were using more nearly double the recommended as they were fear of failure of germination of seeds. Regrading seed treatment,it was large (70.00%). And (30.00%) of respondents were practicing seed treatment on their own because they 170

182 felt that it reduces the pest and disease attack. And majority of the farmers although knew the importance of seed treatment but were not aware of the technical knowhow involved in it. Major reasons attributed were lack of knowledge and perceived that it had no significant effect on yield. In case of spacing gven for the crop,there was large gap (77.08%) was observed because farmers were not aware about maintaining recommended spacing of both rows and lines. There was wrong perception that closer the spacing more population and more yield. Regarding Transplanting for seedlings, a large gap was observed (76.67%) among the respondents with respect to transplanting. Reason being recent recommendation to the farmers were not aware its method of application and which required skill. Thus they were continuing the traditional method of sowing. Regarding Use of Fertilizers, more technological gap (47.08 %). The reason could be that, they were not aware of nutritional requirement of crop in terms fertilizer dosage of NPK and micro nutrients and further many perceived that, the crop doesn t require more fertilizers to add further, the economic constraints might have made them to apply small quantity or no application. Regarding giving protective irrigation practices, a large gap (76.67%) was observed among the respondents. Because, lack of sufficient rainfall and scarcity of water in the villages made the farmers to provide only lifesaving irrigation to the crop. In case of Nipping operations, A large technological gap (75.00%) was observed. Nipping is done to encourage better vegetative growth of the crop. It is done by hand manually. It is laborious work requires more labour time consuming and escalates cost of cultivation. Though the technology helps increasing production the farmers had not realized its importance. In case of use of herbicides, a large gap (86.67%) was observed. The major reasons expressed were lack of knowledge about correct dosage of herbicides and fear about crop loss and convection hand weeding followed by the farmers and the economic constraints might have made them to apply small quantity or no application. Finally, in case plant protection measures, a much gap(40.83%) was observed. The reason was, over doses chemical spraying leads to better control of pest and disease effectively. This might be the probable reason to go for more number of sprays. In addition to this most of the redgram cultivators did not have the correct knowledge about the chemical application. Most of the respondents adopted more than recommended number of chemical sprays and higher dosage of spray concentration. The only reason attributed for this was fear of crop loss. Of course in case of harvesting they had applied recent improved practices in harvesting the drop effectively. Overall technological application gap in redgram cultivation categorization: It can be observed from Table 2 that, many of respondents (48.30%) belonged to medium level of technological gap. Whereas, one third (33.35%) and one fifth (18.30%) of the respondents belonged to high and low technological gap respectively. The overall gap was 50.42%. The probable reason for relatively higher percentage of the respondents to fall under medium technological gap category due to partial knowledge about improved cultivation practices. This gap also depends on the technology attributes such as its simplicity to understand, profitability, impact visibility, socio-cultural compatibility. The finding was in conformity with the results of Ranish et al. (2001). 171

183 Also table 3 depicts the Average yield of redgram in Bidar district was 2.3 quintals per acre. It can be observed that redgram cultivation was profitable in Bidar as the average gross income was more than the cost of production. Returns per rupee was 1.81 implied that, farmer received 81 paisa per rupee investment made, implying less profitability. Table 1: Practices-wise technological gap observed in red gram cultivation practices among red gram growers (n=120) Sl. No. Cultivation Practices Technological Gap(%) 1 Preparatory tillage Recommended varieties Sowing time FYM/Compost application Seed rate Seed treatment Spacing Transplanting Use of Fertilizers Irrigation (protective irrigation) Nipping operation Herbicides application Plant protection measures Harvesting 0.00 Overall average Table 2: Level of technological application gap in red gram cultivation practices (n=120) Category Criteria Over all technological gap f % Low Up to Medium >49.00 Up to High > Total Mean = 2.15 SD = 0.7 Table 4: Benefit Cost return analysis of red gram cultivation(n=120) 172

184 Average yield Average cost of Average gross Average net B: C ratio (quintal /ac) production income returns : 1.81 Relationship between socio-economic profile characteristics and technological gaps: It could be observed from the Table 4 the variables such as mass media participation had positive and highly significant relationship with technological gap at one per cent level of significance. Whereas, economic status, farming experience, innovative proneness, social participation, cell phone utilization and management orientation had positive and significant relationship with technological gap at five per cent level of significance. Relationship between mass media participation and technological gap:the probable reason for highly significant relationship (r=0.22) between mass media and technological gap was due to higher exposure to mass media modernizes farmers; make them more efficient in acquiring, retaining and evaluating the effective factors of adoption. Mass media also provides enormous opportunity for repeated exposure to new technology, agricultural programmes in TV, radio and articles in newspaper might have motivated the redgram growers to reacquire and to take positive steps relevant for adoption of recommended cultivation practices. The finding of this study are in line with the findings reported by Veeraiah et al. (1998). Relationship between economic status and technological gap: The probable reason for significant relationship (r=0.19) between economic status and technological gap. This may be expected as better economic status can lead to better technology adoption and there by lesser technological gap. Higher economic status facilitates to procure the inputs and resources and managing the crop hence less technological gap. The results are in line with the findings of Nikhade et al. (1997), Nagabhushanam and Kartikeyan (1998) and Sulaiman and Prasad (1993). Relationship between farming experience and technological gap:the variable farming experience showed significant relationship (r=0.21) with the technological gap. The reason might be due to the longer a farmer is engaged in farming of a particular crop, the more knowledge he possesses in the production of that crop. The experience teaches how to overcome risks and limitations. The more the knowledge acquired, the lesser will be the gap in adoption of practices. Relationship between innovative proneness and technological gap: The probable reason for significant relationship (r=0.13) with innovative proneness. This may be due to higher the inclination and interest to understand the new idea, practice or skill higher will be the adoption of the practice which ultimately leads to lower technological gap. The findings of the study are in consonance with the results of Santosh Swamy (2006). 173

185 Relationship between social participation and technological gap: It is observed that there was a significant relationship (r=0.21) between social participation and technological gap. This might be due to better social contacts with other progressive farmers might have made them to become aware of new innovations and play a major role in the ultimate adoption by the farmers and adoption of many recommended practices which in turn reduces the technological gap. The findings are in line with find support in Mercy Kutty (1997). Relationship between cell phone and technological gap: The results in the table 10 reveals that there was a significant relationship (r=0.20) between cell phone utilization and technological gap the reason might be the cell phone an electronic gadget is available at affordable prices and almost all farmers are owning it through which the farmer are communicating farm problems to the official scientists, friend and sharing the solutions and enabling them to adopt some of the easy technologies immediately. Thus it might have helped in reducing the technological gaps of recommended technologies. Relationship between management orientation and technological gap: The probable reason for significant relationship (r=0.11) between management orientation and technological gap. This is due to the fact that the farmers with better knowledge about the managing the situation and resources can make a better planning and decision making about production and marketing aspects of redgram which in turn enhance their production as well as profits and reduces the technological gap. The findings of the study in tune with the findings of Thimmaraju (1989). The remaining independent variables such as education, landholding, marketing channels used, extent of benefits received, extension participation, extension contact, scientific orientation, cell phone utilisation and management orientation found to have nonsignificant relationship with Technological gap. Constraints expressed for large technological gaps: In continuation of Table-5 of the results chapter the constraints expressed by the redgram growers in the areas of inputs, management, technical, and marketing are presented. Input constraints: Farm labour availability is important input to adopt recommended practices. Non availability of labours at critical stages of the crop growth & high wages this could be due to migration of labours to nearby industrial cities and most of the young generation gets engaged in non-agricultural operations. High wages of labourers was a problem to be related directly to the non-availability of labour as the shortage of any goods escalates its cost. The labour availability become scarce at peak periods as almost all the farmers require the labour at the same time. Non availability of good quality inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and pesticides etc, at affordable price at right time was the constraint expressed in adoption of recommended cultivation practices of redgram. This could be due to the high cost of inputs due to lack of subsidies on fertilizers pose a constraint to redgram cultivation. The cost of fertilizer might not correspond with the profit they obtain by selling their produce resulting in expressing it as a major constraint. The need to 174

186 purchase fertilizers is time bound and due to steep demand for it at a time, the market might not be able to respond equally resulting in shortage or non-availability of it. Lack of financial assistance in time, this could be due to the procedural complexities involved in getting loan might discourage many farmers to avail loan and also lack of knowledge about banking system. Management constraints: The redgram growers have to manage the crop considering the climate resilient factors. Delayed and scarcity of rainfall are recurring phenomenon in Bidar district. This requires managerial skills to use the resources effectively. The respondents expressed about high incidence of pests and diseases like spotted pod borer, pod fly, fusarium wilt, sterility mosaic virus etc. It was found that since last a few years the redgram crop was severely damaged by these pests and disease. Due to uneven distribution of rainfall, temperature and humidity has increased which is favourable for outbreak of pest and diseases. Similar findings were reported Jansirani et al.(2001) and Latha (2003). Technical constraints: Very less respondents (12.50%) quoted lack of technical guidance and negligence by Government and Agriculture departments as another important technical constraint. This could be due to Non-availability of desired number of redgram experts within study area and lack of competency in field extension personnel resulted in perception of this problem. Diagnosis facilities, on the spot solution providers, organizing intensive extension programmes such as training, FFS, large scale demonstrations were less. Marketing constraints: Price fluctuation was the main technical constraint as expressed by the respondents (79.16%), because the price of redgram depends upon various factors like consumers demand, export and import in national and international market, quantity of production and consumers surplus. Due to the changes in above factors, the price of redgram fluctuating to a greater extent. The major marketing constraint was long distance of market and high transportation cost expressed by the respondents (57.50%), (25.00%) and (22.50%) of respondents expressed about problems faced by the middlemen s and there are no proper storage structures nearby taluk places, respectively. This could be due to there is no redgram market nearer to the study area, very less number of storage facility, transportation cost is huge, and also middleman s were giving more problems in marketing the produce. The present findings were in accordance with the results reported by Bhogal (1994), Saravanakumar (1996), Raghavendra (2007), Wondangbeni (2010) and Rajashekhar (2009). Suggestions given by the redgram growers for improving the redgram Cultivation. Table 4 reflected majority of the respondents (87.50%) suggested that provision for timely and adequate payment for their produce because redgram growers are not getting in time credit to their produce. About (53.33%) of the respondents suggested that should provide good quality of inputs at right time through Government institution and private agencies. Because good quality of seeds has better germination, and gives better yield. Half of the 175

187 respondents (50.83%) were suggested to should be construction of good numbers of warehouse facilities created nearby hobli. Because of lack of storage facility would have sold their produce at lower price. Storage facility helps them to store and hold the produce during market glut and enable the farmers to fetch better price. Nearly half of the respondents (49.16%) suggested to provide water conservation technologies those are helpful during uncertainty and uneven distribution of rainfall. Many of the respondents (44.16%) suggested for providing timely technical guidance, regarding recommended seed rate, seed treatment and application of pesticides & fertilizer by the experts. It helps to save money in turn it will increase the net return of the farmers. Many of the respondents (43.33%) suggested that establishment of rural markets at hobli level. To reduce transportation cost, to avoid threats from middlemen s activity. It helps to store and sell the produces when price will be better in the market. The respondents suggested to provide high yielding and pest resistance varieties of pod borer and wilt disease resistance varieties. One fourth (25.00%) of the respondents suggested to provide timely credit from cooperative societies and nationalized banks to purchase the inputs and resource management. Table 4: Relationship between socio-economic profile characteristics of redgram growers with their technological gap (n = 120) Sl. No. Independent variables Correlation co-efficient (r) 1. Education NS 2. Economic status 0.192* Sl. No. Independent variables Correlation co-efficient (r) 3. Land holding NS 4. Farming experience 0.216* 5. Marketing channel NS 6. Extent of benefits received NS 7. Innovative proneness 0.130* 8. Social participation 0.213* 9. Mass media participation 0.222** 176

188 10. Extension participation NS 11. Extension contact NS 12. Cell phone utilization 0.209* 13. Scientific orientation NS 14. Management orientation * *Significant at 5% level **Significant at 1 % level NS- Non significant Table 5: Constraints in application of recommended good agricultural practices of red gram cultivation as perceived by the respondents (n=120) Sl. No. Constraints f % A. Input constraints 1 Lack of financial assistance in time from government during droughts and floods High wages & non-availability labourers Non-availability of good quality inputs at affordable price B. Management constraints 4 Inadequate irrigation facility High incidence of pests and diseases & High cost of insecticides and pesticides C. Technical constraints Lack of technical guidance D. Marketing constraints 8 Price fluctuation Long distance of market from village Middleman s threat at the market center No proper storage structures nearby taluka places Tables 6: Suggestions given by respondents to minimize the constraint red gram Production(n = 120) Sl. No. Suggestions f % 1. Provision for timely and adequate payment for produce in the market 2. Protective irrigation facility

189 3. Supply of good quality of inputs at right time Providing mechanized agricultural equipments and machines at affordable and subsidised price and to address the labour scarcity. 5. Provide technical guidance at right time Minimising the middlemen s interference in marketing of redgram 7. Establish rural markets at hobli level Provide credit at low rate of interest and reduce the cumbersome procedure of seeking crop loans. 9. Provide pest resistance varieties Summary The pulses are rich source of protein for human health nutrition. The United Nations has proclaimed 2016 as the International Year of Pulses. Thus, due attention is required to enhance the production of pulses not only to meet the dietary requirement of protein but also to raise the awareness about pulses for achieving nutritional, food security and environmental sustainability. The Redgram (Cajanus cajana (L) Millisp) is a protein rich staple food and consumed in the form of split dal. It is a drought tolerant crop suitable for dryland farming. India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world accounting for 33 per cent of the world area and 22 per cent of the world production. It is largely grown in the northern parts of the Karnataka State especially in Kalaburgi and Bidar districts known as Pulse bowl of Karnataka. In lines of these a study was conducted by M.Sc (Agril. Extension) from UAS, Bengaluru in Bidar district of Karnataka. The productivity of the district was 780 kg per ha, which is less than National average yield of 849 kg per ha, leaving a grain yield gap of 69 kg per ha. The crop is prone to more than 200 species of insect pest among which the pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) causes enormous losses to the accounts to more than 50 per cent. The primary reason was due to lack of management skills recommended by the University and other agencies. The study was conducted with the objectives of analyzing the technological gaps between recommended and existing practices of redgram cultivation; to find out the relationship between socio-economic profile characteristics and technological gap and; to document the constraints in application of recommended technologies. The investigation was carried out in the three taluks Aurad, Bhalki, and Basavakalyan with total sample size 120 respondents. The Ex post facto research design was adopted. The dependent variable was technological gap and other social attributes of the respondents such as education, economic status, land holding, farming experience, marketing channel, extent of benefit received, innovative proneness, social participation, mass media participation, extension participation, extension contact, cell phone utilization, scientific orientation and management orientation were as independent variables. The study found that the actual yield obtained by the respondents was 5.75q/ha and the scope to get scientific yield q/ha. The wide gap existed to the tune of 8.0q/ha, thus there is ample scope to double the yields of redgram. This gap was because of non-application of good agricultural practices recommend by the farm universities and other research agencies. The gap was 178

190 conspicuous in case of seed rate, seed treatment, and spacing, application of FYM, herbicide and fertilizer applications. A less gap was found with the respondents who had high mass media participation, economic status, farming experience, innovative proneness, social participation, and cell phone utilization and management orientation social attributes. The wide price fluctuation in the market, non-availability of the labour in time, good quality inputs at affordable price were the three important production and post production constraints in application of good agricultural practices by the farmers which requires appropriate research and extension interventions to abridge the technological gaps. Such as usage of social media to bring awareness and symbolic application and double the yield and income. The existing cyber extension portals need to be relooked rejuvenated and strengthened considering the effectiveness and sustainability with sociocultural political conditions of farmers to transform the existing extension systems in Karnataka. Implications of the study 1. Large technological gap was observed in case of seed treatment, spacing, application of FYM, fertilizer application and seed rate. The study thus indicated that though the redgram is cultivated by all the farmers in the study area, their scientific knowledge of the farmers was medium. So one of the best ways to overcome this is to vigorously utilize the scientific expertise of Krishi Vigyan Kendras for conducting regular off campus training for the farmers. Conducting Farmer s Field Schools would certainly help to bridge these gaps. Much emphasis should be given for such extension approaches by the line departments. Wide Price fluctuation of the produce in the market, non-availability of the labour in time and non-availability of good quality of inputs at proper price were the three important problems expressed by the farmers that need intervention of researchers and government agencies. Making availability of inputs at low price and at right time certainly benefits redgram growers to afford and use them to obtain better yield and profit. Considering the social media approach ( has limitations of owning smart phone, electricity and net work availability in the rural areas) to provide on the spot solutions the problems and the earlier concept of grama sevakas in cluster villages to provide need based information at farmers door steps, provision for the Raith Samparka Kendras to make frequent visits to the villages to render farm advisory services go a long way for sustainable extension systems and for sustainable production of Redgram with higher productivity. 179

191 Influence of Livestock on the Cascade Tank Village Farming System Sunil Gamage Former Deputy Director - Veterinary Research Institute, National Coordinator Farm Animal Genetic Resources This is a situational study based on data from six different sources (secondary data, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, market visits, household survey and stakeholder consultations) conducted from September 2016 to December 2017 in the Cascade Tank Village System which was recently elevated by the FAO to the GIAHS. There are 128 cascade tank-villages having 1084 associating tanks within the system. Each cascade consists of the main tank (Pahalawewa) and other associating tanks, Gangoda dwellings (average acres (CV 44.8%)), Chena or tank catchment (average acre (CV 58.1%)), tank command area or Welyaya (average acres (CV 17.1%)), grazing land and the forest area. All these components are independent from each other; therefore, a highly variable diversity exists within this system. The source of water is from rainfall (Maha September to February, Yala February to June (Table 1)) and runoff from its own catchment. Introduction It is a smallholder farming system ( (CV 30.3%) acres) where the agroecosystem is characterized by erratic weather and poor soil conditions. The resource diversity of these farms is exceedingly variable and the resulting management strategies are also extremely diverse at field level. Agriculture is the primary income source in only 48.6% of this rural population. The rest supplement their household income by off-farm employment. This is not a desirable quality that can promote agriculture as a livelihood enterprise for youth. This is highlighted by the distribution of age groups, where the average age is 55 (below 30 years 3.7%, years 47.2%, years 44.8% and Above 70 years 4.3%). Factors unfavorable to the sustainability of crop farming are, non-participation of youth, retirement of the older farming community, climate change and market variability. Moreover, it will be further aggravated by the absence of focused programs on Research and Extension services. Therefore, a large proportion of these farmers and youth have resorted to off-farm employment. 180

192 Livestock sector Milk and meat are produced by consuming poor quality vegetation and nonfood biomass from crop residue. These farmers resort to free grazing (50%) and tethering (44%) to supply almost all feed requirement of the ruminant population. Very little quantity of cut and feed is provided. Therefore, the availability of grazing land area in the Maha (15%) and in the Yala (75%) dictates the output from these ruminants. Despite the fact that 70% of the annual rain is in the Maha season, milk production is lower than in Yala (Chart 1). 14.0% 12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% Chart 1: Seasonal Rainfall and Monthly Milk Production Proportion 13.4% 11.6% 11.0% 9.6% 10.2% 9.5% 6.0% 7.1% 6.7% 4.8% 4.8% 5.3% Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Proportion Milk Production Monthly Rainfall (mm) Crop sector The form of agriculture these farmers practice is particularly vulnerable to climate change and will need to adapt to changing patterns of precipitation, temperature and also market irregularities. It is not possible to predict the future, but that doesn t mean that this sector can t prepare for it. A good example is the past 500 to 600 days drought condition from Yala 2016 through Maha 2016/2017 to Yala 2017 finally to Maha 2017/2018 showing a way of overcoming these situations. Crop-Livestock income Table 1 indicates that unlike the crop income, farmer receives daily income from livestock. Those farmers without livestock received an annual income of Rupees 148,318 whereas; farmers with livestock received an annual income of Rupees 210,003. Table 1: Annual Farm Income during the Drought Period - with and without Milk Production Maha Season Crop Income Livestock Income Livestock Income Feed Intervention Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb 123,514 3,578 6,785 5,860 4,133 3,269 2,961 1,480 28,067 9,908 18,790 16,228 11,445 9,053 8,199 4,100 77,

193 Total Income without intervention Total Income with intervention Yala season 151, ,237 Crop Income Livestock Income Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug 24,804 1,480 3,701 4,380 5,922 6,292 8,266 3,578 33,618 Livestock Income Feed Intervention 8,199 10,249 12,128 16,399 17,424 22,890 19, ,104 58,422 Total Income without intervention Total Income with intervention 131,908 Annual Income Crop Income 148,318 Livestock Income 61,685 Livestock Income Feed Intervention 184,827 Total Income without intervention 210,003 Total Income with intervention 333,145 Interventions The onset of the drought in 2016 Maha, prevented farmers from cultivating paddy lands in most of the high land areas. This allowed farmers to continue free grazing their cattle herds, otherwise restricted during the Maha cultivation period to prevent crop damages. In addition to grazing farmers were given the option of feeding 5 kg of maize silage. This intervention increased daily milk production by an average of 4.6 liters. Furthermore, fat percentage increased to give an increased milk unit price and lactation length increased from 150 days to 250 days and calving interval reduced to 12 months. The body condition score usually (from 1 (poor) to 5 (best)) at the beginning of calving was 2 or closer to 3, but will drop to 1 by the end of four months. This indicates ending of body reserves and it results in milk cessation by the fifth month or 150 days. However, with silage supplementing free grazing, the body condition score remained at 3 until the subsequent calving. The Role of Agricultural Extension The above information indicates that the effects of resource limitation in crop cultivation, climate change and drought can make crop farming unsustainable. The result of this situation is a threat to the continuation of crop cultivation. Hence, it is necessary to reintroduce livestock into their farming system to minimize the impact of these effects. Therefore, livestock is considered as a facilitator for sustainable growth of human food of 182

194 crop origin as a large proportion of crop food producers are from the smallholder farming sector. Hence, to address this situation a complete overhaul of the agricultural extension policy is desirable. A combined approach by both crop and livestock agriculture extension staff is demanded by the farmers. 183

195 THEME III Education and Learning 184

196 FARMER S EMPOWERMENT & ENTERPRENURSHIP THROUGH FARMER S PRODUCERS ORGANIZATIONS A COMMUNITY INITIATIVE G. Eswarappa, H.S. Shivakumar, Jainag K and Siddalingappa Former Director of Extension, UAS, Bengaluru and Vice President,Institution of Agricultural Technologists, Bengaluru, Additional Director of Horticulture (Oil Palm) and Nodal Officer for FPO and PPP-IHD, Dept. of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka.,Assistant Horticulture Officer, PMU (FPO & PPP-IHD), Dept. of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka,)Former Deputy General Manager, Syndicate Bank and Member, M.C., IAT, Bengaluru. The Farmers Producers Organisations(FPO) is a collectivization of producers, especially small and marginal farmers, into producer organizations and emerge as one of the most effective pathways to address the many challenges of agriculture most importantly, improved access to investments, technology and inputs and markets. Recently it is the most appropriate institutional form around the world to mobilize farmers and build their capacity to collectively leverage their production and marketing strength. FPO structure: Cluster identification Baseline assessment and diagnostic study Farmer Interest Group(FIG) (15-20 farmer) Min 50 FIG consisting 1000 farmers FPO Executive Body ( 2 farmers/fig) Board of Directors CEO. Department of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka has initiated formation of FPOs from So far 90 FPOs have been registered under Companies act 2013 covering all the 30 districts of the state. Roughly 2-3 FPOs were established per district. All the FPOs were established on commodity crop based ( 2-3 major horticulture crops ) The FPO concept has been effectively implemented in collaboration with Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC, New Delhi) a nodal agency. INTRODUCTION Karnataka State is in the forefront with regard to the development of horticulture in the entire country. Horticulture area: 19.39lakh ha. (Ranks 3 rd in India). Horticulture production : million tonnes (Ranks 7 th in India). Horticulture productivity : metric tonnes per ha. Horticulture sector contributes Rs. 36,103 crores i.e, 53 % to theproduction under the combined agricultural sector in the State lakh farm families are engaged / dependent on the Horticulture sector in the State. Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO) Objectives: To promote economically viable self governing, democratic farmer producer organizations. 185

197 Strategy: To provide the required assistance and resources policy action, inputs, technical knowledge, financial resources and infrastructure to strengthen FPOs. To provide over all support for the promotion of FPOs in sustainability by engaging qualified and experience resource institution (RI). Concept: Focus on backward and forward linkages, through formation of farmer interest groups consisting of 20 farmers in each FIG. 50 such FIGs will form one FPO. Each FPO will concentrate on any one or a group of crops. Organizing farmers as FPOs The collective bargaining power and wisdom of farmers needs to be improved. Department to encourage and facilitate farmers to organize themselves as FPOs through awareness meetings and discussion groups on advantages of FPOs. 92 FPOs were formed by end of the financial year Government to provide three year management support through specialized agencies with expenditure of Rs 30 lakh/fpo spread over three years. Management support to include Provisioning of technical 5 LRPs(Local Resource Persons), providing a paid CEO for three years. Adoption of each FPO by IIHR (Indian Institute of Horticulture Research) or UHSB (University of Horticulture Sciences Bagalkot) for technical domain support. Arranging visit of members of FPOs to other FPOs, Centre of Excellence in horticulture in the country and to other countries like Israel and China State government would examine the possibility of one time grant of working capital out of state funds. Up to 10 lakh matching equity support from SFAC as per GOI guidelines on such support. State government would request SLBC to provide further working capital loan without collateral security. One time grant to be given from NABARD funds. 90% subsidy by state government to horticulture FPOs limited to Rs 1 Crore per FPO for following infrastructural items :- Godowns, Collection centres, Integrated Pack- Houses, Processing units, Mechanisations, Custom Hire Centres. State government considering to make provision to provide certain percentage of scheme benefits to FPOs members. FPOs to themselves select beneficiaries for benefit of schemes in their areas. FPOs to work as oversight agency for such schemes - Certification of satisfactory work in its jurisdiction by FPO itself before payment can be made. Empowering FPOs : FPOs to be empowered to play the role of input supplier for its members Grant of license by government for Fertilizer storage and sale to its members, Pesticide storage and sale to its members, Seed storage and sale to its members. They would also be empowered to have the much needed bargaining power in sale of their produce License as commission agent in APMC market, License as trader in APMC market, Provisioning of godown space on priority in APMC market. CONCEPT OF FIG / FPO: To address the many challenging issues related to production, post harvest management and marketing, the department has identified 186

198 a former member owned Horticulture Farmer Interested Groups. These groups were registered under Karnataka Society Registration Act The department of Horticulture is identified FIG/FPO as one of the most effective pathway to implement major schemes. viz., CHD /VIUC /Bee keeping/ Sujala & NHM etc. These schemes were implemented through cluster approach by establishing ha large scale demonstration on single commodity with group action. Further, it is decided to converge these FIGs into FPOs at cluster /taluk level as commodity based FPOs such as Vegetables/ Fruits /Flowers based on the major crop grown in the taluk. The Department of Agricultureand Co-operation, GOI and SFAC had declared 2014 as Year of Farmer Producers Organizations ( FPO). OBJECTIVES To promote economically viable self governing, democratic farmer producer organizations, to provide the required assistance and resources - policy action, inputs, technical knowledge, financial resources and infrastructure to strengthen FPO's, to provide over all support for the promotion of FPO's for sustainability by engaging qualified and experienced Resource Institution (RI) through SFAC, New Delhi. Formation of Farmer Producer Organization: Cluster identification ----> Baseline assessment and diagnostic study ----> Farmer Interest Group (15-20 farmer) ----> Min 50 FIG consisting 1000 Farmers ----> Farmer Producer Organization (FPO)----> Executive Body (2 farmer/fig) ----> General Body ----> General Manager ----> Staff ----> Local resource person (100 farmers). Benefits to the FPO members (Farmers) Good quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and other inputs atlow cost, financial supportfor cultivation, purchase of machineries and other investments. The FPO will do the direct marketing which enable farmer to save times, transaction costs, weighment losses, price fluctuationsand quality maintenance. FPO will promote good horticultural practices, proper post harvest management and marketing by providing technical training, demonstrations and exposure visits. The farmers are provided with channel of information related to marketing prices, consumer demand and subsidy programmes of the Government. The FPO will providecrop insurances to the farmers. By using FPOs as implementing agencies for various horticultural development programmes, especially RKVY, NFSM, ATMA, HOPCOMS etc. Extending the benefitsof Central and State funded programmes in horticulture to members of FPOs on a preferential basis. By appointing FPOs as procurement agents for MSPoperations for various horticultural crops. 187

199 PO SERVICE MODEL No. of Farmers 1000 No. of villages 8-9 No. of Farmer Interest Groups 50 No. of members per FIG 20 Years of intervention 3 No. of FPO 1 ASSUMPTION Objectives a) Organize small farmers into FIG &FPO b) Horticultural technology promotion c) Market linkage Key Strategies a) Maximum use of local resource personnel b) Preferably selecting areas where land and water related investment(watershed) is done in the past/ongoing for value addition c) Leveraging from other resources Mode of implementation Comprehensive Horticulture Development Programme (CHD) has been launched by Department of Horticulture from , through cluster approach involving 3-5 villages. Subject matter specialist and Farmer facilitators were appointed on contract basis to help the FIG members with forward and backward linkages, Large scale precision farming demonstration organized through FIG s in Acres involving farmers, Rs lakhs revolving fund were provided for multipurpose use including marketing. Similar kind of FIG s were also formed in the other schemes of the Department viz, Sujala/VIUC/ Bee keeping. Totally 1080 FIG s were formed with 36,634 members across the State. To strengthen these FIG's, through FPO's for further integration and consolidation for forward and backward linkages. National policy for the promotion of farmer producer organisations VISION : To build a prosperous and sustainable Horticulture sector by promoting and supporting member-owned producer Organizations. Enable farmers to enhance productivity through efficient, cost-effective and sustainable resource use and realize higher returns for their produce. The collective action supported by the government, and fruitful collaboration with academia, research centers, civil society and the private sector. 188

200 Role of central government institutions in supporting FPOs Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India will act as the nodal agency for the development and growth of FPOs. Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC), a Society under DAC, will be the designated agency of DAC to act as a single-window for technical support, training needs, research and knowledge management and to create linkages to investments, technology and markets. SFAC will provide all- round support to State Governments, FPOs and other entities engaged in promotion and development of FPOs. In particular, SFAC will create sustainable linkages between FPOs and inputs suppliers, technology providers, extension and research agencies and marketing and processing players, both in the public and private sectors. The mandate of National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) will be expanded to include FPOs in the list of eligible institutions which receive support under the various programmes of the Corporation. NAFED will take steps to include FPOs in the list of eligible institutions which act on its behalf to undertake price support purchase operations.dac will work with Food Corporation of India (FCI) and State Governments to encourage them to include FPOs as procurement agencies under the Minimum Support Price (MSP) procurement operations for various crops. DAC and its designated agencies will work with NABARD and other financial institutions to direct short and medium term credit for working capital and infrastructure investment needs of FPOs. DAC will also work with all relevant stakeholders to achieve 100% financial inclusion for members of FPOs and link them to Kisan Credit Cards. DAC will work with Ministry of Corporate Affairs and other stakeholders to further clarify and strengthen provisions of the law relating to the registration, management and regulation of FPOs with a view to fostering fast paced growth of FPOs. Role of state government institutions in supporting FPOS By declaring FPOs at par with cooperatives registered under the relevant State legislation and self-help groups/federations for all benefits and facilities that are extended to memberowned institutions from time to making provisions for easy issue of licenses to FPOs to trade in inputs (seed, fertilizer, farm machinery, pesticides etc.) for use of their members as well as routing the supply of agricultural inputs through FPOs at par with using FPOs as producers of certified seed, saplings and other planting material and extending production and marketing subsidies on par with suitable amendments in the APMC Act to allow direct sale of farm produce by FPOs at the farm gate, through FPO owned procurement and marketing centres and for facilitating contract farming arrangements between FPOs and bulk appointing FPOs as procurement agents for MSP operations for various crops. 189

201 By using FPOs as implementing agencies for various agricultural development programmes, especially RKVY, NFSM, ATMA etc. and extending the benefits of Central and State funded programmes in agriculture to members of FPOs on a preferential linking FPOs to financial institutions like cooperative banks, State Financial Corporations etc. for working capital, storage and processing infrastructure and other promulgating state level policies to support and strengthen FPOs to make them vibrant, sustainable and self-governing bodies. Principles for sustaining farmer producer organisation development Voluntary and Open Membership, Democratic Farmer Member Control, Farmer-Member Economic Participation, Autonomy and Independence, Education, Training and Information, Co-operation among FPOs, Concern for the Community Table : 1 Major crops grown in Phase I and II FPO areas DISTRICT FPO NAME & ADDRESS (HFPCL) MAJOR CROPS Phase - I ( ) Shimoga Shimoga Thungabhadra HFPCL Arecanut,Banana,Beans Shimoga Malenadu HFPCL Masuru Pine apple,ginger,arecanut U.K. Shree Madhukeshwara HFPCL, Pepper,Pine apple,arecanut Andagi Udupi Karkala HFPCL, Karkala Arecanut, Coconut, Black Pepper D.K. Pingara HFPCL, Vitla Arecanut, Coconut, Black Pepper, Banana D.K. Navachethana HFPCL, Kalleri Arecanut, Coconut, Black Pepper Mandya Malavalli HFPCL, Kyatanahalli Papaya,Banana,Tomato Mandya Honnakere Hobli HFPCL, Tomato,Onion,Chilli Bramhadevanahalli Chamarajanagar Udigala HFPCL, Udigaala Turmeric,Tomato,Banana Chamarajanagar Gundlupete HFPCL, Gundlupet Onion,Banana,Tomato Mysore Hussainpura HFPCL, Hussainpura Beans, Tomato,Brinjal Mysore Nanjangud HFPCL, Hullalli Tomato,Banana,Chilli Mysore Varuna HFPCL, Varuna Tomato,Banana,Watermelon Chitradurga Sri Sirigere HFPCL, Sirigere Banana,Arecanut,Onion Chitradurga Shri Ramalingeshwar HFPCL, Pomegranate,Onion,Arecanut Kanguvalli Raichur Parisara Premi HFPCL, Raichur All Vegetables Bellary Thungabadra HFPCL, APMC Hospet Banana, pomegranate, onion, bhendi, chilli Koppal Abhinavashree HFPCL, Koppal Onion, Banana, Tomato, Chilli, Water melon 190

202 Koppal Kapilateertha HFPCL, Khustagi Pomegranate, Banana, Green chilli, Brinjal Gadag Puttarajagavayi HFPCL, APMC, Gadag Green&dry chilli, onion,tomato,brinjal, tomato, Mango, rose, crysanthamum Dharwad Uluvayogi HFPCL, APMC, Hubli Banana, green chilli, Mango, Banana, Guava Dharwad Kayakayogi HFPCL, APMC, Dharwad Potato, Green chilli, Soya, grean peas, brinjal, Mango Haveri Bhoothayi HFPCL, Haveri Green chilli (G4), Capsicum, Brinjal, onion, tomato, guava, sapota, mango, coconut, crysanthamum, rose Haveri Kumareshwara HFPCL, Hangal Mango(Alfanso), Arecanut, coconut, Green chilli, Hassan Yagachi HFPCL, Kanayakanahalli, Belur Potato, Green chilli, Ridge and Bitter guard, Tomato Hassan Shri Manjunatheshwara HFPCL, Nuggehalli Coconut, Banana, Bajji chilli, Tomato Madikeri Bhagandeshwara HFPCL, Blackpepper, Arecanut, Cardamum Bhagamandala Bangalore (U) Anekal HFPCL., Anekal Rose,Tomato, Chrisanthum.cucumber, Ramanagar Srigiripura HFPCL, Srigiripura Ridge gourd, Tomato, Snake gourd Ramanagar Gombeyanadu HFPC Ltd.. Banana,Ladies finger,papaya, Tomato Ramanagar Sangama HFPCL, I-Gollahalli Banana,coconut,Papaya Kolar Masti Venkatesh Iyengar HFPCL, Tomato, potato. Cabbage Rajenahalli Kolar Sri Vinayaka HFPCL, Tayaluru Tomato,Potato, Mango,Cabbage, Kolar Shree Kodanda Ramaswamy Mango,Tomato,Potato, HFPCL, Yeldur Chikballapura Sadalamma HFPCL, Sadali, Rose onion, Potato, carrot, Shidlaghatta Chikballapura Sri Amaranarayana HFPCL, Tomato,Mango,Rose onion Madikere Bangalore (R) Gangammadevi HFPCL, Grapes,Roses,cabbage. Kaggalahalli Bangalore (R) Sri Venugopalswamy HFPCL, Rose,Mango,Potato.Tomato Doddadevanahalli Tumkur Pavagada HFPCL, Mangalavada Pomengranate, chilli, Water melon Tumkur Hemavathi HFPCL, Thyagatur, Gubbi Coconut, Arecanut, Banana 191

203 Tumkur Gadinadu HFPCL, Baragur Pomengranate, Coconut, Arecanut. Bangalore (R) Rajagatta HFPCL, Doddaballapura Marri gold,tomato,cauliflower,capsicum Bangalore (R) Tubugere HFPCL, Doddaballapura Pine apple,marri gold, Cauliflower Davanagere Devanagari HFPCL, Arecanut, Coconut, Tomato Hucchavanahalli Davanagere Shanthisagar HFPCL, Devarahalli Arecanut, Banana, Chilly Davanagere Kondakuri HFPCL, Jagalur Arecanut, Banana, Tomato Chickmagalur Chandradrona India FPC, Lakya Tomato, Potato, Cabbage, Beetroot Chickmagalur Sri Guru Sidharameshwara Potato, Onion, Chilly HFPCL, Tarikere Bagalkote Kaladgi HFPCL, Kaladgi Pomogranate, Banana Bagalkote Jamkhandi HFPCL, Todalabagi Grapes, Pomogranate, Turmeric Bijapur Sindagi HFPCL, Sindhagi Grapes, Pomogranate, Onion Bijapur Shanteshwara HFPCL, Indi Grapes, Pomogranate, Lime Belgaum Siddeshwar HFPCL, Kakati Potato, Tomato, Chilly Belgaum Yamakanamaradi HFPCL, Tomato, Chilly, Ridge gaurd Yamakanamaradi Belgaum Nippani HFPCL, Nippani, Tomato, Brinjal, Banana, Capsicum Sondalaga Bidar Kayakalpa HFPCL, APMC, Tomato, Mango, Ginger, Banana Humnabad Gulbarga Negilayogi HFPCL, Aland Tomato, Onion, Chilly Yadgiri Dayasagar HFPCL, Yadgiri Tomato, Banana, Chilly CHICKMAGAL Under Registration UR HASSAN Channambika HFPCL, Potato & Banana Mosalehosahalli HAVERI KUMADWATI HFPCL Chilli & Tomato HAVERI Byadagi HFPCL Chilli, Tomato & Cabbage SHIMOGA Sharavathi HFPCL BELAGAVI VIVEKANAND HFPCL, Turmeric, Brinjal & Cucurbits Rajapura BELAGAVI TELSANG HFPCL Grapes & Pomegranate DHARWAD DUMMAWAD HFPCL Mango & Vegetables MANDYA HONNALAGERE HFPCL, Tomato, Chilli & Banana Honnalagere MYSORE ARKESHWARA SWAMY HFPCL, K.R. Nagar Banana, Tomato, Water Melon & Brinjal MYSORE HAMPAPURA HFPCL, Banana Hampapura RAMANAGAR KENGAL HFPCL, Bhairapattana Coconut & Tomato 192

204 BAGALKOT Under Registration Pomegranate, Banana & Betelvine BIDAR Bidar HFPCL Mango, Ginger & Banana KOPPAL Yelburga HFPCL, Maradi, Koppal Banana & Papaya RAICHUR Lingasur HFPCL VIJAYAPURA Basavanabagewadi HFPCL, Lime & Pomegranate Nidagundi, Bagewadi VIJAYAPURA Bijapur HFPCL, Takkalaki, Grapes Bijapur BELLARY Anjanadri HFPCL Pomegranate, Onion, Tomato & Brinjal CHAMARAJN Kollegala HFPCL, Mangala Banana, Vegetables & Turmeric AGAR CHITRADURG A Vanivilasa HFPCL, Hiriyur Papaya, Banana, Pomegranate & Vegetables KALABURAGI Sangamnath HFPCL Banana, Lime KALABURAGI Grameena HFPCL Onion, Red Banana, Banana & Tuberose KOLAR Holur HFPCL, Holur Mango & Tomato YADAGIRI Revanasiddeshwara HFPCL Tomato,Brinjal,Cucurbits,Banana,P apaya & Pomegranate CHIKBALLAP Cheluru HFPCL, Chelur Banana, Tomato URA CHITRADURG Hombelaku HFPCL, Hire Mango, Arecanut & Banana A Emmiganuru, Chitradurga DAVANAGER Tirtharameswara HFPCL Tomato & Beans E DAVANAGER Sri Uthsavamba HFPCL Ridge gourd & cucurbits E DAVANAGER Vishwabandhu HFPCL Tomato, Pepper, Papaya & Banana E KOLAR Moodalagiri HFPCL, Gudipalli Mango & Tomato RAMANAGAR Arkavathy HFPCL, Kailancha Vegetables & Mango TUMKUR Godkere HFPCL, Godkere Tomato, Chilli, Coconut & Arecanut TUMKUR Hebburu HFPCL, Hebbur Tomato, Coconut & Arecanut Note : HFPCL 193

205 Table 2 Business Details of phase 1 Farmer Producer Organization (FPO) promoted by Department of Horticulture, Govt. of Karnataka, India Rs. in Lakhs Input Sales * Output Sales** Sl. Districts No.of Average Average No.of Average Average No FPOs Transaction Profit FPOs Transaction Profit 1 Bagalkote Bangalore (Rural) Bangalore (Urban) Belgaum Bellary Bidar Bijapur Chamarajanagar Chickmagalur Chikballapura Chitradurga Dakshina Kannada Davanagere Dharwad Gadag Gulbarga Hassan Haveri Kolar Koppal Madikeri Mandya Mysore Raichur Ramanagar Shivamoga Tumkur Udupi Uttara Kannada Yadgiri *Inputs sales include fertilizers, plant protection chemicals, seeds, tarpaline, CHC, cattlefeed, mulching sheet, drip material etc. **Output sales include trading of processed and unprocessed Horticulture produce. 194

206 Table : 3 Business Details of phase 1 Farmer Producer Organization (FPO) promoted by Department of Horticulture, Govt. of Karnataka, India (Rs. in Lakhs) Input Sales * Output Sales** Sl. Districts No.of Average No.of No Average Profit FPOs Profit FPOs 1 Bagalkote Bangalore (Rural) Bangalore (Urban) Belgaum Bellary Bidar Bijapur Chamarajanagar Chickmagalur Chikballapura Chitradurga Dakshina Kannada Davanagere Dharwad Gadag Gulbarga Hassan Haveri Kolar Koppal Madikeri Mandya Mysore Raichur Ramanagar Shivamoga Tumkur Udupi Uttara Kannada Yadgiri *Inputs sales include fertilizers, plant protection chemicals, seeds, tarpaline, CHC, cattlefeed, mulching sheet, drip material etc. **Output sales include trading of processed and unprocessed Horticulture produce. Impact analysis of production & productivity of commodities 195

207 Table IV: Economic Analysis of the major horticulture crops of Large Scale ICM demonstration established through CIG s / FIG s Table- IV (a). Economics of Banana production under precision and non precision farming Sl. No Particulars Non Precision Farming Precision Farming % Increase over non precision farming 1 No. of plants /Ha 3000 (1.8 m x 1.8 m) 3333 (2.0 m x 1.5 m) Average weight of fruit bunch kg kg Yield/Ha 90 t 149 t Total Cost/ Ha Rs. 1,98,605/- Rs. 3,46,927/ Gross Returns/ Ha Rs. 10,80,000/- Rs. 20,86,000/ Net Returns/ Ha Rs. 8,81,395/- Rs. 17,39,073/ Success story of FIG s/ CIG s of Department of Horticulture through Large Scale Banana ICM Demonstration Table IV (b). Economics of Tomato production under precision and non precision farming in open condition Sl. No Particulars Non Precision Farming Precision Farming % Increase over non precision farming 1 Seed Rate/Ha g g Yield/Ha t t Total Cost/ Ha Rs. 45,950/- Rs. 1,59,788/ Gross Returns/ Ha Rs. 1,35,000/- Rs. 3,60,000/ Net Returns/ Ha Rs. 89,050/- Rs. 2,00,212/ Success story of FIG s/ CIG s of Department of Horticulture through Large Scale Tomato ICM Demonstration Table IV (c). Economics of Rose production under precision and non precision farming in open condition Sl. No Particulars Non Precision Farming Precision Farming % Increase over non precision farming 1 No. of plants /Ha (1.0 m x 1.0 m) 13,333 (0.75 m x 0.75 m No. of cut stems/ Plant/Year Yield/Ha/Year 3,50,000 cut stems 5,50,000 cut stems Total Cost/ Ha Rs. 1,32,048/- Rs. 2,36,974/ Gross Returns/ Ha Rs. 4,37,500/- Rs.11,00,000 / Net Returns/ Ha Rs. 3,05,452/- Rs. 8,63,026/

208 Success story of FIG s/ CIG s of Department of Horticulture through Large Scale Rose ICM Demonstration Some of the Issues faced by the Horticulture farmers Farmers gets low share in the Crop Value chain. Intermediaries benefit most Perishable nature of Horticulture produce force farmers to sell them at throw away prices. Protest by farmers against collusion between traders bidding for produce in markets, Lack of proper infrastructure and mechanization tools increases the cost of production. Individual farmers lack bargaining power, Institutional buyers doesn t have mechanism to reach individual farmers and aggregate the produce. Govt. has taken measures to handle above problem Reforms in working of APMC market, Liberalization of APMC Act to benefit farmers. Horticulture Dept. organize farmers as Farmer Producers Organizations (FPO) and provide them with Input support at subsidized prices, Infrastructure support, Management Support. Connecting farmers to Corporate Sector to get them proper value for their produce. A revolution in making Public Private Partnership for Integrated Horticulture Development (PPP-IHD) Public Private Partnership for Integrated Horticulture Development As per GOI frame work of PPP-IAD Tripartite partnership- Farmers(FPO), Corporate and state government Collaboration from seed to produce including Supplying of Seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, Mechanisation tools, Extension and training, Buyback of produce at direct purchase centres with immediate RTGS payment, but no compulsion on the part of the farmer to sell his produce to the company. PPP - IHD Features Companies to submit Detailed Project Reports (DPR) covering all aspects of a Crop Value Chain - from inputs to purchase of produce. Overall project cost sharing is expected to be 1:1:1 between company, government and farmers. Govt share for any component of DPR to be as per the guidelines of NHM, NMSA etc. Ex providing drip irrigation component for grapes project would have govt support to the extent of 90%. Whereas a component on provisioning of packhouse may attract govt support to the extent of 50% support under NHM. 197

209 Crop Name Area Covered (in Lakh Hectares) Crop Name Area Covered ( in Lakh Hectares) Mango 1.73 Tomato 0.62 Banana 1.02 Green Chillies 0.43 Pomegranate 0.18 Flowers 0.30 Grapes 0.20 Spices 2.00 Potato 0.42 Cashew nut 0.71 Onion 1.60 Coconut 4.95 State govt would seek support of CII, FKCCI, World Economic Forum and other organisations to facilitate such partnership. Individual companies generally working in this area are being requested through formal letters to participate in this scheme. PPP IHD Path and Goal A state level committee chaired by Principal Secretary Horticulture will examine and approve the DPRs. Initial funding of Rs 10 Crore provided for the current year under RKVY. It is expected that the benefits of project would be as follows Increase in productivity by 35%, Increase in purchase price per unit by 10%, Increase in overall income by 10 to 30%. CONCLUSION The registered FPOs have been empowered by providing input license for sale of Fertilizers, Seeds and pesticides to the members for reasonable rates and also provided marketing license to sale the produce in all the APMC centres of the state and also outside the state and country with company registered license which will empower the members of FPOs to avoid middlemen at all levels and encash higher net profit with lesser cost of inputs, further the Department of Horticulture is also empowering the members of FPOs by providing 90% subsidy for establishing infrastructure facility and custom hiring centre. Impact of technology transfer and adoption of technology has shown highest income per unit area has indicated in table 4 (a),(b), (c),(d),(e), through precision farming in comparison with non precision farming. The percentage increase in net income per unit area has clearly indicated the potentiality of income generation empower the farmers. As indicated in the Table 1, 2, 3, it is evident that the net profit earned by each FPO is more than crores from sale of inputs (seeds, fertilisers and pesticides etc.) and net income is also earned from customised center of equipment. Further, the net profit was also earned from the sale of the produce from members. This shows the total empowerment of the FPOs for income generation and employment opportunities at rural setup. 198

210 Among these 90 FPOs 9 FPOs linked to corporates under PPPIHD projects, where companies will support the farmers right from seed to marketing. The established FPOs have completed 2-3 years. The performance of FPOs has creating very good economic, social and group dynamic qualities among members which helps in empowerment of FPOs which indicates the total turnover will be around one crore per FPO. Further there is good scope for processing and value addition for their produce. The PPP-IHD projects has also shown good results by linking corporates for procurement of the high quality produce through FPOs which was produced by the members of FPO. This has also been highlighted through establishing small scale processing units which has clearly shown the scope for entrepreneurship among FPOs. 199

211 Agriculture Extension in the United States of America: History and Problem-Solving Mohammad Babadoost Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA After passage of the federal land-grant law in 1862, land-grant universities were established in all states of the United States (US).A major mission of the land-grant universities was teaching practical agriculture. In 1887, a federal law was passed to establish experiment stations with land-grant universities, which aimed to provide research-based information for improving agriculture. In 1914, cooperative extension services, connected to the land-grant universities, were established to provide the up-todate information in agriculture, home economics, leadership, 4-H, economic development and other social issues. Land-grant universities in the US have similar extension programs. University of Illinois, established in 1867, is a land-grant university and has extension programs on: commercial agriculture, horticulture, energy and environment, animal husbandry, local food, small farms, consumer economics, family life, nutrient and wellness, 4-H and youth, community and economic, water management, and en Espanol (for Spanish-speakers). There are two groups of extension personnel in the US: (i) extension specialists that located on the campuses and research and extension centers and conduct research to develop effective strategies for problem-solving; and (ii) extension educators, who are in the county units throughout the states and works closely with the end users to provide the up-to-date information for problem-solving. All extension specialists have doctorate (Ph.D.) degree and extension educators have either Ph.D. or Master of Science (MS) degree. Extension specialists and educators work together to provide winter schools; summer field meetings; and timely information (using all available means) for improving living standard of the citizens. Land-grant universities in the US, with their well-established teaching, research, and extension programs, have had profound effects on food productions and quality of life in both rural and urban communities. 200

212 Leveraging Information and Communication Technologies for Strengthening Plant Health Extension Services in South Asia Manju Thakur, Vinod Pandit, Abdul Rehman, Katherine H. Cameron and Claire Beverley CABI, New Delhi, India; CABI, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; CABI, Wallingford, UK Abstract The plant health management (PHM) is an integrated system that entirely relies on communicating accurate and timely information by key actors in the plant health system. Information and communication technologies (ICT s) are playing a significant role in connecting all the stakeholders in PHM systems. Various ICT approaches have been exploited to bring down the relevant information to the farmers. These innovative technologies have been found to transform and expand the reach of the extension services. Plantwise is a CABI led global programme that supports national extension systems through its network of plant clinics in developing countries to provide smallholder farmers with better access to plant health information and improve their livelihoods by minimizing crop losses. The plant clinics are supported by a global knowledge bank, a central repository for plant health diagnosis and management information. Plant clinics are run by trained plant doctors, normally extension officers with a knowledge of agronomy/crop protection, who are trained in different CABI modules in which they are taught field diagnosis and IPM approaches to give pragmatic advice. In this programme, various ICT approaches and solutions have been introduced in an attempt to improve and strengthen its on-going plant clinic activities. The use of ICTs involves the use of mobile technology (tablets) for collecting data and accessing and sharing plant health information via apps. These ICT approaches have been helpful in delivering accurate and timely information to farmers, collecting and making available real time data for informing better decision making as well as building better knowledge networks among extension workers and researchers Introduction The incidence of pests and diseases through both pre and post-harvest losses poses a major threat to the food production and availability, one of the important pillars of food security. Pests and diseases cause yield losses of 30-40% (Oerke, 2006). The management of plant health entirely depends on the timely delivery of right information to farmers. Various ICT approaches have been tested so far in agricultural extension to provide accurate and timely advice to the farmers. The ICT interventions in agricultural extension can be capitalised in many ways to catalyse the collection, processing and transmission of information and data, resulting in faster transmission of quality information to more number of farmers in a bottom-up with an interactive channel of communication. ICTs also offer ways by which farmers can access a variety of information sources that are accessible, affordable, relevant and reliable. Also, increasing the use of ICTs in agricultural extension narrows the gender disparities in terms of access to agricultural information. 201

213 Smallholder farmers rely on agricultural extension services for advice on how to prevent and manage the pests and diseases posing problems to their crops. However, many agricultural extension services in developing countries are weak (Haug, 1999) and are often under-resourced (Anderson & Feder, 2004). Due to which farmers often turn to their peers or seek advice from pesticide dealers on managing their crop problems. The help they find here can be useful, but if it is inaccurate they run the risk of losing their crops and potentially jeopardizing their livelihood. Therefore to mitigate this problem, the concept of plant clinics has been developed by CABI (Romney et al., 2013). In order to harness the new technological interventions and to provide best advice to the farmers, CABI under its global programme, Plantwise has piloted various ICT approaches to strengthen and improve its extension approach of plant clinics and data management. This paper briefs various interventions led by CABI leveraging the ICTs under the umbrella of flagship Plantwise programme. This programme is operational since 2010 and is currently in its eighth year of implementation. It partners with 33 countries globally out of which eleven are in Asia. The countries implementing Plantwise under South Asia are India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Plant Clinics Concept Plant clinics concept is similar to the human health concept. A plant clinic is a facility where farmers take samples of their infested/infected plants to extension agents named as plant doctors who are agri-professionals also trained on CABI modules to diagnose and advise judiciously. They diagnose and recommend pest management measures specifically based on IPM practices and guided by national and international best-practice standards to the farmers. Plant health clinics are the building blocks of a public plant health service, which in turn seeks to bring together extension and research, regulation and crop management under the one heading of 'plant healthcare system'. Clinics and services here are 'designed by demand' and not 'driven by capacity'. Consultations take place once a month in public places, such as markets or the village place (central meeting area). The farmers bring samples of their diseased plants for plant doctors to diagnose and prescribe safe, affordable and locally available pest management solutions. Plant clinics are reinforced by a plant health repository, Plantwise Knowledge Bank, a gateway to online and offline actionable plant health information, including diagnostic resources, pest management advice and front-line pest data for effective global vigilance (Leach and Hobbs, 2013). During the clinic the plant doctors also record their interaction with the farmer through a standardised prescription form collecting information such as farmer name, location of farm, crop grown, plant health problem diagnosed, and treatment advice given. A copy of the form is given to the farmer for reference and then the data from these forms is collated, digitised and analysed by incountry partners through tools available on a central database, Plantwise Online Management System (POMS) (Finegold et al., 2014). At the global level, the POMS database also enables program managers and national coordinators of implementing countries to analyze which types of pests are most often brought to the clinics for advice 202

214 and compare this to the topics of the published extension materials (factsheets and pest management decision guides 9PMDGs)) (Katherine et al., 2016). E- Plant Clinic Model - In order to exploit the potential of ICTs especially the digital technologies, Plantwise piloted a new model of e-plant clinics, first roll out in South Asia was in 2015 in India. In the e-plant clinics the paper prescription forms are replaced by the tablets and data collection app is used for recording data. The SMS invites are sent to advertise the date and venue for plant clinics. Farmers visiting the e-plant clinics with their infested crop samples are provided recommendations in form of SMS directly on their mobile phones. (Thakur et al., 2016). After learning lessons from the various pilots of e plant clinics in different countries, this model has been successfully scaled up in South Asian countries like Nepal and Sri Lanka in collaboration with national partners. ICT TOOLS USED IN PLANT CLINICS USB computer microscope -The plant doctors in the plant clinics are using USB computer microscope which is also known as a computer microscope or a computer connected microscope. This hand-held microscope can be plugged into a USB port on a computer or television. Instead of looking through an eyepiece, the viewer then examines the specimen via the computer s monitor or the television screen. It s essentially a webcam with a macro lens. The USB computer microscope s lens can touch an object to see it magnified or can be used to view objects at a short distance. The images can easily be saved as pictures files or video films, printed and sent to experts. Plant doctors are seen to utilize the technology when they are unable to diagnose the problem they click the pictures and videos and share among the other plant doctors and experts. These microscopes although are very helpful for plant doctors but were also found to attract more farmers and increase the plant clinics attendance The plant doctors click images and videos of unidentified samples and share them with experts. These microscopes have increased the diagnostic ability of plant doctors. Offline Knowledge Bank- Plantwise Knowledge Bank is adding to plant doctor s knowledge as an offline tool in form of USB devices. The region specific technical and farmers factsheets can be viewed by plant doctors in the plant clinics to update their knowledge on pests/diseases. This offline application is that it is portable and used without any internet connection. Each stick contains more than 900 factsheets for farmers aimed at the non-technical users; 3259 Plantwise technical factsheets that contain more of an Encyclopedia of scientific information about pests and hosts. Plantwise Factsheets Library App-Factsheet Library app has enabled plant doctors to take open access data with them to the plant clinics and field with low cost tablets. This application can be downloaded in any mobile application for free from the or Google play store and any country out of 33 countries can be chosen for viewing the plant protection content in the form of factsheets and pest management decision guides. The content is also 203

215 available in local languages for the countries. After installing, the app will periodically check the servers for any new updates to factsheets for the selected country packs. During the plant clinics plant doctors can access the factsheets available for checking the recommendations and these recommendations can be copied and pasted from the app to the recommendation field in the app and then messaged to the farmer. Plant Doctor Simulation games- Many serious games have been launched and tested as a part of plantwise strategy to train the in-country partner staff in identification and diagnosis of pests and pathogens and complement the conventional training through the different modules. The games are android based and ensures a continuous engagement of the players and providing them a simulation of the real working environment in the plant clinics. These were successfully tested to improve the learning capacity of the players. The simulator contains realistic 3D models and scenarios so that plant doctors and extension workers can learn diagnostic skills. The data recorded and analysed by these serious games aims to improve and refine Plantwise training modules, while also measuring plant doctor skills and competencies. The Plant Doctor Simulator is a tabletbased plant observation and diagnosis app that complements the plant doctor training modules of the Plantwise program. Users are provided with over 20 simulated plant pest and disease observation and diagnosis scenarios in four common crops: tomato, cassava, maize and cabbage. Each simulation scenario allows users to visually inspect and describe realistic plant parts and symptoms, with highly detailed 3D models constructed from real plants. Users can also demonstrate how they have diagnosed a likely cause. Real-time and contextualised feedback ensures that users learn from their simulation experiences, while also being encouraged to play repeatedly. Training administrators can use online analytic tools to probe users simulation performance to identify skills and knowledge gaps of individuals or cohorts. Early stage testing suggests the Plant Doctor Simulator is a valid measure of plant doctor diagnostic competency and enhances plant doctor learning. Case study 1. Farmer s story- E-Plant Clinic in the rescue of a Woman Farmer Managing Paddy Crop in India Ms Muthulakshmi is a women farmer from Thirumalairayasamuthiram village in Pudukkottai District of Tamil Nadu in India belongs to a traditional farming family owning three acres of cultivable land and classified as medium farmer as per the government norms. She has an irrigation source from a borewell which irrigates crops such as Paddy during June September and October January and Pulses during the season February-April. Considering the better market price for the fine variety of BPT5204 Paddy she has been raising the crop during the Kharif and Rabi seasons every year for the past four years. In the year, 2014 the crop raised by her during the Rabi season witnessed endemic problem of pest menace. She approached the local farm input dealer in her village and adopted the measures recommended by them. The results were far below satisfactory as she reaped 20 bags each weighing 60 kgs with the market price of Rs16 per 204

216 kg which was much below than the actual potential. During the Kharif season of, June September for the same BPT 5204 variety raised in her 2 acres of irrigated land she observed initial symptoms of shoot borer and located the larva bored into the shoots during the first weeding i.e., after 20 days of transplanting. As a part of regular field visit, the trained plant doctors in Pudukkottai Village Resource Centre (VRC), MSSRF visited the field and apprised her of the scheduled e-plant clinic programme at a nearby village, on July 11, 2015 and suggested to participate in the clinic session along with the infested plant sample while reminding to bring the mobile phone for receiving the advisory through SMS. Having heard of the benefits of e-plant clinics operated regularly, she visited the Clinic along with the affected sample crop. Visiting the plant clinic she felt that the plant doctors patiently listened to the woes and analyzed the plant samples using specialised e- microscope, diagnosed the problem by shoot borer and explained her causes, symptoms, extent of yield loss, mode of spread, conducive atmosphere conditions and the possible control measures. They also showed her the photographs on the tablets and explained the preparation of recommended inputs. Plant Doctors sent all the control and remedial measures as advisory to her mobile in Short Text Message and ensured that the message reached her mobile phone. She was completely convinced with the control measures suggested by the Plant Doctors as they explained the habitat of pest, its different stages of development, damages caused and the control measures. She shared her experience in the e-plant Clinic with the family members and showed recommendations made in the SMS where everyone felt happy about this modern method of dissemination of agro-advisory to the farmers. The next day without making much delay she showed the SMS on her phone to the Agro-input dealer and purchased the inputs as recommended by the Plant Doctor in the clinic session Following the recommendations of Plant Doctors, she removed the affected shoots from the field and sprayed input as per the recommendations. To her surprise, she visibly observed the larva stopped feeding on the leaves within hours after spraying and after a week, active tillering observed in the paddy crop. The appreciable growth and yield traits finally showed its increased yield by 26 bags of paddy (60 kg each) per acre and fetched Rs.18 per kg in the market compared to only 20 bags in the last season due to the same pest infestation. With an increased yield of 360 kg per acre and with a premium price of Rs 18 kg per kg fetched Rs 6480 additional return. This was possible by the scientific intervention and regular advice of e Plant Clinic Doctors. The expenses included the cost of inputs and spraying cost of Rs.1000 per acre. Hence the recommendation made by the e-plant clinic helped to reach a cost-benefit ratio of 1: 6.5. She is now a regular visitor of plant clinic and spread the word with her fellow farmers. In the voice of Ms Muthulakshmi The timely intervention of e plant clinic and the recommendations of the Plant Doctors helped me to recover Paddy crop from the pest problem. I have experienced a different feeling in this novel approach since I am also using the modern ICTs on par with the younger generations. I felt proud in showing the digital SMS recommendations to my family members as also to my neighborhood farmers. I have learnt that the recommendations can be kept permanent in my mobile phone. I am now fully aware of the 205

217 shoot borer pest problem with the help of the fact sheet issued in the plant clinic. From my earlier experience, I was under the mercy of the local Agro-input retailer were masters of my farm field. Now, I feel proud of real master of my field as I know the complete history of the field problems and the use of technology in my mobile phone. Case study 2 -Response to a new pest in Sri Lanka A good case in point is the story of Banana Skipper (Erionota sp.) in the year, In comparison to manual entry and transmission, use of tablets along with the Telegram messaging app accelerated the information spread to extension about the Banana Skipper at galloping speed. (Figure1). Banana skipper (Erionota sp.), new pest in Sri Lanka that can damage banana crops. For new pests like this, comprehensive monitoring and rapid communication are key to an effective government response. The tablets helped in this battle against banana skipperin a number of ways: Daminda Kumara, a plant doctor, used the chat group to report that a farmer had brought a new pest to his clinic 1 October, and requested diagnostic support to identify it based on photos A diagnostic expert responded the same day with a suggested identification based on the photos. General management advice was shared with plant doctors the same day via the chat group.a local diagnostic expert arranged to take samples and national pest reporting protocols were activated20 days later, the Department of Agriculture awareness raising factsheet was shared with plant doctors via the chat group, including specific management advice22 days after that first record from Daminda, records of banana skipper start appearing in the POMS data52 reports of banana skipper have now appeared in POMS, allowing the government to monitor the spread of the pest and respond to the threat more quickly. This clearly demonstrated the validity of the e-crop clinic concept and its transmission efficiency in Sri Lanka. After Daminda's report, DOA entomologists observed the same pest in several locations and then the awareness programme has been launched. Daminda's report encouraged all of us to put more attention on the pest. (KP Somachandra, Regional Agricultural Research and Development Centre, Bandarawela) Case study 3 -E plant clinics providing platform for extension workers/researchers for sharing experiences for management of a new pest (Nepal)Plant doctors in Nepal shared their experiences of best ways found to manage tuta absoluta and advising farmers the best recommendation which had proved effective in other areas. Telegram, a social networking app has been introduced to the plant doctors during e plant clinic trainings in which they are linked with each other as well as experts in their region. This platform has been actively used by the plant doctors to enhance their knowledge and to seek timely help on diagnosis. This is used as a platform to share management advice released by extension department about Tuta absoluta, reaching all plant doctors in the whole Nepal. This channel of communication did not exist earlier in Nepal. (Figure 2) The implementing partners in Nepal are lant Protection Department (PPD), Nepal 206

218 Challenges and lessons learned Although the implementation pilots of e-plant clinics were initially found to be more expensive than paper based plant clinics but it s been seen to be self sustainable approach over time. The e -plant clinics had eliminated print and transport costs and reduced data processing times of the staff.introducing tablets had also streamlined the data processing model in the following key ways: removing data transfer manually and entry of data into excel; reducing step of manual translation and harmonisation and facilitating information distribution. Training the plant doctors in using the tablets and the apps was key for the testing and rollout of these technologies. For many of the plant doctors using tablets had been completely a new skill and some struggled initially. Giving the plant doctors the space to explore the tablets together without the supervision of trainers was helpful. The language of data collection and fixing our systems to support the language was major time consuming process. Meeting the expectations of the partners at every stage was important. Feedback from plant doctors was critical input at every stage which helped to improve the app. Regular technical backstopping of the plant doctors helped to achieve seamless working of e plant clinics. Next steps The programme is also keen to test other services bundled with other extension services and other stakeholders for reaching and benefitting more farmers. The next steps involve collaborations with private sector for the scale up of the approach and technologies. The e plant clinic approach has been extended to the Farmer producer organisations (FPO s) in India. The national NGO s are adopting the approach to meet their mandate of helping more farmers in India. The service providers are identified as the key stakeholders to test a collaborative work to complement the e crop clinic approach in Sri Lanka and reaching out to more number of farmers. The plant protection extension services are using this approach to collect and manage data and inform decision making in Nepal. Acknowledgements-CABI is grateful for the major funding support for Plantwise from core and lead donors including the Department for International Development, UK; the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation; the Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS), Netherlands; Irish Aid; International Fund for Agricultural Development; the European Commission and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. The authors also acknowledge the efforts of the Knowledge Bank team, CABI, UK and country supports and national coordinators for their technical support throughout the implementation of the programme and the implementing partners of the programme in South Asia. References- Anderson, J. R., & Feder, G. (2004). Agricultural extension: Good intentions and hard realities. The World Bank Research Observer, 19(1),

219 Finegold, C., Oronje, M., Leach, M. C., Karanja, T., Chege, F., & Hobbs, S. L. A. (2014). Plantwise Knowledge Bank: Building sustainable data and information processes to support plant clinics in Kenya. Agricultural Information Worldwide, 6, Haug, R. (1999). Some leading issues in international agricultural extension, a literature review. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 5(4), Katherine H. Cameron, K. P. Somachandra, Claire N. Curry, Wade H. Jenner & Shaun L. A. Hobbs(2016) Delivering Actionable Plant Health Knowledge to Smallholder Farmers Through the Plantwise Program, Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 17:4, , DOI: / Leach, M. C., & Hobbs, S. L. A. (2013). Plantwise knowledge bank: Delivering plant health information to developing country users. Learned Publishing, 26(3), Oerke, E.-C. (2006). Crop losses to pests. Journal of Agricultural Science, 144(1), Romney, D., Day, R., Faheem, M., Finegold, C., LaMontagne-Godwin, J., & Negussie, E. (2013) Plantwise: putting innovation systems principles into practice. Agriculture for Development, 18, Thakur, M, Pandit, V., Chaudhary, M and Rajkumar, R (2016). ICT Interventions in Crop Health Knowledge Management for Smallholder Farmers. Journal of Global Communication, 9 (Issue Conf.):35-46p. Wright, H. J., Ochilo, W., Pearson, A., Finegold, C., Oronje, M., Wanjohi, J., Kamau, R., Holmes, T., & Rumsey, A. (2016) Using ICT to Strengthen Agricultural Extension Systems for Plant Health. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 17(1), DOI: /

220 Modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Agricultural Extension and Rural Development in Ethiopia-An Overview Paul Mansingh, J Professor, Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia. Abstract Over the past 50 years, crop yields have grown at very different rates around the world. In Ethiopia, yields of major crops under farmers' management are still far lower than what can be obtained under on-station and on-farm research managed plots. Limited access to basic crop information kept many smallholder farming systems much less productive and profitable and therefore, farmers are locked in a cycle of low productivity and poverty. It seems that the extent to which farmers in less developed countries are able to use information will determine the usefulness of information as a development resource. A new information hotline is giving smallholder farmers across Ethiopia access to best practices in agriculture and agronomic advice revolutionizing traditional agricultural extension. The power of modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) are harnessed to empower all market actors, including smallholder farmers to access markets more efficiently and profitably. The key market dissemination channels at Ethiopia Commodity Exchange (ECX) are rural based Market Information Tickers, mobile phone Short Messaging Service (SMS), Interactive Voice Response (IVR) service, and Web Poral. Digital Green works closely with Ethiopia s Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the national, regional, woreda (district) and kebele (clustered village) levels. ICT financial services in Ethiopia, M-BIRR and HelloCash are helping to reach swathes of the population that have little access to banks and microfinance firms branches or services. Further, this paper describes the challenges and opportunities of ICTs in Agricultural Extension and Rural Development in Ethiopia. Introduction Eighty-three per cent of the population of Ethiopia depends directly on agriculture for their livelihoods. Agriculture contributes 46.3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and up to 90 per cent of foreign export earnings. On the whole, Ethiopia has ample resources for agriculture. Ethiopia has million hectares of land. Whereas out of 74 million ha of total arable land, only 13 million ha are being used (Kristin et al., 2009). Water resources are also plentiful in much of the country. There are about 12 million farmer households providing human resources. Ethiopia s livestock resources are among the top in the world, in terms of quantity (Kristin et al., 2009). The country also has a high amount of biodiversity, with several different economically important crops indigenous to the country (e.g., Teff, Enset). In spite of these resources, the growing demand for food and products to feed nearly 1 billion people confront policymakers and other agents of change. It is estimated 209

221 that 7.5 million people are chronically food-insecure and must receive assistance through social welfare scheme.over the past 50 years, crop yields have grown at very different rates around the world (Syngenta Foundation, 2011) (Annexure-I). In Ethiopia, yields of major crops under farmers' management are still far lower than what can be obtained under on-station and on-farm research managed plots ( ). Limited access to basic crop information kept many smallholder farming systems much less productive and profitable and therefore, farmers are locked in a cycle of low productivity and poverty. It seems that the extent to which farmers in less developed countries are able to use information will determine the usefulness of information as a development resource. Information and Communication technologies play a crucial role in the dissemination of agricultural information from the research system to the farmers. In other Sub Saharan African countries, ICTs are used successfully to deliver agricultural information to farmers. MFarm, RANET projects in Kenya (Mumbi & Ghazi, 2011), full commodity exchanges-kace Market Call Centre(Mukhebi, 2011) and DrumNet(Pride Africa, 2009) in Kenya, Technoserve in Tanzania ( )]. The advances in technology and especially mobile phones have revolutionized financial services provision and introduced new models of serving the poor (Shem et al., 2017) for example, m-pesa in Kenya. In Ethiopia, public agricultural extension services have been in action for about half a century. Studies show that Ethiopia has the largest agricultural extension system in SubSaharan Africa, and third largest in the world after China and India (Swanson and Rajalahti, 2010). The current extension approach follows FTCbased extension system. To speed up technology adoption, the government of Ethiopia has taken efforts to strengthen its public extension service delivery system and particularly the agricultural extension system and provide an enabling framework for utilizing advances in information and communication technology to deliver agricultural extension services. This paper briefly explains the various ICT initiatives taken by the Government of Ethiopia in the field of agriculture and rural development. The ICT initiatives like information hotline 8028, Digital Green, ICT applications in Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX), M-BIRR and HelloCash are reviewed and the challenges and opportunities of using ICTs in agriculture and rural development are discussed. Information hotline 8028 A new information hotline is giving smallholder farmers across Ethiopia access to best practice and agronomic advice, revolutionizing traditional agricultural extension. In collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), and Ethio Telecom, the 8028 hotline was created by the Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA). The extension information typically provided to agricultural Development Agents directly are placed on a technology 210

222 platform that can be accessed by anyone at any time. Twelve weeks after its launch in the Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and SNNP regions, the hotline has received nearly 1.5 million calls from 300,000 farmers ( The Interactive Voice Response (IVR)/Short Message Service (SMS) system currently provides smallholder farmers free access to information on cereal, horticulture, and pulse/oil seed crops, as well as a wide range of agriculture related activities. Currently 90 service lines connect smallholder farmers to automated and voice recorded information on pre-planting, planting, crop protection, postharvest, fertilizer application, processing, irrigation and weather content. A push-based voice and SMS alert system also notifies extension workers and smallholder farmers of any pertinent agriculture issues. It offers the unique two-way functionality of the service. Farmers can pull practical, real time advice available in their regional language by calling 8028 as often as they like. At the same time, the hotline administrator can push customized content (in cases of drought, pest and disease incidence) to callers based on crop, geographic or demographic data captured when farmers first register to use the system. During the incidence of wheat rust in certain parts of Ethiopia, with this IVR system, voice recorded messages were sent to all wheat farmers registered on the system about strategies that they can use to minimize the impact of wheat rust on their crops. The mandate of the ATA is to support the implementation of targeted interventions that will have an immediate impact on the agriculture sector. With over 35,000 calls made daily to 8028, this initiative is one of several interventions in the Agricultural Transformation Agenda that is having a quantifiable impact in assisting smallholder farmers every day. Many smallholder farmers were benefited significantly from this new service which gives them information they would otherwise have only gotten through extension workers, whom they may meet periodically. With this system farmers can access the information they need at their convenience and as often as necessary. The IVR system offers users information relevant to the key cereals and high value crops. In the near future, the service will be upscaled to include content relevant to all of the major agricultural commodities in the country, including livestock. This is a landmark initiative and one that has tangible benefits for farmers and their communities. Ethio Telecom, Ministry of Agriculture and other ATA s development partners, The Royal Netherlands Embassy, and the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) Canada, were critical to the success of the project. It received 1,500,000 calls during two months of operation is indicative of the project s impact potential on the country s agriculture community in the months to come. The content made available through this project is vital in assisting Ethiopia s farmers to maximize productivity, improve income earning potential and transform livelihoods. The ATA is currently working with the Ministry of Agriculture, Ethio Telecom and other partners to scale up the initiative. Plans are underway for the 211

223 deployment of a further 30 service lines and expansion of the hotline content to cover all aspects of agricultural information pertinent to Ethiopia s smallholder famers (Source: Digital Green The Digital Green Approach is being undertaken in partnership with the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), the Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA), the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), and regional bureaus of agriculture, with funding from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and other donors. Digital Green provides a cost-effective approach, video-based extension, to information dissemination, which can increase the adoption rate of productivity-enhancing agricultural technologies and practices by smallholder farmers, including farm women. The innovative approach uses multiple media channels-video, radio and interactive voice response (IVR), with information on improved agronomic practices for teff, wheat, maize and chickpea, nutrition information and market prices. This approach is being used in 24 districts in Ethiopia (Fig. 2). Development Agents (DAs) are provided with rechargeable video projectors and short videos on selected technologies and practices that are produced by local bureaus of agriculture and their development partners. The entire approach is supported by back-end data and analytics, including field-based collection on participation and uptake indicators and electronic dashboards for monitoring performance, all of which are integrated under Digital Green s Connect Online-Connect Offline (COCO) platform. In this four-year project ( ), they aimed to reach 220, 000 farmers by the end of The scaling plan would aim to reach 6.7 million households in rural Ethiopia by Figure 2. Location and type of interventions by Digital Green under its pilot phase in Ethiopia. Source: Digital Green cited by Bernard et al., (2016) Farmers participating in Digital Green approach exhibit high levels of interest and adoption (Fig.3) Figure 3. Adoption rates for three different technologies promoted under Digital Green approach (%) 212

224 Source: Bernard et al., (2016) Localised video content-a hall mark of Digital Green approach, has strong association with adoption (Fig. 4). Figure 4. Interest and adoption rate by geographical distance with features character for all technologies promoted by Digital Green (%) Source: Bernard et al., (2016) Observations from video dissemination sessions revealed that model farmers tend to dominate group discussions, eventually shifting focus away from the concerns of the average farmer. Only one in four viewers were women. Digital Green s COCO platform offers an alternative to the current data collection system. Data are collected by DAs on paper, and later digitalized at the district level. Data are automatically synchronised with Digital Green s main data base via internet connection. At the district level, the COCO platform automatically computes relevant statistics on technology dissemination and farmers adoption and presents it in a userfriendly dashboard. ICT applications in Ethiopia Commodity Exchange or ECX Ethiopia Commodity Exchange or ECX was launched in 2008 with the goal of transforming the country s agricultural sector. It now connects 3.5 million smallholder farmers to markets (ECX Report, 2016). The key market information dissemination channels at ECX are rural based Market Information Tickers, mobile phone Short Messaging service (SMS) or Interactive Voice Response (IVR), mass media and website ( ). ECX electronic displays are transmitting real time prices of all commodities traded on its platform. One key aim of ECX is providing farmers about current information on Ethiopian and international commodity prices. All the information divulged through IVR or SMS is obtained directly from the ECX s market data system. Information is available through either push or pull services. Through the push service, customers are provided with information about transactions i.e. the volume of commodities transacted and the corresponding value, as each deal is completed. The pull service means that the subscribers send text messages to request commodity prices, the price difference from previous day s listings, and the volume sold. The ECX website 213

225 provides real time market data on all commodities traded. It also provides historical data, research, news, graphs, contract specifications, and other key information. Market hotline provides real time market information such as, daily domestic and international prices, market trends, production and weather forecast, market related news and events etc. ICT Financial Services Ethiopian banks and microfinance firms launched mobile money services, helping reach swathes of the population that now have little access to branches or services. The services allow customers to make payments or receive money via a mobile that is linked to a bank account, mirrors technology used in other African nations that has drawn millions of people into the financial system. Netherlands-based BelCash is offering a technology called HelloCash, while MOSS ICT, mainly owned by an Ireland-based firm, is rolling out M-BIRR. M-BIRR the fastest, convenient and reliable way of sending money to anywhere in Ethiopia. And it can be done any time day or night from the mobile phone. With M-BIRR, one can use the mobile phone to pay for goods in shops or pay bills like DSTV. No more wasting time travelling and queuing. Its fast, efficient and easy. M-BIRR is a mobile wallet account accessed from mobile phone. Once registered, simply dial *818# and a menu appears on the screen. Then, start transact from mobile phone. Don't need a fancy phone or mobile Internet to use M-BIRR. M-BIRR has a network of agents all over the country that take in cash deposits and give out cash withdrawals from mobile wallet account ( HelloCash is the number one mobile and agent banking (mobile money) service in Ethiopia provided by banks and micro finances. HelloCash allows to do financial transactions from the convenience of mobile phone. It is convenient, efficient, fast, secure, and operates 24-hours a day, 7-days a week. The service is currently provided by three major financial institutions; Lion International Bank S.C., Cooperative Bank of Oromia S.C. and Somali Micro Finance Institution S.C. HelloCash is the, fastest and most reliable way of sending money to family and friends instantly. And it can be done any time day or night from the convenience of mobile phone. With HelloCash, one can use his mobile phone to pay for goods in shops or pay bills. No more wasting time travelling and queuing. HelloCash account can be used to top up airtime for pre-paid mobile phone account. One can access and pay for other Hello Services instantly via HelloCash account. A 30% discount is offered when using HelloCash account to pay for any other Hello Services viz., HelloSera, HelloTebeka, HelloDoctor, HelloGebeya and many more. Deposit and withdrawal services available at the nearest shop. HelloCash has a network of agents and service providers all over the country that can deposit cash as well as provide with cash withdrawals from mobile wallet account. They also provide with some assistance and support. All processes require to enter HelloCash secret PIN code to 214

226 access the account. And even if one loses his mobile phone, he will not lose his money ( Challenges The challenges of access to ICT can be divided in to two: availability of ICT infrastructure and access to ICT services. Ethiopia is currently far behind several African countries in the coverage and usage of ICT services, and efforts are needed to scaleup investments in physical ICT infrastructure and services across the country. At present, radio stands out as the most utilized medium among the various ICT platforms. In the many countries in Africa, other modern and innovative ICT based knowledge management systems have been fully embraced to generate and disseminate agricultural information to stakeholders along the agricultural value chain. According to the country diagnostic report of the World Bank (2010), the coverage of ICT in Ethiopia is one of the lowest in Africa. For instance, the coverage of GSM signal is about 10 per cent of the population compared to the per cent benchmark for low income countries. Similarly, at the time of assessment, the internet band with benchmark, for low income countries is about 20 times higher than that of Ethiopia. Studies have argued that the monopolistic market structure exists in Ethiopia s fixed, internet and mobile markets is one of the major factors behind the slow development of its ICT sector (Adam, 2010). Electricity infrastructure coverage in the rural parts of Ethiopia remains low despite recent efforts to extend the electricity grid to rural areas through the rural electrification program. The low level of electricity coverage has in turn inhibited the expansion of ICT services to rural areas (UNDP Ethiopia, 2012). In spite of being a necessary condition, availability of ICT infrastructure by itself is not sufficient for the dissemination of knowledge and information to occur through it. Availability of ICT infrastructure must be accompanied by access to ICT services. In this respect, the other challenge is how to make ICT services both affordable and available in venues or modes that are convenient to smallholder farmers. Availability of venues refers to the presence of various access points particularly information kiosks, tele-centres, callcentres, and so on in a manner that is accessible to the majority of the farmers. These services are not adequately available and accessible to farmers in Ethiopia. A recent study has pointed out that there are only three public tele-centres per ten thousand people and even existing service centres are unlikely to be sustainable, and extension to rural areas is a challenge due to lack of funds reported by Chekol (2009) as quoted by Samuel et al., (2012). Furthermore, affordability poses a great challenge to accessibility of ICT service, especially among subsistent farmers. Moreover, although the tariff for modern ICT services such as mobile phone, internet, and fixed lines in Ethiopia is one of the lowest in Africa, prices are not that low in purchasing power parity terms when one takes into account the low levels of household per-capita income (Adam, 2010). Damages on fibre 215

227 optic cables and power interruptions are among the challenges the service provider faced in its expansion and network quality improvement efforts. The FTCs were designed as local-level focal points for farmers to receive information, training, demonstrations, and advice, and included both classrooms and demonstration fields. They are an important node between extension and farmers in the agricultural sector. Each FTC is staffed by three DAs (one each in the areas of crops, livestock, and natural resource management) and supported by a peripatetic DA covering three FTCs and trained in cooperatives management or a related field (Spielman et al., 2006). Each DA is expected to train 120 farmers per year in his/her field of specialization. He or she is also expected to give modular training to 60 farmers every six months in his/her field of specialization (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2009).Most FTCs do not have access to electricity, therefore, only a few have TVs with DVD players and almost none have any other type of advanced teaching equipment (e.g., overhead projectors, screens, and computers). The total number of FTCs required are and only 8500 FTCs were established (Kristin et al., 2009) Opportunities Priorities include extending the existing ICT infrastructure to reach FTCs and woreda agricultural offices, establishing rural ICT kiosks establishing and strengthening community radios, integrating ICT at all levels of education, and making ICT hardware affordable to the users. Mobile phone platforms offer good opportunity for reaching farmers and knowledge intermediaries, and their use for disseminating knowledge and information should be explored and enhanced and design of interventions should benefit from existing lessons and experiences of many countries in Africa and Asia. References Adam, L. (2010). Ethiopia ICT Sector Performance Review 2009/2010: Towards Evidence-based ICT Policyand Regulation. Volume Two, Policy Paper 9 Bernard, T., S. Makhija, K. Orkin, A.S. Tafesse and D.J. Spielman (2016). Assessing the impact of Digital Green s Video-based Extension Approach to Promoting Technology Adoption Among Smallholder Farmers in Ethiopia: A Feasibility Study. Addis Ababa/Washington, DC/Oxford: International Food Policy Research Institute. ECX Report (2016). Annual Report 2015/16, ECX Strategy Planning Unit, Addis Ababa. IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Kristin Davis, Burton Swanson David Amudavi (2009). Review and Recommendations for Strengthening the Agricultural Extension System in Ethiopia, International Food Policy Research Institute 216

228 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MOARD). (2009). DAs & FTC Data at National Level. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: MOARD. Mukhebi, A Scaling up Soko Hewani. Kenya Agricultural Commodity Exchange (KACE) news updates, 18 April 2011 (available at Mumbi, R. & Ghazi, P Zambia: climate information alerts boost poor farmers. All Africa, 14 July 2011 (available at Pride Africa Experience in Kenya s sunflower sector. Nairobi (available at Samuel Bwalya, Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere and Wondwosen Tefera, Promoting ICT based Agricultural Knowledge Management to increase production and productivity of small holder farmers in Ethiopia, UNDP ETHIOPIANo.3/2012 Shem Alfred Oumaa, Teresa Maureen Odongob and Maureen Were (2017). Mobile Financial Services and Financial Inclusion: Is it a boon for savings mobilization?, Review of Development Finance, 7: Available at Spielman, D.J., M. Negash, K. Davis, and G. Ayele. (2006). The Smallholder Farmer in a Changing World: The Role of Research, Extension and Education in Ethiopian Agriculture. Ethiopian Strategy Support Program (ESSP) Policy Conference Brief No. 12. Addis Ababa: IFPRI-EDRI. Swanson, B.E and Rajalahiti, R. (2010). Strengthening Agricultural Extension and Advisory Systems: Procedures for Assessing, Transforming, and Evaluating Extension Systems. Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 45, Wshington D.C: World Bank. Syngenta Foundation, (2011). Mobile Applications in Agriculture, Basel, Switzerland. UNDP Ethiopia. (2012). Promoting ICT Based Agricultural Knowledge Management to Increase Production and Productivity of Smallholder Farmers in Ethiopia. Development Brief No.3/2012. UNDP. 217

229 Stimulating Vibrant Agricutlture in South Asian Region Through Skilling and Effective Agri extension Programme Dr. Nagendra P. Singh President ASEED, DG, AIDMAT, Noida, India Preamble Agriculture scenario in South Asian region in general and India in particular has been undergoing a radical change with the growing awareness of technology,enhanced focus on skilling, enabling and extension education and its allied sector has posed serious challenge to economy to help address fledgling but resurging economy of the region.the developmental centric module in Agriculture technology is designed to meet the technical and professional learning gaps through innovative entrepreneurship education across the region in vernacular at different levels. It is obvious that the pressure on agriculture to enhance food production has grown to alarming height. It has pushed the demand for riase productivity to meet needs of a rapidly growing human population. Needless to say, given the scenario, new technologies to increase agriculture productivity and profitability are being continuously developed by Agricultural Scientists across the world and in South Asian region too. Agricultural Extension functionaries, through their extension and advisory services (EAS), are expected to disseminate such technologies along with relevant technical know-how among the actors in the value chains, viz., farmers, processors, retailers and agri-preneurs. The paper draws attention on how such a tradition old- Extension services across the region has evolved to educate farmers and scientists as their rural extension professional ethos and innovative practices. It is matter of debate and review if agri extension professionals have picked up the new skills and find new ways of working together in order to develop types of inclusive business models in order to help link diverse farmers and entrepreneurs to growth markets. This calls for changes in the prevailing agriculture scenario to meet the new demands that can only be met by enhancing the capacities of the extension functionaries The paper developed for the seminar is confined to out analytical review and experiential postulates in view of the growing demand for skilling and enabling of youth in the Agricultural domain, thereby help strengthen Agri.-extension services at the ground level in South Asian region.authors own experiences of south Asian region as a consultant to several multilateral and bilateral agencies would offer an interesting blend of options and alternatives to meet the challenges of the region in order to boost agriculture driven self reliant economy. Youth in South Asia: Scope for Skilling and Enabling United Nations data reveals that there are about 1.8 billion young people in the age group years, the largest ever in the history of the world. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs states that, in 2012, the Asia and Pacific region had 432 million adolescents aged 12 17, and 521 million youth 218

230 aged 18 24². In the South Asian region alone, there are over 329 million adolescents (10 19 years) a whopping 20 percent of the total population of the region. It is strongly believed that youth is the considered future of the region. Each nation needs to pay attention to their new generation. If we need to build the economy of the region with strong Agri-foundation, youth and women in particular demand critical attention for reinvigorating their latent energy and harness their power for a better tomorrow, in the South Asian region. A quick look at the population trajectory of the South Asian region shows that the ratio of working-age (15 64 years) to non-working age populations is on an upward curve, and will continue to be so until the 2040s and would start declining. It has subsequently, been reconfirmed, in a Harvard Working Paper series published in 2011, that the above ratio is a crucial indicator of a region s potential to reap its demographic dividend. Their analysis also shows that the impetus for economic growth is faster when the ratio of working-age to non-working age population is higher and grows at a faster pace. This would widen serious scope of skilling and enabling youth around agriculture domain. It is quite convincing that agriculture -domain, however, would set the foundation of south Asian economy in emerging economy of the region. Agricultural Domain- South Asian Region Challenges of Skilling As we know, that globalization has created a great demand for a skilled work force which is responsive to emerging market needs and is equipped with better knowledge. Although the regional economy has experience of rapid growth in recent past, the low level of education and formal training of the workforce have been the matter of concern in many pockets of SA region. However,an impressionistic analysis of Indian economy on one hand and SA region as a whole,have revealed that the field forces have been reshaping and influencing the upsurge of private initiative of agricultural research in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. These forces seem to act as determinants of innovation : social, cultural, economical and/or political factors that are now redefining the governance of public research, the development of technologies, models of agricultural production, and the dynamics of food systems in South Asia. Their functions and their mutual relationships on a national, sectoral or regional scale have shown an interesting trend of growth.india has already promised to scale up the farmers productivity by doubling their income indicator with their aggressive experimentation on skilling and enabling intervention across the country. It has been shown that the nature of governance of public sector agricultural research is undergoing rapid change in South Asia under the influence of global economic forces such as the new rules of global finance, free trade, intellectual property rights, new laws, as well as consolidations and strategic alliances in the agricultural input industry and the structural power of multinational food corporations. National and international law are key drivers of change in this context. These different forces and factors are now important determinants of innovation in public sector agricultural research in South Asia. Indian 219

231 Initiative in this regard, particularly,in recent past has already undergone paradigm change on its development strategy over recent few years. If we substantiate the data from India, informal sector employs nearly 90% of the workforce most of which is either non-skilled or inadequately skilled and there has been very little investment or opportunity for formal skilling till 2010.In order to get productive employment, especially in the informal sector, it was crucial to acquire skill set with strong labour market linkages. Skill development and entrepreneurship efforts across the country have been highly fragmented for many years in different sector till As opposed to developed countries, where the percentage of skilled workforce is between 60% and 90% of the total workforce, India recorded almost 5-7% of workforce (20-24 years) with formal vocational skills. South Asian region on an average stands for similar trend of 8% because of higher literacy in selected belt SA region particularly in Sri Lanka. Widespread poverty and skewed distribution of economy, however, demands special thrust to build Agricultural domain with intensive skilling programme. The main conclusion of several recent international reports on the state of food and agriculture, including the comprehensive report of the International Assessment for Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development highlights that in order to solve the multiple social and environmental crisis, food security and well being of humanity depends on putting the citizen back at the centre of the governance and management of food systems. Local organisations of food producers and other citizens may not be able to only offer practical solutions tailored to local needs and circumstances. Thus dominant 'development' paradigms, offering radically different definitions of the 'good life' and sustainable living. Therefore, Agri extension education and its innovative learning design assume critical significance. At the outset let us have glance of Agri techno perspectives of the region. Technology and Agri. Practices of the Region Reviewers have observed that Southeast Asian farmers have generally been seen as far from inertial for more than hundred years. The agriculture they have been employing as a mix of practices passed to them by their parents and grandparents, crops they have observed to be successful on neighbors' fields, new varieties and technologies that have come to them through government development programs, and new inputs (e.g., mineral fertilizers and pesticides). Most farmers experiment on a small scale with new crops and new cultivation techniques; they are willing to change their practices if convinced the changes will improve their incomes, and they often change their crops in response to changing market oppor... tunities. Green revolution did make impact through genetic improvisation of mid 70 s to bring food self sufficiency in Indian subcontinent.nonetheless,the productivity demands special attention due wrong practices adopted in recent past with degradation soil health around the region. The prudence of technology and extension education has helped farmers survive if not driven to their growth keeping the pace with global change.the significance of traditional technology,varies considerably. Subsistence oriented agricultural systems (e.g.,, rainfed rice, and other forms of upland agriculture) are still based primarily on traditional technological practices. Commercially oriented agricultural 220

232 systems (e.g., commercial vegetable gardens and annual and perennial plantation crops), as well as agricultural systems that have been the object of intensive development programs (e.g., wet rice), have yet to emerge on the scene due to dependence of large population on their livelihood. One of the most conspicuous characteristics of traditional agricultural technology is the diversity of crops it employs. It is typical for a subsistence household to employ a number of cropping systems and a variety of crops within each of those cropping systems, including the interp1anting. Small~scale tractor equipment also has been used in recent years; usually it is owned by one person in the village and rented to others. There is some large~ scale commercial production, such as corporate rice farms in the Philippines and state farms in Burma, where tractors, rotary tillers, slashers, and other farm machinery are used along with hand labor. It is generally felt that agri-economy has yet to incorporate entrepreneurial reorientation in education system at various levels. Thus entreprenueurial orientation of farmers and farm education system has yet to evolve on an aggressive mode of intervention. Government of India recent initiative through its educational intervention has made significant move. With the increase of rice yield the use of commercial inorganic fertilizers and chemical pesticides has increased widespread, particularly in the large scale operations. As a consequence of international programs to intensify rice production through non photoperiod sensitive varieties and the expansion of year~round irrigation, continuous cropping of rice has become increasingly common in Southeast Asia. Although rice yields have increased significantly, these improvements have been accompanied by in creasing hazards such as salinization and the onset of serious pest and disease problems that were not present under less intensive cultivation. In areas where improved varieties are planted, it is common for all the paddies in a large area to be of the same variety. In more traditional areas there may be dozens of different rice varieties in a landscape mosaic of fields. Even a single household may employ several local varieties. In some areas, it is customary to grow traditional varieties during the wet season for home consumption and improved varieties at other times of the year as a cash crop.of course scenario of Indian agriculture has also been udergoing a sea-change in terms of policy and its practices. In India, rice has become cash crop for western India farmers where soil is not suited for rice cultivation with recent advancement of varieties mechanical use of tilling the land and high chemicals use for getting higher yield has been the way of life. It has created serious impediments on environment and ground level water issues. Southern India and north eastern part of the country, rice is the overwhelmingly dominant crop in areas where it can be cultivated. But it is also common to plant other crops such as bananas, cassava, yams, beans, or scattered fuelwood trees around the borders of rice fields. Many farmers are not sensitive nor alive to such concerns. Awareness of new practices and skills gap to adopt new technical practices amongst youth and women has, however, been matter of great concern in recent past. Agri- Extension services largely government functionaries are governed by the state or provinces. SA region has not been able to revamp their field extension professionals through innovative educational intervention programmes. India has entrusted large gamut of farmers education at the hand of Krishi Vigyan Kendra who are inadequately prepared to meet the coming challenges. It is time to building capacity of extension professionals governed by the state at the same pace while adding value to famers skilling and rural youth. 221

233 Rejunvating Ecosystem through Agri-skilling and Entreprenurship With the emerging socio-economic changes in the region, there is an urgent need for building strong ecosystem for speedy skill development and entrepreneurship promotion in south Asian region. As stated above, Indian experiment and recent Government policy initiative has placed the issues on its top priority agenda. The union government, nodal ministry of skill development and entrepreneurship,therefore, could find over the years that each ministry and department had several thousand programmes to meet growing requirements of skilling and entrepreneurship training in different trade and sub sectors. In order to evolve a synergetic need and to bring agriculture and industry on same page for modernisation and adaptation to new technological practices, National skill Development Authority has been established. It acts as a coordinating and monitoring entity and also certifies the implementing partners before a partner agencies are shortlisted to act across the country. Agricultural practices of farming communities in south Asian region need to build synergy with industry and help evolve a better wage and decent quality of life to its population. If we pay attention to the agricultural sector, women being an integral part of the agricultural workforce that constitute a huge number. At the same time gender inequality is a major development issue across all the developing countries in general and India in particular. It is estimated that 43% of world s farmers are women. The FAO during 2011 had reported as part of its global farm status study that, if women had the same access to productive resources as men, they could raise total agricultural output in developing countries by 20% to 30 % and reduce the number of hungry persons in the world by %! This holds true for south Asian belt in general and India in is noted that women represent nearly 30% of the cultivators and almost half the agricultural labour force in India. As stated earlier,it has been estimated that more than 20 Ministries/Departments run 70 plus schemes for skill development in the country have been operational over the years with little coordination and overlapping functions. Monitoring of such a massive programme has been a great challenge for the concerned ministry.human error and their elasticity of handling the mammoth task was highly unorganised barring few ministries. Thus the gap remains to be on alarming scene, despite long efforts made for several years of training and development. The current scenario has undergone change. As per an official statement, the AGRI UDAAN- Food and Agribusiness Accelerator intervention has been propelled and is run by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). ICAR s National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM); Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIM-A) Incubator s Center for Innovation, Incubation and Entrepreneurship (CIIE) will look after the programme. Apart from this, the National Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB) and DST have also come forward to support the accelerator programme. Rapid assessment exercise taken up in by multilateral agencies including Planning commission have substantiated similar observations in this regard.however, there were also gaps in the capacity and quality of training infrastructure as well as outputs. Insufficient focus on workforce aspirations, lack of certification and common standards of training programmes and serious lack of focus on the unorganized sector. The assessment of such a gap was perceived early 2015 and efforts to recognizing the need and urgency of coordinating the efforts of all concerned stakeholders in the field of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, could foster the state of rigor and integrated 222

234 monitoring with greater accountability at the delivery level. A framework built on five central pillars representing the core requirements for skilling needs to be developed to create a pipeline of skilled people, correct supply for demand, certify global/common standards, connect supply with demand and catalyse entrepreneurship. These five pillars have been supported by cross- cutting enabling measures. Common norms and metrics on inputs, outcome measures and funding for skill development schemes across Central Ministries/Departments have to be developed and led by the nodal Ministry. Skill gap studies for all high priority sectors including key manufacturing sectors have also been initiated. Support to States has been extended via the State Skill Development Mission through funding and technical support to ramp up capacity and improve standards of skilling at the State level. Emerging characteristics of effective and innovative agricultural education programs for students and teachers at large across the country demands serious attention to revamp and revive through extension education application. One of the viable approaches to achieving this goal is to identify and replicate sustainable innovative program designs. An innovative program is defined as a program that is new and creative, especially in the way that something is done. We may define innovations as ideas, practices, or objects that are perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. According to Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020, agricultural education envisions a world where all people value and understand the vital role of agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources industries in advancing personal and global is quite possible that innovative programs are overlooked because they are not perceived as new. Many programs are defined by quality indicators such as success in career development events or national chapter awards, but little attention has been given to identifying or measuring the innovativeness of programs that are serving a totally different audience than traditional agricultural education programs serve. South Asian region has potential to grow even faster with demographic capability and high saving rate but faces a major challenge providing employment to working age population particularly youth which is very vital for inclusive growth. Our notable economic growth and reduction in poverty is shadowed by increase in the number of unemployed youth. It is quite obvious that almost more than half of nonagriculture working population is absorbed in informal economy and employment growth remains concentrated in low productivity centre. Needless to mention that agicultural sector and its allied subsector would address,concerns for inclusive growth, through employment generation aiming at high productivity sector and skill development. Regional Extension Approaches Apathetic Entrepenurship A comprehensive analysis and role of extension services accompanied by its pros and cons, has been viewed in the backdrop of agricultural practices amidst its own regional biases and its inherent diversity of complex agri-ecosystem. This is followed by concrete discussions and the analysis of different approaches/modes of the extension services adopted/implemented in the south asian region. These are popularly known as, Training and visit Approach, Transfer of Technology (ToT), the Farmers Field School 223

235 approach, and finally, the roles of agricultural research and extension services in promoting sustainable agriculture development. There was a great difference between extension policy and practices in the study area; therefore, an emerging need to effectively implement policy providing the required facilities such as, adequate budget, trained extension officials, logistic/transportation facility, trainings, field unit office and to ensure farmers participation in problem-solving, are as crucial as the techno support programmes are. Unfortuantely, agriculture has always been a state subject.therefore it becomes vulnerable to its political eco-system.the old policy of requiring farmers to visit extension agents may need to be changed in order to improve farmers access to extension services, particularly in rural areas where public transportation is not easily available. Following the principles of participatory extension services, the new policy needs to be effectively implemented, in order to require extension officials to work in cooperation with the farmers. Indian experiments under ICAR umbrella support,with MANAGE, Hyderabad and ICAR-IVRI Collaborative Training Programme on Changing Paradigms in Agricultural Extension has evolved innovative capacity building programme. Role of Extension & Advisory Services (EAS) in promoting agripreneurship Farmer Producer Organizations, Attracting and Retaining Youth in Agriculture, social media use in agricultural transformation; and ICT& Mobile apps for information delivery. Agricultural extension policy needs to be revamped and then effectively implemented according to the farmers needs and problems encountered. The blueprint decentralized extension policy needs to be effectively implemented.agriculture continues to be a fundamental instrument for sustainable development and poverty alleviation even in the 21st century. Agricultural growth can boost productivity, increase farm incomes and stimulate linkages between farm and non-farm poverty reduction programs This is why it is argued that agricultural policies geared towards small-scale, low-productivity farms should be viewed primarily as a part of poverty reduction strategies instead of embedding them in agricultural growth programs. Table 1. Key indicators of effectiveness of agricultural extension services Parameters/indicators Complex variablesimple variable Decentralized system Involvement of the key stakeholders ensuredpolicy makers, project managers, extension workers, subject specialists, researchers, and farmers, particularly, the smallholders)linkagesinstitutions and farmerseffective coordination among extensionists, subject matter specialist, research matter, and farmers (especially resource poor farmers)need based approachextension services designed according to the needs of majority of farmers Programmes and projects implemented according to the farmers needs and problems faced.participation Farmers utmost participation is ensured in the programmes and projectsfarmers involvement in: Problem-solving, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. 224

236 Fortnightly and monthly programmes Visits, trainings and meetings, workshops and exposuretrained farmers, equipped with crop management skills and techniques towards improved production, yield and income Diffusion of innovation Aninnovationis communicated through certain channels, according to social system and or locational characteristics, national laws and policies, ( Meso ) and international laws and policies ( Marco ). Attitude changed; change in practices from traditional to appropriate use of technology, information, knowledge, pesticides and fertilizer, which eventually lead toward improved production, yield, income and socio-economic conditions.documentationregular record keeping by extension worker, monitoring and evaluation Information and key findings sent to policy makers for necessary actions. Entrepreneurship Education a viable Innovative Intervention The purpose of this proposed approach note is to introduce multistage educational intervention of entrepreneurship educational curriculum at college level and thereby build capacity of educational institutions and university who are generally apathetic and alien to the innovative concept of entrepreneurship. South Asian region- youths population would be inclined to such innovative ventures if our strategic efforts are designed with sound result based planning and greater accountability. Most of the syllabi was to feed the industry skill requirement and help broad skill need in banking sector,pesticides,food process sector,fertilizer and allied marketing segment.of course such organisations range from large public sector and emerging large private sector,cooperative sector with agri,livestock and allied sub- sector.thus intervention design as discussed below would drive us to have vision on longitudinal perspectives to build a large cadre of agri innovators,job creators in agri,fisheries, livestock, horticulture,food processing and biotech subsector etc.. There is a need to consciously consider the gendered nature of skills and opportunities. This would help ensure that national programmes for education and skillbuilding avoid reinforcing stereotypes and usher in equal opportunities for men and women in employment and entrepreneurship. The role of young women in civic and political participation is equally crucial. While the region has produced many women leaders including heads of states and heads of governments, women s engagement at the local level of governance and civic engagement needs to be further strengthened Innovative skilling to foster South Asian Agriculture Education This modules should be based on pragmatic and result driven and innovative mode in their approach to classroom instruction, supervised agricultural experience, and field based activities farmers tested research and demonstration showcase these programs to a broader audience with the hope that they will be replicated. It is generally stated that implementation of an innovative educational process begins the capacity and competencies of teachers and leaders of educational research and training institutions. It leads to an organization amounting to a mutual adaptation of the innovation and the educational and research stations. This mutual adaptation occurs because the innovation almost never fits perfectly in the organization. With the dawn of the 21st Century, the need for career and technical education reformation was evident in order to prepare students for employment and higher education. As a new world of fast communications 225

237 and information requiring rapid decision making and intelligent social skills), students in today s society must develop a variety of functional and related soft skills beyond the narrow job tasks focused on in historical and traditional learning programs. It isn t just training for specific jobs that is needed [by 21st Century students], but to make decisions, solve problems, find answers, and draw on a variety of disciplines and cultural contexts to make sense out of changes, challenges, and day-to-day operations at the workplace thereby launch their own venture as pace setter to break new ground and new ideas. Innovative and exemplary CTE programs are needed to accomplish this feat. A list of common characteristics of outstanding, or exemplary, programs was compiled from several reports evaluating effective schools including: (a) high academic standards; (b) integrated rigorous academic content with real-world applications; (c) authentic student assessment; (d) adequate resources to ensure student success; (e) school supervised service- and work-based learning opportunities; (f) highly qualified teachers; (g) partnerships with the community and stakeholders; and, (h) a school-within-a-school environment often achieved with a team approach through an integrated professional, career, or applied major.the reformation of innovative CTE programs has occurred through the infusion of career planning throughout the entire curriculum related to realworld environments, improved curriculum delivery and organization, increasing academic quality, substantive image upgrading,and by preparing graduates for both the workplace and continued education. Using innovative/exemplary programs as a model for other programs to follow is not a new concept. Future generations learning propensity would be of higher nature with higher speed to learn. Teachers have to be equipped with new skill and greater conceptual clarity of entrepreneurship. Programs of the future will match industry trends and continuously adjust their curricula to accommodate the changing agricultural industry. Innovative programs will strive to develop extension leaders within their community who possess fundamental knowledge and skills to address the emerging challenges of future agricultural scene. Youth in different thematic subjects are more aware of changing process than before. Conclusions South Asian Regional Agri. Practices and programs has intricately been connected to its prevailing agri extension system. Our experience and vision to a robust extension system is quite myopic and we need to move away from traditional perspectives to a strategic approach for the future. The need and usefulness of pluralistic extension in agriculture has to be dealt with adequately. The role and importance of stakeholder organizations of such as Indian Extension Forum, Agricultural Extension in South Asia and Agricultural Extension associations in India and their role in strengthening rural advisory services (RAS) has to be strengthened over the years to meet the growing challenges. It is time for mutual respect to learn from each other by openly sharing Global Good Practices Notes to supplement our learning. The path-breaking models and development intervention where reference to global developments in the field of agricultural Programs would assume far more importance than ever. 226

238 It should have greater flexibility to adjust to changes in the agricultural industry and develop strong and positive ties to the community and business sectors. Currently, agri extensions programmes are largely dependent on government source that needs to be reduced significantly. Agri-enterprise creation as incubators within the ambit of Agri university campus and technical colleges have to raise their resources and move out from beaten path towards self sustenance entrepreneurial leadership. Adequate funding will be required for programs to become and remain innovative; and will need to continually participate in professional development activities. Text books have to evolve new paradigm and new models in building robust extension innovative programmes have to emerge on the scene regularly. In order to remain up to date on techno-research progress,extension professionals have to turn their antenna on lab to field and vice versa. Innovative insights both on conceptual and operational issues,therefore, demands equal attention by creating new area of researches towards sustainable development goals. 227

239 ICT Tools Application in Agriculture for Accelerating Agricultural Growth TNAU Experiences Philip.H 1, Sriram.N 2 and M.Senthilkumar 3 1Director of Extension Education, TNAU, Coimbatore, 2 Programme Coordinator, KVK, Salem, Tamil Nadu 3Assistant Professor (AEX), DOEE, TNAU Introduction Information and communication technology in agriculture (ICT in agriculture), also known as e-agriculture, is developing and applying innovative ways to use ICTs in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture. ICT in agriculture offers a wide range of solutions to some agricultural challenges. In the past decade, many information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Indian agriculture have emerged, either substituting or supporting extension services by providing farmers with access to agricultural information. ICTs have the potential to reach many farmers with timely and accessible content. But the content that the ICTs deliver has more relevance if it is localized and context specific, as this improves the value and action ability of the information, which can have important impacts on farm management. The localization of content is influenced by how the ICT projects access, assess, apply, and deliver content. This paper examines the content development and management processes occurring in six well-known ICT projects in Indian agriculture. There are important lessons to be learned from a case study of this process. Content management and development through ICTs is important to examine because public extension services may be able to increase their efficiency and effectiveness by using these tools to support their work with farmers. Though there are differences in scale and mechanisms of delivery and feedback, all of the case study projects use a network of experts in relevant fields to provide content, though the extent of localization varies. Despite the best efforts of these and many other e-agriculture initiatives in India, there is no easy way for their collective knowledge to be tapped, tracked, and put to use across the different platforms. In fact, there is a critical missing link to bridge the gaps between local or parochial access and serving public needs. To mainstream such ICT efforts and knowledge management in agriculture for rural livelihoods, it is necessary to put in place a centralized search engine, or harvester, to access the decentralized and dispersed digital agricultural information repositories and network of experts. Relevance Tamil Nadu Agricultural University has been playing a significant role in the agricultural development of Tamil Nadu for the past five decades. The University is responsible to a great extent in the modernization of agriculture sector and as a premier institution, provides agricultural education, research and extension services at the state level. TNAU generates much needed quality human resources for the development of agricultural sector in Tamil Nadu, besides training thousands of farmers and development 228

240 department personnel on improved farm technologies and practices. It also provides various extension services to all the stake holders. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) is the only State Agricultural University in Tamil Nadu spearheading agricultural research, education and extension activities for productivity enhancement and diversification of Tamil Nadu agriculture. The comprehensive initiatives taken by the TNAU have led to notable accomplishments in achieving food security, natural resource management, input use efficiency, climate resilience, secondary agriculture and economic transformation of farmers though technological interventions. TNAU is always working for the development of the farmers through their active participation. TNAU is connecting the farmers very effectively by employing different mechanism and schemes and services in Tamil Nadu. Connecting Farmers through TNAU Extension Service The Directorate of Extension Education (DOEE) is the nodal agency of TNAU for promoting agricultural development in the state through quick transfer of technology by providing training, consultancy and farm information to line departments professional extension personnel and farmers. It also involves the assessment, refinement and adoption of technology through on-farm testing and front-line demonstrations. 01. TNAU Agritech Portal The TNAU AGRITECH Portal is being developed by scouting information from various trusted sources like the State Agricultural University, State Department of Agriculture, Horticulture, Engineering, Animal Husbandry and other line departments. Information is also obtained on private input dealers, marketing, export and import, KrishiVigyanKendras, indigenous technologies, schemes, food science and technology, Self Help Groups, Non Government Organizations, entrepreneurs, agro industries and the like. The collected materials are validated with the help of subject matter specialists in TNAU on relevance, coverage, clarity, continuity, and adequacy. The portal is being planned to have bilingual content page ie., English and Tamil and incorporating more visuals, videos than text. Initially the users are from extension officials and later by the farming community. Apart from the above resources, four different brainstorming sessions were arranged to understand the needs of Farmers, Extension Officials, Scientists and Stake holders. Success stories of farmer s own practices and details on farmers association are the highest priority of farmers. The extension officials had shared that departmental schemes and latest technologies and recommendations by university were the highest priorities. Accordingly the template has been designed with user friendly nature. The software used for this purpose include Adobe Photoshop CS as Template Designing Tool, Macromedia Dream Weaver 8 for Web Developing Tool, HTML, XHTML,, Flash Scripts as Coding Tool and Open Access Software as platform. The core areas in the portal are Agriculture, Horticulture, Agricultural Engineering, Sericulture, Forestry, Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Marketing. The other issues covered are Crop Production, Crop Protection, Crop Improvement, Organic Farming, 229

241 Sustainable Farming, Indigenous Farming, Soil and water management, Government Schemes, Banking, Insurance, Self Help Group and Non Government Organizations, Post Harvest Technologies, Daily events (Market Information, News Paper Clippings, Radio and TV programmes, water level in dams and streamed Audio on TNAU Community Radio, Patents, Environment and Pollution, Inputs Source, etc. The major areas such as Weather, Soil, Water, Nutrition, Enterprises, Post Harvest Information, Biotechnology and Bio fuels are covered. Few of the specialized technologies including System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Precision Farming Systems, Sustainable Sugar Cane Initiatives, Ultra High Density Mango Plantations, Good Agricultural Practices, Good Laboratory Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices. Other related information such as Availability of Input Sources, Minimal Support Prices, District wise Agricultural Action Plan and Agro linkage with other agencies. 02. Video Conferencing E-connectivity is also being established in 60 TNAU centres for providing e- Extension Services through TNAU Agri tech Portal. The main HUB (TNAU, Coimbatore) is being connected with the 60 Centres of TNAU (14 KVKs + 36 RRS/ARS/HRS + 10 Colleges) for information sharing and exchange. Regular interaction meetings between scientists, farmers and extension workers are being organized through this video conferencing facility. 03. Expert system in Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Crop Doctor / Expert System Expert systems (ES) is identified as powerful tool for farmers for transfer of technology and helps to improve the production and productivity of the crops by providing instant technological advisory support with the support of real experts. The Expert System for Coconut, Paddy, Sugarcane, Banana, Ragi and Animal enterprises was developed through network project mode. The Information System, Decision Support System and Crop doctor are the important components in the expert system. The relevant contents and technologies were scouted from various sources viz., SAUs, ICAR, Government Departments, NGOs and other mass media sources and validated the same with help of concerned experts. Development of Expert System is being developed in Multi Lingual(English, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam) languages for the benefit of Tamil Nadu, Karantaka and Kerala farmers. The reliability and validity of the expert system contents were done with help of SMS of KVKs in Zone VIII. 230

242 Expert System Mechanism a. Knowledge base: A critical aspect of building an expert system is formulating the scope of the problem and gleaning from the source expert the domain information needed to solve the problem. The translation of the knowledge possessed by the expert into a knowledge base is the bottleneck in the process of knowledge acquisition (Edward-Jones, 1992 and Plant and Stone, 1991). In the present work, knowledge has been obtained from different sources. Knowledge base in the form of contents have been collected from the SAUs, ICAR institutes, Research Station, KVKs and innovative farmers. The series of interactive meeting was also organized to know the farmers need on select subject and frequently asked questions. The stage by stage symptoms and growth of plants were also documented in the form of image, video and audio formats. The collected contents were organized and validated with help of concerned scientists. b. The inference engine: Inference engine is the component that manipulates the knowledge found in the knowledge base as needed to arrive at a result or solution. An expert system's rulebase is made up of many such inference rules. They are entered as separate rules and it is the inference engine that uses them together to draw conclusions. Because each rule is a unit, rules may be deleted or added without affecting other rules (though it should affect which conclusions are reached). One advantage of inference rules over traditional programming is that inference rules use reasoning which more closely resemble human reasoning. c. User interface: The user interface is the component that allows the user to query the system and receive the results of those queries. It also have an explanation facility which explains why a problem was occurred and how could be solved with appropriate action. Expert System use the rule based, were the experience and knowledge of a human expert is captured in the form of IF-THEN rules and facts. Here it is designed in Image Based Expert System. Farmers can have a look and feel, by viewing the photos in form of slideshows and video clippings. It helps them in comparing with their field symptoms and they will get a single point decision. Expert System The expert system was designed and developed to serve the farming community, extension workers, scientists and other stakeholders. The home page of the expert system have three important component which are Information System Decision Support System, Diagnosing System (Crop Doctor) 231

243 Information System Information system is web based static information wherein all the technological information and complementary information about the crop have been loaded in this component. The crop informatics which includes crop diseases diagnosis and management approaches. Special feature of the information system is user-friendly navigation with image based presentation. The static information system is highly useful for the extension officials, scientists, policy makers and administers as ready reference material and bibliography of concerned crop. This contents can be updated dynamically then and there based on the advancement of the technologies. Decision Support System(DSS): Decision support systems are a class of computer-based information systems including knowledge based systems that support decision making activities. DSS is a computerized system for making decisions. A decision is a choice between alternatives based on estimates of the values of those alternatives. Supporting a decision means helping farmers working alone or in a group gathers intelligence, generate alternatives and make choices. Accordingly, the DSS has been contemplated and designed to get best possible options and decision by farmer themselves for the day today agriculture operation. Drop down formula or multiple combo boxes have been created using simple dot net programme. Each boxes in the DSS are correlated with each one for retrieving the best possible decision support for crop cultivation. The Decision Support System is consisting of details about Season, Variety, Soil, Water, Land preparation, Nursery Management, Cultivation, Irrigation, Diseases and Pest Management, Nutrient Management, Farm Implements, Post Harvest Technology, Marketing, Institutions and Schemes and FAQ s. For example it helps the farmers to Choose the suitable variety for the particular location based on the soil, climate and water using DSS. DSS will give solution whether the particular farm is suitable for crop cultivation or whether soil / water / existing climate is suitable for establishing concerned crop cultivation. Based on the decision given in the DSS, farmers can take further decision or consultation with scientists for further action. DSS will also give decision support for better nutrient management. It will also calculate automatically the nutrient requirement with cost based on the type of soil and water. It also helps the farmer to adopt the correct crop production technology, how to avail the grants and subsidies from various institution. Guides the farmers to sell their commodities to the market through proper channels and so on. 232

244 Decision Support System Page of Expert System for Coconut DSS will also help farmers in increasing their productivity by raising yield per hectare, thus leading to their economic growth. It will keep track of farmer s all type of information related to crops. Key features of the DSS: 01. User friendly navigation 02. Image and Video based information, so even illiterate can use this system and get image based information. 03. Instant decision support for key information crop production technologies and crop protection aspects which can facilitate the farmers to take quick decision in crop cultivation activities. 04. Automatic calculation of nutrient requirement for different stage of crops based on the soil, water and other parameters. 05. Scientific information about the crop, botanical characteristics, varietals characteristics with images are added features in the DSS Crop Doctor: Crop doctor is a vital component in the expert system which act as artificial intelligence. It is picture and image based if and then rule based programme which has written using dot net programme. It deals with diagnosing the pest, disease and nutritional disorders affecting the selected crops. The first obvious sign is given as thumbnail images in the Key Visual Symptoms (Primary Symptom) with multiple stages (Secondary Symptoms). Primary and secondary symptoms have been documented in stage by stage and loaded in the expert system shell by using if and then rule based programme. The concerned experts have validated all the symptoms which loaded in the expert system shell. How to use: The first page of the crop doctor will display the key visual affected symptoms of pest or diseases or nutrient deficiency or nematode in the form thumbnail icon. The farmers or user can look and feel the key visual affected symptoms as expert system is picture based. The user can compare images with their affected field symptoms and they can choose three images which similar to their field symptom. The system will allow to choose only three picture and ask Is this your symptoms. If click yes, system will show next frame which will be secondary symptoms of primary symptoms. It may be more than two icons. Again farmers can click the relevant symptoms which is similar to their field symptoms and can choose up to three images in each icons. 233

245 Again the system will ask is this your symptoms. If click no, again the system frame will go back and show the other symptoms to be selected. If click yes, the system will show all images which were captured by the users and gets reconfirmation. Now the user can click the diagnose button if they are satisfied with the clicked symptoms. The system will show the diagnose report, as it may be due to single pest or may be due to pest and disease or may be due combination of pest, disease and nutrient disorders based on the images clicked by the users. The illiterate farmers can also use this symptom since it is purely image and video based programme. Then the system will also show the nature of pest / disease / nutrient disorders symptoms, identification of pest / disease / nutrient disorders Farmers by selecting the symptoms, they will make a conclusion on the causes for the damage, identification of pest or pathogens, nutritional disorders and control measures to be taken in the field. Images / Video based control measures, image based identification of symptoms or damages will be displayed for the benefit of the users. Key features of Crop Doctor Crop doctor is purely if and then image based programme, so it can be used by all the stakeholders. Even illiterate users can sit in front of the system and use the crop doctor for diagnosing the field related problems and get the suitable solution for managing the field problems. Single item diagnosis or two items diagnosis or multiple combination of diagnosis of pests / diseases / nematode / nutrition disorders are possible in the crop doctor It is available in English, Tamil, Malayalam and Kannda languages and can be scaled up to all the regional languages of India. Voice based image or video integration is possible Information with images on nature of damage and identification of symptoms are available in the crop doctor. Management practices namely cultural, chemical, biological, mechanical, physical methods are also available in the control measure components. It can be updatable then and there, if it needs to be refined any technologies in the crop doctor. Most of the then developed expert system across the world were mostly text based which could be use only extension officials, scientists and rarely by innovative farmers. 04. Multimedia based Mobile Advisory System The major objectives of the project 1. Development of Multi-Media Interface between Mobile Phones and a Central Database 2. To create Farm Plot Historian Database System 234

246 3. To develop Market Information Database 4. To develop and test the Voice based Interactive System 5. To develop and test the Multi-media Agri-Advisory System 6. To Create and test Multi-party Conferencing system between farmers, experts and extension workers. The multimedia based interactive advisory system besides images and videos, has a strong voice component which is unique and the voice component could be developed in multiple regional languages to provide customized advisory to the farmers via experts / extension workers through mobile phones. The Farm Plot historian data has been created by using simple mobile device (paper less data collection technique) over a period of time as and when individual farmers register for the service. The Farm Plot data base which includes specific details such as farmer biographies, cropping history, spatial and nonspatial biophysical data. This project has been implemented at three districts of Tamil Nadu namely Kancheepuram, Erode and Dharmapuri for providing farm-specific agroadvisory services via mobile funded by the NAIP. In the pilot phase, we have collated database for 1,200 individual farmers and uploaded in the central data base (on line). TNAU and RTBI (IIT, Madras) have jointly developed multimedia based mobile software, which has facilitated the farmers to ask queries in the form of image, text and voice to the experts via mobile phone. The farmers queries via mobile could be sent to Central data base which could automatically segregate and update in the individual farmer s personal historian database. Once the queries sent to the experts via central database, the expert could open the farmer s queries along with the concerned farmer s historian data base for diagnosing the individual farmer s problem. Based on expert s diagnosis, farm specific agro advisory services could be sent to the concerned farmers within short time through mobile phone. The effectiveness of the mobile-based farm specific agro advisory services was found to be more effective in terms of solving the farmer s farm related problem. Multimedia mobile software was also user friendly and solving important farm related issues in timely and accurately, expressed by the beneficiary farmers. The project out come could also be extended and scaled up to all the States for providing farm specific agro advisory services. 235

247 Implementation of mobile phone based data collection and periodical updates of farming details 236

248 05. Contents for Online Video Organizing and managing your video content is incredibly important. Whether you have a few video clips or thousands of full-length episodes, the online video CMS makes it easy to sort, manage and organize your entire video library. With convenient features like batch editing and drag-and-drop playlists, Brightcove Video Cloud provides everything you need to organize and manage your video content. A video content management system, or VCMS, is software that enables an organization to centralize, manage, and deliver video online. At its most basic, a VCMS provides a repository for video content, in which video files are uploaded to the system and made accessible to people via a link. However, leaders in the space offer a more complete, end-to-end video content management solution, including features like: Video capture: A means of recording video from an assortment of video devices, including laptop cameras, webcams, professional video cameras, mobile devices, tablets, microscopes, electronic whiteboards, and more. Full-featured video capturesoftware is able to synchronize slides from PowerPoint or Keynote to the video being recorded, enabling the user to create professional-quality video presentations. Batch and programmatic uploading: These feature allows users to upload recordings in bulk to the video content management system through the use of web-based user interfaces, watch folders, or developer APIs. Automatic transcoding: Video transcoding refers to the conversion of one type of video file to another. Video files are often recorded as one type, but delivery of those video files to various device types (desktop, mobile phones, tablets, etc) often requires conversion to other file types suitable for those specific devices. With automatic transcoding, the VCMS imports video in any number of formats, including AVI, MP4, WMV, MOV, M4V, etc, and automatically converts the file into multiple formats, enabling delivery in any of those formats to the correct device type and screen size. Some VCMSs require users to manually create or build the transcoding profiles that determine which file formats the recordings are converted into. By contrast, VCMSs that offer automatic transcoding automatically pick the right transcoding profiles to ensure maximum device compatibility, giving video content creators the freedom to concentrate on creating quality content, rather than worrying about technical details. Inside video search: The ability to search across video libraries and within videos for specific content. Organizational video is only as useful as the ability for users to efficiently locate the information they re looking for. Using technologies such as automatic speech recognition (ASR), optical character recognition (OCR), slide metadata, and more, inside video search functionality allows users to search across their entire video libraries for any word spoken or appeared on video, then fastforward to the relevant moment with a single click. Inside video search makes 237

249 searching for specific information as easy and efficient as searching through an . Adaptive bitrate streaming ensures optimal video playback for each viewer, regardless of connection speed. With this feature, the VCMS detects the viewer s internet connection speed in real-time and dynamically switches between video streams of different quality during playback. Video analytics that enable video creators and administrators to monitor their video library and gain insights into user behavior. At a minimum, a VCMS should provide system health statistics, as well as audience size and engagement statistics such as viewing behavior and drop-off rates. That all seems well and good, but what s wrong with just storing my videos in a SHAREPOINTsite or network file folder? We put our other files there, and it seems to work fine. Although LAN folders and SharePoint sites are great for storing and sharing documents and other files, they fall short when it comes to sharing video across an organization: Video files are much larger than Word documents, spreadsheets, and other office documents. The default maximum file size allowed in a SharePoint site is 50 MB, which is less capacity than what s required to store a single minute of video captured with an iphone. SharePoint lacks the capability to search inside videos. With SharePoint, you can only search based on file names and manually entered metadata. In contrast, VCMSs like Panopto offer the ability to search inside videos for specific words that are spoken or displayed on-screen during the video, then fast-forward the viewer to that exact point in the presentation. Network folders and SharePoint sites cannot optimize delivery for multiple devices. Without a VCMS, your videos are simply hosted; nothing is done to ensure compatibility with the devices accessing them. For example, a WebEx recording stored in its default ARF format on a SharePoint site would not be viewable on tablets or smart phones. With Gartner predicting that by 2014, 90% of organizations will support corporate applications on personal devices, format compatibility should be a top consideration. 06. Social Media The social media tools are effectively used to monitor the KVK activities as well as to provide guidance, technical backstopping interventions etc. All the TNAU KVKs have been connected with Whatsapp group and being monitoring the KVK wise as well as individual scientists wise progress of works. The Social Media tools are also going to be effectively utilized to form farmers groups, networking the commodity groups, to provide farm specific advisory services or diagnosis of farm related problems etc., with less investment. 238

250 07. e-community Radio Programme Transfer of technology plays a vital role in increasing the farm productivity, resulting in enhanced profits to the small and marginal farmers. Mass medium is very effective in widespread of farm technologies. Among the mass media, radio renders tremendous support for the large scale adoption of agro technologies for the benefit of farming community. To fully address the local needs and concerns of the community, emerged Community Radio- Voice of the Voiceless, need centric and need based. One such initiative is TNAU Vivasayee CRS MHz, set up with the aide of Media Lab Asia in collaboration with World Development Foundation, New Delhi under the aegis of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. 08. Connecting the Farmers through Weather Forecast Success of monsoon based agriculture depends on the climate that prevailed during the particular cropping season. Providing real time weather information to the farmers for making crop management decision can minimize the risk and losses due to extreme climate. In order to improve the accuracy of present weather forecasting, weather information are required at high spatial and temporal resolution. Installation and interlinking of automatic weather stations (AWS) at block level will be helpful to avoid climate risks and increase the productivity by timely weather based agro advisory. In this context, Government of Tamil Nadu under National Agricultural Development Project (NADP) have funded for establishing Tamil Nadu Agricultural Weather Network (TAWN) by installing 385 AWS, 224 in the first phase and 161 in the second phase. The Agro Climate Research Centre (ACRC), Directorate of Crop Management (DCM), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore in collaboration with Department of Agriculture, Tamil Nadu established the TAWN. In the network, 10 types of agricultural related weather parameters from 385 AWS are collected at hourly interval and hosted in this website. The medium range weather forecast developed by using these weather parameters is also hosted. Using this information the Agricultural officers will develop weather based agro advisories at block level for the farmers. It is first of its kind in India, such a denser weather network has been established and is expected to help in monitoring the global warming and climate change impacts on Tamil Nadu Agriculture. 09. Educational Media Centre Educational Media Centre at TNAU is producing lot of need based agriculture and allied subjected related Video programme for telecasting through various TV channels. Video lessons on various agricultural subjects is also produced for the benefit of the farmers, extension workers, students and other stakeholders and being used for transfer of technologies. Audio lessons for the AIR or exclusive Farm School on AIR is also produced and broadcasted through various AIR stations for the benefit of the farmers. EMC is also having plan to document various video lessons or video programmes or digital video library on agricultural and allied activities through public private partnership mode in near future for further strengthening of the TOT activities in Tamil 239

251 Nadu. Paid mode training on participatory video production, editing, pre production and post production is also undertaken for the benefit of the various stakeholders. Farm School on Air The Directorate of Extension Education, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is organizing regular Farm School on Air programme in collaboration with All India Radio, Govt of India for the benefit of the Farming Community of Tamil Nadu. Under this programme information are disseminated to farming community by experts regarding Agriculture, Horticulture, Poultry, Fisheries and Dairy with help of All India Radio. The basic objective of the programme is to disseminate information on the latest agricultural technologies developed under the National Agricultural Research System for the benefit of the farming community. This programme is regularly conducted on need based topics with help of All India Radio, Govt of India. The Unique part of this programme is the Quiz conducted after broadcast of each episode, where questions were asked to farmers regarding the topics which taught on that day. Farm School on Television Farm School on Television is also being organized by the Directorate of Extension Education, TNAU, Coimbatore similarly to the Farm School on Air. Doordarshan Kendra, Govt of India and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is organizing Farm School on Television on need based topics. The farm related information and demonstration is being broadcasted with help of experts and registered farmers used to view the programme and give their feedback. The last week of the programme will facilitate the feed back session, examination and evaluation. On successful completion of the programme, the farmers will be given with certificate. Conclusion In spite of their different approaches, all the ICT initiatives in India try to provide locally relevant content to farmers while reducing the expert-farmer gap. While incentives may differ in each project, from the business models to the donor funded projects, in each of the ICT initiatives there has been a clear effort to make content relevant, accessible and sourced from reliable knowledge sources. Each of the ICT projects share similar goals, while using different ICT approaches and pathways. Yet, a common missing element in all projects is the tapping into the content directly by the users. Mobilizing and scouting contents directly from the primary sources and users are very important task along with managing the contents by using appropriate content management system for effective utilizing both contents and online platforms for the benefit of the farmers and other stakeholders. 240

252 References: Singh, S Selected Success Stories on Agricultural Information Systems. Bangkok: Asia Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutes. Srinivasan, S. 2010a. Empowerment of Farmers through Mobile Phones. A Case Study of IFFCO Kisan Sanchar Limited. IFA Workshop on Effective Last-Mile Delivery, New Delhi, India, February Lemmon, H. (1986). COMAX: An expert system for cotton crop management. Science, 233: Michalski, R., Davis, J., Visht, V. and Sinclair, J. (1983). A computer-based advisory system for diagnosing soybean diseases in Illinois. Plant Disease 67: Reddy, KP & Ankaiah, R 2005, 'A framework of information technology-based agriculture information dissemination system to improve crop productivity', Current Science, vol. 88, no. 12, pp Anderson, J. R., and G. Feder Handbook of Agricultural Economics. Agricultural Extension 3: Balaji, V The Fate of Agriculture. Accessed April 14, Balaji, V., S. N. Meera, and X. Dixit ICT-Enabled Knowledge Sharing in Support of Extension: Addressing the Agrarian Challenges of the Developing World Threatened by Climate Change, with a Case Study of India. SAT ejournal 4 (1):

253 Delivery of Livestock Extension Services An overview Dr.G.Triveni 1, Dr.D.Sreenivasulu 2 1 Assistant Professor, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati 2 Director of Extension, SVVU, Tirupati Corresponding author Abstract Livestock are important to millions of poor households across the world not only as a source of income but also as a major source of protein and supplementary nutrition, draft power, fertilizer, fuel and a store of wealth. A large majority of livestock owners comprise of small and marginal farmers, who own nearly 80 percent of the livestock. Therefore, extension of livestock information has become an important component for rural development in our country. The NSSO survey revealed that only 5.1 % of the farmer households in India were able to access any information on animal husbandry against 40.4 % of the Indian households accessing information on modern technology for crop farming. The Government of India (GoI) spends below 10% on livestock extension activities. Public livestock extension delivery institutes include Directorate of Extension, I.C.A.R, N.D.D.B, K.V.Ks, S.D.A.H and private extension service delivery institutes include N.G.Os, Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centers etc. The public extension has faced many limitations in transfer of services and therefore private extension organizations came into existence to overcome the short comings. There is an enormous scope to boost rural income in combination of the services provided by the public, private and civil society organizations. However, this requires a policy regime that facilitates growth in productivity at the farm level as well as in the processing sector. Mechanisms to meet the service needs of poor livestock keepers and the ways and means to deliver them at minimum cost need to be identified. Introduction Despite the pluralistic extension approaches, Indian livestock extension has a limited outreach, particularly to the marginal and small farmers. Extension of knowledge, technology and service through extension education to the grass root level is of paramount importance for the growth of the livestock sector. The Government of India (GOI, 1998) spends below 10 per cent on livestock extension activities. The State Departments of Animal Husbandry (SDAH) - the major stakeholders for the livestock development in India are mostly dominated by animal health concerns with negligible attention to production related advice to farmers. Moreover, the expenditure on livestock extension activities is only around 1-3 % of their total budget (Ravikumar, 2005). Only one centrally sponsored scheme on Livestock extension and delivery services with a budgetary outlay of Rs crore was proposed by Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHDF) during the 11th plan period. To cater to the diverse needs of livestock farmers, among others an efficient livestock extension delivery system is required. The National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO, 2005) in its survey of 51,770 farmer households across the country revealed that only 5.1 % of the households were able to 242

254 access information on animal husbandry as against 40.4 % households accessing information on crop sector. Extension delivery in India is being carried out by different organizations broadly classified as public delivery system, private delivery system and civil society organisations. Various government institutions which are involved in public delivery system are unable to deliver efficient livestock services and therefore a concept called private extension service delivery system has gained popularity in livestock sector. Among the public sector organizations, the major public sector extension systems for delivery of extension services in India are The Ministry of Agriculture at central level including the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and the Directorate of Extension (DoE), State Departments of Animal Husbandry as well as the State Agricultural/Veterinary Universities (SAUs), The Departments of Animal Husbandry (DAH) and Fisheries (DoF), Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs) and The Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) at the District level. Private Sector organizations include producers groups, including cooperatives and federations of milk and meat, processing companies, clinics, Individual consultants and consultancy firms while civil society organizations mostly include NGOs, Farmers organizations etc. Though number of organizations are providing livestock extension service delivery, there are large gaps between actual needs of the farmers and the extension services provided by these organizations. Hence, there is need to evaluate the performance and socio-economic impact of the extension delivery services provided by these organisations in order to identify best services and to understand their impact on small and marginal farmers. This paper tries to analyse the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats played by the public sector, private sector and civil society institutions of India in general, with reference to their operational role and how the partnership between these institutions and policy implications can be formulated for the benefit of the livestock farmers. Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats of Extension Services Provided by Public Sector Strengths o India has second largest extension system in terms of professional and technical staff. More than 90,000 technical personnel constitute its extension system. Hence, these large human resources need to be efficiently utilised for the effective transfer of technology process. o 40 million farm families are supported by the livestock extension services, financed by state governments so far. The public sector could work in remote areas, which cannot be serviced well by any other sectors in the country. o Livestock extension is under transition as governments and international agencies are advancing their structural, financial and managerial reforms to improve the pluralistic extension system. Decentralization, pluralism, participation of stakeholders, cost sharing and cost recovery are some of the elements in the current transition (Ahuja 2000). 243

255 Weakness o Mingling of government schemes and extension activities. o Lack of farmers involvement in program planning. o Supply rather than market-driven extension. o Lack of local capacity to validate and refine technologies. o Inadequate technical capacity and communication capacity o Weak research-extension linkage and weak linkages with private sector firms. o Little focus on empowering farmers. Opportunities o The most efficient way of organizing livestock service delivery is to see that all buyers and sellers take prices as given, i.e., no one has any market power and there are no transaction costs. o Extension can be changed from an agency of technology dissemination to emphasis on production, linking of farmers to markets and providing information services and to helping farmers to organize themselves. o Design and introduction of a multitude of integrated measures that on the demand side-enable service users to voice their needs and hold service providers accountable and on the supply side influence the capacity of service providers to respond to the needs of the extension service users. Threats o Information flow being supply-driven and not being need based or area specific is the major constraint and therefore the farmers view the quality of information provided by public extension as a major shortcoming (NSSO, 2005). o Lack of convergence in operationalization of extension reforms and lack of provision for dedicated manpower at various levels. o Inadequacy of funds, lack of infrastructural support below district level and inadequate support for promotion of farmers organizations and their federations. Private Sector Extension Service Delivery Strengths o Policy framework notes that Public extension by itself cannot meet specific needs of various regions and different classes of farmers (India, DAC, 2000). o In the pluralistic extension systems, private sector is providing services related to proprietary goods such as clinical diagnosis and treatment, production and distribution of vaccines and other veterinary supplies which do not involve any 244

256 externalities or moral hazard problems while the public sector can provide services such as veterinary surveillance, research and extension which tend not to be addressed by private-sector firms (Swanson, 2008). o Private-sector is successful in developing context-specific models and using ICT tools to diffuse agricultural information directly to farmers. Weakness o Private sector serves a corporate interest, works for the individual farmers and can only work well if farmers are willing and able to pay indirectly through the sale of inputs. o Could not serve the needs of marginal and small farmers, who are currently not serviced well. o May not be able to provide trainings that reflect up-to-date information. Opportunities o Lot of scope for Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) that are currently weak or almost does not exist. o It would mean changes in the way the public sector views and interacts with the private sector. Threats o Non reach to the small and marginal farmers. o Social capital is not built. Civil Society Extension Service Delivery Strengths o The Civil society extension systems can play an important role in articulating the need of men and women farmers to knowledge intermediaries through the Farmer Interest Groups (FIGs) and Self Help Groups (SHGs). o Both FIGs/SHGs are already emerging as an effective mechanism for both the transfer of technologies and the empowerment of the rural poor by fostering innovation in participatory ways. (Meena et al., 2008). o Adoption of this approach can reduce the extension cost and workload of extension functionaries. o ICTs could be useful tools to increase connectivity between the various FIGs/SHGs and different extension approaches. Weakness o Covering the whole country with huge diversity and complexities as well as mental makeup for converting into social capital especially of the landless laborers, smallholders, rural women etc., is a herculean task. 245

257 o For harnessing the ICTs, there are many challenges prevalent like insufficient infrastructure, sustainability aspect and capacity development which need to be addressed. Opportunities Threats o Development of leadership and management skills through capacity building of SHGs/FIGs. o Farmers need to be promoted in such a way that they can demand information needed. o Can be developed into an important component of agricultural extension approaches. o Serve as platforms for the effective dissemination of technology innovations. o NGOs, which are not numerous, rely on donor funds and would need public support to develop the technical skills to facilitate groups. Ascertaining the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of each sector and considering the opportunities in combination of the three, there is an enormous scope to boost rural income and accelerate the pace of poverty reduction. However, this requires a policy regime that facilitates growth in productivity at the farm level as well as in the processing sector. While the unfolding livestock revolution is likely to result in a rapid increase in the demand for quality livestock services, the policies and institutions are not geared up to meet that challenge. There are no mechanisms in place to identify the service needs of poor livestock keepers and the ways and means to deliver them at minimum cost. Therefore, good support services are critical for enhancing livestock productivity and for enabling the poor to gain access to expanding markets. In determining the appropriate channel for delivery of services, it is necessary to classify each service on the basis of its public and private good character, while taking into account any externalities, moral hazard problems, free rider problems that may accompany the production or consumption of the service. Based on these principles, the services can be classified under public and private sector for delivery of animal health and production services (FAO 1998). Public sector o Ensuring the health of the national herd including disease surveillance, compliance, monitoring, quarantine, quality control of remedies and vaccines, planning for emergencies and reporting to international bodies and neighbouring countries; oversight of food safety, import and export inspection and certification according to international standards; regulation, monitoring and support of other partners in the animal health care system; accreditation of personnel; creation of an enabling environment for the private sector and general formulation of livestock development policy. 246

258 o Private sector Clinical diagnosis and treatment, production and distribution of remedies and vaccines, artificial insemination, management of herd health and production programmes, marketing livestock and products. o Shared responsibility Disease diagnosis and reporting; compulsory testing; accreditation; control of externall and internal parasites; food hygiene and inspection; continuing education and training; diagnostic support; animal welfare; notifiable disease control; disease emergency response; zoonosis control; research; and advice and extension. Issues to be considered for efficient Delivery of the Livestock services o Demand-side reforms which include empowerment of rural population by means of decentralization, participatory planning and implementation through adoption of farmer field schools and farming system approach. Success of demand-side initiatives also depends on the capacity of farmers to identify and communicate technology problems and to implement their solutions. o There has been considerable growth in connectivity, content, and capacity of ICT sectors of India. (Pradhan and Liyanage, 2010). However, there are still lags behind developed countries in the ICT development Index published by International Telecommunication Union (ITU). o Marketing efficiency is a prerequisite for creation of more suitable and workable organisational arrangements, leading to a new shape of service delivery with respect to structure, form, quality and prices. These arrangements can be the producer and consumer organisation, veterinary associations, etc. This also points towards the need for an effective regulatory and legal framework, and an effective extension service that governments will need to provide for proper functioning of the market. This is one of the areas where future thinking in livestock service delivery will need to focus. o For the services which must remain the responsibility of governments, it has been suggested that the efficiency of these services can be significantly enhanced by subcontracting the service delivery to private agents. While sub-contracting does have the potential of yielding some cost savings by circumventing the rigidities and perverse incentives that often characterise the government delivery systems, there is also the need to ensure that contractual obligations will be met. o To promote service delivery adequate fund provision is made at State Agriculture Management and Extension Training Institutes (SAMETI) to train 40,000 master trainers. SAMETI s will make use of the expertise from SAUs, KVKs, NGOs and private sector to develop master trainers, who in turn promote FFSs. o In most of the states, though manpower is available, funds for grounding extension activities are inadequate. Trends in public funding (central and state governments) of agricultural research and extension, shows an increasing trend in the investment. o Various line departments at the state and district levels have been criticized for working in isolation, with weak linkages and rare partnerships. The research 247

259 extension link has been criticized for not absorbing or using feedback from farmers and extension staff. Extension personnel and farmers are passive actors, and scientists have limited exposure to field realities (Reddy et al., 2006). o Numerous components of public-sector extension system suffer from duplication of programs, without convergence. While ATMA is pushed as the platform through which the multiple agencies can converge, the implementation difficulties are proving great for effective integration, with shortages of both personnel and funds (Working Group on Agricultural Extension, 2007). Livestock Extension Service Delivery in Andhra Pradesh o Livestock extension service delivery in Andhra Pradesh is primarily taken up by the State Department of Animal Husbandry and State Veterinary University. o State Department of Animal Husbandry has strong well qualified and committed veterinarians with veterinary dispensaries, veterinary hospitals, polyclinics, rural livestock units, Artificial Insemination centres. o Main focus of the department is on health care, breeding, prophylaxis, fodder development activities etc. No special attention is being paid to the extension delivery services. o The State Animal Husbandry Department must encourage market orientation of livestock production which will automatically lead to increased demand for services and make the services demand driven as against the current supply led approach. Area specific approaches based on the local needs have to be framed. o The State Veterinary University undertakes extension activities in line with the State Department of Animal husbandry. o Livestock Extension Service Delivery is provided by the University through organization of workshops by coordinating officers of A.H Department, Research Scientists and Farmers on a common platform. o Undertakes capacity building programmes for farmers, para-vets and veterinarians through continued education programmes at constituent colleges of the university as well as through Centre for Continuing Veterinary education and communication located at Head quarters. o Model training courses of 8 days duration sponsored by the Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture and farmers welfare, Govt. of India and faculty upgradation programmes will be organized for the benefit of the faculty across the country. 248

260 o Toll Free phone number working through IVR solutions was inaugurated by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University for the benefit of the farming community. The University is provides online help to the farmers in six specific areas of Reproduction, Disease control, Production, Management, Fish farming and Milk and Meat products. o Introduced an innovative Programme entitled, Rythu Sikshana Patham-Pasu Vaidya Viswa Vidyalayam under the caption Meekosam-Mi Sevalo. The aim of the Programme is to reach the livestock farmers and field Veterinarians of the entire state, to ascertain their area specific problems pertaining to livestock and disseminate knowledge on latest livestock production technologies. Training sessions will be conducted for farmers on best feeding, breeding and management practices for sheep/cattle. Simultaneous sessions will be conducted for the field veterinarians and they were trained on differential diagnosis of important diseases, management and nutritional aspects, timely vaccination schedules to be followed, using mobile apps developed by the university on management, ration balancing programme etc. o Kisan and Matsys melas are organized every year to provide a common platform for the farmers, scientists and entrepreneurs. The farmers will be made aware of the best scientific technologies and interactions with the subject matter specialists thereafter. o A mobile extension vehicle in the name Pasu Vignana Prachara vahaini was introduced first of its kind to reach the farmers at their door step. The vehicle is fabricated with all the requirements for conducting meetings at village level i.e., audio and video equipment, Television, projector, stage, public address system, inverter and seating capacity. Provision for storing of samples, equipment for preliminary screening are also made available. o Information on scientific breeding, management, health care, production, project reports and layouts is made available through booklets, books and multimedia modules in vernacular language. o A book entitled Pasu vignana Panchangam, encompassing entire information on all livestock species was released for the first time in 2017, to act as a ready reckoner for the farmers. o With an aim to reduce the loss caused due to mastitis a novel project in the name Mastitis Control Programme was launched by the university with the objectives of creating awareness among dairy farmers about the economic impact of the disease, demonstrate/train the farmers on methods for detection of subclinical mastitis, imparting skills on methods like predip and post dip of teats and managemental practices for control of mastitis. 249

261 Policy issues o Public policy networks must be established in which governments, national and international organisations, civil society organisations and the private sector can collaborate on selective issues to achieve consensus, as an effective means to address this gap (FAO 1998). o These networks could serve as a forum for informing the national and international policies that determine poor-people s livestock related livelihoods. o Discussion and dialogue on policy issues in order to enhance the effectiveness of livestock services for the poor. o Reduce transactions costs for making the services more accessible and mitigate information asymmetry. o Creating a conducive environment for policy change involving credible local institutions. o Identifying the research gaps and sponsoring well focussed studies to examine them. o Creating local databases, information and knowledge banks. o The success of these networks will, however, depend on the mechanisms and processes that will be used in operationalizing their formation and functioning. o It is therefore important that functioning of these networks is carefully monitored and their impact on the ground rigorously evaluated. WAY FORWARD o India s pluralistic extension system must be capable to tackle the diverse emerging issues in agriculture. o This system should also support and deal with the pertinent areas beyond the production aspect, such as processing and value addition, market access, trade, agribusiness management, natural resource management, gender, climate change etc. o Within this paradigm of innovation systems, extension agencies can act as innovation intermediaries or innovation brokers, working with many partners to strengthen linkages and provide support for innovations including extension delivery. o Private sector initiatives, like e-choupal, and other small-scale models have explored possibilities to provide information on diverse areas from production to accessing markets. Multiple ICTs approaches are not properly documented hence the need to concentrate and work with small communities by modern ICTs. o Scaling up of FIGs/SHGs and Farmers Associations (FAs) could be an effective mechanism for empowerment and transfer of agricultural technologies. It will also reduce extension cost and the workload of extension functionaries. Hence, enriching the system with social capital is the need of hour. o A greater understanding of PPP is also required including mechanisms to help encourage partnerships. There is a need to identify and encourage best practices and, thereby, understand their impact on farming communities predominantly in reaching smallholder and marginal farmers. 250

262 o The absence or weak Research Extension Farmer can be best served through efficient linkages among technology generation, dissemination and adoption. o Adequate fund allocation to reach large numbers of small and marginal farmers by ATMA is essential. Infrastructure below district level is needed to support the capacity building of farmers. References Ahuja, Vinod et al., Agricultural Services and the Poor: Case of Livestock Health and Breeding Services in India, IIM, Ahmedabad, The World Bank, Washington DC and SDC, Bern. Food and Agricultural Organisation Principles for Rational Delivery Public and Private Veterinary Services with reference to Africa. Government of India National accounts statistics, CSO, Department of statistics, Ministry of planning, GOI, New Delhi. India, Ministry of Agriculture 2000 Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Extension Division; Policy Framework for Agricultural Extension India. National Sample Survey Organization Situation assessment survey of farmers: Access to modern technology for farming, 59th round Report No. 499(59/33/2). New Delhi: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Ravikumar RK Livestock extension activities under the State Departments of Animal Husbandry in India: An institutional analysis. Ph.D. thesis. Swanson, B.E. (2008). Global review of good agricultural extension and advisory service practices. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Working Group on Agricultural Extension (2007). Recommendations of working group on agricultural extension for formulation of eleventh five-year plan ( ). New Delhi: Planning Commission. 251

263 Re-vamping Extension for Quality Education and Learning of Farmers Dr D. Thammi Raju Principal Scientist ICAR National Academy of Agricultural Research Management Rajendranagar: Hyderabad Agricultural Extension Systems in India is undergoing structural transformation; requires accelerated and inclusive productivity growth and income convergence. The basic objective of extension is to disseminate information and knowledge to the farming community. Dissemination of information is highly skewed owing to lack of resources, access to services, spatial and temporal inconsistencies. The extension system is highly diversified in terms of organizations, stakeholders, farming system, class of information/ knowledge. The linkages between research extension farmer are absent / weak in many instances. Research in the 1980s established the relationship between primary education and annual farm output. Basic education is a critical element for communication, understanding, and assessing innovations in the interactive process that prevails in the AIS. Agricultural Innovation Systems primarily entails communication of many kinds at different levels. New knowledge, skills, expertise needed for Extension Advisory Service providers to handle different emerging complex challenges to achieve SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals). The Agricultural Extension Systems needs to be aware of developments in technology, communication, markets and the issues and challenges of the current system and should be agile, flexible and in concurrence to the needs of the stakeholders. Extension Models in India Agricultural Extension models evolved over a period time, following global trends and patterns. The Training and Visit System was the earliest model funded by World Bank during early 1970 s. A unified, top down approach by integrating all existing efforts, became a single national extension system.the supply driven system promoted messages of scientists with little input from farmers, focusing mainly on food production(ferroni and Zhou, 2013). Later Agricultural Extension (during 1990 s) progressed towards pluralistic models and modes. New concepts viz. delivery of extension service in the wake of decentralization, cost recovery, privatization of extension, involvement of private sectors and NGOs. The challenge in the case of pluralistic approaches is to identify the mix of possibilities and business models taking into consideration of local conditions, role of farmers in innovation, cost-effectiveness. Thus participation of farmers in the development and dissemination of technology assumed significance thus Farmer Field Schools (FFS)approach became prominent means in extension in Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). Subsequently, more stress was laid on innovation systems, 252

264 market led extension, demand driven extension; which complements FFS and AKIS. Different Extension models and approaches exist around the world. Birner et al (2006) argue that there is no single best method for providing need specific, purpose centric and target specific extension advice. In India, delivering of meaning information in right form, right method and at right time is not an easy task owing to great diversity in terms of agro-climatic zones, diversified culture, access to knowledge and information, socio economic status, geographical distribution etc. The sources of information and extension advice accessed by farmers varied widely - about 40% of agricultural farmers accessed information on all modern agricultural technologies from one source to another and in case of livestock farmers it was only 5.1%, according to NSSO.A recent NSSO survey indicates that, for the country as a whole, 13 per cent of farmers received technology-related information from input dealers third important source of information after mass media (29 percent) and progressive farmers (17 percent). The agricultural extension system is undergoing drastic changes due to the influence of various complexities, which is beyond the capabilities of traditional extension system and the Sustainable Developmental Goals became the primary focus for revamping extension system for education and learning of farmers. Transformation of Extension System towards Education and Learning Emerging challenges and changing perspectives of agriculture viz. sustainability (water, soil), climate change, market access and prices; increasing corporate control on inputs and retailing food, new standards and regulations, increasing women participation in agriculture, attracting youth and small farms and poverty and nutrition etc. demands new extension approaches and methods. The tasks of new extension system are also beyond transfer of technology toa) organizing producers and assist them in accessing different service, b) facilitate access to credit, inputs and output services, c) mediating conflicts, 4) advocacy for policy changes, 5) networking and partnership building(sulaiman and Mittal (2016)). Strategies for revamping for quality education and learning of farmers Quality education is one of the Sustainable Development Goal and integral to agricultural extension and education. Considering emerging challenges, expectations and goals and aims, the approaches to revamp the agricultural extension for education and learning of farmers should stem from the quality of agricultural education. I. Competency enhancement in Agricultural Education System Agricultural Education covers a range of programmes at different levels. At territorial level, the agricultural institutions viz. universities and faculties imparts agricultural education. Polytechnics, institutes, colleges prepare technical personnel through diplomas, popularly known as vocational education. Agricultural training is delivered in training institutes or centers for public servants / employees and in-al Learning/Hands on service training and to farmers at farmer training centers. Pubic extension services offer the training to farmers on varied subjects using different training 253

265 methods (lectures, demonstrations, field days, trails etc.). Public Research Systems also provide educational opportunities to farmers or extension personnel. Alongside the formal agricultural education system, informal education system significantly influencing the education and learning of the farmers, farm families. Informal education of farmers stems from awareness programmes by extension agencies, traders, media, input suppliers, financial instructions etc. in a variety of ways. Farmer to farmer communication a most vibrant and significant means through which education and learning takes place. Agricultural Education largely focused on technical knowledge as being the traditional focus, but agricultural graduates require knowledge and tools to identify innovative ideas/ bright spots and technology, catalyze communication between different actors of Agricultural Extension System and provide feedback to research system. Employers are demanding soft skills such as leadership, communication, negotiation and organizational capabilities from agri. graduate which are not integrated into the system (Maguire, 2012). The quality in education and learning has to be targeted at three levels: 1. Faculty the knowledge providers 2. Students the knowledge disseminators 3. Farmers - the knowledge consumers Quality assurance in higher agricultural education in the country has been pursued through policy support, accreditation, framing of minimum standards for higher agricultural education, academic regulation, personnel policies, review of course curricula and delivery systems, development support for creating / strengthening infrastructure and facilities, improvement of faculty competence and admission of students through All India Competitions. However, the agricultural education suffers from challenges viz. low priority to agricultural education as a career option, declining quality of students, poor quality of education due to obsolete and inadequate equipment, laboratory, farm and library facilities; depleting number and quality of faculty members, lack of faculty competence in frontier and emerging areas, limited emphasis on refresher training, faculty improvement and incentives; dwindling faculty in SAUs with majority chunk of the posts remaining vacant; disconnect among agricultural education, employment, and industries requirements; lack of adequate skill, entrepreneurship and experiential learning and inadequate, poor governance and declining investment and financial resources in agricultural universities/ colleges. The NAARM and IAMR study indicated that there is a strong demand from all the stakeholders for skill-specific education with clarity of basics as well as hands-on technical expertise. In other words, there is a need to develop functional skills among the students in educational institutions almost in all the sectors of agriculture. This study points the need for the development of quality manpower with multiple skills, especially in higher agricultural education (Rao, 2011). 254

266 A. Faculty Competency Programmes: The faculty of professional education lacks exposure to pedagogical skills, teaching management including knowledge of teaching and learning, educational technology, students behaviors, mentoring skills etc. as they are not formally exposed in the curriculum. This impacts the quality of education of graduate students mainly functional skills. Continuing Education of Faulty through foundation and refresher courses on teaching management is the need of the hour. Entry level foundation courses should be made mandatory for all faculty, in which NAARM can play a significant role. B. Functional Skills of Agricultural Students: Preparation of agricultural students with emerging challengesfortaking up extension activities is an important issue.functional skills needed for enhancing the effective education and learning of farmers as they being the representatives of first line extension system. The ICAR aims to bring the improvement through a programme called Student READY (Rural and Entrepreneurship Awareness Development Yojana) which includesexperiential Learning/Hands on Training, Skill Development Training, Rural Agriculture Work Experience, In Plant Training/ Industrial attachment, Students Projects. The results are awaited. The National Agricultural Higher Education Project (NAHEP)is in operation for enhancement of quality of Agricultural Educationwhichaims at improving working mechanism of the Agricultural Universities and raising the standard of campus teaching and learning in more non-conventional ways. C. Online Education / Digital Education: Digital learning in agricultural education is more demanding because of its versatility in Indian context. Because of rural and multi-lingual background of students, remote locations and larger number of courses, digital learning implementation needs to meet more challenges. The challenges viz. key competencies, adequate infrastructure, digital skills, selfmotivation, self-driven capacity, good communication skills are the major factors facilitating online learning processes. Agricultural Universities are key players in bridging the digital divide and in developing necessary skills for the successful participation in online educational processes. There is a need to develop suitable strategies for laying pathways for digital learning in agricultural education. The Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) is one of such innovations currently spearheading the digital education initiative. 2. Competency enhancement in Agricultural Extension System vis a vis Farmers The Agricultural Extension Advisory Services needs new capacities to face emerging challenges. The methods to strengthen capacities of Extension and Advisory Services beyond training individuals at different levels which has hitherto been the most frequently used method for capacity development. They are 1. Strengthening education and training curricula at regular intervals, 2) Organise regular continuous professional development programmes, 3) Organise mentoring programme, 4) Develop a directory of EAS providers, 5) Create platforms for regular consultations, 6) Strengthen Knowledge management, 8) Visioning and goal setting for the organization, 9) Encourage reflection, learning and feedback, 10) Promote cross learning within the EAS ecosystem, 11) 255

267 Strengthen strategic management, 12) Human Resource Development 13) Fund raising, 14) Gathering evidence and 15) Policy engagement/influencing policy (Sulaiman and Mittal (2016). Multipronged approach is required for enhancing the quality of education and learning of farmers. Few important strategies are highlighted in the next section. 1. Farmer Field Schools (FFS): The Farmer Field School approach was developed by Food and Agricultural Organization as a way to investigate and learn for themselves the skills required for and the benefits to be obtained from, adopting on practices in their fields. This approach has been widely used across different geographical locations on different aspects of agriculture and allied sciences. The FFS is an innovative participatory and interactive learning approach that emphasizes problem solving and discovery based learning. Otherwise known as School without Walls. It is a bottom up approach unlike T& V System which is top-down approach. Larsen and Lilleør (2014) reported a strong and sustained positive effects on food security among the participating households more than one year after end of project, in terms of access to food, food consumption, and quality of diet. Manoj, 2013, revealed that knowledge and adoption levels of farmers of FFS were higher than the knowledge and adoption of non-ffs farmers with regard to all ICM practices such as Integrated Nutrient Management, seed management, water management and Integrated Pest Management. FFS methodology was found to be an effective extension tool to enhance farmers knowledge and adoption related to complex crop management practices in paddy. 2. Farmer Life Schools: Farmer Life School is aimed at building on the risk assessment knowledge that farmers already have through holistic approaches combined with long-term outlook. Farmer Life Schools are based on the learning approaches in the IPM farmer field School. This idea originated from South East Asian HIV Programes of UNDP. The Farmer Life School is an extension of FFS thinking has emerged after studying the power of FFS in empowering farmers on skills and confident to achieve higher productivity through quality education (Surya Mani and Reddy, 2016).They are based on a non-formal, experiential learning process, similar to FFS. It is a process of empowerment. The distress of farmer s unemployed youth, socially vulnerable groups can be mitigated through empowerment and confidence building process that can stimulate development in turn improve their lives and livelihoods. 3. Information and Communication Technologies and Farmers Education: Phenomenal growth in Information and Communication Technologies lead to the improved equity and accessof education and learning, thus leading to right decisions at right time.various ICT applications viz. Computing devices, digital imaging, the Internet and Wide Area Network, Telephones (Fixed and Mobile telephones), Radio including Community Radio, Television, Social media etc. were used by public and private extension systems in the country with varied 256

268 objectives, purpose, stakeholders etc. However, the success of ICT enabled interventions depends on following factors (Raju 2016): a) Individual: The individual s access to latest information through IT enabled systems is the need of the hour. The end user requires capacity building for effective utilization of such technologies. b) Institutional: The time element, relevancy of the content and evaluation of the same before its wider application are the critical issues to be considered by the institutions using ICT for empowerment of farmers c) Situational: The ICT enabled services should be built around perceived needs of rural farmers who have diversified culture and languages. Further, it was always desirable to develop IT technologies in a user-friendly manner and in local languages with audio, video, graphic formats for better understanding by end users. d) Infrastructure: Improvement of communication facilities is an important issue to be addressed. e) Human Resource Development: Hands on training on computer to the end users be provided. f) Extension system: Several studies emphasized redefining and restructuring the extension system in tune with the current trends by locating the new ICT devices at strategic points with credible and comprehensive databases with regular updates to enable the farming community to utilize available resources more efficiently. 4. Mobile Applications: Mobile Applications are bright spots for Indian Agriculture.mExtension is the potential mode of knowledge dissemination used widely for education of farmers as well as extension workers. Mittal et al (2010) drawn important conclusions from a study on the impact of mobile phones in Agriculture that full potential of mobile phones will only be realized with the improvement in content, supporting infrastructure, access to financial services and markets and farmer education. However, mobile devices were viewed by farmers as instruments of choice to gain access to agriculture related information viz. seed, mandi prices, fertilizer applications, crop protection, harvesting and marketing, implements and tools. Market information accession through mobile phones improved decision making ability of farmers. Development of mobile applications (apps) is on the surge and many organizations / agencies of public and private extension system are developing mobile apps cutting across different disciplines - crops / animal husbandry. Ownership and business model (Govt / private / individual), flow of information (unidirectional / bidirectional), technical complexity, relevancy, language, medium (voice/ text/ pictorial/ video) and type of information (customized vs generic) etc. are the key attributes for mobile applications. 257

269 5. Digital Agriculture:The technologies of artificial intelligence viz. computer vision, robotics and control systems, expert systems, decision support systems, natural language processing, etc. are potential means for finding solutions of problems of farming. Artificial Intelligence and machine learning are going to rock the field of agriculture and allied sciences in providing agricultural advisories based on real time data, modeling etc. 6. Social Media: Social media (SM) became an increasingly used method of communication, networking and information sharing and gathering, leading to development of relationships, connectivity, social capital, capacity building, etc. The potential use of SM in education, research and extension spheres is immense. The networking of different actors of agricultural development in the country needs to be understood, analyzed, and harnessed to strengthen the National Agricultural Research, Education and Extension System (NAREES). Social media can strategically be leveraged to enable professional networking, knowledge and experience sharing. The study conducted by Raju et al, 2017 demonstrated the use of Social Media across three components of NAREES teaching, research and extension for various purposes. Popular SM tools in terms of time spent were WhatsApp, Google, Youtube, Facebook and Wikis in that order and so these tools to be considered in future SM initiatives. Varying pattern in use of social media tools- laptops and smart phones widely used by students and extension personnel, desktops used mostly by Research and all tools by teaching fraternity. However, harnessing of social media by NAREES depends on the policy enabling. They are 1) Enabling environment: Creating awareness on the ethical use of SM by users is the need of hour, 2) Proactive role: All NARES organizations should actively participate on SM, 3) Social Media literacy and Capacity building: Creating awareness on SM policy and guidelines among the employees is to be given top priority, 4) Establishment of a separate cell with defined activities and officer with clear-cut authority and responsibility, 5) Institutionalization of Social Media 6) Incentivizing social media activities of organizations / individuals for productive academic uses. 7. Investment in Agricultural Extension: The rate of return (median) to extension investments was 56 percent. Recent reforms of the public extension system and private sector developments have, no doubt, increased extension intensity and delivery of information to farmers, which in turn has contributed to higher productivity and income levels. The major challenge which require policy and institutional interventions is the level and sustainability of funding for extension. Extension intensity should at least be doubled through higher allocation of public funds (Sureshpal (2017). Conclusion: Revamping of extension for quality education largely depends on understanding the transformation of agricultural extension and education system and experiences gained 258

270 over these decades. Adoption of suitable approaches and methods congruenceto the needs and aspiration of farmers is the key for success. However, a proper synergy between agricultural education and extension will result in comprehensive quality change. Significant investment in agricultural extension education also needed for improving the quality of education and learning of farmers. References: 1) Briner R., Davis K., Pender, J., Nkonya, E., Anandayajayasekeram, P., Mbabbu, A., Spielman, D., Horna, D., and Benic (2006) From the best practice to best fit: A framework for analyzing agricultural advisory services worldwide. Development Strategy and Governance Division, Discussion Paper No 39, Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). 2) Ferroni M and Zhou Y (2013) Review of Agricultural Extension in India. InTransforming Indian Agriculture India 2040: Productivity, Markets, and Institutions, Edited by Marco Ferroni, Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi pp ) Larsen, A F and Lilleør, H B (2014) Beyond the Field: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Food Security and Poverty Alleviation, World Development Vol. 64, pp , ) Maguire (2012) Module 2: Agricultural Education and Training to Support Agricultural Innovation Systems. Overview. Agricultural Innovation Systems: An Investment Sourcebook. The World Bank. (Available at: Resources/ / pdf). 5) Manoj, 2013 Impact of Farmers Field Schools on farmer s knowledge, productivity and environment, Unpublished Ph D thesis, IARI, New Delhi. 6) Raju, D T (2016) ICTs in Livestock Sector: Research Evidences; In International Livestock Conference and Expo and 23 rd Annual Convention of ISAPM, 2016, INDIGENOUS held during 28-31, January,2016 at Hyderabad, Excel India Publishers, New Delhi, pp ) Raju, D T, Murthy GRK and Sontakki B S (2017) Social Media as a strategic tool in Agricultural Research, Education and Outreach Organizations: Opportunities and Challenges. Book Chapter in E-Souvenir: Fostering Faster Reach of Innovations from Aquaculture Research though Media; A Science Communication Perspective. Pp 70-74; Edited by Ananth, P. N., De, H.K and J.K. Sundaray ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar, Odisha India 8) Rao D R, Agrawal R, Nanda SK, Awasthi IC, Joshi GP, Bhattacharya,S., Indra Kumar D. (2011). Assessment of Future Human Capital Requirements in Agriculture and Allied Sectors. NAIP Project Report, National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad, India. pp ) Sulaiman V R and Mittal N (2016) Capacity Needs of Extension and Advisory Services (EAS) in South Asia, Policy Brief, AESA. 10) Sureshpal (2017) Agricultural R&D Policy in India: The Funding, Institutions and Impact (2017),ICAR National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi. 11) Surya Mani M and Reddy S V (2016)Farmer Life School In Advances in Agricultural Extension- Towards Changing the lives and livelihoods ( 2016) Eds: S Venkureddy and M Surya Mani, B S Publications, Hyderabad 259

271 Interactive Information Dissemination System (Iids) - An Innovative Ict Model for Agro Advisory Services to the Indian Farmers Introduction Dr. B. Savitha 1 &Dr. D. Raji Reddy 2 & Others 1. Assistant Director of Extension& Director of Extension, PJTSAU, Hyderabad, , PJTSAU, Hyderabad, Abstract Interactive Information Dissemination System (IIDS) is an innovative ICT model to address the information needs of the Indian farmers. This ICT tool was designed and developed under a project awarded by Indian Council of Agricultural Research under National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP).The IIDS is now being up scaled in three states. It is a multi platform and multi mode application. The unique feature of this model is, it enable the scientists to provide personalized advisories based on the farm and farmer profile in the areas of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and fisheries. Farmer can record their queries 24x7 through Toll Free Number. Farmers are provided with Text & Voice messages in local language (Telugu) and provides platform for direct interaction with Scientists. This model also facilitated the Scientists of the University to provide alert & emergency messages on their mobile. The impact of IIDS envisaged shift in the Source of Information from friends & neighbors and Input dealers to Scientists. The IIDS has got vast scope for up scaling in all State Agricultural Universities in India to enhance outreach. This IIDS is an integrated model based on the study and analysis of 26 major ICT Initiatives in agriculture in India. This model is largely integration of Toll free IVRS, Smart Phone Application and Web based agricultural advisory system. The major limitation in current information dissemination system i.e call center, IVRS system and mobile services are lack of database of farmers, such as location of the farmer, type of field, crops grown, status of the farmer, need of the farmer and other demographic and agriculture profile. Thus, in the proposed system each farmer have to register himself by providing certain details which would be stored in the database and a profile and requirement (need) of each farmer would be recorded. The agricultural expert would provide the personalized solution based on the inputs provided by the farmers and his available profile. Also this system would allow farmers to send text, voice, images and video of the field along with their queries by using a smart phone. This system would be helpful in addressing farmers information need on important aspects including agriculture technology, crops / plant protection, weather information, market prices, government schemes etc in location specific manner. 260

272 USP of IIDS Model Personalized Agro Advisory Based on Farm and Farmer Profile. Live Interaction with Scientists over toll free number Facility to Refer Critical Problems to relevant Crop Specialist available virtually Round the Clock Query Registration Facility through IVRS & Smart Phones Anywhere Anytime Access on Past Advisories Facility to Push Emergency Message to Farmers based on Location and Crops Network Independent Accessible from All Networks Fig 1: IIDS Framework IIDS Applications & its features It is an integrated system with a combination of Web, IVRS and Mobile Application Technologies for dissemination of farm and farmer specific advises/information at user desired mode and time. The major applications are - IVRS based application, Mobile based application and Web based application. The major features are as follows: (i) IVRS based application (Toll free number: ) Live interaction with Scientists Call recording facility in case if the experts are not available. Intelligent enough to route the call to the relevant experts. Listen back previous advisory Recording and listening the farmers best practices/experiences Facilitate the farmers for getting Market, Weather and Govt. Schemes related information Call back facility for Expert to get the feedback from the farmer 24x7 query registration facility for farmers (ii) (iii) Mobile application for smart phones (UMANG-AKPS) Facility to call directly to toll free number Multimedia query (text, voice, image and video) Refer questions & answers View of text and voice messages Manage services Refer best practices from the concerned district Un registered farmer can able to register his details AKPS App available under UMANG (Unified Mobile Application for New age Governance) App Web based application ( Colour coded iconic based logins for various type of users 261

273 Expert support system linked with authentic content / information service providers. Information dissemination and aggregation system (multimodal) Centralized common database for web, mobile & IVRS applications Facility to know the farmer feedback about expert advisory Facility provided to activate the inactive/passive farmers Reports and analytics Services offered to the farmers through IIDS The IIDS model is useful in enhancing the extension outreach through KVKs and DAATTCs. The implementation of IIDS has elevated the image of the Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU) extension in terms of increased direct interaction of farmers with scientists over toll free number, dissemination of farm information through mobiles (text and voice messages in telugu) and Annapurna information corners, functional linkages among the Department of Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) institutes. Farmers are being provided personalized advice on Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries from their Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK)/ District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centre (DAATTC) on Toll Free number ( ). Farmer can record their queries 24x7 through Toll Free Number. Farmers are provided with Text & Voice messages in local language (Telugu). Farmers are provided emergency messages and alerts on their mobile from Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK)/District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centre (DAATTC). As a joint initiative of PJTSAU and Digital India Corporation (Formerly Media Lab Asia), the IIDS is being up scaled in all the districts of Telanagana through KVKs/DAATTCs. Benefits to Farmers Farmers are able to talk to the Scientists directly over a mobile phone with Toll free number. Farmers are receiving text as well as voice messages on their mobiles in local language Farmers are using the text messages as Reference and showing to the input dealers to get the right pesticide from the shop. Timely information helped in reducing no. of sprays/application of excessive use of fertilizers etc. Illiterate farmers are also comfortable in receiving messages, since information is given through voice messages. 262

274 Messages related to production, protection, post harvest and weather are sent to the mobiles of farmers. The weather forecasts helped the farmers, to avoid the unnecessary irrigations before rains, postponing of crop harvests etc. Short films are loaded in the mobiles of project farmers thereby farmers are accessible to the information with multimedia experience. Reduced production cost Increased awareness about use of ICTs in agriculture. At present, the IIDS is being up scaled in all the districts of Telanagana through KVKs/DAATTCs. 15,712 registered farmers are being served, 518 mandals, 2191 villages covered, 1721 text messages and 579 voice messages sent through IIDS. Text and voice messages are sent particularly on pest & disease management, fertilizer management, seeds & sowing, seed availability, weather alerts and weather based agro-advisories, crop contingency measures, market information and government schemes etc pertaining to Agriculture and Horticulture; vaccination, breeding, health management, deworming, artificial insemination fodder production, etc pertaining to Animal Husbandry and selection of suitable species, water management in ponds/tanks, feed management, disease management, dissolved oxygen management, supplementary feeds, post harvest handling etc pertaining to Fisheries. In view of the vast scope of IIDS services, it is recommended to be replicated in other states of India especially by the State Agricultural Universities and departments of agriculture. Perception of farmers about the services rendered through IIDS While interviewing the respondents regarding the perception of IIDS, 98.0 per cent of the respondents agreed that IIDS service is giving clear information on the subjects they required 91.7 per cent of the respondents agreed that IIDS service is providing the farmers with timely information and 98.3 per cent of the respondents agreed that information provided by IIDS service is easily understandable. Scientist-Farmer interaction programme was appreciated by 66.2 per cent of the respondents. Only 46.4 per cent respondents agreed Field diagnostic visit is useful. Since they didn t get much exposure on the same. The interaction between the innovative farmers and other farmers has been accepted as a useful system by 69.3 per cent of the respondents. Majority of the respondents informed that usage of chemical fertilizer (88.8 per cent respondent) and pesticides (91 per cent respondent) has been reduced due to the fertilizer and pesticide management information provided by the IIDS model. The shift in the Source of Information is found among the IIDS farmers and it was noted that 92 per cent farmers who were earlier dependent for agricultural information on their friends & neighbor is reduced to 56 per cent and 68.7 per cent farmers who were dependent on Input dealers is reduced to 35 per cent due to the 263

275 provision given to the farmers to direct interact with the KVK/DAATTC Scientists on Toll Free number. Fig 1: Perception about the IIDS Model Fig 2: Progress in Agriculture due to the IIDS service Fig 3: Source of Farm Information before & after the initiation of the IIDS service Success stories 1. Kurlepu Prabhu, Rampur village, Kotagiri Mandal, Nizamabad District ID: , Mobile number: , no. of calls made: 30 He has registered in IIDS through Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Rudrur, Nizamabad district. He has utilized services very effectively by calling Scientists regarding various crop production and protection activities and timely measures to be followed especially in Paddy. His queries included fertilizer management, control of stem borer, brown plant hopper and blast in paddy where timely advisories received from the Scientists and effective implementation helped him reap benefits with cost reduction towards the plant protection measures and fertilizers consumption. He also sought the 264

276 information regarding availability of quality seed of crops like, Paddy, Sesame, Green Gram and Bengalgram. The information received on importance of alleyways in paddy, soil test based fertilizer management and its importance in soil health management, judicious application of pesticides enabled him attain 1.5 to 2.5 quintal of higher yields than earlier with cost savings upto Rs.2,500/- per acre. 2. Vikas Babu, Lokavaram village, Kallur Mandal, Khammam District ID: , Mobile number: , no. of calls made: 41 He has registered in IIDS through Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Wyra, Khammam district. Before the IIDS, he was mostly dependant on input dealers and neighbor farmers for information. Now, with the help of IIDS toll free number getting the agro advisories and suggestions from KVK experts. His queries included the advisories on blast, BPH management, fertilizer management, correction of micro nutrient deficiencies, nursery management, drum seeder technology, suitable high varieties for kharif and rabi seasons in Rice crop and sucking pest management in Cotton etc. He expressed that, alert messages (text and voice) related to local specific crop problems and weather information provided to his mobile, are very useful in taking up timely control measures and reduced unnecessary investment on pest management. 3.V. Husya Naik, Turuputhanda Village, Damarcherla Mandal, Nalgonda District ID: , Mobile number: , No. of calls made: 46 He has registered in IIDS through Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Kampasagar, Nalgonda district. His queries included pest & disease management, fertilizer management, seed treatment chemicals, weather information etc. He has used the text messages as reference to buy the pesticide from dealers shop. The information received on pest & disease management in rice cultivation enabled him attain 6 bags higher yield than earlier with cost savings upto Rs. 3,500/- per acre with net benefit of Rs.8,000/- per acre. 4. P. Kashanna, Kummera Village, Thadur Mandal, Mahabubnagar District ID: , Mobile number: , no. of calls made: 23 He has registered in IIDS through Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Palem, Mahabubnagar district. His queries included pest & disease management, fertilizer management, varieties etc. He has used the text messages as reference to buy the pesticide from dealers shop. Voice and text messages are helped him in taking up timely & needy measures in rice crop. This enabled him to reduce pesticide sprayings (from 6 to 3) with cost savings upto Rs. 6,000/- and yield advantage of 5 quintals per acre. 265

277 Conclusions and Recommendations Extension remains a valued service throughout the world. Agricultural extension has been defined as a series of embedded communicative interventions which help resolution of problematic situations face by the farmers. Extension is increasingly being asked to do more with less and most of the organizations are responding to this challenge by extending the reach of information through ICT. The concept of IIDS is very relevant to the agricultural extension functionaries. The information dissemination through Multimedia (Text, Voice, Image and Video) is very appreciable. IIDS is can be a better alternative ICT model to the farmers because; from field itself farmer can interact directly with the scientists. The personalized advisories to the farmers are more appreciable in this model as the scientist can refer the farm profile and history before providing the solution. It will be a good monitoring tool to the scientists of KVKs/DAATTCs to monitor the farmer s field and it will be a good knowledge management system for knowledge providers and policy makers. References Gidda Reddy,., Punna Rao, P. Mallika, M. and Aruna Sri, I. 2011, Farmer s perception on usefulness of ICT initiatives in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Extension Management. Vol.XII, No.1, January-June, page No Gidda Reddy P, Punna Rao P, Mallika M and Aruna Sri I 2011, Information needs of farmers. Indian Journal of Agricultural Library and Information Services, Vol. 27(2), Page No Gidda Reddy P, Punna Rao P, Aruna Sri I and Mallika M 2011, Effectiveness of ICT initiatives in Agriculture. Indian Journal of Agricultural Library and Information Services, Vol. 27(1), Page No Anurag TS, Punna Rao P, Madhavarao, and Arbind Simha 2014, Final IIDS Project report submitted to the NAIP, ICAR, New Delhi. Punna Rao P, Raja Reddy K, Anurag TS, Mahadevaiah M and Sailu P (2017). Interactive information dissemination system (IIDS) An Alternative I.C.T model to meet the information needs of Indian farmer, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Special Issue, Page No

278 Dynamics of Information Sharing Behavior of the Innovative farmers of Telangana State Dr.M.Jagan Mohan Reddy 1 B.Rajasekhar 2 1Programme Coordinator & Subject Matter Specilist,, KVK Palem ABSTRACT The present paper focuses on understanding the dynamics involved in information acquisition and dissemination behavior among the farmers of Innovative Farmers Network as well as Telangana Yuva Rytu Sagubadi programmes organized at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Palem, PJTSAU, Nagarkurnool dist of Telangana state. A group of 120 farmers were selected for the study. Most of the respondents used prime sources of consulting scientists, progressive farmers and viewing farm telecasts to acquire valid and reliable information on agriculture. Whereas most of them resorting to adopt group discussions, conversations with progressive farmers and also social media like whatsapp platforms to disseminate latest knowledge on agriculture and allied aspects to fellow farmers in the villages. All through these many decades since independence the domain of transfer of technology has witnessed many models to reach the scientific technologies to the unreached farming community. Much of the scientific technical knowhow in agriculture and allied aspects has been restricted to the pedestals of research stations. As per the ICAR documents and reports it is noted that a few percentage of the farmers were only bestowed with latest and modern agriculture technology. The scientific technology we lose its sheen and sanctity unless it reaches to the end users. Research has to create the knowledge, teaching is meant to inculcate professionalism among the members to equip the knowledge whereas extension was devoted towards developing techniques, models and methodologies in process of transferring knowledge from creation to the application. Enough models were tried like T&V, CIG, community development approach, NES, Intensive area approach, integrated rural development approach, target group approach, High yielding varieties approach, command area approach, watershed approach, drought area focused approach etc. to impress up on the farmers to address specific requirements. All these approaches, particularly addressed the specific issues of the farmers but couldn t generate substantial results on a sustainable mode. The recent evolution of digital era has given birth to application of many ICT mechanisms in agriculture. These were narrow focused not having broad canvas of addressing the plethora of farmers recurring endemic issues in agriculture. The shortfalls in applications of these ICT mechanisms has gradually created the gulf and widened the distance between ICT mechanisms and its users. Indian agriculture still constituted with majority of small and marginal farmers who are innocent and ignorant having poor knowledge on modern technology, low risk 267

279 taking ability and are highly susceptible to the external and internal dynamics in agriculture. It is a big challenge to take the results of modern agriculture research to this kind of farmers folk. But still the farmers believe fellow farmers in accepting, validating and application of alien technologies in his field. Hence the farmer to farmer extension towards acquiring, sharing and dissemination of modern agriculture and allied technologies has more relevancy especially in the Indian subcontinent. KVK, Palem, Nagarkurnool dist has organized Telangana Yuva Rytu Sagubadi (TYRSB) a capacity building programme in the aspects of agriculture and allied aspects for group of thirty farmers for a period of three months during the months of March to May, In order to encourage the farmer to farmer extension / dissemination of the agricultural information from farmer to farmer, the KVK, Palem has initiated a novel programme called Innovative Farmers Net work A group of twenty five farmers were selected under the programme of Innovative Farmers Network (IFN) based on parameters like cosmopolite, information sharing behavior, social mobility, empathy, innovativeness and opinion leadership. The programme has been initiated in the year Since then these farmers were trained on modern crop production technologies before commence of both Kharif and Rabi of every year. The trained farmers used to disseminate the learned knowledge at KVK to their fellow farmers. The proramme has been implemented at KVK, Palem, Nagarkurnool dist since Each farmer has been developed a sub network with their fellow farmers in their village. They used to disseminate the technology though Social media like Whats app, Group meetings, Group discussions, Small scale exhibitions, Press and electronic media. The main technologies disseminated are controlling pink boll worm in cotton, popularization of shredder for shredding the stubbles of cotton, maize, redgram etc., control of spodoptera in Groundnut, popularization of new crop varieties RNR-15048, Bathukamma and KNM-118 in Paddy, WGG-42 in Greengram, Pu-31 in Blackgram, PRG-176 in Redgram etc. The selected and trained farmers of IFN and TYRSB programmes were acting as brand ambassadors of KVK, Palem.The present paper focuses on understanding the dynamics involved in information acquisition and sharing behavior among the farmers of Innovative Farmers Network as well as Telangana Yuva Rytu Sagubadi programme. Methodology: Research design: The Ex-post facto research design was followed to conduct the study since the variables chosen for the study had already occurred. Sampling procedure: Selection of the state: The state of Telangana was selected purposefully Selection of the zone: The state of Telangana comprises of three Agro climatic Zones namely Southern Telangana Zone, Central Telangana Zone and Northern Telangana Zone. Out of these three zones of the state, Southern Telangana Zone was selected purposefully 268

280 Selection of the district: Out of erstwhile three districts of the Southern Telangana Zone, Mahabubnagar district was selected purposefully Selection of organization: The krishi Vigyan Kendra, Palem, Nagarkurnool dist of Telangana state working under the control of PJTSAU was selected purposefully as both the programmes of IFN and TYRSB were organized by PJTSAU at KVK, Palem a part from other centres of the university. Selection of the mandals: Mahabubnagar district has fifty two (52) mandals, out of which four (11) mandals were selected following the simple random sampling. Selection of the villages: Twenty five villages were selected by following the simple random sampling. Selection of the respondents: All the 25 Innovative and 30 Telangana Yuva Rytu Sagubadi (TYRSB) trained farmers were selected purposefully. Whereas sixty five other fellow farmers whom these innovative/ TYRSB farmers were influenced were selected randomly. All put together 120 farmers were selected from 25 villages for the study. Results: Information Acquisition Behaviour (IAB) Table-1: Distribution of respondents with regard to their IAB (n = 120) S.No. Category Frequency Respondents Percentage 1. Low IAB (24-39) High IAB (56-71) Medium IAB (40-55) With regard to the distribution of respondents according to their Information Acquisition Behaviour (Table 1), majority of the respondents (48.33 %) were grouped under high category followed by medium (30.83 %) and low (20.83 %) categories. Information Dissemination Behaviour (IDB) Table-2: Distribution of respondents with regard to their IDB (n = 120) S.No. Category Respondents Frequency Per cent 1. High IDB (33-39) Medium IDB (26-32) Low IDB (19-25)

281 The distribution of respondents on their Information Dissemination Behaviour (Table-2 ) shows that per cent of respondents were grouped under high category followed by medium (30.85%) and low (25.00%) categories. 270

282 Table 3: Distribution of respondents based on their information acquisition through personal cosmopolite channels n=120 S.No. Personal cosmopolite channels Regularity of contact Regularly Occasionally Rarely Never Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Response total weightage Mean weightage Rank 1 Discussions with officials of Dept. of Agriculture III 2 Discussions with University Scientists 3. Discussions with the officials of NGOs / Voluntary organization 4. Discussions with the progressive farmers of neighboring village 5. Representatives of private input agencies I IV II V 271

283 Item analysis of Information Acquisition Behaviour Personal-cosmopolite channels Item analysis of information acquisition through personal cosmopolite channels (Table-3) indicates that, Discussions with University scientists followed by discussions with the progressive farmers of neighboring village and discussion with State Dept. of Agril. were found to be regularly contacted by the majority of farmers for information acquisition. It could be noticed that progressive/experienced farmers of same village followed by neighbours/fellow farmers and local input dealers were the popular personal-localite channels of acquiring information regularly. It is evident that viewing farm telecasts followed by Agricultural Exhibitions and Kisan Melas were the regularly utilized impersonal-cosmopolite channels by the respondents for the information acquisition. S.No. Table-4 : Distribution of respondents based on their extent of usage of individual Contact methods in disseminating the information with others n = 120 Individual contact method 1. Discussion with the scientists/ extension personnel through Regularity of contact Regularly Occasionally Rarely Never No. % No. % No. % No. % Respon se total weight age Mean weigh tage a) personally IV b) over mobile II c) using social media III Rank 2. Discussions with fellow (progressive/other) farmers I Item analysis of Information Dissemination Behaviour Extent of usage of individual contact methods The data collected on extent of usage of individual contact methods for information dissemination are presented in table

284 S. No. With regard to individual contact methods, table-4 shows that majority of the respondents were regularly involved in discussion with fellow (progressive/other) farmers followed by conversation with scientists over mobile phones and personal talks. Table-5: Distribution of respondents based on their extent of participation in group contact methods n = 120 Group contact methods Frequency of contact Regularly Occasionally Rarely Never No. % No. % No. % No. % Respons e total weighta ge Mean weight age Rank 1 Group discussions 2. Farmers training programmes 3. Lecture meetings 4. Participating in demonstrations and trials I II III IV 5 Exposure visits V 6. Joint field visits VI Extents of participation in group contact methods The data on extent of participation of the respondents in group contact methods for information dissemination are presented in table-5. The table 7 indicates that group discussions followed by farmers training programmes were the regularly used group contact methods for dissemination of information. 273

285 S. No. Table-6 : Distribution of respondents based on their extent of use of mass contact methods in sharing the information with others (n = 120) Mass contact methods frequencyof contact Regularly Occasionally Rarely Never No. % No. % No. % No. % Respons e total weighta ge Mean weight age Rank 1. Distribution of information materials to other farmers VI 2. Participating in the a)activities of voluntary organizations V b)kisan melas IV c)rythusadassus III d)tv programmes VIII e)radioprogrammes VII f)agricultural exhibitions II 3. Through Press IX 4. Attending to ZREAC meetings XI 5. Attending to slide / film shows X 6 Social media I Extent of participation in mass contact methods The data pertaining to the extent of participation in mass contact methods for dissemination of information are presented in case of extent of usage of mass contact methods (table 6) it is evident that regular involvement was found in Social media followed by Exhibitions, Rutusadassus and Kisan Melas. 274

286 Conclusion It is worth to mention that the trained farmers of KVK, Palem under IFN and TYRSB programmes were using prime sources like consulting scientists and discussing with progressive farmers to acquire the information on agriculture. It is also delighted to note that these farmers are using social media to disseminate latest technology in agriculture to the fellow farmers. References: Amandeep Kaur and Rajinder Kaur Kalra 2010 Information needs of the farmers regarding technology transfer system in vegetable cultivation. Indian Journal of Social Research vol. 50(2): Amtul Waris 2004 Utilization of information sources by farm women in Arid Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Extension Education 40 (1&2): Manjunatha B S, Santha Govind Nataraju M S and Lakshminarayan M T 2007 Reading behaviour of farmer readers. Crop Research (Hisar) 34(1/3) : Ponnusamy K 2003 Information seeking behaviour shrimp farmers. Indian Veterinary Journal 80(12) : *** 275

287 Relative Effectiveness of different Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Gadgets on Symbolic Adoption of Tomato Crop Production Practices among Farmers of Karnataka, India. Shivani Dechamma, Shanabhoga.M.B and Govinda Gowda,V *PG scholar, Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Extension, GKVK, Bengaluru-65, **Assistant Professor, University of Agricultural Extension, Hebbal, Bengaluru-24 ***PG scholar, Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Extension, GKVK, Bengaluru-65 Abstract Communication is recognized as an important input for sustainable development of Agriculture. ICTs are technologies offering new ways for communicating and exchanging information and knowledge. Large scale investments are being made to enhance the potential of ICT sector in India. Such investments would prove more cost effective if the resources of the IT sector are blended with that of the agricultural sector thereby making the two ends of the thread meet. The present study was designed to measure the relative Effectiveness of Television, Agri-Portal and multimedia DVDs in improving the symbolic adoption of tomato crop production practices among farmers. The study was conducted in Hoskote taluk of Bangalore rural district. Total sample size of the study is 90 farmers comprising 30 each under television, Agri- portal and DVD. The before and after experimental research design was adopted in the study. The three treatments namely television (T1), e-krishi Agri-portal (T2) and DVD (T3) were tested for their effectiveness. The effectiveness was studied in terms of symbolic adoption through these three treatments. Television (T1) was found to be most effective and superior in imparting symbolic adoption with the enhancement of per cent, followed by DVD per cent and e-krishi Agri-portal per cent. All the three treatments were effective in imparting symbolic adoption with considerable variation in their effectiveness. The paired t test revealed that their exist a significant difference in symbolic adoption of tomato crop production practices among the T1, T2 and T3 farmers at 1 per cent level of significance. Introduction Communication is recognized as an important input for development to disseminate and create dialogue among different stakeholders about the technologies and issues of agriculture, environment and sustainable development. ICTs are technologies offering new ways for communicating and exchanging information and knowledge. ICT is gaining prominence as an engine for economic growth it also promises to have far reaching potential for the delivery of social services, enhancing the effectiveness of government administration. India has surfaced as a country with a sound foothold in the field of ICT. Large scale investments are being made to enhance the potential of ICT sector in India. Such investments would prove more cost effective if the resources of the 276

288 IT sector are blended with that of the agricultural sector thereby making the two ends of the thread meet. The ICT gadgets like radio, television, video, films, computer, internet, mobiles etc., which have the potential of providing a vast amount of relevant information to rural population in timely, comprehensive and cost effective manner. The new ICTs are the driving forces of globalization. They are bringing people and decision makers together with unprecedented new tools for development. In the present era of information revolution, the ability to acquire and use information is regarded as a national asset. Information is considered as a resource much like land, labour and capital. Access to information and improved communication is, therefore, considered as a crucial requirement for the success of any development efforts. Agriculture is no exception to this phenomenon. ICT tools are playing an important role in diffusion and adoption of Agricultural technologies among the farmers. With this background the present study was designed to measure the relative effectiveness of television, Agri- portal, DVD on adoption of tomato crop production practices among farmers. Methodology The Before and after research design was employed for conducting the study. The present study was conducted in Bangalore rural district of Karnataka state during the year Hoskote taluk was purposively selected for the study where tomato is extensively cultivated. Three villages namely Doddadenahalli, Alugondanahalli and Chikkathagalli were selected for the study. From each village 30 tomato growers were selected constituting a total sample size of 90. Before and after experimental research design was employed to know the relative effectiveness of television (T1), e- krishi Agriportal (T2) and DVD (T3) on symbolic adoption of tomato crop production practices among farmers. Data was collected by using a detailed interview schedule by employing personal interview method. The data was collected two times for each treatment, once before the treatment and again after the treatment.the statistical tests like percentage, mean, standard deviation and paired t test were employed for analysis and interpretation of data. Resultsand Discussion Table 1 reveals the rate of enhancement in symbolic adoption level of tomato crop production practices under television treatment. The paired t test was used to find out the mean difference before and after the treatments. It was observed that marketing and value addition of tomato has high rate of enhancement upto per cent followed by integrated nutrient management (71.67%) and the least rate of enhancement was found to be in integrated weed management practices (36.67%). The possible reason for the high enhancement in the symbolic adoption of marketing and value addition in tomato is based on the principle of seeing is believing means farmers believe what they see. During the television treatment the tomato growers has seen the importance, advantages and methods of marketing and value addition in tomato. The video coupled with narration had influenced the farmers to mentally accept and made up their mind to adopt the technology. 277

289 TABLE 1: Symbolic adoption of crop production practices among tomato growers with respect to Television treatment (T1). (n=30) Sl. No Tomato crop production practices Try/ adopt the tomato crop in the farm SCORES Television Treatment (T1) Rate of Before After Enhancement (%) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Paired t value ** Land preparatory 6 practices and ** Nursery practices Integrated 4 nutrient ** management Water management ** practices Training practices and farming ** practices Integrated pest management ** practices Integrated 48 disease ** management Integrated weed management ** 9. Marketing and value addition of tomato ** Min score =0, Max score = 102, ** Significant at 1% level, t (0.01, 29df) =2.462 Since, television is found to be a major media source in the country that might have influenced the credibility of the information provided by the media regarding value addition in tomato. The individuals retain more when information is given through videos when compared to information is coupled with video and audio the retention capacity increases thereby knowledge enhances which lead to more symbolic adoption. The other reason may be the farmers were very much convinced about the content of the programme which was need based and interest specific to the farmers and farmers were facing lot of problems in growing of tomato due to deficiency of the nutrients and thus it also affected 278

290 the yield of the crop thus the farmers may make up their mind in adopting the integrated nutrient management telecasted through Krishidarshan program. The integrated weed management practices were less symbolically adopted due to the reason that the farmers were mainly used to follow the manual weeding methods because of the knowledge of the harmful effects of the chemical weeding. The other reasons for lower symbolic adoption of integrated weed management by farmers can be attributed to cost, manpower requirement and inhibition to use more of chemicals for weed management, which can be managed by changing the attitude of farmers towards integrated weed management practices. TABLE 2: Symbolic adoption of crop production practices among tomato growers with respect to e-krishi Agri-portal treatment (T2). (n=30) 1. Tomato crop production practices Try/ adopt the tomato crop in the farm Scores e-krishi Agri-portal Treatment (T2) Rate of Before After Enhancement (%) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Paired t value ** 2. Land preparatory practices and Nursery practices ** Integrated nutrient 4 management ** Water management practices ** Training practices and farming practices ** Integrated pest management practices ** Integrated disease 48 management ** Integrated weed management NS Marketing and value addition of tomato ** Min. score =0, Max. Score = 102, ** Significant at 1% level, NS: Non Significant, (0.01, 29df) =2.462 t From table 2 it was observed that under e-krishi Agri portal treatment, try/ adopt the tomato crop in the farm has high rate of enhancement of per cent followed by integrated nutrient management (48.33%), integrated disease management (47.96%) and the least rate of enhancement was found to be in integrated weed management practices (10.00%). Agri-portal is a unique media which contains text, photographs, videos, expert 279

291 views on each topic and multimedia sources. The treatment of Agri-portal might have attracted the farmers thereby the farmer s knowledge increases. Thus there is increase in symbolic adoption of tomato crop in the farm. Integrated nutrient management and integrated disease management might have directly influenced the farmers to symbolically adopt the technologies. The other reasons could be attributed to the fact that majority of the respondents were young aged who are more e- literate and have a willingness toward economic motivation, achievement motivation, scientific orientation and innovativeness which help them to have high symbolic adoption towards tomato cultivation. The tomato growers had faced lot of problems due to the pest and disease attack to the crop thus they wanted a solution to these problems and thus they had a high enhancement in IDM, INM practices which was need based to the farmers. These results coincide with the results of Vanetha (2008). TABLE 3: Symbolic adoption of crop production practices among tomato growers with respect to DVD treatment (T3). (n=30) 1. Tomato crop production practices Try/ adopt the tomato crop in the farm Scores DVD Treatment (T3) Before After Rate of Enhancement (%) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Paired t value ** 2. Land preparatory practices and Nursery practices ** Integrated nutrient 4 management ** Water management practices ** Training practices and farming practices ** Integrated pest management practices ** Integrated disease 48 management ** Integrated weed management * Marketing and value addition of tomato ** Min. score =0, Max. Score = 102, ** Significant at 1% level, * Significant at 5% level, t (0.01, 29df) =2.462, t (0.05, 29df) = From table 3 it was observed that under DVD treatment, marketing and value addition of tomato has high rate of enhancement upto per cent followed by try/ adopt the 280

292 tomato crop in the farm (63.32%), integrated nutrient management (59.44%), integrated disease management (47.22%) and the least rate of enhancement was found to be in integrated weed management practices (13.33%). The treatment of DVD regarding tomato cultivation has more advantages when compared to television and e-portal. The use of DVD do not require special skills, e-literacy will never be a problem for farmers apart from above it can be viewed whenever the farmers finds leisure time. The above said reasons might have influenced the farmers to symbolically adopt integrated disease and nutrient management practices in tomato. The other reasons could be that DVD contained complete information of the tomato crop production practices which could be preserved for future and viewed which helps the farmers to have a high symbolic adoption. Many farmers had stopped the cultivation of tomato crop due to less information on the recommended practices and also due to marketing problems which resulted in low price. But now due to exposure to the DVD treatment many have made up their minds to adopt the tomato crop in their field. The results were in line with the results of Anandaraja (2002). TABLE 4: Overall relative effectiveness of symbolic adoption of tomato crop production practices among farmers through different ICT treatments. Treatments Sample Before After Rate of Enhancement (%) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Paired t value T1 (Television) ** T2 (e-krishi Agriportal) ** T3 (DVD) ** F - VALUE 0.17 NS 0.96 NS 1.17 NS Min. Score=0, Max. Score=102, t (0.01, 29df) = 2.462, **Significant at 1% level, NS: Non-Significant Table 4 reveals that the rate of enhancement in symbolic adoption after exposure to the television treatment was found to be high upto per cent, followed by DVD treatment (37.18%) and e-krishi Agri-portal treatment (35.10%). The reason for higher rate of enhancement in symbolic adoption under television treatment is that it could be inferred that the language used in the telecast was local language and simple to understand as most of the televiewers understood. Further television is one of the oldest and important audio visual tools which penetrated deep in the villagers. The krishi darshan 281

293 program is unique and dedicated to farming community, this is because of the fact that all farmers possess a television sets in their house and very much aware of the krishi darshan program which they regularly watch. The reasons for improved enhancement in symbolic adoption under DVD treatment were that it helps the farmers to view repeatedly by preserving the DVDs. Further the quality of DVD will also have an impact on viewing ability of the farmers. This helped the farmers to have an enhancement in the symbolic adoption of the tomato crop cultivation. The Agri-portal specialty is in the form of multimedia, text, videos, audios, photographs and more e-literacy of young farmers might be the reason for increased effectiveness of the portal on symbolic adoption. These results are in line with the results of Senthilkumar (2003).The other reason for e-krishi Agri portal contribution in increased symbolic adoption is due to increase in number of e- literates and internet users among the younger generation. And also easy accessibility of computers and android systems helps the farmers to get required information on tomato crop production practices at a faster rate. But the reasons for lesser effectiveness of portal may be non availability of continuous internet facilities in the village and also the illiteracy of old people in the use of android systems and computers which affect the enhancement of the symbolic adoption through the Agri-portals. These results coincide with the results of Vanetha (2008). The paired t value for television treatment was 11.72, for DVD treatment was and for e-krishi Agri-portal was which is found to have a high significant difference at 1 per cent level of probability. It is evident that there existed a significant difference in the effectiveness of the different treatments in imparting symbolic adoption as indicated by the significant t value. Conclusion The study showed that there is an enhanced symbolic adoption of farmers about tomato crop production practices after the television (T1), e- krishi Agri-portal (T2) and DVD (T3) treatments. The contribution of television treatments (T1) in enhancing the symbolic adoption of tomato crop production practices is high followed by DVD (T3) and Agri-portal (T2) treatments. All the three ICT gadgets are significantly contributing in the enhancement of symbolic adoption of farmers with respect to tomato crop production practices. Television is one of the oldest and deeply accepted audio-visual media among the farming community. Farmers had a psychological attachment to Krishi Darshan program of Doordarshan which are more popular. The Agri-portals are recent ICT tools which attracted many younger generation farmers who are well worse with the operation of mobiles and android systems. The ICT tools are becoming more popular among farming community who are practicing commercial agriculture. The penetration of internet to rural areas is also revolutionizing the information technology in agriculture. There is a need for the greater effort in the agriculture sector to use ICT tools for improved adoption of modern technology. There is an urgent need for conducting more experiments on the utility of different ICT gadgets for faster diffusion and adoption of agricultural innovations. 282

294 REFERENCE Anandaraja N Developing Farmer Friendly Interactive Multimedia Compact Disc and Testing its Effectiveness in Transfer of Farm Technology. Ph.D. Thesis (Unpub.), TNAU, Coimbatore. Senthilkumar M Field Testing Cyber Extension Techniques for Transfer of Farm Technology-A Feasibility Study. Ph. D. Thesis (Unpub.), TNAU, Coimbatore. Vanetha KP Teaching science and technology to tribal farm women through advanced communication gadgets. Ph.D. Thesis (Unpub.), TNAU, Coimbatore. 283


296 Reforms in Extension for gender equality and empowerment of women & girls Geethakutty.P.S, Professor & Project co-ordinator Centre for Gender Studies in Agriculture and Farm Entrepreneurship Development (CGSAFED), Kerala Agricultural University(KAU), Thrissur, Kerala, India. Introduction It is quite meaningful that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development announced by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 has a clearly spelt out independent goal for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women Girls. More important is that under the SDG framework of International Development, genderequality targets is included as part of all the other 16 goals as well. From the beginning of nineties, deliberations about gender inequalities and women empowerment and commitments for these as part of global combats like Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Beijing Platform etc were live across the globe. But it was a disappointment and point of worldwide criticism that under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), the agenda of gender equality and women empowerment was not a stand alone goal, but had been kept only as a means of eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education. At the same time, it became quite revealing to note that even the hidden target of the theme of gender equality under MDG had served as an opportunity to create eye opening impacts of women empowerment and gender transformations across the world. Various developing countries could advance in gender equality index and HDI through strategies and programmes targeted to increase women leadership, girl education, women inclusion decision making, women s collectives for micro credit and livelihoods. Decision making bodies of various countries otherwise predominantly patriarchal were persuaded to include different women empowerment approaches and programmes in their development agenda. This, in turn, has catalysed to create large scale awareness on the need of gender equality and empowering of women at various levels of governance and development actors across the world. Interestingly, most of the thus initiated women empowerment programmes were executed as coupled with the target of elimination of poverty; this may be an indication of the realization among policy makers on the cause consequence relationship of gender discriminations and poverty prevalent in developing countries. In nutshell, the large scale acceptance of gender perspectives and visibility of women empowerment programmes had made the topics unavoidable components in any global level programmes and polices targeting elimination of poverty in the last two decades. Hence the independent status provided to the theme of gender equality and women empowerment under SDG 2030 is only a belated sign of recognition for the cause of women. At the same time, now the pronounced goal of gender equality and women empowerment is well placed with the already created development environment of gender awareness as an opportunity and potential to be used to redress the gender quality issues of women in all walks of life. 285

297 The realization that women and girls are key actors and gender equality and women empowerment are important means of ending poverty and food insecurity, has persuaded other global bodies like UN, UN Women, FAO etc to analyse the potential impacts of SDG on women and girls and to strategize the whole SDG plan of actions as gender mainstreamed ( UN Women). Agriculture being major livelihood for majority of rural poor women, the farming sector policies and strategies are expected to plan and visualize gender inclusive policies and programmes for the cause of women in agriculture more pragmatically. Thus in the context of poverty alleviation and sustainable development, all countries are by and large persuaded to keep the focus of gender equality and women empowerment a priority of livelihood development across the world. In this paper, the author has tried to examine how extension programmes and policies in the context of agriculture and rural development can be made more effective to address the issue of livelihood based gender inequalities faced by women in South Asia. With this objective, the first part of the paper is examining the concept of the differential gender impacts in agriculture and the resultant issues of gender discriminations women face in farming as juxtaposed with potential solutions to be adopted through extension strategies and programmes. In the second part of the paper, the author has highlighted model interventions and success cases proven as effective for addressing discriminations against women in agriculture elsewhere and suggested recommendations for better women inclusive agriculture development. Importance of EstimatingImpacts of Gender Inequalities in Agriculture Now macro level data and reports are available to illustrate that gender discriminations are not problems of women alone but they are national and global problems. The development world is in fact bombarded with the observations of two reports brought out in this context recently ie, about the macro level impacts of the socio economic and gender discriminations faced by women in agriculture. These studies highlight that the impacts of gender discriminations are not only leading to the low participation or low profitability on the part of the women who are involved in farming activities in the villages, but at higher level such disparities and low efficiency are imparting cumulative impacts by acting as important reasons behind macro level development issues like low GDP, poverty and food insecurity (World Bank, 2015 and FAO,2012 and Geethakutty,2015) In this context, World Bank Report (2016) has pointed out that if the gender gap in agricultural productivity is closed in Malawi, the country can increase its crop yield by 7.3 percent per annum and increase its GDP by 1.8 percent. This translates into a financial gain of approximately 100 million US Dollars, an amount which can lift over 238,000 people out of poverty each year. Closing the gender productivity gap in agriculture will result in poverty reduction, better nutrition and ultimately, benefit all Malawians by boosting the national economy and is therefore smart economics.. The report has further pointed out the importance of the role of women in African Countries as 70 percent of the agricultural labor force, produce 70 percent of household food and perform between 50 and 70 percent of all agricultural tasks and despite their integral role in the agricultural sector, women continue to produce significantly less than 286

298 men because of their limited access to land, labor, knowledge, fertilizer and improved seeds. Similarly, TheFood and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) during 2011 had reported as part of its global farm status study that, if women had the same access to productive resources as men, they could raise total agricultural output in developing countries by 20 to 30 per cent and reduce the number of hungry persons in the world by percent. Though such eye opener data about the adverse macro level impacts of gender discriminations in agriculture are now available, the required attention to this important dimension of developmental issue and the need of estimating national level impacts of gender discrimination is yet to be given importance in countries like India. As per Census 2011 in India though 55 per cent of the working population is involved in agriculture the GDP contribution of agriculture is only 14%.The 2011 census of the country has reported that out of million total workers in the country, millions are cultivators and another are agricultural laborers i.e. about one in two males and two of every female workers in the country are engaged as cultivator or as agriculture labour. In this context, Geethakutty(2015) had remarked Though the impacts of accelerated growth of industry and services, globalization, climate change, rural urban divides and requirement of updated skill, resources, technologies, and infrastructure facilities are often quoted as reasons of the low economic share of agricultural sector in plan and policy documents ; but no efforts to correlate the low GDP contribution of agriculture with the gender divide that exists in the sector is observed! It is high time that the relevant bodies of agricultural development also recognize the importance of socio economic and gender related problems which leave millions of women in agriculture as low achievers and contributors with respect to national productivity. Gender Discriminations & Constraints of Women in agriculture It is important to understand how gender discriminations are affecting women s participation and contribution in agriculture compared to their male counterparts through the differential access to farm resources and opportunities. Below given table gives a comparison of the gender inequality based inaccessibility of farm resources and noninclusion in farming opportunities to which women are subjected to in the context of their farming functions. A glance through the same will help to understand the cause consequence relation of the constraints due to gender discriminations and how efforts of extension can address those issues. 287

299 Table 1. Accessability problems of farm resources among Women in Agriculture and suggested Extension Interventions for addressing the gender discriminations Sl. No Farm Resources and Opportunities Present Status of women in agriculture Suggested Women inclusive Interventions 1. Recognition as Farmer 2. Land for Cultivation 3. Capital and Credit 4. Market for farm produce Women engaged in most of the farming roles not recognized as farmers Not counted as beneficiaries of schemes Not included as farmer support organisations Lack ownership and access of family lands Lack access to public lands Difficulty in accessing land on lease Women farming on leased land not considered as farmer and hence face loss of profit Lack capital, lack collateral, lack lease agreement and not able access to credit, and avail private credit with high interest rate Lack access and information, Middle men exploitation, Distance and transportation to Market, Lack inclusion in marketing society, Lack sale outlet and infrastructure facilities, Non availability of market information Accept women inclusive definition of farmers for various farming sectors Livelihood Registration as women inclusive Formulate Guidelines / criteria of schemes as women inclusive Fix proportionate quota of women and men farmers Land Leasing scheme for Women, Land banks & Land allotment to women, Collective farming schemes, Land Buying, Legal measures for Joint ownership, Recognition of women cultivating leased land as farmers Collateral free credit, Revolving Fund for Women Farmers, Interest free Women farmers credit scheme, Low interest rate for women s credit, increased installments, Financial Inclusion of women, Joint Kissan Credit Card Farm gate produce collection, Timely market information through ICT, online marketing, Women included Marketing Society, Rural Festive Fairs, Weekly markets, Business Incubators and sale promotion, Buy back schemes of farm produce Value chain schemes & mobile van with cold storage, Cluster level production, Common facility transportation facilities to markets 288

300 5. Availability of Quality Inputs 6. Farm machinarie s and tools 7. Traditional Crops and Breeds 8. Water Availability / Irrigation 9. NRM, NTFP and Biodiversit y, Ethnic medicines Not recognized as target group for subsidies and free inputs Non availability free seed, breed, planting materials fertilizer, pesticides, etc lack timely intimation on input supply,, depending on private agencies and pay high cost Lack suitable tools for women and perform farm operations as manual operation with physical exertion, Time consuming operations of drudgery, Lack reach to available technologies, Lack skill and training to use technologies, Technology not available for women performed jobs Replacement of traditional food crops by commercial crops Losing breeds with cooking quality and health oriented, Distance to crop field and poor management leading to poor yield Yield gap for women grown crops, No market for produce grown by women Non availability of irrigation water to women s crops, Lack irrigation facilities and devices, Not included as members of water resource management association and watershed committees, farmer committees Not counted as target group, Not included in JFM/ NTFP collectors societies, Not included in Biodiversity/plant variety protection related Acts, Not allowed to access NTFP, No focus on value addition of NTFP, Registration/ inclusion of women as target groups for input supply and subsidy component, Women s Business Hubs, input Production schemes by women groups Evolving Labour saving, ergonomically suitable tools and machines for women, Skill development schemes for women to use machines and tools, Schemes for availing machines and tools, Common facility centres of tools Custom hiring Services of farm machines to women Introduce improved breeds with giving high yield and getting ready market among women farmers, Introduce Animals Breeds with low cost feed and management, Schemes for Crops/ animals suitable to grow in homesteads, Nutritionally rich crop or variety, Crops/ breeds with scope for value chain Guidelines for recognizing women farmers as target group, Special Quota of irrigation facilities for women farmers Equal Inclusion in watershed management / water users association Schemes for irrigation devices for women s cultivation Registration of women as target groups, Equal participation of Women organization, Acts/ Bills gender sensitive Amendments, Implementation of Forest Users Right Act,Conservation of Indigenous knowledge and NRM Value chain management of NTFP 289

301 10. Developme nt information 11. Food and Nutrition security 12. Recognition and Value for work 13. Farmer Organisatio ns 14. Technical guidance and skill developmen t 15. Fisher women Lack targeted information supply, No timely information dissemination, Lack skills in using ICT, Connectivity problems Focus on commercial crops Neglect of traditional food crops and minor millets, Local food grains & vegetables & fruits marketed away without processing Excess produce get wasted Lack of focus of Nutritional insecurity Devaluation of women s labour & discriminatory wage, No recognition as farmer, No recognition as co farmer, Non accounting of work and wage in group income No membership as women do not own land Farmers on leased land lack membership Lack access to training & skill Lack continued technical guidance for farm management Fisher folk women not included as major worker category Lack Women friendly technologies Lack women included cooperatives of fisher folk Register women as recipients of information, Common facility of information access Community Radio, Train women to use Mobile Apps, Facebooks Local Value addition and agro processing, New product development and capacity building, Agro Processing &Infrastructure development, Marketing linkage Awareness building on Nutrition garden, Decent labour criteria, Equal wage payment for men and women, Non discriminatory Welfare measures, Registration of co- farmers as farmers, Proper labour Accounting and recognition Women inclusive Farmer Organisations Joint Membership for man and woman of farm families, Leadership roles for women Registration of women as target group of Training/ skill development, Livelihood registration of men and women in the fishery sector Popularise women friendly technologies for the livelihood activities of women in fisheries Introduce guidelines of women inclusion fisher folk co-operatives A perusal of the listings given in the above table will enable a reader to understand the practical gender needs of women in farming and how the social customs and patriarchal mindset are consciously or unconsciously intertwined into the planned development interventions. Focused question and answers of each situation given in the table will remind the reader, how gender discriminations resulting from the differential treatment of men and women receive from families to socio- economic institutions are getting integrated as constraints in development interventions curtailing effective livelihood opportunities of women in agriculture. One can start the process of iteration by probing the basic question-why most of the women are not considered as farmers? 290

302 The social custom leading to lack of land ownership and property rights among most of the women in the country will evolve as the main answer for such a perusal. Let it be male or female farmer, the farming requirements for raising crops or animals are the same they need land, credit, water, seeds, training, manures and fertilizers, machines to produce, market information and access to market. How the lack of land ownership and collaterals become constraints for a woman farmer to access credit and other inputs are enlisted in the table. First, due to the lack of land ownership, the woman who is engaged in farm based livelihood doesn t get recognized as a farmer! The connection revealed between lack of land and non recognition of her as farmer will highlight how the extension system lack information about her input needs, and not reaching her through free support services and capacity building. Unlike agencies dealing with poverty alleviation, agriculture is a development sector wherein majority of the decision makers and development actors are not ready to accept the depth of this differential impacts created by planned interventions of development on women in agriculture. Studies conducted among women farmers engaged in leased land farming in Kerala has reported that lack of land ownership and non recognition as farmers is adversely affecting profitability of women farmers. It was observed that women who are cultivating on leased lands are not getting access to government procurement schemes, subsidies, credit with low interest, free inputs, irrigation water, crop insurance or technical guidance and thus facing a loss of about 17 percent of the profit due to them ( Geethakutty, 2016). One of the very often heard arguments of the personnel in extension system is that development programmes and approaches are kept as very much neutral and there are no biased restrictions for women to prevent them from accessing the support services provided by the extension system to farmers. This statement itself reveals that the system is to be sensitized to the cause -consequences of the gender issues generated through gendered social customs and mind sets. The possible gender sensitive- interventions that can be adopted in extension programmes and policies as - criteria, guidelines, quota, women exclusive schemes and facilities, legal measures, which are listed in the table. The proactive mindset and emulation of successful models of farm women empowerment from elsewhere are the need of the hour. There are a handful examples of successful interventions of rural development and farming sector in India which have revealed the possibility of empowering rural women to break the gender barriers in accessing assets and resources required for effective farm participation like land, credit, women friendly farm technologies, women oriented ICT based interventions and leadership in farm resource management,women collectives etc. Brief descriptions of important ones are given below( Geethakutty & Prasad, 2012). a) Cases of Extension through Women s Collectives : There are evidences which show that women s federations, networks and collectives can be effectively enabled to break some of the important impacts of gender inequalities they face. Studies show that women s collectives like Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society 291

303 (APMSS) and the Joint Liability Group farming of women under the Kudumbashree Mission in Kerala were able to support women farmers access and manage land, credit, and trainings for farming and to attain better productivity (Geethakutty. 2012, 2015 & 2016 and Agarwal,2018.) APMSS is a platform which was able to transform 1.5 lakh landless and mostly SC/ST rural women labourers to emerge as successful dry land farmers in Andhra Pradesh. APMSS had achieved this transformation through a UNDP funded project Samatha Dharani (Sustainable Dryland Agriculture with Mahila Sanghas) implemented with technical support of the Department of Agriculture during 2003 to The main activity envisaged under the project was collective farming by women s sanghas, giving preference to the growing of staple crops and allied activities of producing organic fertilizers and setting up of community grain and seed banks. The programme was an attempt to enable women to gain access to productive resources for sustainable agriculture, supporting women farmers to achieve household food security, to establish an effective system to meet the information needs of women farmers and to integrate strategic gender interests into the process of agriculture policy formulation. In the same line, the JLG collective farming of Kudumbashree Mission also is an ongoing successful intervention among women farmers of the State Department of Local Self Government in Kerala. Around 3 lakhs of women who were either housewives or farm workers in the past are now group farming members through credit support with low interest rate and hired land availed under their collective power. The Kudumbashree is making use of the Mahila Kissan Shashaktheekran Pariyojana (MKSP) Scheme under the National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) of the Govt. of India to provide subsidized credit and technical guidance to the farmers. It is to be appreciated that the Kudumbashree as an agency has utilized the scheme of the Joint Liability Group Scheme of the NABARD also effectively for women farmers. But one important factor missing here is the support of the agricultural extension agency- majority of these women farmers of Kudumbashree are cultivating on hired lands without proper documents and are not recognized as farmers by the agricultural extension agency ; hence they are scarcely receiving technical guidance, procurement schemes and input support etc from the extension agencies of the Dept of Agriculture. Studies indicate that considering the feminisation of agriculture, the establishment of steady convergence between the Department of Agriculture and Kudumbashree for the technical and financial support of women farmers is of contextual importance ( Geethakutty, 2016). b) Extension for Popularising Women Friendly Technologies: With increasing realization and acceptance of the concept and necessity of women friendly technologies for empowering farm women, a number of women friendly farm technologies have been evolved in the ICAR research institutes and State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) in India. It is a fact that for want of training, mass production and scaling up of the prototypes, many of the newly evolved women specific tools and machineries are yet to reach the field. Experience indicates that on making these technologies available in the field, the next immediate challenge is equipping the women to handle the machineries. There are three important issues to be overcome in promoting women to use the machineries- lack of preparedness and confidence among farm women, social stigma in 292

304 women using the machines, and high cost of the machineries involved. The Kerala Agricultural University(KAU) has an illustrative case to narrate as to how the University had evolved mechanized paddy transplanter suited to women and popularised the same among farm women labourers of Kerala and transformed the labour women as entrepreneurs. Presently, Kerala s paddy sector has a number of women run custom hiring units of mechanized paddy transplanting, which is one of the major factors that has helped the state to bring back rice cultivation to certain extent. Trained women labourers and youth registered as custom hiring societies of mechanized farming services are providing transplanting services to rice farmers in many districts of state and the women are able earn remunerative income for such contract jobs. The Centre for Gender Studies in Agriculture and Agricultural Research Station, Mannuthy under KAU have played major role in this intervention through awareness and skill building models for women in agriculture which was later taken up by the Department of Agriculture, and MKSP programme of the MORD since The relevance and usefulness of women s group and women s network as an agency for the empowerment of rural poor women in agricultural sector may be utilized in policies and plans for enabling the farm women to access resources and assets required for effective participation as farmers. c) Joint Liability Group Credit Scheme of NABARD: The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) had implemented the scheme of Joint Liability Group Scheme of in 2007 for the credit support of farmers who cultivate leased lands (NABARD,2006). The JLG scheme with its proactive criterion of reaching leased land farmers has enabled the entry of large number of landless women groups as farmers in the farming sector of Kerala. As far as Kerala is concerned, apart from the above referred JLG scheme, the existing strong NHG network of women groups under the Kudumbashree Mission and the increased area of uncultivated land among land owning farmers of Kerala have acted as push factors behind the large scale entry of women into JLG mode of hired farming. Studies from Kerala indicate that the scheme has in effect turned out as women inclusive programme in Kerala, one of the southern States of India. The JLG loan scheme has gained high level acceptance and developed favorable attitude among JLG women farmers. Almost cent per cent of the women have expressed appreciation of the scheme as the same has enabled landless women to take up farming with loan at low interest rate. However, for women farmers who are engaged in farming on individual basis, access to credit is still a serious constraint to be addressed on priority basis (Geethakutty,2016). d) Andhra Pradesh Farmer Managed Ground Water Systems (APFAMGS) Project: It is a simple fact that, if gender equity is practiced in farmer organizations and collectives, the agency can enhance and enable women and men farmers to access, control and benefit from farm resources and practice better and efficient NRM. As stakeholders of natural resource management (land, water, and forest), it is women farmers human right, that they get equal partnership and participation opportunities in related organizations and collectives as well. But it appears that our policy makers and farmer communities are yet to identify this pressing need! Though lack of access and 293

305 control of natural resources among rural women is a concern universally felt and voiced, effective and gender sensitive corrective measures are yet to take place. There is an urgent need of amending the related acts of farmer co-operatives and collectives to keep 50 percent reservation quota for women and ensure the practice of gender equity. Some of the farmer organizations may be having namesake/nominal representation of women in governing bodies and member rolls, but adequate representation only can bring quality changes. It is possible to practice women and men included farmer organizations in the field and there are development projects which have proved the worth of such gender equity! Many ground water management committees of women and men farmers were set up in the drought prone districts of Andhra Pradesh during 2003 under the Andhra Pradesh Farmer Managed Ground Water Systems (APFAMGS) Project, and they still continue to serve as a success cases to learn from! References Agarwal Bina Can group farms outperform individual family farms? Empirical insights from India.World Development 108 (2018) Beijing Declaration- Fourth world Conference, September, watch/ daw/beijing/index.html CEDAW (1979) Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women, Census, Population Census New Delhi, Government of India DAC, MOA (2015) Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, Govt. of India, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi, pp FAO- SOFA Report (FAO, 2011) The State of Food and Agriculture-Women in Agriculture -Closing the Gender Gap for Development. Geethakutty.P.S & R.M.Prasad, Case Studies on opportunities and Challenges of Women in Agriculture,NCAP,ICAR Consultancy Report. New Delhi and CGSAFED, KAU Geethakutty, 2015.Gender Inclusive S&T and Agricultural Education in India in Vol 3. India Science and Technology, CSIR-NISTADS, Cambridge University Press,India Geethakutty, KAU-NABARD Evaluative Field Study on Effective Women Farmer Participation in the Farming Sector of Kerala with Focus on Hired Land Farming and JLG Activities Report Unpublished NABARD Guidelines for financing joint liability groups of tenant farmers micro credit innovations department(mcid), http;// World Bank Cost of the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity Report officially launched in Malawi 294

306 Workload Distribution and Spouse s Help to Women Farmers of Dang District of Nepal Abstract Milan Subedi* and Sandhya Rijal *Assistant Professor of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal, A survey with 447 respondents was carried in Dang district of Nepal in 2017 using well-structured questionnaire to study different type of work distribution and sharing task with spouse of women farmer. Study showed that most of women farmers were engaged in unpaid work and they were performing major physical works in agriculture like sowing, weeding, irrigation while men were dominant in decision making and financial related work. Majority of women in study site who were affiliated in organizations responded, they just nod their head in other s decision and just save money regularly. Regarding their participation in community role most of them participate in tole sanitation rather than other development and benefit sharing tasks. Married women agreed on getting help from spouse but most of them were moderately satisfied with that help which was irregular for them. Study clarify that spouse of very few women farmers were helping in unpaid care work like washing dishes, bed arrangement, washing clothes, room cleaning and adult care. Thus, introducing women friendly technology in household and agricultural works, establishing child and adult care house, organizing combine reflect training for men and women and most preferably women s participation in community decision making can be some attempts in decreasing their work burden and empowering them. 295 Keywords: Unpaid work, Community role, Decision making, Women friendly technology, Women, Nepal Introduction Development, a goal of human civilization is handicapped without gender mainstreaming in its approach, policies, strategies and activities (Lyons, 2004). However, women are facing worse situation from beginning of process of development and attempts are being made to enhance women s status legally and participating them in policy making, decision making and general public life. Further, discrimination against women

307 are being advocated to end them on right basis. Along, various world conferences for gender mainstreaming unite many countries in world to raise voice for gender issues. Most of developing countries dominated with agrarian economy provide women agricultural labor force significantly. In Nepal, women share more than 65 percent of agricultural works along with traditionally distributed household unproductive work and unpaid care work which limits them in less and inefficient production comparing to men (ILO, 2014; GIZ, 2013; Falth and Blackden, 2009; WEF, 2013). Raney and Doss (2011) clarify, agriculture and livestock works are also contrasted to men and women, where, men share decisive, resources controlling and technical work and women share time taking and laborious work however, both of them collaborates with each other in harvesting and threshing. Men of developing countries are more benefited with access and control over resources like land, labor, input, product and market (IDB, 2014). Gender equality can be achieved through maintaining relation between men and women. Role, need and situations of men and women should be equally accommodated in gender mainstreaming and men can be motivated by other interests rather than gender privileges to construct gender friendly masculinity and selfhood like relation with children, sharing role with spouse, ethical and political commitment. Thus, motivating men towards benefit of gender mainstreaming is todays requirement for which it is necessary prepare men engagement programming in gender equity and make them accountable to women (ICRW, 2018). Various studies on unpaid care work suggest women are limited in production and income generation and this study will focus on work distribution to women farmer. Realizing unpaid care work and relation with men member in work distribution, this study will focus on answering following research questions:how household works are being distributed among family member?how women are sharing their effort in production of family?what is status of women in community and how they are acting there?what do women farmers perceive about their spouse in household work? Objectives of study This study has some objectives listed below: a. To assess household work distribution of women farmers in study site. b. To explore distribution of productive and community work perceived by women farmers. c. To reveal perception towards help in household work by spouse of women farmers. 296

308 Methods and Materials A descriptive study was carried in Dang district selected purposively for study site for its location, geography and available resources. Tulsipur sub-metropolitan city and Dangisaran Rural Municipality were selected from which 447 women farmers were selected as a sample respondent. Dangisaran Rural Municipality is rural area and Tulsipur Sub-metropolitan city is recently declared as sub-metropolitan city merging a municipality and few Village Development Committee, dominated by agrarian economy. Different streets of Tulsipur Sub-metropolitan city and Dangisaran Rural Municipality dominated with farmer were chosen randomly from which alternate households of a street was selected as sample household and active women member of selected household were regarded as primary source of information. Face to face interview was taken according to availability of time of selected women farmers, sample respondent, through a wellstructured questionnaire prepared with help of mwater portal. Image and location questions was also admitted with other required question for validity gathered through mwater surveyor. Works were categorized in household work, productive work and communal work. Since our focus was on women farmers, productive task was related to agricultural and livestock activities. Five scale satisfactory level and 3 scale help interval was also used to know perception of women farmers to their spouse. Status of Respondents That percent of women farmers from study site are household head which does not meet national data either national wise (25.73%) or district wise (28.31%) which may be due to absent of male member due to foreign employment and temporary migration (CBS, 2011; Bhadra and Shah, 2007). FAO (2017) and FAO (2012) presented that this types of migration has created rural feminization resulting temporary household head to women farmers. And 94% of them were married while 4.03 percent of women are single after marriage either due to divorce, death of husband or family dispute and most of husband of respondents were farmer (31.83%) followed by self-employment (25.65%) and foreign job (23.99%). Among 447 respondents, 421 chose agriculture as major production and 26 respondents had chosen livestock, paddy is major crop as majority (74.82%) of agriculture related respondents were cultivating it which is followed by maize and vegetable (71.97%) 297

309 and among livestock, poultry was grown by percent of farmers which was followed by sheep and goat rearing (34.61%). Distribution of workload Table 1: Distribution of household unpaid care work Particular Women family member Men Family Member Together s Self Other Total Spouse Other Total or Rotation Fuel 322 (72.04) 39 (8.72)) 19 (4.25) 3 (0.67) 64 (14.32) Collection 361 (80.76) 22 (4.92) Water 301 (67.34) 58 (12.98) 19 (4.25) 4 (0.89) 65 (14.54) Collection 359 (80.31) 23 (5.15) Child Care 307 (68.68) 69 (15.44) 376 (84.12) 12 (2.68) 3 (0.67) 15 (3.36) 56 (12.53) Adult Care 317 (70.92) 58 (12.98) 375 (83.89) 20 (4.47) 6 (1.34) 26 (5.82) 46 (10.29) Cooking 313 (70.02) 93 (20.81) 406 (90.83) 4 (0.89) 0 (0.00) 4 (0.89) 37 (8.28) Washing 317 (70.92) 83 (18.57) 5 (1.12) 0 (0.00) 42 (9.40) Clothes 400 (89.49) 5 (1.12) Washing 308 (68.90) 97 (21.70) 7 (1.57) 1 (0.22) 34 (7.61) Dishes 405 (90.60) 8 (1.79) Cleaning 243 (54.36) 74 (16.55) 17 (3.80) 5 (1.12) (70.92) 22 (4.92) (24.16) Livestock 186 (41.61) 50 (11.19) 70 (15.66) 33 (7.38) 108 Caring 236 (52.80) 103 (23.04) (24.16) Kitchen 241 (53.91) 45 (10.07) 33 (7.38) 15 (3.36) 113 gardening Gardening 250 (55.93) 51 (11.41) Source: Field Survey, (63.98) 301 (67.34) 28 (6.26) 13 (2.91) 48 (10.74) 41 (9.17) Figure in parenthesis indicate percentage (25.28) 105 (23.49) Women are responsible for most of unpaid care work in most cases. Respondents and other women family member in study site were performing most of unpaid work like cooking (90.83%), washing dishes (90.60%), washing clothes (89.49%), child care (84.12%), adult care (83.89%) and fuel collection (80.76%). These types of work are considered as women s task and are not only unpaid but unrecognized which heap burden to women restricting productive and paid activities (Grassi et. al.,2015, FAO, 2017; CARE, 2015; ActionAid, 2013; UN, 2017; Acharya, 2014; ADB, 1999). However, other tasks are being shared by them in some extent like livestock caring, gardening and kitchen gardening which are unpaid but are productive. Table 1 also provide information that unpaid care works were assisted by other women family member available in house rather than their own spouse. 298

310 Table 2: Gender and agriculture task Particulars Women family member Men Family Member Together Self Other Total Spouse Other Total or Rotation Choosing Crop (39.19) Land preparation 71 Input marketing 125 (2.38) (16.86) 5 (1.19) (29.69) Sowing 142 (33.73) Weeding 151 Pesticide application (35.87) 113 (26.84) Irrigation 131 (31.12) Harvesting 83 (19.71) Threshing 69 Marketing (4.51) 28 (6.65) 67 (15.91) 16 (3.80) 30 (7.13) 22 (5.23) (16.39) 9 (2.14) (27.55) Saving 194 (46.08) Source: Field Survey, (3.09) 23 (5.46) (41.57) 76 (18.05) 144 (34.20) 170 (40.38) 218 (51.78) 129 (30.64) 161 (38.24) 105 (24.94) 78 (18.53) 129 (30.64) 217 (51.54) (25.42) 78 (18.53) 103 (24.47) 54 (12.83) 14 (3.33) 90 (21.38) 62 (14.73) 25 (5.94) 29 (6.89) 97 (23.04) 109 (25.89) (14.73) 104 (24.70) 89 (21.14) 60 (14.25) 12 (2.85) 114 (27.08) 75 (17.81) 35 (8.31) 52 (12.35) 77 (18.29) 44 (10.45) (40.14) 77 (18.29) 182 (43.23) (38.72) (45.61) 85 (20.19) 114 (27.08) 26 (6.18) (32.54) 177 (42.04) (48.46) 88 (20.90) 137 (32.54) 60 (14.25) 81 (19.24) 174 (41.33) 153 Figure in parenthesis indicate percentage 123 (29.22) 256 (60.81) 262 (62.23) 118 (28.03) (36.34) 51 (12.11) Agriculture is a major Nepalese economy and women share a large labor force in this economy. Women are engaged in most of activities in agriculture which are almost physical and time consuming. Table 2 explains that weeding (51.78%), saving (51.54%), sowing (40.38%) and irrigation (38.24%) are mostly done women and activities like pesticide application (48.46%), input marketing (45.61%) land preparation (43.23%), product marketing (41.33%) made mostly men family member. Decision making for crop 299

311 selection was distributed equally by women (41.57%) and men member (40.14%) however joint decision making is low (18.29%) which is almost similar to study of west Bengal (Pal and Haldar, 2016) and it is observed that institutional and organizational decision made by women are more sustainable (Leone, 2013). Input and product marketing is dominatingly done by men member of family and women share labor consuming tasks like weeding, irrigation etc. (FAO, 2012). Threshing (62.23%) and harvesting (60.81%) of agricultural crops are mostly done together. However, there is significant shift on agricultural role of women like decision making, input marketing, product marketing and saving, which seems increase in empowerment level of women but different study shows it may be due to outmigration of economically active men (Tamang, 2014). Less than half of women farmers were involved in different types of organization like women self-help group, cooperatives, micro banking organization, village organization. Table 6 reveals, most of women (54.08%) are just listening and accepting others decision and percent of women were saving as they are bound to do so in organization. Women s decision making, participating in managerial task is limited to few women member. Casey (2012) argue that there is no significant change in decision making by women despite of their increase in participation in organization. Table 3: Organization tasks performed by respondents Organizational Works Frequency Percentage (N=196) Decision Making Collecting Money Saving Physical Works Accounting Motivating Other Listening and accepting others Source: Field Survey, percent of women farmers in study site used to participate in community work mostly in tole sanitation (88.44%) and followed by religious function (60.20%). Infrastructure development task are being shared to less women in community like road construction, irrigation and park construction. Whatever reason for saving, this will develop confidence and personal capacities of women and attempts for gender empowerment by different organizations focus on 300

312 women s participation in communities infrastructure development have improved their social status however these attempts are negligible and should be increased (ADB, 2016; FAO, 2013). Table 4: Types of community works of respondents Community Works Frequency Percentage (N= 294) Tole Sanitation Road Construction Irrigation Canal Construction Religious Function Park Construction Other (Campaign, meeting 6 Plantation) 2.04 Source: Field Survey, 2017 Help of spouse to women farmers Most of women farmers (73.40%) in study perceived that their spouse helps them in their house hold work. Spouse of women farmers in study sites mainly support in livestock care (66.99%), water collection (55.34%), fuel collection (51.78%) and surrounding cleaning (50.81%). However, unpaid care work like washing dishes (15.22%), bed arrangement (16.18%), washing clothes (22.65%), room cleaning (25.54%) and adult caring (26.86%) are supported by very few men to their spouse. Study carried by Starrels (1994) about husband s share in house hold chores describes, less than half of husbands in survey share household chores among them cooking and washing dinner dishes are shared by very few husband. These types of works can be shared easily buts become burden for single person, especially women, which hinder their time in productive work can be called as time poverty (Grassi et. al., 2015; FAO, 2016). Most of women farmers (42.58%) in dang district perceived, they are moderately satisfied by help of their spouse and most of them help irregularly (45.93%) percent of women farmers feel that their spouse help them regularly which is quite impressive. Help from spouse to women farmers can lessen burden of task to women and help in empowerment and it is necessary to maintain relation between men and women for development (FAO, 2017). 301

313 Conclusions This research describes efficiently about workload distribution and perception towards husband by women farmers in Dang district of Nepal. Study conclude that, household work and unpaid care work are considered as women work and men are sharing mostly livestock caring, kitchen gardening, gardening. Women are responsible for volunteer and time taking tasks in agriculture like sowing, weeding and irrigation and at same time men are occupying decision making, marketing and technical work however, there is shift in women agricultural task in some extent. Various study and this article suggest that seasonal and temporary migration of economically active men to India, gulf countries and different cities of Nepal may be reason for shift of agricultural task. Result shows majority of women are involved in organization and community work which support different attempt of gender mainstreaming program and policies however, it counters in real sense as their involvement is confined in passive participation as most of them are just saving as bound in norms and listening or accepting others decision rather being associated in managerial task. Women farmers perceives, they get some help from their husband but these helps are not regular so most of them are moderately satisfied. Works, helped by their husband, are also accumulated to livestock caring, surrounding cleaning, water and fuel collection. Feminine works considered by society like cooking, washing clothes, washing dishes, room cleaning, adult care and bed arrangement are almost refused by them. In contrast to other literature, results of this study shows some positive vibes as husband of women farmers are putting their hands in child care which was particularly known as mother s job. Whatever work is being shared by husband of women farmers, they perceive positive toward their husband. Recommendations This study has some of recommendation for policy maker, local government, agriculture researcher and gender advocates to ensure gender equality and reducing women s work burden. Ferrant et. al. (2014) suggest there is need of attempt in reducing unproductive work load to women for their greater involvement in productive work which sum up effort in minimizing gender gap in working situation. Some of recommendation are listed below. 302

314 a. Establishment of public care house for children and adult. b. Mechanization and improvement in household work like electrification of water collection, use of improved smokeless stove, platform for washing clothes and dishes. c. Development of women friendly technology in agriculture. d. Reflect training for both men and women, motivating men for benefit of gender mainstreaming other than privileges. e. Gender sensitive planning while inducing any intervention in every society. Acknowledgement We would like to express our gratitude to Mr. Mahesh Jaishi and Mrs. Lochana Baba Shahi for their regular motivation and aspiration. Our special thanks goes to students of College of Live Science, Dang, their immense help during data collection will be always appreciated. We are grateful to Mr. Tilak Karki, and Dr. Jitu Upadhyaya for their continuous support for all time while writing this paper. Reference Acharya, S Gender, jobs and education prospects and realities in Nepal. United Nation Education Science and Cultural Organization. Country office, Kathmandu. Actionaid Making care visible: Women s unpaid care work in Nepal, Nigeria, Uganda and Kenya. Actionaid, Hague. ADB Country briefing paper: Women in Nepal. Asian Development Bank. ADB Gender equality results case study: Nepal gender equality and empowerment of women project. Asian Development Bank, Manila. Bhadra, C. & Shah, M.T Nepal: Country gender profile. Japan International Commission of Aid Nepal. CARE Gender relation in Nepal overview. Care International. FAO Closing the gender gap in agriculture - the need to strengthen data collection, analysis and dissemination incorporating a report on the activities of the working party on women and the family in rural development (WPW). European Commission on Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization. (No. 1) FAO FAO policy in gender equality; Attaining food security goals in agriculture and rural development. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. FAO Rural women: striving for gender-transformative impacts. Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition. Online paper discussion, FSN Forum. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. (No. 130) FAO Rural women: striving for gender-transformative impacts. Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition. Online paper discussion, FSN Forum. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. (No. 142) 303

315 Ferrant, G., Pesando, L.M. & Nocwaka, K Unpaid care work: The missing link in the analysis of gender gaps in labor outcomes. Issues Papers, OECD Development Center. GIZ Gender and rural development. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Eschborn, Germany. Grassi, F., Landberg, J. & Huyer, S Running out of time: The reduction of women s work burden in agricultural production. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. ICRW Gender equity and male engagement: It only works when everyone plays. International Center for Research on Women, Washington DC. IDB Mainstreaming gender in rural development projects in Latin America and the Caribbean. Technical note IDB-TN-763. Inter-American Development Bank. ILO Nepal labor market update. International Labor Organization Country Office for Nepal, Kathmandu. Leone, M Women as decision makers in community forest management: Evidence from Nepal. Lyons, T Developing gender mainstreaming and 'gender respect'. In Thomas, P (ed) Gender and development: Bridging policy and practice. Development Bulletin. Development Studies Network, Canberra. (No. 64) Pal, S. & Haldar, S Participation and role of rural women in decision making related to farm activities: A study in Burdwan district of West Bengal. Economic Affairs. Vol 61(1). Pp Raney, T. & Doss, C The role of women in agriculture. ESA Working Papers. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. (No ) Starrels, M. E Husbands' involvement in female gender-typed household chores. Sex Roles. Vol. 31 (718) Tamang, S., Paudel, K.P.& Shrestha, K.K Feminization of agriculture and its implications for food security in rural Nepal. Journal of Forest and livelihood. Vol. 12(1). UN The sustainable development goals report United Nation, New York. WEF Five challenges, one solution: Women. Global Agenda Council on Women s Empowerment , World Economic Forum, Geneva. 304

316 WOMEN S POTENTIAL UNLEASHED IN COMMON INTEREST GROUPS Dr. A. Sailaja Professor Dept. of Agricultural Extension Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad ABSTRACT Rural women in India constitute 35% of total population. Entrepreneurship is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to the industrial growth and thereby to economic development of a society. While women comprise 50% of total population, only 5% of them are operating business. Self employment is emerging as a very important source of livelihood for women. Rural women can undertake both production and processing oriented enterprises.rural microenterprises enhance national productivity generate employment and bring out economic empowerment in women. The process of microenterprise development in Bhadhradri Kothagudem district of Telangana state under study is absolutely participatory in nature. The institution played a facilitator role in the entire process which initiated from identification of business opportunities, social mobilisation, group formation, training, establishment of forward and backward linkages and unit establishment. The active participation of women and effective leadership led to the sustainability of the unit. Attitude and values of the leader was the strong force determining effective leadership in common interest groups. Focussed group discussions and in-depth observations of the group revealed that majority of women employed were married, landless, young and hailed from forward caste. The group was three years old and had group processes and managerial competencies operating at a high level. Performance evaluation of this unit revealed that there is considerable improvement in their socio-economic conditions. A form of innovation was also brought out in management and work organisation by developing branches after capacity building of interested groups in other places.the extension strategies which promoted entrepreneurship are follow up after each stage of the process and expertise development. The unit which has techno-economic,social and market built self reliance in women contributing to a monthly income of Rs /-.The unit is in dire need of financial support for machinery procurement and technical support for product line improvement in the identified areas. The changed role of the extension professionals, identification and promotion of effective leaders for multiplier effects in rural areas is the need of the hour for sustainability. 305

317 Women today contribute less than a fifth of India s GDP and make up just 24% of the work force, compared to 40% globally. Without much stronger participation from then, India will continue to fall short of its economic potential. Women are considered as extremely pivotal point in the process of change in rural areas. Women informal economic activities and poverty alleviation are of growing interest to individuals, groups and governments largely because of the worsening levels of productivity and poverty in rural areas which directly threaten the food security and living standards of the average rural people. It is these income yielding informal economic activities by women that make them indispensable in the process of rural development. India s experience demonstrates change process. Due to feminization of agriculture, rural India needs to be transformed by engendering a gender revolution which is a right step on the right ladder. The awakening of women in India can be achieved by women to women contact. It is the women who can inspire confidence and offer stimulus for social change in rural areas. Hence, effective leadership must come from the ranks of women themselves. Amidst many supportive factors and forces women have availed supportive opportunities and demonstrated their capacities in a unique way. Methodology The present study was a case analysis of a microenterprise developed in a common interest group in Aswaraopet of Bhadradri Kothagudem district of Telangana State. The common interest group (CIG) was evolved under women effective leadership institutional comprised of 30 women. Focused group discussions and indepth observations were were conducted.the entire process of microenterprise development (banana fibre unit) was absolutely participatory in nature. Objectives of the study 1. To document the characteristics of leader of CIG 2. To examine socio-economic profile of members of CIG 3. To document the structural and functional characteristics of CIG 4. To study performance evaluation of the micro-enterprise 5. To explore forward and backward linkages of the group in the promotion of microentreprise in CIG. Results and Discussion Through in depth participatory analysis of a case, findings on characteristics of entrepreneur (leader of CIG) socio-economic profile of members, structural and functional characteristics of the group, performance evaluation, exploration of forward and backward linkages, suggestions in product line improvement, constraints encourtered, and the future course of action were reported hereunder. Regarding the study of characteristics of the leader of CIG, she was found to be self confident, had strong will power, task oriented, calculated risk taker and future oriented. Her strong attitude, values and ethics that she needs to provide livelihood support to women through an enterprise was the strong determining force for effective of socio-economic profile of the group revealed that majority of the 306

318 women were young, landless, married, hailed from small sized nuclear families and pursued only primary schooling. Study on structural and functional characteristics of the group revealed working age as three years, had primary schooling, majority were OC s and were undertaking economic activity collectively. (Value addition to banana fibre). The institution as a facilitator, coordinator enabled the group to receive training from two women master trainers of KVK, Kalvacherla at their own expense for 10 days in the village itself at the leader s residence. The boarding and lodging facilities of the trainers were also borne by the leader alone. Thus, the institutional support was in the form of the information and resource support to the CIG. With respect to functional characteristics of the groups, the group was highly cohesive in nature with clear groups role differentiation had effective group leadership and exhibited joint decision making abilities. The motivation for forming into groups was mainly to be self reliant. The main factor determining high group cohesiveness was their collective thinking to undertake collective activities. Performance evaluation was done with respect to a.improvement in socio-economic conditions which revealed improvement in their health, nutritional and educational status of their families. The socio-political participation of the group increased as the leader had an opportunity to meet Prime Minister. This mobility enabled them to meet officials of NABARD, entrepreneurs of other districts and thus obtained information regarding their entrepreneurial activities. This paved way to go to Bhadrachalam as master trainers to the interested groups. It also added as a secondary source of income to the farm women. This was the innovation made in management and work organization by establishing a branch of main unit. The performance evaluation of microenterprise was also studied with respect to reasons for choosing the present business, and profits earned / month/person and d. problems faced in business. Reasons for choosing the present business cited by the group members was convenience of work in shade at home, high demand for eco-friendly handicrafts, unperishable good and abundant raw material availability. Problems faced in business was middlemen in marketing and inadequate capital. Thus, the unit had techno, socioeconomic and market feasibility. 5. The forward linkages of the institution to CIG are : - motivation for taking up group enterprise - providing entrepreneurial and technical inputs to the groups. The other forward linkage like identification of raw material suppliers and backward linkages (raw material supplier, marketing assistance in marketing of finished goods and getting indents) are formed by CIG on its own. The CIG on their own have suggested product line improvement in the preparation of ecofriendly sanitary pads, textiles and mats with the banana fibre. 307

319 The CIG is now in dire need of fibre extracting machine, civil infrastructure and wooden rings to carry on the work. The extension strategies followed for micro-enterprise development are 1. Attitude and values of the institution 2. Constant mentoring and continuous follow up. 3. Facilitator and coordinator role of the institution. Proposed strategies for sustenance of CIG are as follows - Financial support from institution to procure 3M s (material, money, machinery) besides civil infrastructure - Networking of groups - Brandname for the product - Provision of marketing skills Administrative strategies proposed are identification of effective leaders and conducting training programmes in inspiring leadership in rural areas. This acts as a road map for sustainability in rural areas. 308

320 THEME V-Water & Sanitation Management 309

321 Water and Sanitation Management and SDGs Dr. Ravi K Reddy Secretary REEDS Abstract Access to water and sanitation facilities matters to every aspect of human dignity: from food and energy security to human and environmental health. Today, 800 million people are without access to an improved water source and as many as 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water that is faecally contaminated. Poor sanitation, hygiene and unsafe water claim the lives of an estimated over 1.5 million children under the age of five every year. Currently, 2.5 billion people lack adequate sanitation facilities and over 1 billion practice open defecation, costing the world US$260billion annually percent of global GDP or up to 10 percent of GDP for some countries. Target 7c of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. For 15 years since 2000, the MDGs drove progress in providing much needed access to water and sanitation. Yet significant obstacles remain to realizing the human right to safe drinkingwater and sanitation. 663 million people are still without access to improved drinking water sources; and floods and other water-related disasters account for 70 per cent of all deaths related to natural disasters! Two thirds of the world s population could be living in waterstressed countries by 2025 if current consumption patterns continue. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) came into effect in January All 17 SDGs interconnect and cover the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. Over the next fifteen years, with these SDGs that universally apply to all, countries will mobilize efforts to end all forms of poverty, fight inequalities and tackle climate change, while ensuring that no one is left behind. Considering water scarcity, poor water quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security and quality of livelihoods across the world, Ensure Availability and Sustainable Management of Water and Sanitation for all has been included as SDG 6 and is highly connected to all the other SDGs. Author has summarized the economic and social imperative of a better Water and Sanitation Management in the context of India and India s performance in terms of SDG 6. The presentation employing his own organization s experiences in the fields of safe drinking water, sanitation & hygiene and waste management will share experiences on the challenges, opportunities and strategies in realizing SDG 6 targets to improve life for future generations. 310

322 Rainwater Harvesting: A fit Option for Water Conservation in Rainfed Agriculture in India-Review D J Rangapara Scientist & J H Patel, Scientist & K. N. Rana, Farm manager Krushi Vigyan Kendra-Arnej, Anand Agriculture University, Gujarat, India Abstract South Asia is family to one of the firstborn nations of the world. The sub-region includes the countries with Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In this region, 75 % of the agriculture is rainfed and most parts of the country receive rainfall no more than 50 days in short but heavy showers. Especially, Indian economy is mainly dependent on agriculture, which contributes 21 per cent of the country s GDP and 60 per cent of the employment. Rainfed agriculture occupies 67 percent net sown area, contributing 44 percent of food grains and supporting 40 percent of the population. In view of the developing mandate for food grains in the country, there is a need to increase the productivity of rainfed areas within short period. The quality of natural resources in the rainfed ecosystem is gradually declining due to over utilisation. Dryland systems are characterized by persistent water scarcity, rapid population growth, frequent droughts, high climatic variability, land degradation and desertification, and widespread poverty. Quick extension of groundwater usage in India has caused in abrupt weakening in the groundwater table in massive areas of the country. This caused to drying up of a huge number of wells, low well productivity, rapid rise in well and pumping depths, deteriorating groundwater quality, and also salinity ingression many areas. Shallow wells are running dry and the depth of tube wells is increasing every year. Some estimates indicate that the withdrawal rate of groundwater in India is twice the recharge rate. In response to this situation, rainwater harvesting offers a critical and promising solution to replenish and recharge the groundwater. Rainwater harvesting for agriculture generally involves the creation of structures such as check dams, ponds, and percolation tanks to slow the flow of water, and to collect and hold limited quantities at a planned set of places along the flow path. Evaluations indicate that there is a huge potential and only about 6 per cent of the available surface and groundwater is being used. This paper discusses some of the field and community-based water harvesting/conservation techniques that were found promising for improving productivity and reducing runoff. The strategies for improving the adoption of water conservation practices by farmers is also discussed which could be used to collect or generate such information required for effective planning and design of soil and water conservation interventions. The paper presents in detail about a case study of water harvesting structures and their impact on water availability and their utilization for rainfed crops. 311

323 Introduction The Indian economy is mainly dependent on agriculture, which contributes 21 per cent of country s capital GDP and 60 percent of employment potential. India made rapid strides in food production during last three decades culminating in self-sufficiency and surplus production. Rainfed agriculture occupies 67 percent of net sown area, contributing 44 percent of food grain production and supporting 40 percent of the population. Even after realization of full irrigation potential of the country, 50 percent of net sown area will continue as rainfed (CRIDA, 1997). India has been witnessing growing water scarcity over the past several years now as population growth, industrialisation and climate change are having an impact on the country's available water sources. Pollution of water sources, which is on the rise, is also leading to water scarcity in several parts of the country. Groundwater is also dwindling in the country. Alarm bells have already started ringing in areas where groundwater has reached critical levels. This is also happening due to overexploitation of groundwater resources, largely by farmers. In several areas, unapproved bore wells have been dug and water is being taken out without any concern for its recharge.the scarcity of water in India is leading to many problems. Farmers are unable to manage their crop cycles due to unavailability of water, both surface and groundwater. Several farmers have reportedly committed suicides, particularly in parts of Maharashtra, due to several factors that include unavailability of water. Elsewhere, industrial houses are stopping production in water scarce regions and making better arrangements to harness water for captive use before the monsoons. But, there have been cases when monsoon rains have also failed to alleviate the problem of water scarcity in India. Presently, India is facing a decrease in available water resources that has implications on India s agriculture sector. Several regions in the country are experiencing water stress. If water use efficiency does not improve, the country could suffer under water scarcity in the next 1 to 2 decades. It is exceedingly important that the agriculture sector contributes to prevent the exacerbation of the situation by making best use of the available technologies and resources to increase water use efficiency. Improvement of policies, strategies and regulatory measures to prevent the water misuse should be taken into consideration. Awareness and orientation of water users in the agriculture sector to switch to more water efficient production methods can help the country against water scarcity. Moreover, enforcement of best practices can help present policy makers and planners to enhance governance structures to further understand key indicators that can assist in data-driven decision-making. These challenges can be better implicated, provided there are favourable policies and mechanisms that encourage the agriculture sector to increase water use efficiency. Background The normal annual rainfall precipitation in the country is estimated to be 400 million hectare-metres (Mha-m) of water (Majumdar 2002). Out of this, 115 Mha-m enters surface flows, 215 Mha-m enters the ground, and 70 Mha-m is lost to evaporation. Only 312

324 25 Mha-m is finally used through surface irrigation which constitutes a mere 6 per cent of the total water available through rain and from flows from outside the country (20 Mham). It is also indicates that out of the 215 Mha-m infiltrating into the soil, only 13 Mha-m is utilized for groundwater irrigation and other uses. This again constitutes a mere 6 per cent of the annual precipitation infiltrating into the soil, indicating the substantial potential for rainwater harvesting. Importance of Rainfed Agriculture Rainfed crop production, which uses infiltrated rainfall that forms soil moisture in the root zone, accounts for most of the crop water consumption in agriculture (Rockstrom, 2010). In the dry sub-humid and the semi-arid zones, where farming systems have experienced the lowest yields and the weakest yield improvements during the past decades (FAO, 2005),dry spell mitigation is a common water management practice for minimizing the risk of crop failure due to drought. Environmental Pollution is a major cause for water crisis. As a result underground layer recedes fast. Taps and tube-wells run dry in hot summer days. People of arid area suffer the starvation of water. They are to drink the filthy water of ponds, stagnant tanks and rivers. Consequently they fall victims to deadly diseases. The water crisis may be averted if nature is allowed to recycle water freely. Some viable measures that can be taken to tackle the problem of water crisis includes: Rain water harvesting, Right use of water and Pollution control, etc. One of the reason of water crisis in Indian is pollution and not right use of available rain water. Hence its solution is to harvest rainwater, which is the best/fit option for water conservation in rainfed agriculture in India. Importance of Rainwater Harvesting The decentralized small water harvesting structures present a major alternative to the conventional river basin water resource development models (Verma et al. 2008). An outstanding example is the decentralized, large-scale, check dam rainwater harvesting movement in Saurashtra, Gujarat. The studies show a clear relationship between the size of catchment and amount of run-off that can be captured. Increasing the size of the catchment from 1 hectare (ha) to about 2 ha reduces the water yield per hectare by as much as 20 per cent. Thus, in a drought prone area where water is scarce, 10 tiny dams with a catchment of 1 ha each will collect more water than one larger dam with a catchment of 10 ha. The frequently advocated approach to enhance water productivity in smallholder rain-fed agriculture is to adopt water harvesting and conservation technologies (WH). A number of scholars have confirmed the potential of RWH to enhance water productivity by mitigating temporal and spatial variability of rainfall (Rockstrom 2007, Mwenge Kahinda 2009). Khurana (2003) indicates that the drought proofing benefits from 313

325 small rainwater harvesting structures can very effectively distribute the available water when there is no drought or a limited drought and smaller structures help in conditions of high inter-year rainfall variability and low reliability Moench and Kumar (1993). Rainwater harvesting structures can be very useful for semi-arid and dry, sub-humid regions especially as water scarcity is caused by extreme variability of rainfall rather than the amount of rainfall. Under such conditions, with high rainfall intensities, few rain events, and poor spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, even if total rainfall is adequate, water losses are very high, thus leading to scarcity and need to downscale water resource management from the river basin scale to the catchment scale (Rockstrom et al. 2009). Sepaskhah & Fooladmand used a computer simulation model for design of micro catchment water harvesting systems for rainfed vineyard in Bagjah area of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The model includes rainfall, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, water contribution from deeper layers and deep percolation. Through the simulation, the study gave the suggestions of the micro catchment areas according to the probabilities of occurrence of annual rainfall. However, the study did not consider collecting the runoff for later use during dry spell. The key function of RWH is to alter the partitioning of precipitation into less surface runoff and more soil moisture; and partition more of the soil moisture into crop transpiration and less to soil evaporation (Sepaskhah and Fooladmandm 2004). These water harvesting systems can be grouped into three main types, namely; insitu moisture conservation, concentration of runoff to crops in the field, and collection and storage of runoff water (from roofs and land areas) in different structures for both domestic and agricultural use (Falkenmark and Rockstrom, 2004). Kateja (2003) discusses the importance of groundwater in arid states such as Rajasthan and the need for different techniques of groundwater recharge. Seventy per cent of the population in Rajasthan depends on groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes and the scanty rainfall cannot recharge the groundwater without the adoption of water harvesting techniques. The techniques may include recharge structures such as Talabs, Nadi, Tanka, Bawari, Jhalara, and Khadin to suit the local geological and climate conditions. Groundwater extraction is also leading to significant water quality problems and health hazards and over 16,000 habitations may be fluoride affected. Tanks lead to substantial rainwater harvesting at the local level, and the associated distribution system leads to water availability in large areas and to larger numbers of farmers. A significant benefit of percolation of rainwater is groundwater recharge and higher water table in the area. Other benefits include low cost flow irrigation, reduction in intensity of flash floods, concentration of silt and minerals to fertilize the soil in the command area, and reduction in soil erosion (Shah and Raju 2001). Kishore et al. (2005) find that even when the rainfall shows no decline, there are growing scarcities at many locations, as use is increasingly exceeding the availability. They say that the only recourse in such locations is to close the demand supply gap by conserving water through rainwater harvesting. This may include building a core wall on the upstream side of ponds to prevent them from pulling out groundwater from upstream lands. Rainwater harvesting implementation is promoted to alleviate temporal and spatial water scarcity for domestic, crop and livestock production and support the overall water resources management (Mwenge Kahinda at al., 2009). 314

326 Design and management of water harvesting systems may be conducted by models for soil water balance. One of these models is a simple, few parameters simulation model for a water harvesting strip farming systems. Sharma et al (2010) estimated the efficiency of regional rain water use and incremental production due to supplementary irrigation for different crops. They concluded that water harvesting and supplemental irrigation are economically viable at the national level. Droughts have very mild impacts on productivity when farmers are equipped with supplemental irrigation. Tilala and Shiyani (2005) undertook a study of the impact of water harvesting structures on the Raj Samadhiyala village of Saurashtra near Rajkot. This is a highly admired rainwater harvesting experiment and the study sought to evaluate the impacts through a comparison of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. They found that the water harvesting structures had a substantial positive impact on the cropping patterns of farmers, crop yields and farmer incomes. They also report benefits of higher water use efficiency, reduction in cost of production, and higher labour productivity. Sikarwar et al. (2005), evaluated the impact of 5 small check dams and 5 marginal check dams constructed in Saurashtra, Gujarat in the Ladudi Watershed between 2002 and 2004 by the Gujarat State Land Development Corporation (GSLDC). They found that the total hours of irrigation from the wells increased by 32 per cent and that there was a rise of 6 to 7 metres in the water table depth observed in the wells. There was also improvement in the cropping pattern, net revenues, as well as the socio-economic status of farmers as a result of the check dams. The National Water Policy 2002 recommends the development of water harvesting systems to increase the utilizable water resources. Most villages in the desert tract had small ponds, and in a good season there was sufficient water to drink for seven to eight months. If rainfall failed, water was available for only four to six months otherwise the villagers had to bring water from other villages km away. In some of the villages had tankas or circular holes in the ground, lined with fine polished chuna (lime) in water was collected during rainfall and used when other supplies failed. In Rajasthan, there are vaious traditional water resources systems nadi, talab, jojad, bandha, sagar, samand and sarovar, just to name a few. Traditional methods of harnessing surface water may provide some alternatives to meet the problem of water demand. A systematic study of similar traditional water harnessing methods is needed to make policy-makers aware of these alternative sources (Dhruv Saxena, 2017) Case Study 1 In the area surrounding the River Ruparel in Rajasthan is a good example of proper water conservation. The site receives very little rainfall, but proper management and conservation have ensured the water availability throughout the year. The water level in the river began declining due to extensive deforestation and agricultural activities along the banks and, by the 1980s, a drought-like situation began to spread. Under the guidance of local peoples, the women living in the area were encouraged to take the initiative in 315

327 building johads (round ponds) and dams to hold back rain water. Gradually, water began coming back as proper methods of conserving and harvesting rainwater were followed. The revival of the river has transformed the ecology to the place and the lives of the people living along its banks. Their relationship with their natural environment has been strengthened. It has proved that mankind is not the master of the environment, but a part of it. If human beings put in an effort, the damage caused by us can be undone. Case Study 2 Rainwater harvesting using plastic-lined doba technology for orchard establishment in the eastern plateau and hill region of India: (S. K. Naik at al., 2016) : Polythene of 6 m length and 4.5 m width is required to line the structure. The doba is constructed with simple tools available with the farmers, mainly spade and bucket. Before actual digging of the tanks for the doba, a proper layout of the field is made in such a way that one doba covers nearly ten plants. The growth attributes were recorded at the end of establishment phase of mango orchard (3 years). It was observed that the orchard having five dobas/acre for 60 plants was better in terms of plant height, girth at graft union (GGU), canopy diameter and percentage of survival of plants compared to that with two dobas/acre and no dobas. Case stydy 3 Groundwater Recharge Using Well Recharging (Reena Kumari at al. 2014): Field study was undertaken in Parasai Sindh watershed area of 1246 hectares to investigate the ground water recharge possibilities of shallow dug well by well recharging unit. Recharging filter having six layer of fine sand, coarse sand, small concrete grit, concrete grit, pebble and stone of 0.2 mm, 2 mm, 2 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm, respectively. Recharge filter was installed at 3m away from the well. Rain water was allowed to pass through plug and water stored in sediment pit. Sediment settled in sediment pit and water passes through filter unit. Filtered water was guided through a pipe to the bottom of well, below the water level to avoid scouring of bottom and entrapment of air bubbles in the aquifer. Water table rise of about per cent was recorded as compared to control well after getting rainfall of 100 mm of cumulative rainfall. At 270 mm cumulative rainfall, the water column of treated well was recorded 32 per cent higher as compared to control. When cumulative rainfall of watershed was 506 mm, the water column of treated well was found 21 per cent higher than control well and at 700 mm of cumulative rainfall the difference in water level of both treated and control well was found very less. The change in ground water storage volume of watershed during pre and post monsoon by treated and control well was observed 1143 and 1023 m. Conclusion:Rapid expansion of groundwater use in India in the last three decades has resulted in a steep decline in the groundwater table in vast areas of the country. This has led to drying up of a huge number of wells, low well productivity, rapid rise in well and pumping depths, deteriorating groundwater quality, and also salinity opening in many 316

328 areas. Shallow wells are running dry and the depth of tube wells is increasing every year. Some estimates indicate that the withdrawal rate of groundwater in India is twice the recharge rate. Because of less recharge of groundwater aquifer, we often face water scarcity. And as such, if this situation goes on then our new generation will face a tremendous problem for drinking water as well water scarcity in agricultural and industrial sector. The reason is that no sincere attempt is made to replenish the ground water table with rainwater during the monsoon. The rainwater harvesting is the simple collection or storing of water through scientific techniques from the areas where the rain falls. It involves utilization of rain water for the domestic or the agricultural purpose. The method of rain water harvesting has been into practice since ancient times. It is especially beneficial in the areas, which faces the scarcity of water. In response to this situation, rainwater harvesting offers a critical and promising solution to replenish and recharge the groundwater. References CRIDA Vision Perspective Plan of the Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India. Dhruv Saxena, Water Conservation: Traditional Rain Water Harvesting Systems in Rajasthan. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 52(2), pp J. Rockstrom and J. Barron Water productivity in rainfed systems: overview of challenges and analysis of opportunities in water scarcity prone savannahs. Irrigation Science, vol. 25(3), pp Reena Kumari, Babloo Sharma, Ramesh Singh, R.M. Singh and R.K. Tewari Estimation of Groundwater Recharge Using Well Recharging Unit in Parasai- Sindh Watershed of SAT Region of India. Indian Journal of Ecology, vol. 41(2), pp S. K. Naik, S. S. Mali Bikash Das P. R. Bhatnagar S. Kumar and A. K. Sikka Rainwater harvesting using plastic-lined doba technology for orchard establishment in the eastern plateau and hill region of India, Current science, vol. 111(11), pp Ziye LIU, Review on Rainfed Agriculture and Rainwater Harvesting Techniques, International Conference on Biological Engineering and Pharmacy, Vol. 3, pp

329 Water and Sanitation Management N.D.K. Dayawansa, PhD Department of Agricultural Engineering Faculty of Agriculture University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Introduction Water is an essential component of life on earth. Of all the water on earth, only 2.5% is fresh water. Fresh water is either groundwater (0,5%), or readily accessible water in lakes, streams, rivers, etc. (0,01%). Less than 1% of the water supply on earth can be used as drinking water.nearly a billion people worldwide have limited access to clean water. On average, women in developing countries walk 3.7 miles (6 kilometers) a day to collect water. Around 700 million people in the world suffer today from water scarcity. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity. Unsafe hygiene practices are widespread and are mostly attributed to poor access to clean water. Population growth, economic development, increasing demand for food and energy have exerted a great pressure on the water resources all over the world. Most of these sectors attempt to achieve their goals individually without realizing the existing connectivity between all the water use sectors and the ecosystems. However, it is important that these common development goals should be achieved without compromising the functions of valuable ecosystems which are critical in providing good quality water. Shortcomings in inter-sectoral linkages is the main barrier for integrated management of water and other natural resources at local, national and transboundary level. Though water has many users, irrigation is the main consumptive water user in the world. Improving water productivity in the agricultural systems is a complex task. It can be achieved bya variety of approaches such as cultivating improved crop varieties, precision farming and most importantly through efficient water management. According to the FAO, despite concerns on the technical inefficiency of water use in agriculture, water productivity has increased by at least 100 percent between 1961 and The major factor behind this increase has been identified as the improvements in crop yield. However, future agricultural production needs attention on several aspects such as reduction of agricultural 318

330 production areas as a result of urban expansion, soil degradation, limited access to water resource due to quantity and quality issues, poor governance and increase of water users including the environment. Climate change will also add further burden on the water productivity by changing water availability in time and space. Health and sanitation has a strong nexus with water. Securing access to clean water and adequate sanitation will eventually help to reduce spreading of diseases and ultimately improve the health of humans. Access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene; collectively known as WASH has a great impact on the socio-economic conditions of women and girls. WASH has been identified in the dedicated targets under the goal 6 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A considerable number of child deaths are reported annually due to diarrheal diseases as a result of poor quality water and sanitation. Hence, the world has a challenge ahead to provide safe drinking water and sanitation services to its people under changing climatic and socio-economic scenarios. Although Sri Lanka is blessed with water resources, spatial and temporal variability of water availability is an issue of concern. A single water resource is found to be utilized for manydifferent purposes such as domestic and irrigation water supply, industrial water demands andhydropower generation. Accordingly, a huge pressure is exerted on water sources during dryweather periods due to exceeding demand over the availability. This pressure will be furtheraggravated with the unexpected dry weather conditions. Since a major portion of the water resources is used for irrigation purposes, agriculture is the main sector suffering heavily due to low availability of water. Subsequently, it will lead to food insecurity, poverty and social unrest. With the reduction of hydropower generation capacity, all the other sectors will also be affected. Weather events in the extreme other end (Floods) will also create problems for agriculture, domestic water supply and health. Therefore, the country should have a strategy to successfully manage the unexpected whether events and associated water related issues (mainly water shortages) to ensure water security. The water quantity and quality are important aspects in fulfilling water demands of various sectors. Therefore, it is important to improve the awareness about climate change and possible impacts on hydrological, natural and physical environment of the important river basins. Water for domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors should be ensured for better 319

331 socio-economic growth. At the same time, it is important to consider environmental water requirement as well in order to maintain a healthy environment. Water for food will be a critical factor with changing climate since agricultural is the main water consumer in the world. Within this background, it is important to look at the climate change, water and food security within an integrated management framework. Conclusion A fragmented, sectoral and top down approach is adopted with the introduction of several government agencies responsible for various aspects related to water use and management in many countries. Realizing the limitations in this traditional approach of water management and with the acquisition of knowledge in Integrated Water Resources Management, there is a considerable shift in thinking and actions with respect to the approaches adopted in water management all over the world at present. The collaboration of grass-root level water users and managers in decision making process is one of the positive aspects of integrated management of water. Community participation in water management will help them to understand own water needs, develop ownership for water resources, identify the risks in terms of water governance and promote meaningful collective actions in water resources protection and management to improve health and sanitation of their communities 320

332 THEME VI Climate Change 321

333 Climate Change: Scenario Analysis and Consequence in Indian Agriculture B S Hansra 1 and Pinaki Roy 2 1Professor Emeritus (Agriculture), Amity International Centre for Post-Harvest Technology & Cold Chain Management, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, 2 Junior Research Fellow, Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi Abstract: Climate change, the outcome of the Global Warming has now started showing its impacts worldwide. Climate change poses a serious challenge to agriculture because of the critical dependence of the agricultural system on climate. It has the potential to both positively and negatively affect the location, timing, and productivity of crop, and livestock at local, national, and global scales. Agriculture plays a pivotal role in rural and national social and economic systems. As climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity which directly impact on food production in the country. Increase in the mean seasonal temperature can reduce the duration of many crops and hence reduce final yield. Food production systems are extremely sensitive to climate changes like changes in temperature and precipitation, which may lead to outbreaks of pests and diseases thereby reducing harvest ultimately affecting the food security of the country. Though agriculture has been able to adapt to recent changes in climate; innovations would be needed to accelerate the rate of adaptation of agriculture and the associated socioeconomic system to keep pace with climate change in the forth coming years. Introduction: Indian agriculture is highly significant on a planetary scale, occupying 37 percent or as much as percent of the Earth s land surface but it is currently facing many challenges. Stagnating net sown area and stagnating yield levels, degrading soil quality, reduction in per capita land availability and the undesirable effects of climate change are the major challenges for Indian agriculture. India had a population of 1.03 billion in 2001 which increased to 1.21 billion in 2011 (Census of India, 2011). Most major wars fought in the last two centuries have been focused on control of precious resources like minerals, oil, and land. This picture has started to shift in the past few years, with armed conflict increasingly focused on control over depleting water resources and by association food. Climate change-linked droughts in Northern Africa and Sahel, and the resulting shortage 322

334 of food is one of the triggers behind the European refugee crisis. As these populations relocate to other areas, competition for scarce resources intensifies and results in conflict against the others as seen in Western Europe. This is by no means an isolated trend, but the beginning of a pattern which expect to see in India as wel. Climate Change and Scenario of India: India is home for 1.32 billion people who comprise about 17 per cent of the world s population. The nation has to nurture its huge population with only 2.4 per cent of the world s geographical area and 4 per cent of its water resources. As agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy that accounts for about 14 per cent of the nation s GDP, about 11per cent of its exports, and provides livelihood to about half of the population. But Indian agriculture is presently challenged by a number of constraints like climate change, depleting natural resources, land fragmentation etc. Impact of climate change on agriculture will be one of the major deciding factors influencing the future food security of mankind on the earth. Agriculture is not only sensitive to climate change but also one of the major drivers for climate change. Understanding the weather changes over a period of time and adjusting the management practices towards achieving better harvest are challenges to the growth of agricultural sector as a whole. The climate sensitivity of agriculture is uncertain, as there is regional variation in rainfall, temperature, crops and cropping systems, soils and management practices. The inter-annual variations in temperature and precipitation were much higher than the predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. The crop losses may increase if the predicted climate change increases the climate variability. Different crops respond differently as the global warming will have a complex impact. The tropics are more dependent on agriculture as 75% of world population lives in tropics and two thirds of these people s main occupation is agriculture. With low levels of technology, wide range of pests, diseases and weeds, land degradation, unequal land distribution and rapid population growth, any impact on tropical agriculture will affect their livelihood. Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, soybean and barley are the six major crops in the world grown in 40% cropped area, and contribute to 55% of non-meat calories and over 70% of animal feed (FAO, 2015). Consequently, any effect on these crops would adversely affect the food security. By 2050, the India s population will reach 1.7 billion people, creating the most populated country in the world. Henceforth food demand will increase by 70%, and is already lagging domestic food production. India s overall demand for food grains is 323

335 expected to increase from million tonnes in 2010 to million tonnes in 2030 (Anonymous, 2017). But Indian agriculture production system faces the daunting task of feeding 17.5% of the global population with only 2.4% of land and 4% of water resources at its disposal. India is more vulnerable to climate change in view of the dependence of huge population on agriculture, excessive pressure on natural resources, and relatively weak coping mechanisms. The warming trend in India over the past 100 years has indicated an increase of 0.6 C, which is likely to impact many crops, negatively impacting food and livelihood security of millions of farmers. The impacts of climate change on agriculture may not be felt evenly. Smallholder agriculture was affected by direct impacts at the level of communities, landscapes and watersheds such as decreased availability of water in the irrigation systems of the Indo-Gangetic plain; impacts on soil processes from complex global warming impacts and associated hydrological changes (accelerated decomposition of organic matter, depression of nitrogen-fixing activity), soil fertility and water-holding properties affected, and overall soil erosion exacerbated by increased erosivity of rainfall. Impacts of climate change in other distant areas may create changes which affect a smallholder system. For example, decreased supply of grain in one location might affect specialist cash-crop producers in another area as the latter are net grain buyers. There are already evidences of negative impacts on yield of wheat and paddy in some parts of India due to increased temperature, water stress, and reduction in number of rainy days. Significant negative impacts have been projected under medium-term ( ) climate change scenario, for example, yield reduction by 4.5 9%, depending on the magnitude and distribution of warming. Since agriculture currently contributes about 15% of India s gross domestic product (GDP), a negative impact on production implies cost of climate change to roughly range from 0.7% to 1.35% of GDP per year (Roy et al, 2017) Weather extreme and consequences on climate change: Year 1998 was the warmest and declared as the weather-related disaster year. It caused hurricane havoc in Central America and floods in China, India and Bangladesh.Huge crop losses were noticed in Maharashtra (India) due to un-seasonal and poor distribution of rainfall during The year 2003 was the year of heat and cold waves across the world. In India Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are the States that experienced summer heat waves. When the EU suffered heat wave during the summer in 2003, India experienced severe cold wave from December 2002 to January Some parts of Jammu, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, 324

336 Uttar Pradesh and the North Eastern States experienced unprecedented cold wave. The crop yield loss varied between 10 and 100% in the case of horticultural crops and seasonal crops. The fruit size and quality were also adversely affected in horticultural crops. However, temperate fruits like apple, perch, plum and cherry gave higher yield due to extreme chilling. The damage was more in low-lying areas where cold air settled and remained for a longer time on the ground (Samra et al., 2004). High temperature in March 2004 adversely affected crops like wheat, apple, mustard, rapeseed, linseed, potato, vegetables, pea and tea across the State of Himachal Pradesh in India. The yield loss was estimated between 20% and 60% depending upon the crop. Wheat and potato harvest was advanced by days and the flowering of apple was early by 15 days. The optimum temperature for fruit blossom and fruit set is 240C in the case of apple while it experienced above 260C for 17 days. The entire region recorded between 2.1 and 7.90C higher maximum temperature against the normal across the State of Himachal Pradesh in March 2004 (Prasad and Rana, 2006). A decline of 39% in annual cocoa yield was noticed in 2004 when compared to that of 2003 due to rise in maximum temperature of the order of 1 to 30C from 14th January to 16th March in Central part of Kerala, India. Such trend was noticed whenever summer temperature shot up by 2 to 3 0 C when compared to that of normal maximum temperature of 33 to 36.50C. Untimely rains and hailstorms destroyed wheat crop of 15,000 hectares (Ha.) over UP, Haryana and Punjab in Rabi season 2007 in India. In contrast, heavy snowfall over Kashmir valley was recorded in 2007 due to western disturbances. Similar was the case during monsoon 2007, causing floods across several continents (Hurricane Dean in August in Mexico) including India and Bangladesh. Heavy rains again in September in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala led to floods and thus the year 2007 was declared as the flood year in India. A huge crop loss was noticed in several states of the Country due to floods in kharif, The Indian economy is mostly agrarian based and depends on onset of monsoon and its further behaviour. The year 2002 was a classical example to show how Indian food grains production depends on rainfall of July and it was declared as the all-india drought, as the rainfall deficiency was 19% against the long period average of the country and 29% of the area was affected due to drought. The All- India drought is declared when the rainfall deficiency for the Country as a whole is more than 10% of normal, and when more than 20% of the Country s area is affected by drought conditions. The kharif season food grain production was adversely affected by a whopping fall of 19.1% due to All India drought during monsoon

337 Challenges of Indian Agriculture: The combination of long term change and greater frequency of extreme weather events are likely to have an adverse impact on food production on coming decades. Smallholder farmers in the developing world are especially vulnerable to climate fluctuations and weather extremes, and are expected to suffer disproportionately from climate change. Changes in temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather could have significant adverse impacts on crop yields. In some areas, warming may benefit the types of crops that are typically planted there, or allow farmers to shift to crops that are currently grown in warmer areas. Conversely, if the higher temperature exceeds a crop's optimum temperature, yields will decline. Rapid climate change, however, could harm agriculture in many countries, especially those that are already suffering from rather poor soil and climate conditions, because there is less time for optimum natural selection and adaption. Impact on Agriculture: Assessing the impact of climate change is, at best, an extremely complex exercise with uncertainty about both the degree of future global warming and the subsequent impact on global activity. There is also the unknown of how technological progress will respond and potentially alter the path of global warming. Any assessment also involves taking a very long-run view, well beyond that normally used by financial market participants. However, increasing awareness of the issue means there is a growing demand for a view from shareholders who are either concerned about how the companies they own impact the environment, worried about the effect of climate change on the value chain of those companies, or a combination of both. In the coming decades, climate change and other global trends will endanger agriculture, food security, and rural livelihoods. A threefold relationship has been presented for climate change and agriculture in following I. Agriculture as a contributor to Climate Change II. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture III. Agriculture as a potential moderator of Climate Change Agriculture & Climate Change Adaptation strategies: Adaptation of potential strategies include effective and efficient use of natural resource such as water which is highly critical for adaptation to climate change. Along 326

338 with developed cultivars tolerant to heat and salinity stresses and resistant to flood and drought, modifying crop management practices, improving water management, improving pest management, better weather forecasts and crop insurance and harnessing the indigenous technological knowledge of farmers. Cropping systems may have to change to include growing suitable cultivars, increasing cropping intensities or diversification. There is an urgent need for diversification of the conventional puddled transplanted rice and tilled wheat to other cropping systems such as maize-wheat, pulse-wheat, maize-pulse, oilseed-wheat and direct seeded rice-wheat and use resources more efficiently thereby increasing farmers income and exerting less pressure to the natural resource base. Conservation agriculture and the resource conservation technologies (RCTs) have proved to be highly useful to enhance resource or input use efficiency and provide immediate, identifiable and demonstrable economic benefits such as reductions in production costs, saving in water, fuel and labour requirements and timely establishment of crops resulting in improved yields. Way forward: Adaptation measures are being implemented by a range of public and private organisations through policies, investments in infrastructure and technologies, and behavioural change. Already farmers in developing countries are using their existing experience, knowledge and resources to manage climate risks on their own account and these actions are not easily distinguished from a range of other factors (social, demographic and economic) influencing livelihood decisions and development trajectories. Planned adaptation initiatives are also often not undertaken as standalone measures, but are embedded within broader sectoral initiatives. Planned adaptation to climate change is moving up the international development agenda. From an initial focus on top-down analyses of climate change impacts, attention has shifted to vulnerability assessments and more recently to both top-down and bottom-up adaptation planning i.e. National Adaptation Programmes of Action or NAPAs. Subsequently, policy frameworks and tools are being developed to guide adaptation planning, embedding a vulnerability or resilience focus. The previously overlooked interactions between mitigation and adaptation are also receiving greater attention, because of the potential synergies and/or trade-offs implied for policy decisions. Some adaptation interventions focus on generic vulnerability, whereas others seek to specifically confront the impacts of human-induced climate change. In between these two extremes, there are various activities that seek to build response capacity in general or that aim to manage specific climate risks. There will 327

339 be trade-offs in the options chosen, and these trade-offs are likely to become increasingly complex, with equity implications. However, there is also the question of how far climate change challenges business-as-usual economic models of agricultural development. For agricultural adaptation, there is the need for changes in technologies or generation of new technologies, and also changes in the broader institutional arrangements Farm-level changes will include modifications of farming practices aimed at maintaining the existing system, but there may also be need to address the broader inequalities, e.g., in land distribution, which may be more significant and systemic in nature. Changes in governance may be needed to create an enabling environment for adaptation i.e., how to achieve adaptive management. Agricultural adaptation can be thought of as modifications to an existing system or a wider set of changes, but in fact both will be required, alongside new approaches and social learning. ICAR jointly efforts for developing institutional structure like community seed bank, fodder bank, customhiring center (CHC) for farm machinery, etc. were established in thevillages depending on the need, through active involvement offarmers, and by making use of the existing democratic structures operationalat the village level. The ICAR, focal organization for agriculture research, technology development, and transfer of technology, has accorded high priority to understanding the impacts of climate change and developing adaptation and mitigation strategies to meet the challenges posed by climate change on the agricultural system. The ICAR launched a Network Project on Climate Change in 2004 with 15 centers which were expanded later covering 23 centers across the country. The results of the project through crop modeling have helped in understanding the impacts of changes in rainfall and temperature regimes on important crops and livestock. In 2011, the ICAR launched a megaproject called NICRA with four main modules natural resource management, improving crop production, livestock and fisheries, and institutional innovations to make the farmers self-reliant for adaptation under changing climate. A good convergence among research organizations and various government programs such as national/state action plans, NMSA, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY), Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), National Agriculture Development Programme, soil health schemes, water mission, and green climate fund etc. will further contribute to scaling up for climate smart agriculture. Not only climate change is having an impact upon agriculture, but agriculture is also a significant contributor to climate change. The agricultural sector is a source of GHGs, 328

340 which contribute to global warming. Agriculture has the potential to contribute to mitigation through: (a) reducing GHG emissions, (b) enhancing removal (storing or sequestering/capturing) of carbon, and (c) avoiding or displacing fossil-derived emissions through production of biofuel feed stocks. Deployment of new mitigation practices for livestock systems and fertiliser applications will be essential to prevent an increase in emissions from agriculture after The most promising options for mitigating GHG emissions in agriculture include: improved crop and grazing land management (e.g., improved agronomic practices, nutrient use, tillage, and residue management) restoration of organic soils that are drained for crop production, and restoration of degraded lands. Lower, but still significant, mitigation is possible with: I. improved water and rice management II. set-asides, land use change and agroforestry III. improved livestock and manure management. Conclusion: Climate change impacts on agriculture are being witnessed all over the world, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the huge population dependent on agriculture, excessive pressure on natural resources, and poor coping mechanisms. Climate change is a reality. Indian agriculture is likely to suffer losses due to heat, erratic weather, and decreased irrigation availability. Adaptation strategies can help minimize negative impacts. These need research, funding, and policy support. Costs of adaptation and mitigation are unknown but likely to be high; costs of inaction could be even higher. Many mitigation opportunities are based on existing technologies and could be implemented immediately, but technological development will be a major factor influencing the efficacy of additional mitigation measures in the future. Soil carbon sequestration offers most of the mitigation potential, with an estimated 89 percent contribution to the technical potential. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from soils account for 9 percent and 2 percent, respectively, of the total mitigation potential. The price of carbon is a key determinant of mitigation strategies. At low prices, farmers may adjust existing production practices such as tillage, fertilizer application, livestock diet formulation, and manure management. Higher prices are needed to provide sufficient incentives for major land-use changes. Agricultural mitigation measures often have synergy with sustainable development policies. Further mitigation and adaptations in agriculture can overlap, but 329

341 macro-economic, agricultural and the environmental policies may have a greater impact on agricultural mitigation than explicit climate policies per se. Despite significant technical potential for mitigation in agriculture, there has been relatively little progress made in the implementation of mitigation measures also. References: Census of India (2011) Provisional Population Totals, Paper 1 of 2011 India, Series-1, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, New Delhi FAO Statistical Pocketbook (2015) World and Food Agriculture Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Food Security in India (2011) Int. Jr. of Agril., Env. and Biotech. Vol. 4, No Samra, J.S., Singh, G and Ramakrishna, Y.S. (2004) Cold wave during over North India and its effect on crops. The Hindu dated 10th January, p. 6. Prasad, R and Rana, R. (2006). A study on maximum temperature during March and its impact on rabi crops in Himachal Pradesh. J. of Agrometeorology, 8(1): Prasada Rao, G.S.L.H.V. and Alexander, D. (2007.) Impact of climate change on the agricultural sector in tropical countries. Proceedings of the WTO Workshop, held at College of Fisheries, Panangad, Kochi on 14th December, 2007, Kerala Agricultural University, Roy P, Roy Burman R, Padaria R N and Sharma J P and Mukherjee A (2017) Changing climate and Indian Agriculture: Adaptation strategies and way forward Biokisan online journal. 330

342 Mitigating Climate Change Impact through Technology Dissemination 1 Dr. D. Raji Reddy & 2 Dr. B. Savitha 1 Director of Extension & 2 Assistant Director of Extension Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University Hyderabad, Telangana, India, Climate is emerging as a prominent issue in the world nowadays. The climate has changed, is changing and will continue to change regardless of what investments in mitigation are made. Climate change is a significant variation in weather patterns occurring over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. Climate change impacts on agriculture are being witnessed all over the world, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the huge population dependence on agriculture, excessive pressure on natural resources and poor coping mechanisms. The effects of climate change have reached such an extent that irreversible changes in the functioning of the planet are feared, hence enhancing resilience will form the key aspect of the challenge at hand (Venkateswarlu and Shanker 2009; Singh et al 2012). The effects of climate change on agriculture will differ across the country, determining how climate change sill affect agriculture is complex; a variety of effects are likely to occur. Agriculture is the most vulnerable and sensitive sector affected by Climate change because of its dependency on local climate parameters like rainfall, temperature, radiation, wind, soil health etc., to alleviate the challenges posed by climate change. In India, significant negative impacts have been implied with medium term ( ) climate change, predicted to reduce yields by 4.5-9%, depending on the magnitude and distribution of warming. Since agriculture makes up roughly 16% of India s GDP, a 4.5% negative impact on production implies a cost of climate change to be roughly up to 1.5% per year (Venkateswarlu et al., 2013) Resilience to climate change in agriculture refers to the ability to endure harsh and unpredictable environment and effectively bounce back from the negative effects at the earliest. Resilient agriculture will essentially involve judicious and improved management of natural resources viz., land, water, soil and genetic resources through adoption of best management practices. The potential adaptation strategies include better weather forecasting, developing cultivars tolerant to cold/heat temperatures, salinity stress, resistant to flood and drought, modifying crop management practices, improving water management, adopting new farm techniques, crop diversification, improving pest 331

343 management, and crop insurance and harnessing the indigenous technical knowledge of farmers Agriculture has to become Climate Smart, that is, sustainability increase in agriculture productivity and income, adapt and build resilience to climate change, and reduce or remove green house gases emission, wherever possible. Despite the recognised importance of Climate Smart Agriculture, the dissemination and uptake of climate smart technologies, tools and practices is still largely an ongoing and challenging process. The adaptation of climate related knowledge, technologies and practices to local conditions, promoting joint learning by farmers, researchers, extension worker and widely disseminating CSA practices, is critical. Education, training and rural extension services can help in adaptation endeavours. Better weather forecasting and improved communication can assist in contingency planning. Farmer s perception on Climate change Farmer s perception on climate change forms an important part of the dissemination programmes as extension workers need to know what the farmers know in order to give them the appropriate knowledge and technological information in relation to adaptation and mitigation to climate change. In a study conducted by the All India Coordinated Research Project on Agrometeorology (AICRPAM), it was found that majority of the farmers opined rainfall and temperature as the crucial weather parameters that determines the crop productivity (Rao et al 2011) and in another pilot study conducted in four villages of Uttarakhand, farmers felt that rainfall had declined in quantity and timely onset on monsoon could no longer be relied on and they also observed decline in ground water with increase in heat intensity (Kelkar et al 2008). Further, in a study conducted in Tamilnadu showed that, respondent farmers observed decrease in quantity of rainfall received over the years along with delay in onset of monsoon. They also felt that the monthly frequency of rains had decreased with increased dry spells (Vardan and Kumar 2014) Enhancing climate resilience in agriculture involves the integration of adaptation, mitigation and other practices in agriculture that increase the capacity of the farmer and his production system to respond to various climate related disturbances by resisting or tolerating the damage and recovering quickly and there is a need to improve their capacity to plan for adaptation to evolving climatic conditions and induce a change in local practices. In addition, the successful adoption of climate resilient farming practices 332

344 will largely depend on the farmer s perception of income gains from the new technologies, as profitability remains the most important incentive for change at farm level. Preparing for Climate change In the future, population growth without significant improvement in yield rates will mean more land must be used for rice cultivation and other crop production, and an increase in the number of farm animals. These factors will lead to an increase in CH 4 and other green house gases released to the atmosphere. Adjustments will be necessary in order to counterbalance any negative impacts of a changing climate. Farmers must have the ability to adjust to changes in crops and crop varieties, improved water management and irrigation system, and changes in planting schedules and tillage practices will be important in limiting the negative effects and taking advantage of the beneficial effects of changes in climate. More efficient use of mineral fertilizers and other adjustments in agricultural practices could also act to counteract the effects of climate change. Various types and levels of technological and socioeconomic adaptations to climate change are possible. The extent of adaptation depends on the affordability of such measure. Recent national studies show that increased costs of agricultural production under climate change scenarios would be a serious economic burden for some developing countries. Other important factors will be access to know-how and technology, the rate of climate change, and biophysical constraints such as water availability, soil characteristics and crop genetics. Role of agricultural extension in preparing farmers for mitigating climate change Extension wing of the PJTSAU uses various measures to advice the farmers on adapting to climate change by packaging climate change adaptation information into advice on other production challenges that are of immediate importance to the farmers. They thus advice farmers on enterprise choice, help initiate activities that counteract climate change impacts such as afforestation, set up conservation efforts, promote drought resistant crops, passing new farming techniques to the farmers and making the farmer willing to adopt. There is a need to set up Climate Outlook Forum discussion interface at the state level involving all climate sensitive sectors. The Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centre (DAATTCs) of the University are actively involved in 333

345 creating awareness and demonstrating the coping technologies developed for the benefit among the farming community of the State of Telangana. In addition to this, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Wyra, Khammam district, Telangana is identified as one of the KVKs in Telangana to implement National Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) by the ICAR. The innovative approach adopted in NICRA to achieve Climate Resilient Agriculture famer s participatory approach has shown great promise in climate proofing of Indian Agriculture. Agromet advisory services of the University Information on impending weather 3-10 days in advance is vital for effectiveness of modern farming practices like sowing weather sensitive high yielding varieties, need based application of fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides irrigation and harvest planning. Medium range forecasts are being issued by the Indian Meteorological Department for the benefit of the farming community. Presently, the IMD provides value added district specific medium range weather forecasts on rainfall, cloud cover, temperature, wind and relative humidity valid for coming 5 days on every Tuesday and Friday. Based on the forecast, Agro Climatic Research Centre (ACRC) of University prepare tendency in maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speed and direction, cloud amount and relative humidity valid for next 5 days beginning 8.30 a, on Tuesday, by looking into the local conditions. On the basis of local agro meteorological and farming information and the weather forecasts form IMD, the DAATTC and KVK scientists discuss bout the options and consequent effects, and then decide the advice for the action by the farmers in respect of the items related to their expertise. All these together constitute the advisory, which also serve an early warning function, alerting farmers to the implications of various extreme weather events such as Tropical cyclone, Storm surge, Heat wave, Flash floods, Hailstorm, Drought etc. Demonstration and Dissemination of Climate CopingTechnologies Success Stories of KVKs of the Univeristy Successful technology on Performance of short duration and Salinity tolerant rice variety Siddi (WGL-44) 334

346 Most of the farmers in the NICRA adopted village cultivating rice as kharif season crop are facing salinity problem. In addition to this they are cultivating long duration paddy varieties with low productivity potential. Keeping this in view, the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Wyra, Khammam, introduced a rice variety having salinity tolerance. Rice variety - Siddi (WGL 44) is short duration fine grain and salinity tolerant which was also tolerant to gall midge with high yield potential.economic analysis showed that Siddi rice variety brings an additional yield of 400 kg/acre and an additional income of about Rs. 8,562/- per acre than long duration variety cultivated by the farmers of the region. Successful technology on water saving in rice In general, large amount of water is required for rice cultivation. To educate the farmers about economic use of the water in rice cultivation, to create awareness on water use efficiency and to reduce the cost of cultivation; water saving technologies rice cultivation broadcasting method was introduced.wherein, seed requirement is 10Kg/acre and crop duration was also shortened by days, which in turn resulted in reduced cost of cultivation and increased output recorded C:B ratio of 1:1.3 Dry converted wet rice - Success story In Khammam district, most of the farmers are following conventional method of rice cultivation i.e., transplanting method under tanks and canals as source of irrigation. Due to monsoon vagaries, deficit rain fall and delayed & limited release of irrigation water from canals, farmers are facing water shortage problem. The sustainability of rice eco-system and the ability to increase production in pace with population growth with reduced water and labour use are become major concerns.keeping this in view, Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Wyra, Khammam introduced direct method of rice cultivation like dry converted wet rice. Dry converted wet rice is an alternate to transplanted rice which facilitates the farmers addressing irrigation water shortage and labour scarcity issues of rice cultivation. In dry converted wet rice cultivation, continuous submergence of field is not necessary, it requires irrigation at critical stages only thus saving water up to % and crop comes to maturity around 7-10 days early when compared to transplanted method.economic analysis showed that aerobic rice brings an additional income of about Rs. 5,107/- per acre than transplanted rice, from about 6000 ha of area a saving of Rs Crores has been achieved. 335

347 Promoting Square Planted Red gram as an alternative to Cotton in Rain fed Red soils Inspite of creating awareness through various means the farming community of the State of Telangana cultivating Cotton in rainfed light soils which is a non remunerative practice and resulting in poor performance of crop and low yields. As an alternate crop to commercial cotton crop; redgram is being promoted for cultivation in light soils by adopting square planting method with 90 cm x 90 cm spacing. Economic analysis showed that, redgram cultivation as an alternate to cotton brings an additional income of about Rs. 20,510/- per acre when compared to cultivation of cotton in rain fed red soils. It is a boon to the rain fed farmer. Farm Ponds Climate Resilient Technology for Sustainable Agriculture Rainfed agriculture constitutes 55% of net sown area in the country. The annual average rainfall of the country varies from 400 to more than 2000mm varying in both space and time. In low to medium rainfall rainfed regions, the occurrence of high intense rainfall events with short duration is very common causing the soil erosion. Hence, the efficient rain water management is necessary to improve water productivity and protect the natural resource base in rainfed regions. Farm pond technology has very good potential for implementation in different schemes of state or central government. Farm Pond is a dug out structure with definite shape and size having proper inlet and outlet structures for collecting the surface runoff flowing from the farm area. It is one of the most important rain water harvesting structures constructed at the lowest portion of the farm area. The stored water must be used for irrigation only. A farm pond must be located within a farm drawing the maximum runoff possible in a given rainfall event. Farm ponds have a significant role in rainfed regions where annual rainfall is more than or equal to 500 mm. If average annual rainfall (AAR) varies between 500 to 750 mm, the farm ponds with capacity of 250 to 500 m3 can be constructed. If AAR is more than 750 mm, the farm ponds with capacity more than 500 m3 can be planned particularly in black soil regions without lining. It was observed from the field experience and if present rainfall pattern changes; at least two to three rainfall events producing considerable runoff are possible in a season making farm ponds an attractive farm pond villages, after excavation of farm pond; cropped area increased and farmers utilized harvested water for supplemental irrigation during critical stages of cotton, chilli and oil 336

348 palm. In addition to this, by rearing fish in farm pond an additional income of Rs. 42, 500/- was recorded by the practicing farmers. Raised bed method of turmeric cultivation Turmeric is the second most important spice crop cultivated in Nizamabad, Warangal districts of the Telangana state. Traditionally farmers cultivate turmeric crop by ridge and furrow method, where there is a chance for stagnation of excess water favouring the infestation and spreading of rhizome rot disease. In order to overcome this problem, KVKs, Malyal & Rudrur introduced innovative raised bed method of turmeric cultivation, which led to realization of higher yield with good quality produce. Economic analysis showed that, raised bed method of turmeric cultivation brings an additional income of about Rs. 38,550/- per acre than ridge & furrow method with C:B ratio of 1.0:2.22. Sunhemp seed production - Success story in NICRA Village Cultivation of Sun hemp after Kharif rice under NICRA project in 16 ha area. Farmers got an average yield of 10 q/ha with net returns of Rs. 30,750/ha. Sun hemp is leguminous crop and used for fodder purpose. It is drought tolerant with good yields even under terminal drought conditions. More than 60% of farmers in village have adopted this practice. Direct seeded rice Drum Seeder technology Most of the farmers are following conventional method of cultivating rice i.e., transplanted rice under tanks and canals as source of irrigation. Receipt of deficit rainfall, delayed and limited release of irrigation water from canals is the major concerns of the rice cultivating farmers. The sustainability of rice eco-system and the ability to increase production in pace with population growth with reduced water and labour use are major concerns. Keeping this in view, Scientists of KVKs & DAATTCs of the PJTSAU popularized direct seeding method of rice cultivation with drum seeding to reduce the cost of cultivation, increases net returns and also to conserve the natural resources. Direct seeding with drum seeder requires low seed rate i.e., 8-12 Kg/acre and crop comes to maturity 7-10 days early when compared to transplanted method. Economic analysis showed that, direct seeded rice brings an additional income of about Rs. 3,916/- per acre than transplanted rice. 337

349 Rolling stem applicator- An Eco-friendly, low cost, input saving and drudgery reducing tool for managing sucking pests of cotton The University through its DAATTCs and KVKs recommended and popularized stem application - an eco-friendly, low cost, input saving and drudgery reducing technology for management of sucking pests. A drudgery reducing and low cost insecticide applicator, rolling stem applicator was designed and demonstrated for management of sucking pests of Cotton by KVK, Wyra PJTSAU, Telangana. This technology is popular in state of Telangana and 7 district of the Andhra Pradesh. It is a drudgery reducing, cost effective, time and water saving eco-friendly tool, costs only Rs (Rupees Two hundred only). For the management of sucking pests in Cotton, stem application of 1:4 and imidacloprid (1:20) was effective in reducing the incidence of the aphids, thrips, jassids. The technology was demonstrated with nearly 842 farmers covering 960 ha of Cotton crop by KVK, Wyra and it was found that, nearly Rs saving in plant protection cost per each application when compared to foliar sprays. The farmers were very much satisfied with the performance of tool. It can be utilized effectively for the management of sucking pests in other crops like Tobacco, Bhendi, Beans, Marigold and can also be used for whorl application of granules and insecticide in Maize, other operations like pruning, cleaning, levelling operations. Zero tillage in Maize cultivation Under the changing climate scenario the limitations of rising temperature during grain filling of rice, declining yield of rice and water scarcity affecting yield of Rabi rice, maize being a photo-insensitive crop has better options for adaptation and mitigation of these climatic changes. Maize is emerging as a potential driving force for diversification i.e. diversification of rice-rice with rice-maize and other maize based high value cropping systems in water scarcity/lowering of water table is a major concern in rice growing belt of State and making rice cultivation non-remunerative. Maize has emerged as a potential as well as profitable crop in these areas. In view of the changing farming scenario in the country, maize has been emerging as one of the potential crops that addresses several issues like food and nutritional security, climate change, water scarcity, farming systems, bio-fuel etc. Further, a recent study by National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (NCAP) has showed that 338

350 there is an increasing demand for maize in the industry sector which caters to consumer needs like textiles, paper, glue, alcohol, confectionery, food processing and pharmaceutical industry etc., of which the demand keeps on increasing with population pressure. Maize can be successfully grown without any primary tillage under no-till situation with less cost of cultivation, higher farm profitability and better resource use efficiency. Under such condition one should ensure good soil moisture at sowing and seed and fertilizers should be placed in band using zerotill seed-cum-fertilizer planter with furrow opener as per the soil texture and field conditions. The technology is in place with large number of farmers particularly under rice-maize and maize-wheat systems in peninsular and eastern India. However, use of appropriate planter having suitable furrow opener and seed metering system is the key of success of the no-till technology. University, with DAATTCs and KVKs demonstrated and popularized the technology among the farming community. The Economic analysis showed that, Zero till method of maize cultivation saves investment on cultivation to about Rs. 4,570/- per acre than normal sowing method with C:B ratio of 1.0:4.90. Reduced cost of cultivation (up to Rs. 5,000/- per acre) and high net returns (up to Rs. 11,000/- per acre) led to wide spread of the technology in the State. Conclusion: The glaring reality of climate change manifested in the forms of increasing temperature, frequent droughts, erratic rains, receding glaciers, rising sea levels etc. has necessitated the urgent need to devise appropriate adaptation strategies to sustain agriculture for the livelihood of mankind. The role of Agriculture extension advisory services in general and dissemination of technology in particular in agricultural adaptation to climate change is paramount and innovations in methods of dissemination are the need of the hour now in India as well as the most developing world (Meera et al., 2012). There are a number of agricultural practices and technologies that enhance food security, resilience, and productivity in a sustainable manner. These include on-farm practices such as those relating to management of soil, water, crops, livestock, forests and fisheries, as well as beyond farm interventions such as agricultural extension systems, meteorological services, and crop and livestock insurance. The agricultural sector has rich experience in designing and implementing agricultural practices and technologies, drawing upon scientific and indigenous knowledge (Credan et al., 2012). This means that 339

351 designing context-specific interventions is achievable; however strong mechanisms for capacity enhancement and technology transfer are prerequisites for success. On the- ground implementation of extension also needs to go hand- in- hand with advocacy and awareness raising of decision makers on the imminent threat of climate change for agriculture in order to make extension more responsive to climate change and contribute to address the triple challenge of food security, adaptation and mitigation. References Cerdan, C.R., Rebolledo, M.C., Soto, G., Rapidel, B. and Sinclair, F.L. (2012). Local knowledge of Impacts of tree cover on ecosystem services in smallholder coffee production systems. Agricultural Systems 110: Retrieved from science/article/pii/s x Kelkar U, Narula KK, Sharma VP, Chandna U (2008) Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and water stress in Uttarakhand State, India. Glob Environ Change 18: JayaKumara Vardhan, R. And Pramod Kumar Indigenous Knowledge about climate change: Validating the perceptions of dryland famers in Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol13, April 2014, pp Meera, Shaik N., V. Balaji, P muthuraman B. Sailaja, and Sreenath Dixit. Changing Roles of Agricultural Extension: Harnessing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Adapting to Stresses Envisaged Under Climate Change In: Venkateswarlu, B., Shankar, A.K., Shankar, C., Maheswari, M. (Eds), Crop Stress and its management: Perspectives and Strategies, Spring Netherlands. Raji Reddy, D., Dakshina Murthy, K.M., Mahadevappa, S.G., Sreenivas, G. and Sunitha Devi, R Role of Agricultural Extension in disseminating agro advisories in mitigating climate change impacts. Compendium of National Seminar on Futuristic Agricultural Extension for livelihood improvement and sustainable development, January 19-21, 2013, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, Rao, V.U.M., Bapuji Rao, B., Khandgonda, I.R., Rao, A.V.M.S., Vijay Kumar, P., Dagar, J.C. and Venkateswarlu, B. (2011). Perception of Indian Farmers on Climate Change An Assessment and Awareness Programme. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santhoshnagar, Hyderabad, India.33p. Rupan, R., Saravanan, R. and Suchiradipta, B Climate Smart Agriculture and Advisory Services: Approaches and Implication for Future. MANAGE Discussion Paper 1, MANAGE- Centre for Agricultural Extension Innovations, Reforms and Agripreneurship (CAEIRA), National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Hyderabad, India. Rupsha, R. and Banerjee, R Farmers perception of climate change, impact and adaptation strategies: a case study of four villages in the semi-arid regions 340

352 of India. Natural Hazards Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, ISSN X, Nat Hazards DOI /s z. Shankara, M., Shivamurthy, M. and Vijaya Kumar, K.T Farmers perception on climate change and its impact on agriculture in eastern dry zone of Karnataka. International Journal of Farm Sciences 3(2): , Venkateswarlu, B.and Shankar, A.K Climate change and Agriculture: Adaptation and mitigation strategies. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 54: Venkateswarlu, B. Technology dissemination for climate resilient agriculture Compendium of National Seminar on Futuristic Agricultural Extension for livelihood improvement and sustainable development, January 19-21, 2013, ANGRAU, Hyderabad,

353 Innovative Extension Approach for Weather Based Farm Advisory Services Dr. B. K. Singh 1, Kumar Pratyush 2, Kailash Parihar 3 1 Chief Executive Officer, BKC WeatherSys Pvt. Ltd. 2,3 Agriculture Executives, BKC WeatherSys Pvt. Ltd. Abstract: India has experienced manychanges in agriculture extension system since independence. Government had spent a huge amount of money for extension. But still they are not able to connect the farmers individually. Extension system of country need to be reform by which not only the gap between laboratories to land should be fulfill but also the gap between farm to fork should also be filled. To remove those gaps WeatherSys has step in the extension system by introducing the app FasalSalah which is capable to reach thefarmers individually and helps them in farming practices with the aim of minimum input and maximum output. Farming is a profession of hope and India holds around 60.4 percent of agriculture land (World Bank, 2015) with 18 percent of contribution in GDP. India holds worldwide second in grains and first position in pulses production. Still nearly a quarter of Indians do not get sufficient food to meet their daily nutritional needs. On other hand India is growing rapidly in field of science and technology. Daily new innovations take places in various sectors including agriculture. New machineries, high yielding varieties, disease and pest tolerant seeds, management practices and many other new things are getting innovated. Despite of these we are not able to increase the per acre yields of crops and feed the whole population of nation. The major issue behind this is a huge gap between laboratories to land. The existing agriculture extension system is not capable to reach up to the root levels. To bridge the gap between the lab to land and reform the agriculture extension we have developed a platform which can penetrate up to the root level of Indian agriculture system. Using ICT as a tool, we have developed an android app Fasal Salah which generates real-time field level weather forecasts and 342

354 analyze its effect on a farmer s specific crop to dispense timely advice on crop management, pests and diseases, and input management. Other services such as market intelligence are provided, with the capability of further customization. We at Weathersys innovates the Fasal Salah app with the mission to provide to eachfarmer in India, timely and actionable information, for improving their yields and incomes. Personalized crop advisory services do not exist in India due to the complexity of agroclimatic zones and crops across India. Achieving scale in providing context-driven and hyper localized advice across crop varieties and agro-climatic zones to individual farmers simply cannot be achieved without the use of an intelligent technology platform. FASAL SALAH is an informative android app which is design to help farmers by providing automatic real time advisories based on real time weather and its forecast consequences on the crop farmer is cultivating. FASAL SALAH is unique in the sense that it is highly personalised and customizable to the field level of farmer, for his crop, in his soil and on weather forecast particular to his area.another unique feature of Fasal Salah app is that the content is graphical and can bemade audible. Our innovations lie in: Developing ICT Technology for Achieving Scale: Our science andtechnology solution can deliver scale by reaching each and every farmer, and brings together weather forecasts with agronomy on the same technology platform to drive analytics and information dissemination. Real-time Weather Updates in the face ofclimate Change and Changing Cropping Patterns: In the face of changing weatherpatterns, timely high resolution weather forecasts, and their effect on crop health are the need of the hour. We use weather data and hyper localized forecasts that are updated in real-time and utilized in an automated manner for crop modeling. Therefore, app provides 7 days weather forecast at village level which involves several parameters like temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, rainfall etc. and can be seen at any time of the day. Crop Monitoring: Targeted prediction ofprudent farming practices, crop monitoring, and yield prediction, given a farmer s crops, local soil and weather conditions, socioeconomic 343

355 characteristics, access to inputs, and other variables requires predictive analytics with a number of data sources and a robust database for continual refinement of recommendations and yield estimates. One of the main features of this app is that Crop advisories are given to farmers on the basis of weather forecast which include all relevant real time information about likelihood of attack of diseases and pests on crops, management practices (irrigation, nutrient management) according to real time weather condition at village level. Mandi Prices: Our app helps find almost inreal time, Market Price of the relevant crops as in existing anaj mandi within a range of 100 km of his village. This can help farmer to see and compare current crop prices at various mandis and choose the best suited to the farmer. Audio advisory: Advisory is also availablein audio format which is beneficial for farmers who prefer to hear the same. News: Update to the farmers with nationaland international agriculture and allied sector news along with the trade related information. Nearest Shop: This feature helps thefarmers to decide the shop which is closer to them and from where they can buy agri inputs. Aapki Awaz (You Voice): Using thesefeature farmers can send their query in the form of pictures, text or voice. Which is further analysed by the expert team and suggest the farmers accordingly. Buyer/Seller: This feature connectsfarmers with traders, renters, transporters, manufacturer and other service providers. Where farmers can buy, sell or rent their produce, machineries and other inputs with other farmers or traders. Earn Profits: Helps the farmers to increasetheir income by adopting new technologies of agriculture and other allied sectors. Provides new government schemes, subsidies and many more things. 344

356 Climate Smart Agro-Advisories and Agriculture Extension Activity T.H. Gowda 1 Ramappa Patil 2., G.B.Jagadeesh 3., G.T.Navya 4 G.T., B. Manjunath 5 Directorate of Extension, University of Agricultural & HorticulturalSciences, Shivamogga, Abstract Climate change is of great concern to the farming sector. Non availability of irrigation water and shortage of timely rainfall had led to drought situation which resulted in economic instability of farmers and change in agricultural practices. During such critical period farmers look for alternate viable technologies for sustainable income. A study was under taken in Bhadra command area in central dry zone of Karnataka (Zone-4). Wherein the farmers of Davanagere district experienced drought for consecutive three years ( ) and searching for possible climate smart agro advisory. Agricultural Extension Scientists advised to the farmer to take up additional third intercrop component ie., Pigeon pea (Cajanas cajana L.) in Arecanut + Banana intercrop production system and linking to the seed production unit was very much successful and able to generate income within a year of gestation period of plantation crops. In the first year of existing cropping system of arecanut+banana in the first year, an additional investment of Rs.1,01,100/- (2.5ha) for pigeon pea cultivation had given an additional net income of Rs.2,68,400/- within one year. Due to this intervention the B:C ratio was 3.65:1, indicating that for every one rupee spent on additional component he could get Rs This indicates that timey climate smart Agro-Advisory and agricultural Extension activities will help in doubling the income of farmers for sustained stable income. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major crop of Bhadra command area wherein 44,000ha is being grown in both Kharif and Summer season in a year since 1970 s. The important districts covered under command area are Davanagere, Shivamogga and Chickmagalore. Davanagere district (Agri-Zone-4), receives an annual mean rainfall of mm in 67 mean rainy days. In this district farmers are growing fine rice varieties under high input condition (water, nutrients, pesticides ) by using water from Bhadra reservoir and used to get high yields up to 75 to 80 qtls/ha under transplanted condition, with the cost of cultivation of Rs.75,000/ha with the B:C ratio of 2:1. During recent years, climate change is of great concern and since past three years ( ) in the central dry zone, the rainfall was decreased as well as erratic and even 345

357 ground water availability was also reduced causing drought situation, as the Bhadra reservoir was also not full, due to significant decrease in rainfall in the Bhadra catchment area causing short fall of water for agriculture purpose and more so for paddy cultivation under wet method. Looking to the nonavailability of sufficient irrigation water, farmers were looking to the alternate cropping pattern for their Agri-based income. During this situation, some farmers were shifted to horticulture crops like., Arecanut (Areca Catechu L.) and some farmers shifted towards aerable crops like, Maize, Jowar, Pulses, Millets. Where, they can grow crops with limited soil moisture, alternative to paddy crop. In this case study farmer Mr. Gopi from Nanditavare village, Harihara (T) and Davanagere (D) selected plantation crop i.e., Arecanut to be planted in an area of 2.5 ha of land. Where he was previously cultivating transplanted paddy, as he could get 4 of water through drilling of two bore wells. He developed the land by removing the too many bunds to suite the Arecanut cultivation. In the month of June-2017 he planted the Arecanut plants by following 2.7 X 2.7 mt spacing as per recommendation. As usual he also planted tissue culture Banana variety Puttabale and also installed the drip irrigation system through Borewell ground water source to provide the required moisture. The farmer has invested to the tune of Rs.12 lakh to establish the Areca + Banana intercropping production system for 2.5 ha unit. In this system income generation starts from Banana after a year and continuing for another two years, later after five years production from Arecanut starts and continue for long period up to 30 to 35 years, as it is a perennial plantation crop. In this system farmer does not get any income within first year, which prompt the farmer for loan, debts and difficult to maintain the livelihood as well as current expenditure on young garden and financial crisis is a problem due to big initial investment. In such situation, farmer came in contact with agriculture extension scientists of Directorate of Extension, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga. Extension Scientists gave the unique technology to generate income from the same unit of land within a short period, and suggested to go for another component of intercrop, which complete the cycle by six months, so, that farmer can get income within a short period. As per the technical advice, farmer took up pulse crop pigeon pea (Cajanus cajana.l.) which complement soil fertility and can create good microclimate for young areca and banana plants in the early stage. He planted one row of improved variety BRG-2 in between two rows of arecanut through dibbling method, without spending money on 346

358 fertilizers and irrigation water. Further, pest, weed management and post harvest technologies were followed as per the technical advice. Table 1:Cost of production on additional component (pigeon pea intercrop) in the Areca+Banana inter cropping system (for 2.5ha) in Bhadra Command (Zone-4) Karnataka, India, during the year Sl. No Particulars Actual cost on additional component (Rs.) In the (Area 2.5ha) 1. Foundation Seeds + Registration costs 3,500/- 2. Sowing operation (Bullock Pairs) 2,000/- 3. Dibbling of seeds by Labour 1,600/- 4. Inter cultivation (Bullock Pairs) 4,000/- 5. Earthing up operation by labour 5,000/- 6. Plant Protection including labour 50,000/- (5 times) 7. Weed management through weedicides & 15,000/- Labour 8. Harvesting & cleaning, Miscellaneous 20,000/- Grand Total (A) 1,01,100/- Meanwhile, farmer was linked to university seed unit under quality seed production project, so that fixed remunerative price could be realized, compared to open market price for bulk produce. The farmers could harvest 73 qtl (for 2.5ha) of seeds and supplied to seed unit. The farmer had spent Rs.1,01100 (Table.1) on additional component technology ie., intercropping pigeon pea in Arecanut+ Banana intercrop. He realized Rs.3,69,500 (Table 2) after 8 months of planting with the B:C ratio of 3.65:1 indicating that, for every one rupees spent on additional component he could get Rs.3.65 within one year (6-8 months). This indicates that the timely climate smart Agro-advisory and Agricultural extension activities will help in doubling the income of farmers to achieve sustainability in agriculture. 347

359 Climate Change Potential Impacts on Horticulture and Strategies to Sustain the Production K. N. Kattimani 1, Vijaymahantesh 2 and Ambresh 3 1 Professor of Plantation, Medicinal and Aromatic crops and Administrative Officer, UHS, Bagalkot 2 Assistant Professor of Agronomy, DE office UHS, Bagalkot 3 Assistant Professor of Vegetable Sciences, DE office UHS, Bagalkot Every year, different regions and provinces experience one or the other kind of disasters such as drought, hailstorm, heavy rain, flood, frost, cyclone and other abiotic stresses which are explained as impact of climate change. Shifting weather patterns resulting in changing climate, has threatened agricultural productivity through high and low temperature regimes and increased rainfall variability (Malhotra and Srivastava 2014, Eduardo et al.,2013).climate change and its variability are posing the major challenges influencing the performance of agriculture including annual and perennial horticulture crops. Reduction in production of fruits and vegetables is likely to be caused by short growing period, which will have negative impact on growth and development particularly due to terminal heat stress and decreased water availability. Rainfed horticulture will be primarily impacted due to rainfall variability and reduction in number of rainy days (Venkateswarlu and Shanker 2012). The issue of climate change and climate variability has thrown up greater uncertainties and risks, further imposing constraints on horticultural production systems. Climate change might result in price hike of fruits and vegetable crops. Crop based adaptation strategies needed considering the type of crop, sensitive stage of crop and specific region. Perennial horticulture crops have high carbon sink potential that needs to be exploited along with short duration vegetables to combat climate change. Impacts on horticulture crops Certainly, horticulture sector has moved significantly despite many challenges and shortcomings and is in crucial phase of development needing initiatives for sustainable development. The enhanced horticulture production is to be achieved in the challenges and consequences of climate change such as change in seasonal pattern, excessive rain, flood, hailstorm, frost, high temperature and drought leading to extremities. Reduction in yield may occur due to shortening of growing periods, decrease in water availability and poor vernalization. To quantify the impacts of climate change on horticultural crops, we need detailed information on physiological responses of the crops, effects on growth and development, quality and productivity. The rise in temperature would lead to higher respiration rate, alter photosynthetic rate and partitioning of photosynthates to economic parts. It could also alter the phenology, shorten the crop duration, days to flowering and fruiting, hasten fruit maturity, ripening and senescence. The sensitivity of individual crop to temperature depends on inherent tolerance and growing habits. Indeterminate crops are less sensitive to heat stress conditions due to extended flowering compared to determinate crops. In high 348

360 latitudes, crop yield may improve as a result of a small increase in temperatures. In tropical countries, which are predominantly located in lower latitudes, temperatures are already closer to or beyond thresholds and further warming would reduce rather than increase productivity. The impact of climate change is likely to differ with region and type of the crop and is explained below for different horticulturecrops. Fruit crops The extreme weather events of hot and cold wave conditions have been reported to cause considerable damage to many fruit crops. In perennial crops like mango and guava, temperature is reported to have influence on flowering. Mango has vegetative bias, and this becomes stronger with increase in temperature, thus influencing the flowering phenology. The percentage of hermaphrodite flowers was greater in late emerging panicles, which coincided with higher temperatures (Balogoun et al.,2016). During peak bloom period, high temperature (35ºC) accompanied by low relative humidity (49%) and long sunshine hours resulted in excessive transpiration and dehydration injury to panicles. Leaf scorching and twig dying are common symptoms of heat stroke in bearing and nonbearing mango plants. Major observed effects of climate change on mango include early or delayed flowering, multiple reproductive flushes, variations in fruit maturity, abnormal fruit set and transformation of reproductive buds into vegetative ones (Rajan et al.,2011). In guava, there is severe increase in pests and diseases due to hot and humid conditions. Fruit fly in guava is becoming alarming due to hot and humid conditions. The crop like peach, plum, which requires low chilling temperature also showing sign of decline in productivity (Hazarika 2013). High temperature and moisture stress also increase sunburn and cracking in apples, apricot and cherries. Increase in temperature at fruit maturity lead to fruit cracking and burning in litchi (Kumar and Kumar 2007) and premature ripening of mango. Untimely winter rains promote vegetative flushes in citrus instead of flowering flushes. Dry spell during flower emergence and fruit set affects flower initiation and aggravates incidence of pest (Psylla). Recent studies have indicated that in Shimla district at relatively higher altitude orchards have been replaced from high-chilling requiring apple cultivars of apple (Royal Delicious) to low-chilling requiring cultivars and other fruit crops like kiwi, pear, peach and plum and vegetables. In mid hills of Shimla district, trend is to shift from apple and potato cultivation totally. It is corroborated by declining trend in snowfall and apple productivity in Himachal Pradesh. The production of apple has fallen from 10.8 to 5.8 tonnes/ ha (Awasthi et al.,2001). Thus in replanting orchards and plantations over the next decade, selection of lower-chilling requiring types may be advisable. This is just an example of impending impacts of global warming and climate change. Temperature has a big influence on the rate of fruit growth, thus use of bunch covers, which are though, to warm the fruit, increased the growth rate. Higher temperature (31-32 o C), in general increase the rate of plant maturity in banana, thus shortening the bunch development period (Turner et al., 2007). Higher air temperature (>38 o C) and brighter sunshine cause sunburn damage on exposed fruits. Under conditions of higher temperatures (42 o C) grape vines are not capable of utilizing radiant energy possibly because of degradation of enzymes and chlorophyll exceeds rate of photosynthesis 349

361 (Kliewer 1968). In wine grapes anthocyanin development is influenced by difference between day and night temperatures with high variation (15-20ºC) promoting colour development. Excessively high temperatures for extended periods of time in grapes generally result in delayed fruit maturation and reduction in fruit quality. Varieties differ in tolerance to temperature (Kadir 2005). In general, the best temperature for shoot and root growth is 28 days after temperature treatments was 20/15 C for Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cynthiana and 30/25 C for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. A linear reduction in per cent acid with increasing effective heat units was evident in Valencia and Navel orange varieties indicating the negative relationship of temperature with acid/brix ratios. Shift in varietal choice may become necessary in case of grapevines, banana, mango and other important horticultural crops (Laxman et al., 2010). In citrus severe water stress causes reduction in leaf initiation, leaf size gets reduced and leaves become leathery and thick. Root growth is adversely affected by water stress. It may lead to increased rooting depth and higher proportion of feeder roots in citrus. In grape vine, under water stress reduced inflorescence initiation in conjunction with reduced shoot growth. Water stress reduces the growth of grape berries, but does not influence the characteristic double sigmoid growth curve. Water deficit during stage I (when cell division is occurring) will generally reduce berry size more than water deficits during stages II and III (growth cell expansion). Water deficit positively affected polyphenol accumulation in berry skin and anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly induced by water stress and the wines obtained from water-stressed plants had high anthocyanin concentration resulting in a more intense colour (Idso and Kimbell 2003). In papaya, water stress imposed by suspending irrigation for 34 days arrested plant growth, induced leaf abscission and drastically decreased photosynthetic rate. Thus, it is evident that impact of water stress is more influenced by stage of growth, water stress before flowering is essential to get flowering while stress at the growth stage of fruit is detrimental. Soil water stress in banana during vegetative stage causes poor bunch formation, lower number and small-size fingers. Water stress during flowering causes poor filling of fingers and unmarketable bunches. Water stress reduces the bunch weight and other growth parameters. In mangoflooding simultaneously reduced net CO2assimilation and stomatal conductance after 2-3 days. However, flooding did not affect leaf water potential, shoot extension growth or shoot dry weight, but stem radial growth and root dry weight were reduced. Mortality of flooded trees ranged from 0 to 45%. The reductions in gas exchange, vegetative growth, and the variable tree mortality indicate that mango is not highly floodtolerant but appears to possess certain adaptations to flooded soil conditions (Laxman et al., 2010). The studies conducted in apple show that, the productivity will continue to decline up to 1500 m msl to the tune of 40-50% due to warmer climate and lack of chilling requirement during winter and warmer summers in lower elevations resulting into shifting of apple production to higher elevation (2700 m msl). Winter snowfall affects flowering. In spring, low fluctuating temperatures during bloom results in poor fruit set while warm temperatures result in desiccation of floral parts. Mild winter temperatures followed by warmer springs advanced bud burst and exposing buds to frost damage in almond and apricot. 350

362 Plantation and spices crops Cashewrequires relatively dry and mild winter (15-20 C minimum temperatre) coupled with moderate dew during night for profuse flowering. High temperature (>34.4 C) and low relative humidity of <20% during afternoon causes drying of flowers resulting in yield reduction. Paucity and poor distribution of rains, increase temperature and violent winds, reported to reduce productivity of cashew trees due to abortion or drying of the flowers(balogoun et al.,2016). Unseasonal rains at ripening stage leads to blackening of nuts as well as rotting of apples on trees. Cashew, which is mostly grown under rainfed conditions, is vulnerable to climatic variability and drought conditions caused due to shifts in rainfall pattern and inter seasonal variability (Yadukumar et al., 2010). In perennial crops like coconut studies indicate the increase in shoot height, leaf area and shoot dry matter due to elevated CO2to the tune of 36% over chamber control (Naresh Kumar et al., 2008). The temperature rise will influence the survival and distribution of pest populations. Consequently shifting equilibrium between host plants and pests. The rise in temperature will hasten nutrient mineralization in soils, decrease fertilizer use efficiency. In coconut, impact of climate change related events like consecutive droughts and cyclones adversely affected nut yields (Laxman et al.,2010). The general warming trend is in most of the coconut growing areas. Coconut productivity in declining trend in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu due to consecutive droughts. The Productivity loss was to the tune of about 3500 nuts/hectare/year. In an assessment mode (Naresh Kumar and Agarwal 2016) climate change is projected to increase coconut productivity in western coastal region, Kerala, parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra (provided current level of water and management is made available in future climates as well) and also in North-Eastern states, islands of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep while negative impacts are projected for Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Gujarat and parts of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The studies revealed significant changes in weather elements and have had significant impact on the production of spices crops such as small cardamom, seed spices and black pepper (Muthusami et al., 2012). Indian pepper production has been declining rapidly in the past 10 years due to effect of climate change. From nearly one lakh tonne of annual production, it has come down by more than 50%. A recent study by the Agricultural Market Intelligence Centre of Kerala Agricultural University reports that area under pepper farming has come down by 24% in nine years while production has declined almost half during the period due to declining productivity and increasing production costs. Pepper in Karnataka is grown mainly in the irrigated coffee plantations and is seen to be less monsoon sensitive (Ravi 2012). Das et al. (2016) have reviewed in detail about the impact of climate change on medicinal and aromatic plants. 351

363 Medicinal and aromatic crops Some studies have demonstrated that temperature stress can affect the secondary metabolites and other compounds that plants produce, which are usually the basis for their medicinal activity (Schar et al., 2004). Studies revealed that under controlled wellwatered conditions in a phytotron, tripling of the air s CO2 content increased dry weight production of medicinal plants of woolly foxglove (Digitals lanata EHRH), which produces the cardiac glycoside digoxin that is used in the treatment of cardiac insufficiency by 63% while under water-stressed conditions the CO2 induced dry weight increase was 83% (Stuhlfouth et al., 1987). The destruction of Indian psyllium crops from hail and rainstorms resulted in a smaller than usual annual yield for Similarly, it was noted that the availability of menthol crystals was affected by heavy monsoon rainfall, which occurred earlier than usual in Northern India and reportedly damaged wild mint (Mentha arvensis, Lamiaceae) crops in 2008 (Bhardwaj et al., 2007). Such hailstorms and rains are common factors to impact MAPs in general. Generally when plants are stressed, secondary metabolite production may increase because growth is often inhibited more than photosynthesis, and the carbon fixed not allocated to growth is instead allocated to secondary metabolites (Mooney et al., 1991). Elevated CO2 levels (3,000 μl CO2/litre of air) increased fresh weight and leaf and root numbers in cultures of lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) shoots compared with cultures grown on the same media under ambient air (Tisserat, 2002). Vegetable crops Vegetables being succulent are generally sensitive to environmental extremes and high temperature, limited and excess moisture stresses are the major causes of low yields. Soil water stress at early stages of onion crop growth caused 26% yield loss. In tomato, water stress accompanied by temperature above 28 C induced about 30-45% flower drop in different cultivars (Srinivasa Rao 1995). Chilli also suffers drought stress, leading to yield loss up to 50-60%. Most vegetables are sensitive to excess moisture stress conditions due to reduction in oxygen in the root zone. Tomato plants under flooding conditions accumulate endogenous ethylene, leading to rapid epinastic leaf response. Onion is also sensitive to flooding during bulb development with yield loss up to 30-40%. In tomato high temperatures can cause significant losses in productivity due to reduced fruit set, smaller size and low quality fruits. Pre-anthesis temperature stress is associated with developmental changes in the anthers, particularly irregularities in the epidermis and endothesium, lack of opening of stromium and poor pollen formation (Sato and Thomas 2002). Optimum daily mean temperature for fruit set in tomato has been reported to be C. The pre-anthesis stage is more sensitive in tomato. Post pollination exposure to high temperature inhibits fruit set in pepper, indicating sensitivity of fertilization process 352

364 (Erickson and Markhart 2002). Several connecting reasons for fruit drop has been enumerated (Hazra et al.,2007) such as bud drop, abnormal flower development, poor pollen development, dehiscence and viability, ovule abortion and poor viability and other reproductive abnormalities. In cucumber sex expression is affected by temperature. Low temperatures favours female flower production, which is desirable and high temperatures lead to production of more male flowers (Wien 1997). The duration of onion gets shortened due to high temperature leading to reduced yields (Daymond et al.,1997). Cauliflower performs well in the temperature range of C with high humidity. Though some varieties have adapted to temperatures over 30 C, most varieties are sensitive to higher temperatures and delayed curd initiation is observed (Singh 2010). In potato, reduction in marketable grade tuber yield to the extent of 10-20% is observed due to high temperature and frost damage reduced tuber yield by 10-50%, depending upon intensity and stage of occurrence. Advancement in appearance of aphids by two weeks with increase in 1 C and also the reduced growing period of potato seed crop. Temperature increase beyond 20 C during winter affects cultivation of seasonal button mushroom and increased incidence of diseases. Occurrence of frost during January in Rajasthan affects cumin resulting in total crop failure. Temperature raise from 20 to 22 C will increase the incidence of pest and diseases in case of cymbidium orchid (Peet and Wolfe 2000). The horticultural crops having C3 photosynthetic metabolism have shown beneficial effects indicated the increase in onion yield by 25-30% mainly due to increases in bulb size at 530 ppm CO2(Wurr et al.,1998; Wheeler 1996, Daymond et al., 1997). Tomato also showed 24% higher yield at 550 ppm CO2due to increase in number of fruits (Srinivas Rao 2010). In onion, warmer temperatures shorten the duration of growth leading to lower crop yields (Wheeler et al., 1996). Any soil warming would be advantageous for cucurbits, which are generally direct seeded and have a high heat requirement. The rise in temperature will influence survival and distribution of pest population; developing new equilibrium between alternate host crops and pests; hasten nutrient mineralization in soils; decrease fertilizer-use efficiency; and increase evapo-transpiration with reduced water-use efficiency. The net effect of climate change on horticultural crops will depend on interaction effects of rise in temperature and CO2 concentration in atmosphere (Srinivas Rao 2010). Air pollution due to sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, hydro-fluoride, ozone and acid rain have been reported to cause adverse effect on vegetable production in terms of reduced growth, yield and quality. Many vegetable crops namely tomato, water melon, potato, squash, soybean, cantaloupe, peas, carrot, beet and turnip are reported more susceptible to damage from air pollution. Ambient air pollution has been reported to decrease the yield up to more than 50 percent in Brassica oleracea, Lactuca sativa and Raphanus sativus and 5-15 percent reduction in yield of vegetable crops has been reported when daily ozone concentrations reach to > 50 ppb (Narayan raj 2009). 353

365 Tuber crops There are reports that high temperature brings about marked morphological changes like etiolated growth with smaller size of compound leaves and leaflets reducing the LAI (Fleisher et al. 2006) in addition to reduction in tuber number and size (Wheeler et al.,1991, Peet and Wolfe 2000, Khan et al., 2003,). Cool night temperature favours induction of tuberization in potato and is inhibited even if temperature is moderately high at night (Ewing 1997, Ghosh et al.,2000). Gross photosynthetic rate is also reduced at high temperature (Fleisher et al. 2006) and drastically reduces tuber yield and biomass production (Peet and Wolfe 2000). Ghosh et al. (2000) reported that inhibition of tuber yield was due to limited translocation of carbohydrates from leaves to tuber, reduction of nitrate reductase activity and carbohydrate expense for dark respiration. Thus diversity of potato cultivars needs to be explored for breeding heat tolerant varieties. Global warming will directly influence the choice of crop cultivars with shift towards heat tolerant ones. The elevated CO2concentration has been reported to reduce chlorophyll content in leaves particularly during later growing season after tuber initiation (Bindi et al., 2002, Lawson et al.,2002). Nearly all the nutrient elements tend to decrease in tuber (Fangmeier et al.,2002) and reduction in citric acid cause a higher risk of discolouration after cooking (Vorne et al., 2002). Though cassava and sweet potato are considered to be tolerant to drought conditions (Ravi and Mohankumar 2004, Ravi and Indira 1999), significant reduction in tuber yield as well as in starch content occurs. Mild water deficit stress is favourable for tuber growth, but under unfavourable water stress conditions both vegetative growth as well as tuber bulking ceases and become dormant. The screening has resulted in identification of 5 genotypes (CE-54, CE-534, CI-260, CI-308 and CI-848) and 9 land races (129, 7, 16, TP White, Narukku-3, Ci-4, Ci-60, Ci-17, Ci-80) tolerant to drought. Although cassava may sustain vegetative growth and biomass at high temperatures (33-40 ºC) under adequate soil moisture, sucrose synthesis and export from the leaves and starch synthesis in tubers will be affected at temperatures >30ºC. Sweet potato yields decreased when the available soil moisture decreases below 20% and the tuber initiation period is the most sensitive to due to its effect on tuber number. Water stress during tuber initiation period induces lignification of tubers and hampers tuber growth. Three sweet potato land races, VLS6, IGSP 10, IGSP 14 have been identified as drought tolerant. Sweet potato variety "Sree Bhadra" tolerant to drought conditions has been released by CTCRI (Annonymous, 2013, 2014, 2015). Drought tolerance has also been attempted in seed spices crops (Malhotra 2016). Some of the Strategies to Sustain the Production of Horticulture crops Adaptation opportunities Impacts of climate change depend not only on climate only, but also on the system s ability to adapt to change. The potential depends on how well the crops adapt to the concomitant environmental stresses due to climate change. Depending on the vulnerability of individual crop in an agro-ecological region and the growing season, the crop based adaptation strategies need to be developed, integrating all available options to 354

366 sustain the productivity. The scientists have already developed several technologies to cope with extreme events like high temperature, frost and limited and excess moisture stress conditions (Naresh Kumar et al., 2010, Srinivas Rao and Bhatt 1992, Laxman and Srinivas Rao 2005). These available technologies could be integrated and made use to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change and climate variability. Further emphasis need to be put on developing the crop, agro-ecological region and season-based technologies to reduce the impacts and increase the resilience of horticultural production systems to climate change (Malhotra 2015). Resistant root stocks and varieties for various fruit crops tolerant to stresses have been identified and being used to combat climate change (Table 1). Table 1. Resistant rootstocks and varieties of fruit crops against biotic and abiotic stresses Crop Root stock Trait Mango 13-1, Kurakkan, Nileshwar Salinity tolerant dwarf, Bappakai Guava P. molle P. guajava Wilt resistant rootstock P. cujavillis Tolerant to drought, sodic soils Guava Chinese guava (P. Dwarfing, nematode tolerant and wilt friedrichsthalianum) tolerant Grape Dogridge, 110R, SO-4 Drought, salinity tolerant Citrus Rangpur Lime Drought, Phytophthora tolerant Cleopatra mandarin Salinity tolerant Sapota Khirni Drought tolerant Anona Arka Sahan Drought tolerant Ber Ziziphus nummularia Drought tolerant and dwarf stature Z. mauritiana var. Tikdi and Z. Vigorous growth mauritiana var. Shukhawani Z. rotundifolia Vigorous growth and drought tolerant Fig Ficus glomerata Nematode and salinity tolerant Lime Rangpur lime and Cleopatra Salinity tolerant mandarin Passion fruit P. edulis f. flavicarpa Fusarium collar rot, nematode tolerant P. alata Fusarium wilt tolerant Pomegranate Punica granatum (variety: Drought tolerant Ruby) Avocado Duke, and its progeny, Duke 7, Phytophthora root rot tolerant Barr-Duke, D9 and Thomas G6 selection (Mexican) Phytophthora root rot fairly tolerant Crops Pomegranate Ber Bael Table 2. Arid fruit crops varieties for arid and semi-arid ecosystem Varieties suitable for arid and semi-arid ecosystem Ganesh, Dholka, Jalore Seedless, Mridula, Phule Arakta, Bhagawa, Ruby, Amalidana, G-137, Jyoti, Basin Seedless Gola, Seb, Umran, Banarasi Karaka, Kaithali, Mundia, Goma Kirti, Thar Bhubharaj, Thar Sevika, Thar Bhubhraj, Narendra Ber Sel-1 & 2, ZG3, Sanaur Kagzi, Mirzapur Seedling, Etawah, Gonda, Ayodhya, NB-5, NB-9, Pant Aparna, Pant Urvashi, Pant Shivani, Pant Sujata, CISH Bael-1 & 355

367 CISH Bael-2 Aonla Custard apple Fig Banarasi, Chakaya, Francis, NA-6, NA-7, NA-10, Kanchan, Krishna, Anand-1, Anand-2, Lakshmi-52, BSR-1, Chakaiya, BSR-1 Balanagar, Mammoth, Island Gem, APK (Ca) 1, Arka Sahan Poona Fig, Dinkar, Dianna, Conadria, Excel In addition to employing modified crop management practices, the challenges posed by climate change could be tackled by developing tolerant varieties. Several institutions have evolved hybrids and varieties, which are tolerant to heat and drought stress conditions, which have potential to combat impact of climate change (Table 2). Production system management Strategies like changing sowing or planting dates in order to combat the likely increase in temperature and water stress periods during the crop-growing season should be adopted. Modifying fertilizer application to enhance nutrient availability and use of soil amendments to improve soil fertility and enhance nutrient uptake (Srivastava et al., 2014, Malhotra and Srivastava 2015). Providing irrigation during critical stages of the crop growth and conservation of soil moisture reserves are the most important interventions (Malhotra 2016). The crop management practices like mulching with crop residues and plastic mulches help in conserving soil moisture. In some instances excessive soil moisture due to heavy rain becomes major problem and it could be overcome by growing crops on raised beds. Production of vegetables could be taken up using clear plastic rain shelters, which can reduce the direct impact on developing fruits and also reduce the field water logging during rainy season. Planting of vegetables on raised beds during rainy season will increase the yield due to improved drainage and reduced anoxic stress to the root system. Grafting of vegetables on tolerant rootstocks would provide the scion cultivars with tolerance to soil related environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, low soil temperature and flooding (Chieri et al., 2008). Efforts initiated by AVRDC in improving flood tolerance in tomato using eggplant rootstocks for grafting could be extended to impart water stress and temperature stress tolerance (Annonymous1990). More heat tolerant cultivars are required under climate change conditions and these cultivars need to perform at par with the conventional varieties under non-stress conditions. Mitigation strategies Climate change is a reality and there is enough evidence to show that the emission of green house gasses has caused global warming and associated climate change. In addition to adapting the horticultural production systems to adverse impacts of climate change, horticulture sector can considerably contribute to the mitigation. Mitigation is referred to the process in which the emission of green house gases are either reduced or sequestered. The improved crop management practices can considerably reduce the emission of green house gasses due to reduced dependence on energy needs and intensification of perennial horticultural crops will help in sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. 356

368 Carbon sequestration potential Mitigation measures in the agriculture and forestry sectors are generating much interest as a potential source for additional income to otherwise weak rural areas and as a means of fueling adaptation to climate change. Mitigation efforts through carbon sequestration help to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. The information about carbon sequestration potential of fruit trees is scanty though they contribute significantly. In a study using PRO-COMAP model at IISC, Bangalore estimated the mitigation potential of farm forestry fruit orchard block planting with 75% of area proposed under Mangifera indica, Tamarindus indica, Achras sapota, Artocarpus, Neem and Guava. The carbon stock change under baseline and mitigation scenario (excluding harvested wood products) and the carbon increment per ha for various project activities for the 30- year period ( ) worked out to be t C/ha. The overall mitigation potential for farm forestry with an area of 5,381 ha is 81,750 t C. fruit orchards farm forestry is found to be most profitable at 29.92% IRR (Ravindranath et al., 2007, Laxman et al., 2010). Cocoa based agroforestry systems are credited for stocking significant amounts of carbon and hence have the potential to mitigate climate change. Carbon stocks in shaded agroforestry systems with perennial crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica L.), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (HBK) Muell.-Arg.), and cocoa may vary between 12 and 228 Mg/ha and could help to mitigate climate change (Albrecht and Kandji 2003, Montagnini and Nair 2004, Nair et al.,2009). Change in technology for mitigating affect In a matter of fact, grape is a temperate fruit, which has been largely grown under cool climate, be it for table purposes or for wine-making. But the technological change in plant architecture and production system management has helped to produce grape in tropical situation, with highest productivity in the world. Likewise the chilling will not be enough to induce flowering in apple and high temperature in the mid hill agro-climatic conditions, may cause desiccation in pollen, shrivelling of fruits resulting in reduced yield and more failure of the crops. These are the likely impact which causes the concerns. But, there are innumerable examples to cite that, climate has been changing and the technologies have helped in mitigating the problem. Salinity and alkalinity were a great problem for successful growing of grape but identification of suitable rootstocks has made it highly productive. If we look to potato, tomato, cauliflower and cabbage, these are thermo-sensitive crops and were productive only under long day conditions in temperate climate. But development of heat tolerant cultivars and adjustment in production system management has made it possible with very high productivity, even in subtropical and mild subtropical and warmer climates (Singh et al.,2008, Malhotra and Srivastava 2014). These are the past experiences, which clearly brings home the point that through innovative research threat of climate change could be converted into the opportunity, but will need visualization of likely change, its impact and planning to mitigate it bad impact. Now, available tools of biotechnology could add for speedier delivery of research results. 357

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374 Yadaukumar, N Raniprasad, T N and Bhat M G Effect of climate change on yield and insect pests incidence on cashew. (In) Challenges of Climate Change in Indian Horticulture, pp Singh H P, Singh J P and Lal S S (Eds). Westville Publishing House, New Delhi. 363

375 THEME VII Eco-System Sustainability 364

376 Management of Agricultural Chemicals and Farm Residues to Reduce Adverse Effects on Human Health and Environment Seshu Reddy, K.V.* and Nagaraju, D.K.** *Consultant, PRDIS, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India **Assistant Director (Entomology), Plant Quarantine Station, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract Recent deaths of cotton farmers and hospitalization of several hundreds of labourers due to pesticide poisoning in Maharashtra State have opened a debate over the rationale of using pesticides in India which are either banned or restricted elsewhere in the world due to their high toxicity. Some of the reasons for such man-made disasters have been attributed to the use of extremely highly hazardous pesticide sprays on lush green crops which are grown well above the reach of farmer, high humidity, wind, spraying in hot climates without any protective equipment, use of cocktails of pesticides, use of high volume sprayers which delivers more chemical than required concentration etc. In this paper, we summarize several areas that will help in overcoming the adverse effects of agricultural chemicals and farm residues on human health and environment. These include exclusive legislation on pesticide management by policy makers, agricultural researchers and farm experts to address the issues related to ground level monitoring mechanism of sale and unsafe use of pesticides; emphasis on different cropping systems, crop residue management practices, use of botanical sprays, use of biocontrol agents and other nonpesticidal management strategies and education, training and enhancement of knowledge of the village level agricultural officers, pesticide dealers and farmers in good agricultural practices and IPM technologies. Introduction Pesticides are chemical compounds that are used to kill pests, including insects, rodents, fungi and weeds. They are commonly used chemicals in an agriculture ecosystem to kill pests that damage crops. Pesticides are grouped as Insecticides, Fungicides, Bactericides, Rodenticides, Nematicides, Repellents, Molluscicides, Herbicides and Soil Fumigants, based on their intended use. Pesticide intended use is against a pest, but they are not only toxic targeted pests, potentially toxic and have unwanted side effects also on other non-targeted organisms, including humans. In addition, pesticide contaminate the environment and water bodies, which in turn have secondary side effects on all organisms 365

377 which come in contact with such contaminated environments. Number of scientific studies have concluded that pesticide exposure is a significant additional risk factor in many chronic diseases such as several types of cancer, Parkinson s disease and Alzheimer s disease. There also circumstantial evidences that exposure to pesticides is associated with disruption in the immune system and hormone imbalances which may increase the risk for obesity, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, reproductive problems and food allergies. Numerous studies reported for children exposed to high levels of pesticides a delay in their cognitive development, behavioral effects and birth defects. There are even studies to indicate pesticide exposure from diet can be associated with poorer intellectual development or attention deficit/hyperactivity average of about 2,00,000 people die from the toxic exposure of pesticides per year across the world (Anonymous, 2017a). Every year there are about 10,000 reported cases of pesticide poisoning in India (Anonymous 2017 b). Also, Yavatmal district in Maharashtra state, has recorded 3920 farmer suicides since 2001 and has been infamously called the farmer suicide capital of India (Anonymous, 2017c). In 2017, India has witnessed a number of deaths of cotton farmers in major cotton growing areas of the country. In addition, several hundreds of laborers were hospitalized due to pesticide poisoning. Subsequent investigation carried out on the matter showed that the deaths were due to use of highly hazardous pesticides and their cocktails, sprays on lush green crops which are grown well above the reach of farmer, weather conditions like high humidity, wind and hot climates, spraying without any personal protection, use of high volume sprayers which delivers more chemical than required concentration, etc. The year 2017, also witnessed the submission of report by Anupam Verma Committee set up to review the continued use of 66 pesticides that have been either banned or restricted for use in farming in other countries. The committee recommended a ban on 13 extremely hazardous pesticides, phasing out of six moderately hazardous ones by 2020, and review the use of 27 pesticides in During 2015, an issue of illegal use of pesticides for nonagricultural purpose in altogether different industry was surfaced. Import of incense sticks/agarbattis laced with pesticides from China and such products were repacked and sold in India under various brand names. Agarbattis were claiming to be natural in being effective for driving away mosquitoes. The laboratory test results concluded the use of pesticide Fenobucarb in these products and smoke from such agarbattis may cause various health complications. Fenobucarb which was being used 366

378 without obtaining a prior registration from the Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee (CIB & RC) and without conducting necessary safety studies. It is evident that use of pesticides has ill effects and are not safe to health of human beings and environment. However, pesticide reduction is not a reasonable option, as it may have impact on sustainable production. Therefore, the strategy should be judicious and need based use. When used, farmers and farm workers should take necessary precautions to protect themselves from unwanted exposure to these pesticides during spray operations. Employing other pest control options is the prudent way to reduce pesticide usage. Different options available for reduction in pesticide usage, use of pesticides in a safer manner, and good agricultural practices and IPM technologies available for raising good crop are discussed in the following chapters. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) The FAO defines Integrated Pest Management as the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourages the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce to minimize risk to human health and the environment. Practically, the crop pest management activities not only depend on one farmer, but also depends on the type of crops being cultivated and pest management practices adopted by the neighboring farmers. Therefore, to get a maximum results through IPM, the entire farming community in a particular area should identify the relevant pest management practices to be adopted and implement them accordingly.various components of IPM are enumerated below: Physical Methods These methods reduce the pest populations by altering the physical environment around the pests and rendering the physical condition of the commodity unfavorable for the pest. These methods have been successfully used in the management of store grain pests. Vincent et al., (2003) classified physical controls as passive (e.g., trenches, fences, organic mulch, particle films, inert dusts, and oils), active (e.g., mechanical, polishing, pneumatic, impact, and thermal), and miscellaneous (e.g., cold storage, heated air, flaming, hot-water immersion). 367

379 Mechanical Methods The mechanical removal and destruction of the pest and its developmental stage, and infested plant or plant part is very useful in the management of certain pests. Digging trenches around infested fields to collect and destroy the migrating larvae of Amsacta albistriga on ground nut has been widely accepted by the farmers. Similar trenches with insecticides are used in the management of migratory locusts. Mechanical hooking of Oryctes rhinocerus beetles is routinely practiced on coconut trees. Hand picking and destruction of large sized, conspicuous and immature or mature stages are also most common practices. Coconut trunk with one-foot metal sheet above one-meter height gives protection against rats and squirrels. Wrapping of fruits with polythene or paper bag gives protection against anar butterfly in pomegranate. Bagging of mango fruits with butter bags is common for fruit fly free fruits for export. Yellow colored sticky traps are useful for control of whiteflies, fruit flies, serpentine leaf miner and certain species of thrips and aphids. In recent past there have been the use of modified atmosphere as an effective store grain management strategy for export of spices and condiments. Post-harvest and/or in transit refrigeration at 0 0 C to C for 13 to 18 days of fresh fruits and hot water treatment of mangoes at 48 o C for 60 minutes is internationally accepted post-harvest treatment against tephritid fruit flies and other frugivorous insects. Similarly, hot water treatment with different temperature and time combinations has been followed on many other fresh fruits for effective management of risks associated with the insects and diseases. Heat Treatment and Kiln drying of Wooden Packing Material (WPM) at 56 o C for 30 minutes is an approved treatment as per International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM-15) for use of WPM in international trade. Ionizing irradiation of mango fruits up to 400 Gy against mango stone weevil. Cultural Control The manipulation of cultural practices that reduces pest damage to crops is called as cultural control methods. Decision on crops, varieties to be grown in an area, time and manner of planting, time of sowing, seed rate and plant spacing, soil tillage, plant diversity, intercropping, trap cropping, border cropping, crop rotation, fertilizer management, water management, sanitation, closed season, harvesting practices, etc are some of the cultural control methods (Table I). 368

380 Table I: Some effective cultural practices against certain crop pests. Crops Pest Control Measures Paddy Paddy Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Removal and destruction of stubbles. Sorghum, Maize, Bajra and Finger millet Shootfly, Atherigona soccata Ploughing soon after harvest, and removal and destruction of stubbles. Sorghum, Maize, Bajra and Ragi Sorghum, Maize, Bajra and Ragi Stem borer, Chilo partellus Pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens Pulling out of Dead hearts and ploughing of stubbles after harvest. Pulling out of Dead hearts and ploughing of stubbles after harvest. Pulses, Groundnut, Sugarcane Termites, Odontotermes spp Thorough ploughing and frequent intercultural operations, and removal and destruction of stubbles. Groundnut, Sugarcane White Grubs, Holotrichia consanguinea, Holotrichia serrata Removal and destruction of stubbles. Cotton Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella Clean cultivation and destruction of crop residues. Deep ploughing to expose larvae/pupae. Cotton Fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera Removal and destruction of crop Cotton Sugarcane Sugarcane Tomato Cucurbits Cucurbits Bananna Cotton Stem Weevil, Pempheres (Pempherulus) affinis Early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus; Stem or Internode Borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus; Leafhopper, Pyrilla perpusilla Scale insect, Melanaspis glomerata Brown leaf hopper, Cestius phycitis Pumpkin beetles, Aulacophora foveicollis Stem borer, Melittia eurytion Rhizome weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus residues Removal and destruction of infested stems. Detrashing at regular intervals. Detrashing and avoiding repeated ratoons. Rouging out and destruction of infested plants. Destruction of crops residues after harvest. Collection and destruction of damaged plant parts. Removal of pseudo stems below ground level. Host Plant Resistance (HPR) HPR is the ability of crop plants to restrict, retard or overcome pest infestation (Kumar, 1985). It is the outcome of the interaction between the crops and pests. Resistance crop varieties can be achieved by traditional breeding methods like crossing 369

381 and selection as well as through genetic engineering. In both cases an identified resistance is incorporated into plant with high yield potential and other favorable agronomic characteristics. Collection of traditional varieties and wild relatives are often a good source of useful resistance genes. Traditional plant breeding, however, takes time and results are only visible after years. Resistance may not be lasting as pests and diseases can adapt to the new crop. The wider the genetic base of resistance, the more likely it is to last. Therefore, identification of resistance sources, and breeding and selection are a continuous process (Frank Eyhorn et al., 2015). There have been continuation efforts to identity the resistance genes and development of commercial varieties, as a result, there are varieties available with considerable resistance to gall midge, stem borer, brown plant hopper and green leaf hopper in Rice; stem borer and pink stem borer in Maize; shoot fly and midge in Sorghum; Spodoptera litura, leaf miner, leaf hopper and thrips in ground nut; Helicoverpa other bollworms and leaf hoppers in cotton, etc. Biological Control Biological control refers to the use of natural enemies viz., parasitoids, predators, pathogens (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and viruses) for the management of insect pests. Use of pathogens in pest control also referred as microbial control. Introduction, conservation and augmentation of natural enemies are the most widely used bio-control methods. Cultural control such as intercropping, trap cropping, strip harvesting, etc enhance the efficiency of biological control agents. Modification of crop environment by manipulation of irrigation or fertilizer application, row spacing, seed rate and tillage operations, etc may also lead to enhanced biological control. There are three kinds of traditional biological control methods viz., Introduction, Conservation and Augmentation of parasitoids and predators. Introduction: Involves importing of natural enemies from place where they are available in plenty or place from where pest got introduced, also called as classical biological control. In India, since establishment of All India Co-ordinated Project on Biological Control in 1977, 79 species of natural enemies were imported and of them 53 were successfully multiplied and 21 have established in the field (Lingappa et al., 2003). By the 370

382 end of 2004, there were about 166 introduced exotic natural enemies in India (Singh, 2004). Papaya mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the recently introduced pests in India, where classical biological control being successfully employed. Three parasitoids, Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff, and Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), were imported from Puerto Rico in July 2010, and A. papayae was multiplied and released. Excellent control of the papaya mealybug was obtained in many parts of south India, pesticide usage was reduced, and production and income were increased. Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is commonly known as tomato leaf miner and South American tomato moth. It is well known as a serious pest of tomato crops in Europe and South America. In India, the pest was initially observed by ICAR-IARI scientists in Pune on tomato plants grown in polyhouse and field during October Subsequently the pest was observed in the farmer s fields in major tomato growing districts of Maharashtra viz., Pune, Ahmednagar, Dhule, Jalgaon, Nashik, and Satara. An extensive survey carried out in the major tomato growing areas revealed the activity of native parasitoids on the introduced pests. Therefore, it was decided to conserve the native natural enemies and thrust was given for mass multiplication and release of Trichogramma spp. (Sushil et. al., 2015). Rugose Spiraling Whitefly (RSW), Aleurodius rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on coconut palms in India was first recorded in 2014 in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. Surveys conducted in south India showed the natural activity of lady bird beetle Nephaspis oculata and the parasitoid Encarsia guadeloupae in bringing the population of RSW under control (Chakravarthy et al., 2017). Augmentation: It includes all the activities designed to increase the number of natural enemies and their efficiency in bring down the pest populations. The objective may be achieved by periodical release of additional natural enemies periodically. The periodical release may be either inoculative or inundative. 371

383 Inundative release:involves the mass multiplication and release of natural enemies to suppress the pest population directly as in the case of insecticidal sprays. These are effective against pests that have only one or at the most a few discrete generations every year. There are 361 of both public and private bio-control laboratories in India (Table II) working on mass multiplication of biological control agents of major crops and there are 970 registrants of the biocontrol products in the country (CIB & RC, 2018). Also, a number of biological control agents and their use in India are presented in Table III. Table II. Biological Control Laboratories in India. Sl. No. Type of Laboratory Number of Laboratories 1 Central Integrated Pest Management Centres 35 (CIPMCs) 2 State Bio Control Laboratories (SBCL) (Grant in 38 Aid) 3 Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) 49 4 State Bio Control Laboratories (SBCL) 98 5 Private 141 Total 361 (Source: Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage, 2018) Trichoderma spp. is one of the commonly used bio-agents used in the management of wilts, rots, damping off in vegetables and pulses, capsule rot of Cardamom, Root rot and Fusarium wilt of Maize, Sheath blight of Paddy, stalk rot of Cauliflower, root rot/color rot of Cabbage, seed rot and root rot of Sunflower, etc. The Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee accorded several registrations for both public and private sector organizations for wettable powder formulations of 0.5 to 5% for seed treatment and field application (CIB & RC, 2018). Pseudomonas fluorescens is registered in wettable powder form of 0.5 to 1.5% for the purpose of seed treatment, seedling dip, soil applicant and foliar sprays. Loose smut of wheat, late leaf spot of Ground nut, leaf and neck blast, and bacterial leaf blight of Rice, 372

384 damping off of Chilli, wilt of Tomato, Okra and Brinjal, root rot of Tomato and Carrot, etc are some of the diseases against which registration is granted (CIB & RC, 2018). Table III.Biological control agents and their uses. Sl. No. Bio-agent 1 Trichogramma spp. (egg parasite) 2 Crysoperla carnea (Chrysopid predator) 3 Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Ladybird beetle a predator) 4 Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) of Helicoverpa armigera&spodoptera litura Field use Used for control of sugarcane early shoot borer, cotton bollworms, sorghum stem borer, etc. To control larval pests in pulses, vegetables and fruits To control mealy bugs and other soft bodied insect especially on fruits and vegetables. Used against bollworms in cotton and pod borers 5 Trichoderma spp. (Fungi) To control root rot and wilt and damping off diseases especially on pulses, vegetables, etc sheath blight in paddy 6 Pseudomonas fluorescens (Bacteria) 7 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacteria) Wilts, root rots, blasts, damping off, bacterial leaf blight, leaf spots, etc. Borers, Diamond Back Moth (DBM), leaf folders, semi loopers, etc. 8. Beauveria bassiana (Fungi) Leaf folder, DBM, Pod borers, fruit borers, etc. 9. Metarhizium anisopliae (Fungi) Brown Plant Hopper (BPH), Brinjal shoot and fruit borer, etc 10. Verticillium spp. (Fungi) Root knot nematode on different vegetables, mealy bugs, whitefly, etc. (Source: Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage, 2018) Natural Pesticides Various plants and plant derivatives have inherent properties to act as repellants and anti-feedants to insects. Many of them act as Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) and reduce reproductive capabilities. Neem, Pongamia, Mahua, etc are some of the plants with insecticidal properties. It was common among farmers to use Crude Seed Extracts of these 373

385 plants in the management of insect pests. Now, with the continuous research and development, ready to use products in the form of oils, soaps etc., are being commercialized and available to farmers. NSKE, neem oil, and Neem and Pongamia soaps at different concentrations have been successfully demonstrated in control sucking pests, leaf miner and mites in vegetables and which are now part of integral organic agriculture. Soil incorporation of Neem cake in vegetables is proved to be effective in bring down the population of nematodes, leaf miners, mites, etc. (IIHR, 2018) Chemical Control The spectacular results obtained in the pest control by the use of chemical pesticides also caused certain problems such as environmental pollution, resurgence of certain pests, outbreak of secondary pests due to destruction of natural enemies, development of resistance in some pests against pesticides and residues in food and fiber, etc. (Verghese and Nagaraju, 2007). Now, the emphasis is towards reduction in the use of pesticides without compromising on yield and quality of produce. Approaches for Pesticide Reduction Eyhorn et al. (2015) have proposed a 3P (Push, Pull and Policy) strategy for pesticide reduction. It is obvious that there is no single or quick solution to reduce pesticide use and the associated risks. There is consensus that pesticide reduction requires a set of changes in current production systems, value chains and in the policy environment and the three factors are required to work together as follows: Push Enhancing robust basic research on pesticides and alternative crop protection methods and their impacts on human health and ecosystem. Research in risks of pesticides and risk of alternatives and risk management Improving information, training and advice to farmers Promote GAP, IPM, diversity, biocontrol, locally adapted crops, make use of ICT Demonstrate alternatives, exchange know-how Collaboration among stakeholders among value chain. 374

386 Pull Informing and motivating consumers on good food safe, healthy, tasty and good for the producers as well as customers Alliance between research, health, water sector etc. Introduce resistant varieties in shops Retailers engage in organic farming and improved labels addressing pesticides Strengthen the link between farmers - consumers - private sector to reduce pesticide use Policy Enforce implementation of existing regulation Revise pesticide regulation/policies based on latest scientific know-how Implementation of precautionary principles in pesticide registration process, phase out of hazardous pesticides. Incentives for implementation of organic agriculture, etc. Pesticide tax based on the toxicity level of the pesticide, use income for alternatives. Public procurement of labelled/better produce. International Policies and Instruments to Reduce Pesticide Management International codes, treaties, conventions, commissions and advisory bodies play an important role in for plant protection and pesticide management. The Rotterdam convention The convention covers international trade in hazardous chemicals most of them being pesticides with the aim of protecting human health and the environment. If all the parties agree that a specific pesticide constitutes severe health or environmental hazards it can be listed for prior informed consent procedures. They require exporting counties of these chemicals to notify importing authorities on data of known hazards. As any party can 375

387 veto the listing of a pesticide the process is rather slow. Currently the convention lists 33 pesticides. The Stockholm convention The convention aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of which are pesticides. Based on a specified review process pesticide that fulfill the criteria for POPs can be listed for elimination or restriction. The International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management The code is a voluntary framework that has been endorsed by the FAO Members and supported by key pesticides industry associations and civil society organizations. It became a role model to the development of pesticide legislation and the major pesticide companies have agreed to abide by the code of conduct. The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management Is a voluntary policy framework and strategy facilitated by UNEP to promote chemical safety around the world. It brings together stakeholders and sectors that include agriculture, environment, health, industry, labor, economics, science and academia to catalyse achievement of the goal by 2020 that chemicals are used and produced in ways that minimize adverse effects on human health and the environment. The Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues Is an expert ad hoc body administered jointly by FAO and WHO with the purpose of harmonizing the requirement and the risk assessment on the pesticide residues. It recommends maximum residue levels in food and feed commodities and provides guidance on pesticide product quality parameters for regulatory and trade purpose. 376

388 National Legislation and Policies in India By their nature, the pesticides are toxic substances and required to be used judiciously and with great care to safe guard human and animal health, wild-life and the environment. It is with this background that India enacted an Insecticide Act 1968, which regulates the import, manufacture, sale, transportation, distribution and use of pesticides in the country (Rajak, 1992). Further to it, a Draft bill on Pesticide Management has begun in India to replace Insecticide Act 1968, with defining usage and registration norms. The bill is under consultation among different stakeholders. Following are the latest amendments to the existing Insecticide Act 1968 on the educational qualifications of the pesticide manufacturers and distributors. The amendment is to infuse technical personnel with clear knowledge on pesticides at manufacturing, distribution and retail of pesticides. Manufacturer should possess or employ a person with Doctorate in Chemistry/Agriculture/Chemistry/Agriculture Chemicals or Master of Technology or Master of Science in Chemical Engineering or equivalent for manufacture of technical grade pesticides or Master s degree in science with chemistry or agricultural chemistry or agriculture chemicals or Equivalent as one of the subjects for manufacture of pesticide formulation (Gazette Notification No. GSR 1229 (E) dated ). Licensee to sell, stock or exhibit for sale or distribute insecticides shall possess or employ a person possessing Bachelor of Science (Agriculture/Biochemistry/Biotechnology/Life Sciences/Science with Chemistry or Botany or Zoology) (Gazette Notification No. GSR 106(E) dated ). Grow safe food campaign & Monitoring of Pesticide Residue at National Level (MPRNL) The Department of Agriculture, Co-Operation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW), is generating data on the pesticide residues in various food and environmental samples through central sector Monitoring of Pesticide Residues at National Level. The scheme was initiated during with the participation of 25 laboratories representing 377

389 Ministry of Agriculture, Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Ministry of Chemical and Fertilizer, Ministry of Commerce and State Agricultural Universities across the country. The vegetables, fruits, milk and other food items collected from various retail and wholesale outlets across the country have been regularly monitored for pesticide residues by these laboratories. Concept of Packhouse India developed a Standard Operating procedure for export of fresh fruits and vegetables to European Union. Since 2015, the concept of Packhouse is being introduced as per SOP to comply with stringent import regulation. Packhouses for processing fresh produce for export are approved by the National Plant Protection Organization NPPO (Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage). These counties have zero tolerance for Quarantine Pests and prescribe Insecticide Residues within limits. Insects like Bemisia tabaci, Thrips palmi, Liriomyza trifolii, Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae are few quarantine pests associated with commonly exported fresh fruits and vegetables. These insects also demand maximum spray of insecticides in the field. The farmers along with farms are registered with the packhouses and such farmers are provided with technical knowhow by the state government extension missionaries on raising pest free crop with residues within prescribed limit. Thrust is given in the field on employment of IPM practices with approved use of pesticides. Produce from such farms are brought to the approved packhouses, where sorting, grading and packing of commodity is carried out. Randomly drawn samples are sent to APEDA (Agriculture Produce Export Development Authority) approved laboratories for testing pesticide residues. In addition, during the process of sorting, grading and packing each fruit or vegetable is physically examined by the workers. Such process cull out live insects and infested fruits, helps in achieving the objective of pest free export. At the exit point, there will be a Quarantine Inspection as per Standard Operating Procedure for Export Certification. Similar concept of export through approved Processing units have been introduced in case of export of dried Chillies to all destinations, Rice to USA and China, and Peanut 378

390 to Vietnam, etc. The main objective is to mitigate the risk of Khapra beetle, Ground nut bruchid and other store grain pests. Promotion of IPM in India Integrated pest management technologies such as cultural practices, mechanical control, biopesticides, biocontrol, host plant resistance including transgenic crop cultivation are being promoted by the Central and State Governments, NGOs and others through: Farmers Field Schools (FFS): It is a group-based platform for learning and experience sharing among farmers. Skill Development in Agriculture: The Agriculture Skill development Council of India (ASCI) impacts rural youth through skill development in agriculture and its subsectors. Availability and pricing of IPM inputs through subsidized cost like resistant/tolerant varieties, traps, biocontrol agents, natural pesticides, etc. Soil profiling for nutritive status which enables the need-based application of major and minor nutrients (Soil Health Card) Direct procurement of crops grown under IPM by the Govt. Sensitizing farmers about safe and judicious use of Pesticides. Government Schemes which augur to the need of IPM Seed Village Program: It is a concept to promote the quality of seed production of foundation and certified seed classes. The area which is suitable for raising a crop will be selected and raised with single variety of a kind. Cotton Seed Price Control Order, 2015 under Section 3 of the Essential Commodities Act, 1955 for regulating the maximum sale price (MSP) of Bt cotton hybrid seeds. National Food Security Mission (NFSM): Targeting Rice Fallow Areas in Eastern India for Pulses has been initiated from Rabi 2016 to bring rice fallow areas under cultivation, pigeon pea on rice bunds Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY): Assistance to farmers for cluster formation, mobilization of farmers, conversion of land to organic farming, establishment of vermi compost unit, labelling or branding of organic products, etc., Government bill promote organic farming with usage of traditional resources, adoptive eco-friendly low cost technologies and for higher returns, etc. 379

391 Conclusions Based on the past experiences on the ill effects of the pesticides and farmers deaths due to pesticide poisoning, the Governments at Central and State levels have taken several measures for proper use of pesticides by the farmers. Efforts have been made to tighter the regulatory system to curb the menace of spurious and misbranded pesticides. Educational qualifications have been prescribed to infuse technicality and knowledge-based delivery systems at manufacturing to retail sale. Vocational training programs are being conducted at regular intervals to pesticide dealers and state agriculture extension missionaries on judicious and safer use of pesticides. Thrust has been given to sensitize the farmers for proper use of pesticides on crops with an integrated pest management approach. Regular Farmers Field Schools (FFS) and Vocational Training programs are being organized by Union Government through Central Integrated Pest Management Centers, State Governments, State Agricultural Universities, Krishi Vignana Kendra (KVK), National Institute, etc. Emphasis is given to promote IPM components like plant resistance, biological, biopesticides, cultural and mechanical methods of pest control and advocates need based, judicious use of pesticides in these programs. Schemes for promotion of organic agriculture are put in place. Crops such as minor millets, vegetables and fruits with the requirement of less agricultural chemical interventions are being promoted among farmers. Health benefits of such crops are also being widely publicized to promote these crops among consumers. However, there is a need to explore the possibility of enrolling pesticide application/spraying personnel with the pesticide dealers and bringing such registered labourers into training loop. Efforts may be extended to make available cheaper, readily available, and comfortable to use protective clothing and equipment for small and marginal farmers, and farm labourers. It is evident that these agricultural chemicals have been causing serious health hazards and environmental problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a progressive ban of highly hazardous pesticides, while phasing in sustainable ecosystem based plant production systems. Governments need to adapt or introduce tougher global regulations and policies that ensure : a) pesticide use is reduced, b) pesticide risks are minimized, and c) alternative systems and technologies such as application of biopesticides, integrated pest management technologies including transgenic crop cultivation are promoted through more in-depth research and development and on long term environmental and health impacts of agroecology as well as raising public awareness about safe pesticide 380

392 management and undesirable practices. In addition, there should be an approach to pesticide management and close collaboration of agriculture, health and environment sectors. References Anonymous2017a. UN: 2,00,000 die each year from pesticide poisoning Anonymous 2017b. in Anonymous 2017c. the 21 October Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Chakravarthy, A. K. Kumar, K. P. Sridhar, V. Prasannakumar, N. R. Nitin, K. S. Nagaraju, D. K. Shashidhara, G. C. Sudhakara, T. M. Chandrashekar, G. S. and Rami Reddy, P. V Incidence, hosts and potential areas for invasion by Rugose Spiraling Whitefly, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 23 (1): Frank Eyhorn, Tina Roner, Heiko Specking Reducing pesticide use and risks-what action is needed?. Briefing paper, 31pp. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Lingappa, S. Shekarappa and Patil, R. K Integrated Pest Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Pesticides Management Bill, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. Rajak, R. L Pest Management, In: Pest Management and Pesticides: Indian Scenario (Ed.: B. Vasantharaj David), Namrutha Publications, Madras Singh, S. P Some success stories in classical biological control of Agricultural pests in India. APAARI Publication 2004/2, 73pp. Sushil, S. N. Abraham Verghese, Viraktamath, C. A. Chandish R. Ballal and Nagaraju, D. K South American Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae). Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage. Verghese, A. and Nagaraju, D. K Role of Parasitoids and Predators in Integrated Pest Management, In: Entomology: Novel Approaches (Eds.: P. C. Jain and M. C. Bhargava), New Delhi Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp Vincent, C., Hallman, G., Panneton, B. & Fleurat-Lessard,F. (2003). Management of agricultural insects with physical control methods. Annual Review of Entomology, 48,

393 Introduction Agricultural residue control by Integrated Pest management in Spices Dr. KJ Venugopal Owner & Managing Director, Food Safety & Quality Solutions Incorporated ( In September 2015, the UN agreed on 17 goals with 169 targets for sustainable development over the next 15 years, and identified 8 important Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) where agricultural extension can play a major role in achieving them. Sustainable agriculture production systems are composed of a number of core attributes such as: i. Utilisation of crop varieties with a high productivity to input ratio ii. Need based external inputs iii. Agro-ecological processes- such as nutrient cycling, biological nitrogen fixation, allelopathy, predation and parasitism iv. Minimal use of technologies or practices that have adverse impacts on the environment and human health v. Productive use of human capital- knowledge, capacity to adapt and innovate, social capital to resolve problems of natural resources such as water, pest or soil management vi. Minimise impact on environment due to agricultural operations such as greenhouse gas emission, clean water, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, dispersal of pests, pathogens and weeds etc. Agricultural systems based on sustainable practices are different from the processes and outcomes of conventional systems. They are multifunctional within regions and economies and jointly produce food and other goods for farmers and markets, while contributing to a range of valued public goods, such as clean water, wildlife, and habitats, carbon sequestration, flood protection, groundwater recharge, landscape amenity value and leisure and tourism opportunities. They are also diverse, synergistic and consider socio-ecological context and involve more complex mixes of domesticated plant and animal species and associated management techniques, requiring deployment of greater skills and knowledge by farmers on use of agricultural inputs (seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides) Integrated pest management and food safety Regulatory and private standards for agrochemical residues continue to be stricter day by day, as a result of improved knowledge and consumer awareness on deleterious effects of such chemicals on food safety, health, environment and sustainable crop production. Pesticide residues exceeding the legal limits can hamper trade between the developing economies and the developed markets. Implementation of Integrated Pest Management IPM), hence, is vital not only to minimize pesticide applications and improve safety of produce but also to maintain a healthy trade environment between countries. This evolution in the regulatory environment around food safety has created need for more 382

394 sustainable agricultural production systems, and the IPM GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) have become essential components of sustainable agriculture. The integration of various control measures, where pesticides are used only as a last resort, ensures that pests remain below the economic threshold, thus supporting food safety and international market access. Despite the changes in the regulatory environment in an effort to improve food safety, implementation of IPM at field level is still a challenge to most of the developing countries due to various socio, economic, regulatory reasons as well as challenges in supportive and enabling policies and institutions. Various models of IPM based agro extension systems are in use. The concept of Bio intensive IPM is a fairly new approach to pest management based on understanding of pest biology and ecology. It involves accurately diagnosing the nature and source of pest problem, and applying a range of preventive tactics and biological controls to keep pest populations within acceptable limits. Pesticides with lower environmental and health impact are used as a last resort, only if other tactics have not been adequately effective. Benefits of bio intensive IPM include reduced input costs, reduced on-farm and off-farm environmental impacts and more effective and sustainable pest management. This ecology-based IPM has the potential of decreasing inputs of fuel, machinery and synthetic chemicals all of which are energy intensive and increasingly costly in terms of financial and environmental impact. Such reductions will benefit the grower and society. Bio-IPM has two components- proactive and reactive. Cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant crop cultivars including transgenic plants (GM), disease-free seed and plants, crop sanitation, spacing, altering planting dates, mulches are proactive strategies. Reactive strategies are those taken by the grower in response to a situation such as releases of biological control agents, mechanical and physical controls, botanical pesticides and chemical controls. IPM, as a sustainable crop protection system, gained momentum after the Second World War with a realisation that indiscriminate use of insecticide would be ecologically catastrophic. In the past 25 years, there has been a substantial increase in understanding on how to increase farmers knowledge so that they are able to cultivate and raise crops whilst reducing or eliminating pesticides. However, its adoption remains low in agriculture. It has not yet led to a reduction in total pesticide use. New invasive pests and diseases are being discovered, as transfer of species in a globalised world has become easier, and changes in climate and weather patterns have driven shifts in pest and pathogen ranges. IPM methods can be classified into four main types- targeted use of pesticides, changed use of pesticides, habitat approach and agro-ecological/bio IPM approach of which agroecosystem approach is the most comprehensive and based on sustainable concepts. This approach can deliver any of the following scenario: 383

395 Increased pesticide use and yields Increased pesticide use but decreased yields decline Decreased pesticide use and yields Decreased pesticide use, but increased yields The farming community and associated agrochemical input supply chain elements are conventional in assuming that pesticide use and yields are positively correlated, and that there should be incentives to change practices to reducing agrochemical use as the yield is compromised Pests, diseases and weeds pose a significant challenge to food security, poverty alleviation and agricultural livelihoods. Methods of IPM provide ways and means by which damage can be reduced. There are many field trials and commercial projects where it has been demonstrated that IPM projects have been able to deliver substantial reductions in pesticide use coupled with increased yields. Reduced reliance on synthetic pesticides delivers a range of on- and off-farm benefits, including savings, improved public health and improved natural capital on and around farms and overall improvement in agricultural sustainability. Thus, IPM should be viewed as a form of sustainable intensification that increases synergies between social, human and natural capitals. Benefits go beyond increased crop yields and, depending on the system in use, may include improved soil health, livestock integration and income diversification. These, coupled with reduced crop losses and savings of the cost of pesticides, make IPM particularly important for tropical smallholders. Policy support is critical, but has so far been patchy. 384

396 Transformation of Agricultural Extension Systems towards Ecosystem Sustainability S. Pathmarajah Department of Agricultural Engineering Faculty of Agriculture University of Peradeniya The SDG 15 (Sustainable Development Goal 15) - Life on Land, has nine (9) targets and three (3) sub targets. This paper attempts to address part of the development target 15.1; i.e. by 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems. Emphasis is given to re-establishment of rice field based ecosystem that sustained the lives and livelihoods of the rural population for generations. The need for the transformation of the extension system towards this end is also briefed. The dilemma of development planners and policy makers is to strike a balance between economic development and ecosystem sustainability. For example, destroying forest and diverting flows to expand agricultural production for food security could threaten biodiversity. Similarly, food security could be threatened if food crops are switched to biofuel production or build hydropower for energy security. Thus, sustainable development requires the participation of many different stakeholders working at different scales. It is, often impossible to get the relevant people at the right time and place to solve complex issues. Even if we manage to gather relevant people, in solving complex problems within the SDGs where responsibility is dispersed and the interests of different stakeholders can conflict. Another, key challenge is ensure people are responsible and accountable for the decisions made and actions taken in progressing towards meeting the SDGs. Sustainable development is in a way achieving trade-off between the exploitation of natural resources for socio-economic development, and conserving ecosystem services that are critical to everyone s wellbeing and livelihoods. The SDGs proposed for water and sanitation (SDG 6) and ecosystems (SDG 15) have targets for restoring and maintaining ecosystems to provide water related services. Ecosystem services are the benefits people get from nature, for example supplies of food and freshwater, flood mitigation and improvements to water quality. Most of the rural inhabitants depend on nature for basic needs. Moreover, nature contributes to the resilience of communities to natural hazards by supplying food and water following a disaster. Many ecosystem services are perceived as public goods and went unnoticed in development planning. Consequently, ecosystems are being degraded during the course of development. Altering ecosystems to facilitate socio-economic development is inevitable but how to ensure that the ecosystem services are not affected is the challenge. During the early days, preserving the natural habitats was considered as the strategy to protect the ecosystem. However with the development initiatives undertaken during the 1980s, this concept was challenged due to the fact that more than 75% of the terrestrial environment 385

397 of the world consist of managed ecosystems, including agricultural systems, forestry systems and human settlements. In Sri Lanka, large scale dams and diversion projects undertaken over the 50 years or more has contributed to the destruction or alteration of natural forests and the traditional rice field based ecosystems that sustained the lives and livelihoods of the people for generations. Irrigated rice fields, being temporary aquatic habitats with a generally predictable dry phase, can be scientifically defined as an agronomically managed temporary wetland ecosystem. Although being a monoculture agro-ecosystem, a rice field undergoes three major ecological phases; aquatic, semi-aquatic and a terrestrial dry phase, during a single paddy cultivation cycle. Ecosystem services provided by rice fields include groundwater recharge, diet diversity through production of non-rice foods and rice-fish integration, flood control, soil erosion and landslide prevention, watersheds for urban and users downstream areas, climate-change mitigation (carbon sequestration), resilience to climate, disturbance, water purification, maintain soil fertility, cultural services, landscape, weed control, natural pest control, biodiversity, etc. A survey on vertebrate fauna that inhabit and/or visit the traditional home garden-rice field managed landscapes in Sri Lanka documented a total of 250 species, which represents about 40% of the total inland native vertebrate species in Sri Lanka. Among the vertebrate species recorded, 29 (12%) are endemic, while 40 (16%) are nationally threatened. In addition to 133 species of native birds observed, 30 species of winter migratory birds that visit Sri Lanka from other countries were also documented. In Japan, more than 5000 species have been recorded in rice fields and the surrounding environment. These findings indicate the importance of rice based ecosystem in preserving biodiversity. At present, FAO is strongly advocating for the reestablishment of traditional farming system to sustain the ecosystems services that the rice based ecosystem has been providing. A study by FAO categorised the rice based ecosystems based on the following systems existing worldwide. 1. Conservation agriculture: cultivation that emphasizes minimum soil disturbance, crop rotation and cover crops 2. Holistic heritage systems of agriculture: cultivation approaches focused on sustainable land use systems and landscapes that have evolved through the dynamic adaptation of farming communities to their environment 3. Integrated farming systems: cultivation integrated with fish, livestock and/or agroforestry 4. Integrated pest management: cultivation with emphasis on integrated control of insect pests and/or enhancement of natural enemies (including practices involving monitoring and site specific application of inputs) 5. Organic agriculture: cultivation associated with agreed organic practices 6. System of Rice Intensification: cultivation focused on integrated approach to rice production that includes six core practices 386

398 The above ecologically engineered rice production systems, and adaptation of rice crop management practices to specific landscapes and regions is a knowledge-intensive processes. Thus, the stress is on knowledge and management skills of farmers with the inputs from advisers and researchers. The role of Agricultural Extension System is to coordinate and execute the empowerment process of local community to manage ecosystems in their own landscapes. References Bambaradeniya, N.B. (----). Traditional Home Garden and Rice Agro-Ecosystems in Sri Lanka: An Integrated Managed Landscape that Sustains a Rich Biodiversity Channa IUCN =pdf Kelly Garbach et al. (2014). The Multiple Goods and Services of Asian Rice Production Systems Matthew McCartney, Max Finlayson and Sanjiv de Silva (2015). Sustainable development and ecosystem services. Sustainable%20development%20and%20ecosystem%20services.pdf 387

399 Constraint Analysis among Beneficiaries of Bhoochetana Project in adoption of Soil Health Card Recommendations in Andhra Pradesh, India 1 K. Raghavendra Chowdary& 2 Ravi Kumar Theodore 1 SMS (Extension), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banavasi, Yemmiganur , Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India 2 Professor (Agrl. Extension) & Dean, Kumaraguru Institute of Agriculture, Sakthinagar , Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India ( Abstract A research study was carried out in order to assess the constraints faced by farmer beneficiaries of the Bhoochetana Project of Government of Andhra Pradesh, India implemented in the year for distributing Soil Health Cards (SHCs) to farmers. Almost all the respondents were seen to be distributed between medium and high level categories in respect of value attribution to SHC recommendations. With respect to comparative value attribution, third rank was assigned to SHC recommendations. More than two-thirds (67.00%) of the respondents had high level of satisfaction on SHC recommendations. Out of the 100 respondents studied, 47 of them had followed SHC recommendations all the five years. Among adopters of SHC recommendations, cent per cent of the farmers had adopted the SHC recommendations as such without any deviation. Whereas, among non-adopters of SHC recommendations, an overwhelming proportion (92.45%) of farmers fell under excess adoption category. Inadequate follow-up by extension agency was the foremost constraint expressed by majority of the respondents. Introduction Sustainable agricultural production system heavily relies on adoption of good soil health management practices. However, deteriorating soil health has been a cause of concern, which has led to sub-optimal utilization of farm resources. According to Yadav, et al. (2006), knowledge level and adoption of Soil Fertility Management (SFM) practices are relatively less i.e. 65% of them have no knowledge about SFM practices and just eight per cent of them have adopted SFM practices. Judicious application of chemical fertilizers by farmers in crops is very much essential to achieve maximum production and to earn maximum profit. Srivastava and Pandey (1999) have reported that Research studies reveal that most of the farmers are using continuously larger quantities of chemical fertilizers to increase production without knowing the fertility status of the soils of their fields. Soil testing helps farmers in judicious application of chemical fertilizers to the crops. The soil testing of a particular field gives reliable information about the deficiency of 388

400 nutrients in the soil as well as hazards such as soil acidity, alkalinity, salinity, etc. After testing the soil, farmers can know the exact amount of nutrients to be applied for a particular crop. However, in the past two decades, the fertility status of soils has decreased drastically due to indiscriminate use of fertilizers i.e. the Soil Nutrient Response Ratio has decreased from in to 8.59 in (Mission Project to Boost Productivity in Rainfed Areas of Andhra Pradesh 2011). Therefore, the Government of Andhra Pradesh initiated the Bhoochetana Project in the year for distributing Soil Health Cards (SHCs) to farmers in order to encourage judicious application of fertilizers, to increase productivity of crops, and to maintain soil fertility. The project is going for the last six years since its inception. Soil samples are 10 samples per village from the farmers under this project, which are tested in the Soil Testing Labs, based on which SHCs are distributed to the farmers. In the light of the above a study was conducted to evaluate the project with the following specific objectives: 1. To analyze the adoption pattern of beneficiary farmers with respect to SHC recommendations. 2. To identify the constraints faced by beneficiary farmers in adoption of SHC recommendations. 3. To elicit suggestions to increase adoption level of SHC recommendations by farmers. Methodology The study was conducted in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh. Kurnool district consists of 54 Mandals (Blocks) and among them Orvakal and Banaganapalli Blocks were selected based on maximum number of SHC holders. Among the 20 villages of Orvakal Block, 10 villages were selected for the study, and among 39 villages of Banaganapalli Block, 10 villages were selected for the study, based on simple random sampling. Based on proportionate random sampling method, 100 respondents were selected from the 20 villages who formed the sample of the study. The variables included in the study were: (i) Value attribution to SHC recommendations, (ii) Comparative Value Attribution, (iii) Satisfaction Index, and (iv.) Pattern of adoption of SHC recommendations. Value attribution to SHC recommendations was operationalized as the degree to which a farmer respondent placed worth on the SHC recommendations. The respondents were asked to indicate their value attribution on a scale of 1 to 10, with one score indicating low value attribution and a score of 10 meaning high value attribution. Based on the minimum and maximum scores, the respondents were classified into low, medium, and high using frequency distribution. Comparative Value Attribution was operationalized as the relative importance given to SHC based recommendations by a farmer respondent in comparison to other farm technologies or farm operations recommended. The respondents were asked to rank the technologies / 389

401 operations from 1 to 10, based on the comparative importance as perceived by them. The ranks were analyzed using Garett ranking method. Satisfaction Index referred to the degree to which a respondent was satisfied with the SHC recommendations. The Index consisted of five statements developed for the study. The respondents were asked to rate each statement on a five point continuum viz., Not Satisfied, Less Satisfied, Satisfied, Very Satisfied and Fully Satisfied, with scores of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Based on the minimum and maximum scores, the respondents were classified into low, medium and high categories using frequency distribution method. Pattern of adoption of SHC recommendations was assessed in terms of Period of Adoption, Years of Adoption and Extent of Adoption. Period of Adoption referred to the time period of adoption of the SHC recommendations by a farmer respondent between the year (Year of implementation of Bhoochetana project) and (Study period). Frequency distribution method was followed in order to categorize the respondents based on their time period of adoption. Years of Adoption referred to the actual years of adoption of SHC recommendations by a respondent, which is a derivative of period of adoption. The respondents were classified into different categories based on frequency distribution method. Extent of adoption of SHC recommendations was operationalized as the degree to which a respondent actually adopted the SHC based recommendations. The Extent of Adoption variable was measured by means of the Adoption Index followed by Theodore (1988), which is given as follows: The extent of adoption was worked out for each of the SHC recommendations, as indicated in the SHC of each farmer respondent viz., (i) Nutrients / Fertilizers - Urea (N), SSP (P) / DAP, MOP (K), Organic manure, and (ii) Problematic soils -Alkali Gypsum (t/ha), Acidic - CaCo 3 (kg/ac). The recommendation-wise adoption values for a respondent were summed up and then divided by the number of recommendations, and finally the resulting value was multiplied by 100 to arrive at the Extent of Adoption score in terms of percentage. Lower percentage indicated less adoption and higher percentage meant higher adoption. Based on the percentages, the respondents were classified into low, medium and high categories using frequency distribution method. Findings and Discussion Value attribution to Soil Health Card (SHC) recommendations: The classification of respondents based on their value attribution to SHC recommendations was examined. Majority 390

402 (60.0%) of the respondents had medium level of value attribution to SHC recommendations, followed by more than one-third (35.0%) with high level of value attribution, and the rest (5.0%) had low level of value attribution to SHC recommendations.almost all the respondents are seen to be distributed between medium and high categories in respect of value attribution. This may be as a result of the efforts taken under Bhoochetana project to popularize the importance of SHM. Comparative Value attribution The results of the analysis of comparative value attribution are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Distribution of Respondents according to Comparative Value attribution S.No. Technologies / Operations Garrett s Mean Score (n=100) Ranks 1. Water management I 2. HYV / Hybrids II 3. SHC recommendations III 4. Crop protection (Pests) IV 5. Weed Management V 6. Land preparation VI 7. Market intelligence VII 8. Integrated Farming System (IFS) VIII 9. Post harvest technology -Processing and IX value addition 10. Farm mechanization X From Table 1 it is inferred that water management was ranked first among all the 10 technologies / operations, followed by second rank to HYV / hybrids, third rank for SHC recommendations, fourth rank for crop protection (Pests), fifth rank for weed management, sixth rank for land preparation, seventh rank for market intelligence, eighth rank for IFS, ninth rank for post harvest technology - processing and value addition, and finally the tenth rank was assigned to farm mechanization. Water management was ranked first by the respondents, which may be due to the reason that the area under rainfed agriculture in Kurnool district is about 6,85,000 ha (net irrigated area is around 1,75,000 ha), and therefore water management would have assumed greater importance.hyv / hybrids was ranked second by the farmers. The quality of seed decides the performance of the crop contributing for nearly 20 per cent of yield increase, which may be the reason for this finding. SHC recommendations was ranked third in the order. This finding may have occurred as a result of the efforts taken under the Bhoochetana project. Satisfaction Index : The distribution of respondents based on satisfaction index was examined. Over two-thirds (67.00%) of the respondents had high level of satisfaction on SHC recommendations, and the rest (33.00%) had medium level of satisfaction on SHC is seen that all the respondents were distributed between high and moderate categories with respect to satisfaction 391

403 index. This finding may be as a result of the initiatives taken by the extension functionaries under the Bhoochetana project. Pattern of Adoption of Soil Health Card (SHC) recommendations : The results of the analysis of pattern of adoption of SHC recommendations assessed in terms of Period of Adoption, Years of Adoption and Extent of Adoption are presented in Tables 4, 5 and 6. Period of Adoption : The results of the analysis with respect to period of adoption of SHC recommendations are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Distribution of Respondents according to Period of Adoption of SHC recommendations S. No. Adoption Period No. of Adopters (n=100) to to to to to to Table 2 shows that out of the 100 respondents studied, 47 of them had followed SHC recommendations all the five years. The remaining respondents (53) had followed the SHC recommendations for less than five years. Years of Adoption: The results of analysis of years of adoption of SHC recommendations was examined. From the total five years of adoption period (which is the maximum period), 47 respondents had followed the SHC recommendations for all the five years. This is followed by nine respondents who had followed for four years, 21 respondents for three years, 14 respondents for two years, and the rest nine respondents for one year.nearly half of the respondents were observed to have adopted the SHC recommendations for the maximum period of 5 years, which may be as a result of the efforts taken under the Bhoochetana project. Discontinued adopters were to the tune of 53 per cent, who had followed the SHC recommendations for less number of years i.e., 4 and less. This finding may be as a result of following reasons viz., inadequate follow-up by extension agency, no visible result, complex to adopt the recommendations, and less knowledge as expressed by a considerable proportion of the respondents as constraints faced in adoption of SHC recommendations. 392

404 Extent of Adoption From Table 3 it is seen that among adopters of SHC recommendations, cent per cent of the farmers had adopted the SHC recommendations as such without any deviation. Whereas, among non- Adopters of SHC recommendations, an overwhelming proportion (92.45%) of farmers fell under excess adoption category, and the rest (7.55%) belonged to less adoption category. Table 3. Distribution of Respondents according to Extent of Adoption of SHC S.No. recommendations Extent of Adoption Categories Adopters of SHC recommendations (n= 47) Non-Adopters of SHC recommendations (n= 53) No. Per cent No. Per cent 1. Less adoption (-) Recommended Level of Adoption Excess adoption (+) Total It was found that among the 100 respondents surveyed, 47 farmers had adopted the SHC recommendations in toto, whereby they were classified as Adopters. This may be due to the reason of medium to high level of value attribution, high level of comparative value attribution, and high level of satisfaction on SHC recommendations observed among the respondents. It was observed that majority of the farmers i.e. 53 of them did not follow the SHC recommendations, whereas they had followed their own dosages. Among them, it is seen that a vast majority had applied excess quantity of inputs. On enquiry they reasoned that the recommendations are less reliable, exact application of fertilizer recommendations is difficult, unscientific method of soil sample collection, recommendations not suitable for specific village conditions, expectations of high returns by applying more than recommended doses, and following neighbouring farmers in applying fertilizers. Constraints faced in adoption of SHC recommendations The distribution of respondents according to the constraints faced in adoption of SHC recommendations was assessed. It was found that the foremost constraint expressed by the respondents was inadequate follow-up by extension agency (63.0%), followed by no visible results (43.0%), complex to adopt the recommendations (26.0%), less knowledge (23.0%), less benefit (14.0%), lack of time (11.0%), peers do not follow and unscientific method of collecting soil samples (9.0%), and finally higher cost (3.0%). 393

405 Suggestions to enhance adoption level of Soil Health Card (SHC) recommendations The foremost suggestion expressed by the respondents was quick distribution of Soil Health Cards (96.0%), followed by follow-up by extension agency (84.0%), all farmers to be covered under the Bhoochetana project (71.0%), conduct of more number of demonstrations (28.0%), training on soil sampling and use of SHC (13.0%), and weekly once visit by AEO to the farmers fields (6.0%). The suggestions offered by Extension Functionaries for increasing adoption level of SHC recommendations were : To create more awareness on benefits of SHC based recommendations. Inclusion of Soil Health Management in school curriculum. Distribution of Mobile soil testing kits. To carry out GPS based soil testing. Involving other line departments in collection of soil samples. Involvement of higher officials of State Department of Agriculture Conclusion The Bhootchetana Project is a novel project implemented by the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh in order to encourage farmers to adopt soil test based application of nutrients to soils. It is found through this study that farmers have placed high level of value on SHC based recommendations, which needs to be carried forward and capitalized to make the Bhootchetana Project a greater success. On the other hand, it is seen that majority of the respondents had discontinued adoption of SHC recommendations during the course of the five years of implementation of the Project. This issue warrants top most attention and priority by the State Department of Agriculture, considering the time, energy, and money invested in the Bhoochetana project. For this purpose, regular follow-up by the extension machinery is required, so as to prevent discontinuance of adoption of SHC recommendations. In addition, considering the favourable opinion of the farmers on SHC, a separate Monitoring Cell can be thought-off for establishing at the District level. The main functions of the Cell would be to educate farmers on SHM, and encourage them to adopt the SHC recommendations in a sustained manner. References Srivastava, Y.C. and A.P. Pandey Knowledge and Attitude of Small and Marginal Farmers towards Soil Testing. Agricultural Extension Review, 11(6):

406 Theodore Ravi Kumar Awareness, Conviction and Adoption of Technological units of Contingency Farming Practices for Rice by Contact and other Farmers of Thanjavur District, Unpub. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, TNAU, Coimbatore. Yadav, V.P.S., R.S. Raman., and R. Kumar Knowledge and Attitude of Farmers towards Soil Testing Practices. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, 6 (3):

407 Sustainability in Agriculture Through Organic Farming - A Case Study Y.Venkateswara Rao and *M.Srinivasa Reddy Rythunestham Foundation, Pulladigunta Village, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India When we talk about the Indian agriculture industry, there is a belief that growth can only equal crisis. The Green Revolution brought about a technological breakthrough, leading to short duration high yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers and pesticides but critics blame it for lacking vision (Anon 2003). Could they have predicted the consequences? Recently, the Malwa region in Punjab was dubbed as the 'cancer belt' of India. The unusually high incidence of cancer cases has been linked to the excessive use of pesticides by cotton farmers. In its fifth National Report on Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought published in 2015, the government has conceded that land degradation is a major environmental concern for the country. It reveals that one-third of India's soil is degraded while 25 percent land is facing desertification which has affected its productivity and food security of millions across the country. The solution is obvious: Build a Sustainable Agribusiness. I strongly believe that whatever society gives us, we need to reciprocate and contribute our mite in making this world a better place to live in. In fact, this life philosophy changed my outlook. I graduated in commerce from Acharya Nagarjuna University, Andhra Pradesh, India turned into an Organic farmer and Agricultural Journalist and providing yeomen service to the farming community. I believe that the farming community is the backbone of India and recognizes the dire need to alleviate the sufferings of farmers. During childhood, I witnessed the sufferings of farmers for want of supplies and services including extension services etc. My trajectory since childhood demonstrated my passion for the welfare of poor farmers and I have chosen the path of Organic farming and Agricultural Journalism as the means to educate and empower the farmers. I realized the devastating effects of chemical fertilizers on the soil health and committed myself to improve the production and productivity of crops through organic farming leading to doubling of farmers income. To scale up my activities, myself along with other like-minded philanthropists started a foundation called Rythunestham Foundation in the year 2015 at Pulladigunta a small and regular draught affected village 396

408 in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, India. One of the major activities of the Foundation is to empower the farming community through capacity building programmes on organic farming and develop an interface between different stakeholders. The foundation, nascent in its birth, established a training centre in one of the villages in Guntur district and organises training on organic agriculture in the weekend using the demo farms maintained for the purpose. Several subject matter specialists, government officials and political leaders participate in these training to give useful messages to farmers. It trained about 25,000 farmers through well-structured 150 training programmes. The Foundation has been doing yeomen service to the farming community covering 500 villages. The Rythunestham Foundation has become a platform to carry out different organic agricultural and social activities. Sustainable Agriculture through Organic Farming To counter the expansion of intensive modern agriculture, with its monoculture crops and intense use of pesticides and herbicides, organic farming is to be practised for the revitalization of lost soil health (Alam et.,al 2003). The foundation conducted experiments in the limited scale to showcase the benefits of the organic farming to the farming community as seeing is believing. Organic Farming was taken up in 5 acres of land i.e. cotton to the extent of 0.5 acres, millets in 0.5 acres, red gram in 0.5 acre and vegetables like Cabbage, Tomato, Brinjal, Broccoli 1.5 acre. on organic practices. Soil management methods were practised by using compost, green manure and natural mineral powders. Use of cow dung & neem oil cakes ensured for rejuvenation of soil fertility. Soaking seeds in Beej Amrit, natural pesticides such as neem leaves, garlic, green chillies etc. were applied. The fertilizers used to enrich the soil are made with locally sourced, indigenous ingredients. Farmers usually stack cow dung and let it dry for 4 to 5 months before using it as manure. This causes most of the nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium to evaporate into the air. At our farm, we make the GhanJeevAmrit by adding gram flour and jaggery to cow's urine and dung along with a handful of soil from an old Banyan Tree. Laboratory reports conducted by us have shown that this mixture contained three times more NPK than the manure that farmers use. We also used the JeevAmrit which is a liquid fertilizer made by altering the proportions of cow dung and urine. Though cotton yield in organic farming was half (10 quintals/acre) only compared to the yield obtained in regular inorganic farming (15 quintals/acre), but the input cost was 397

409 drastically reduced and soil health was improved. I got the net profit of Rs 30, 000 per acre in the first year and the profit increased to Rs 50,000 in the subsequent year. A similar trend was noticed in millets cultivation and the profit is more in millets as the customers are paying more for the millets due to increased awareness of the health benefits of millets. Now a days, millets are processed into different products viz. millet cookies, millets flour etc. A strong customer base was established for vegetables and clients are paying 50 percent more price for the vegetables which are grown organically. Consumers food habits and preferences are changing over time. A sales outlet store was also established at the farm and the produce of the farm was packaged and marketed under the brand name of Rythunestham Natural Products to the farmers as farm fresh organic products. The Indian Government has been taking measures to promote organic farming with the aim to improve soil fertility and help to double the farmers incomes by the year Some of the policy initiatives to promote organic farming and exports include development of an organic regulation for exports by the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), removal of quantitative restriction on organic food exports, providing subsidies to farmers under the Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) in partnership with the state governments, and other schemes such as the Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region. Despite these initiatives, a recent survey-based study covering 418 organic farmers across different states of India suggests that a move to organic farming methods may not be that easy and organic farmers are not getting the expected premium price for their produce. Challenges in Organic Farming 1. First, the supply chain is underdeveloped and small and mid-sized farmers find it extremely difficult to access the market. 2. There is a shortage of pack houses and refrigerated vehicles, which leads to spoilage. Organic products have to be stored separately from conventional products to avoid cross-contamination and the existing supply chain does not often provide that facility. 3. While the government is supporting organic product marketing through fairs and exhibitions, it does not give farmers a steady market. In a number of cases, the middlemen take away most of the profits and farmers are not able to earn a premium price. Direct linkages to processors and retailers help farmers to get a better price, but farmers lack the right linkages and hence have to depend on middlemen and mandis. 398

410 4. While the government is subsidizing farmers under the Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) for India, which is a self-certification process supported through the PKVY scheme, these farmers are not allowed to export. In fact, the APEDA has made it mandatory to have a third-party certification for exports. This is despite the fact that globally more than 100 countries, mostly developing countries, recognize the PGS. Unless farmers under PGS India are allowed to export, they cannot earn the premium price. Therefore, ideally, farmers should have the right to decide where they want to sell the product domestic market and/or export market and the government policy should support the same. 5. As a farmer converts his/her land from conventional chemical-based farming to organic farming, there is a risk of loss in yield due to the withdrawal of chemical inputs and high-yielding varieties of seeds. A number of countries, such as the United Kingdom, have carefully designed subsidies to compensate for the yield loss during the conversion period. However, in India, there is no such subsidy. Further, a majority of the government budget and subsidies are targeted towards chemical-based inputs and, in many states, less than 2% of the budget is allocated to organic farming. Given India s low rank is Sustainable Developmental Goals Index (India has been ranked 116 out of 157 nations on the Sustainable Developmental Goals Index for the year 2017, even behind other developing countries such as Nepal, Iran, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and China), it is important for the government to allocate more funding to organic farming and sustainable agriculture practices. In the case of organic, the cost of laboratory testing and third-party certification is high and subsidy can definitely help. A number of states, such as Gujarat, Karnataka and Sikkim, have already set up their third-party certification bodies. Other states may also do the same. 6. There is a serious shortage of good quality organic inputs, which increases the risk of loss of yield. The available organic fertilizers are much below the required quantity, and there are a number of spurious players in the market too. Similarly, there is a shortage of good quality organic seeds. Some inputs companies have taken initiatives to go for third-party certification. However, there is a need for a policy on input standardization. 7. Further, different varieties of crops are grown in different regions of the country, and they are faced with different issues related to pest infestation and soil quality. Hence, there is a need for more crop-specific and region-specific research and development (R&D) on organic inputs. In addition, the survey found that farmers need access to 399

411 equipment such as netting and poly houses to protect their crops against insects. Fruit flies have led to the destruction of crops such as oranges in the state of Sikkim. 8. The biggest challenge faced by organic farmers is the lack of an organic policy for the domestic market and imports. In the absence of regulation on labelling standard for organic production and logo, it is not possible to distinguish an organic product from a conventional product. This has led to fraudulent practices and genuine players are not getting the premium, which the consumers of organic products are willing to pay. While the absence of a policy, makes it difficult to punish fraudulent players, the government cannot enforce punishment on the basis of a voluntary certification process. Therefore, over 79% of the farmers opined that the certification process should be mandatory and the government should help farmers under PGS India to get the mandatory certification once their land is converted to organic. In fact, over 91% of survey participants pointed out that there should be a uniform logo for organic, which will help in product identification. If the right policy measures are taken, then organic farming is expected to grow at 20% in the next five years and the farmers will see a rise in their income. KEY POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 1) Funding for key organic research programs should be substantially increased by the Government to address production challenges faced by organic farmers. 2) A funding mechanism, such as a fee on pesticide sales, should be established to compensate farmers whose crops are damaged from pesticide or herbicide drift from a neighbouring farm. 3) Land Grant Universities should increase research funding support for public cultivators and breed development and prioritize training on organic farming practices. 4) Continued support for the National Organic Certification Cost-Share program is essential. Cost-share programs should be expanded to allow for reimbursement for the costs to prevent genetic contamination, the fees associated with transitioning to organic, and state certification fees. 5) Two key surveys the Organic Production Survey and the Organic Certifier Survey, should be conducted on a regular basis using a consistent set of questions to establish reliable organic trend data. 400

412 6) The government should greatly expand resources devoted to conservation technical assistance for farmers transitioning to organic production. In addition, to minimize bureaucratic hurdles and delays in assisting organic farmers, the designated Organic Specialists in each State Office should be required to work closely together. 7) To provide greater risk management options for organic farms, minimum support price fixation should be offered on all organic crops so these crops can be insured at their full value and the Whole Farm Revenue Program should be reformed and streamlined to improve options for diversified organic farms. 8) Make changes to ensure that loan programmes should be encouraged for young and beginning organic farmers. 9) Provide student loan forgiveness for young people who enter agricultural careers. 10) Expand and improve training for new organic farmers with a particular focus on farmer-to-farmer mentorship initiatives. 11) The Global Agricultural Trade System should be updated to track imports of all organic products. 12) Mechanisms to ensure compliance with Indian organic standards should be enhanced to ensure the integrity of organic imports equipment at subsidized rates and the same can be replicated by the Indian government as well. References: Alam,Anwar and Wani,Shafiq,A.,2003.Emerging need for Organic Agriculture and strategies for its optimization. Proceedings of National seminar on Organic products and their future prospects Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology,Srinagar,pp Anon 2003,Green Revolution to Organic Revolution, Comprehensive Agri-Commodity Intelligence,April,pp Government of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry 2000 National programme for Organic production containing the standards for the organic products, Cochin Singh GR 2001 Organic farming for sustainable Agriculture, Indian Farming, June, pp

413 Multiple Cropping System for Sustainable Resource Management in Mango Orchard S.Rajasekhar Naidu, Dr.P.Bala Hussain Reddy and R.PrasannaLakshmi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalikiri Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh, India Abstract Mango is the major fruit crop in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh with coverage of 74,000 ha in the district. Apart from fluctuations in the market price, constraints like poor soil fertility, pest incidence and high labour cost affecting the net returns to the mango farmerand bringing bitter taste for the sweet producers. Multiple cropping in the mango orchard helps the farmers in getting maximum returns out of their small land holdings by combining different crops that complement each other efficiently. The wider variety of crops improves nutrition and resilience to weather shocks, losses due to pest and disease incidence, moisture stress etc and ensure sustainable crop production. In this regard, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalikiri tested a location specific farmer innovation during rabi, which can be replicated in other farmers fields if it suits to the locality. A study on multiple cropping in Mango orchard was conducted in the existing 15 year old mango orchard of Sri Vasudeva Reddy of Manchuru village, Vayalpadu mandal during Rabi 2016 combining the scientific knowledge of KVK and expertise of the farmer to fit the technology in field conditions. General spacing of 25 feet between mango trees was effectively used for multiple cropping by planting Papaya, Tomato, Chillies, leafy vegetables like Coriander, Fenugreek, Sorrel, Amaranthus and Field bean crop after harvesting Tomato. Expertise of farmer in laying drip lines and fertigation was effectively done to reap maximum out of the tiny field by combining different crops that complement each other efficiently. Interpretation of the results revealed that the total cost of cultivation in sole mango orchard was Rs.50,000/ha and the gross returns were Rs.1,80,000/- with a B:C ratio of 3.6. Whereas, in multiple cropping the total cost of cultivation was Rs.2,41,500/- and the gross returns were Rs.10,86,000/ha with a B:C ratio of This multiple cropping system confirmed maximum utilization of space available in the farmer s field with different complementing crops followed by conservation of resources like water, labour and ultimately high net returns from the unit area. During rabi, also mango crop in demonstration plot bloomed early and heavily than the sole crop of mango which shows the positive effect of multiple cropping not only on the returns but also on the regular bearing of succeeding crop due to good management practices. 402

414 Introduction Chittoor district is a regular drought prone district of Andhra Pradesh in dearth of resources like water, poor soil fertility etc. Western part of Chittoor district in particular has still meager conditions compared to eastern part due to small and marginal holdings and majority area under rainfed situation. Major crops in western part of the district are Rainfed Groundnut, Redgram, Tomato and Mango etc. Frequent groundnut crop failures due to drought, fluctuations in tomato market prices, farmers are showing interest to grow mango orchards because of its marketing facilities and processing industries available in the district. Mango is grown in an area of 74,000 ha in the district and it is in increasing state. Pest incidence during flowering, fruiting period and high labour cost affecting the net returns to the mango farmer. To minimize these risks, ensure high returns,improve livelihood in this region fruit trees having bigger canopy and annual crops as intercrops found to be effective (Nath et al 2007).Multiple cropping approaches in production systems, where more than one crop cultivar or species are grown simultaneously, is gaining increased attention in the district. Benefits can include increased production, returns from companion crops in case of main crop failure, effective pest &weed control and improved soil health. The effects of multiple cropping on the range of interactions within the plant-soil system are manifest via plant interspecific competition, pest and disease attenuation, soil community composition and structure, nutrient cycling, and soil structural dynamics. Interplant diversity and competition effectively increases the nature and extent of root networks, tending to lead to more efficient resource use in time and space.(jurgen Ehrmann and Karl ritz, 2014). Multiple cropping offers the opportunity to develop the subsistence production system to an intensive agriculture system which can help meet the food and nutritional security of the small farmers. The degree of intensification can be achieved through time (sequential cropping) and through the intimacy or combination of species by mixed cropping (Beets, 1982). The Renewable Natural Resources (RNR) Sector Adaptation Action Plans (SAPA, 2013) has identified crop yield instability, decreased water availability, loss of soil fertility due to erosion of top soil and runoff and outbreak of new pest and disease as a major consequence of climate change. One of the underlying advantages of multiple cropping is that it contributestowards improving the overall health of an agro-ecosystem. 403

415 The inter row space in mango provide an ample scope for growing of short duration crops. Location specific and market driven crops may be grown thus, allowing one to grow more than one crop and also to efficiently utilize the space and other natural resources. These crops not only generate an extra income but the practice also helps to check the soil erosion through ground coverage and improves the physico-chemical properties of the soil.the wider variety of crops also improves nutrition and resilience to weather shocks, losses due to pest and disease incidence, moisture stress etc and ensure sustainable crop production.experimental evidences have also proved that yield stability is greater with multiple cropping than sole cropping. However, the success of multiple cropping systems depends mainly on selection of suitable crops. Therefore,a study on multiple cropping in Mango orchard was conducted in the existing 15 year old mango orchard under ID conditions to study the effect of multiple cropping in mango orchard which can be replicated in other farmers fields if it suits to the locality. Materials and Methods: The trail is conducted during rabi, in the existing 15 year old mango orchard of the farmersri Vasudeva Reddy of Manchuru village, Vayalpadu mandal of Chittoor district in a Participatory Technology Development Mode under Farm Innovation Fund project. The mango orchard consisted of different mango varieties like totapuri, benishan, mallika and neelam was selected for demonstration purpose in an area of one hectare. Another block of mango trees in the same orchard was taken as control plot i.e. sole mango orchard in one hectare land. In demonstration plot, the main tree mango planted with a spacing of 25feet row to row and tree to tree in a row. The location specific various profitable horticultural and agricultural crops were grown in the mango orchard at certain proportion in the orchard. Crops like papaya, tomato, chillies, fieldbean and leafy vegetables were taken to grow in mango orchard along with control plot i.e. sole crop of mango. The proportion of crops is as follows. Papaya (red lady) is planted as intercrop in between the lines of mango treesi.e. in the centre of mango rows. Tomato (private hybrid) is planted in between the lines of mango and papaya 4 feet away from Papaya. Chillies (private hybrid) is planted within (intra rows) the rows of mango. Leafy vegetables fenugreek, amaranthus, sorrel(local varieties) were planted within the rows of papaya. After harvesting of tomato, fieldbean crop is sown in the same rows of tomato. Totally 600 seedlings of papaya, seedlings of tomato and 5000 seedlings of chillies were planted in one hectare land. 404

416 The experimental land was prepared by farmer during 2 nd fortnight of September, The intercrops were sown 0.5m away from mango trees to avoid shade of mango trees. Five drip lines were run within two rows of mango tree i.e., two drip lines for Mango, two lines for Tomato and one line for Papaya. Irrigation is done simultaneously for all plants and trees and hence maximum conservation of water and labour resources is possible in this system. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalikiri scientists regularly monitored the demonstration plot and has provided technical support also to the farmer interms of Fertigation schedules, plant protection measures at regular intervals. Data on pest incidence was recorded in demonstration plot and control plot to study the pest scenario in different crops under mixed farming. Economics of different mango based intercropping system was worked out taking into account the prevailing cost of inputs like labourer, seeds, manures and fertilizers, pesticides and sale price of produce during The gross return was calculated by multiplying the average yield (q ha-1) of different crops with prevailing market price per quintal and net return was worked out by deducting the cost of cultivation from gross return. The benefit-cost ratio (B:C) of intercropping systems were worked out: B: C of intercropping system =Gross return of multiple cropping system Cost of cultivation of multiple cropping system Results and discussion Harvesting of mango was started from May, 2017 and extended up to June, 2017 in both the multiple cropping and sole crop plots. Yield of mango in multiple cropping system was 150q/ha (Table 1a) whereas it was 135q/ha in sole crop (Table 1b). It may be attributed to regular fertigation and water management practices that was given to companion crops in multiple cropping system was also effectively utilized by mango also up to October, Table 1:Economics of sole crop S.No Crop Yield (q/ha) Cost of cultivation Gross returns (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) 01 Mango

417 Table 2:Economics of different crops in multiple cropping systems S.No Crops Yield (q/ha) Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) 01 Mango Papaya Tomato Gross returns (Rs/ha) 04 Chilies Green chilli Dry chilli Leafy vegetables Amaranthus: 30 Fenugreek : Sorrel : 10 Coriander :8 06 Field bean Green pods : Grand total 2,41, Sale price: Mango-15/-per kg, Papaya-15/-per kg, Tomato-10/-per kg, Chillies-60/- per kg, field bean- 20/- per kg Multiple cropping in mango incurred maximum average cost of cultivation of Rs.2,41,500 ha -1 (Table 3). The higher cost of cultivation in multiple cropping systems was mainly due to higher expenditure of planting materials of component crops, fertilizers for all the crops and plant protection chemicals to control pests like Tuta absoulta in tomato, viral diseases in papaya and thrips in chilli. The average gross returns was more in multiple cropping (Rs.10,86,000 ha -1 ) than sole crop (1,80,000 ha -1 ) (Table 3). This was possible due to higher yield performance of papaya, tomato, chillies and field bean in multiple cropping system. The higher net returns involving tomato (Jain & Rout, 2004 and Swain, 2014) as intercrop have been reported in mango based multiple cropping system. Table 3: Treatment Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) Gross returns (Rs/ha) Multiple cropping system 2,41,500 10,86,000 Sole crop 50,000 1,80,000 B:C ratio was recorded highest in multiple cropping system, having net returns of Rs 844,500/hac as Whereas it was less in sole crop, having net returns of Rs 130,000/ hacas 3.6. This indicates that all the crops papaya, tomato & chillies could be grown profitably and suitably under the mango orchard. The results of demonstration revealed 406

418 that the multiple cropping was found effective in increasing the fruit yield of main crop of mango. Impact of multiple cropping on mango during succeeding year All the component crops i.e. papaya. Chillies. Tomato and field bean were harvested by the end of October, Pruning of mango was done during July, Normal blooming time of mango is November/December months but during the year 2017, continuous rains during the month of November extended blooming time of mango up to mid week of February, 2018 in the district. But in multiple cropping demonstration plot flowering started from 1 st week of January and 95% flowering was observed by the end of January, 2018 whereas in control plot, flowering was very meager which was up to 30-40%. This showed the effective utilization of fertilizers and water by the main crop in multiple cropping system which resulted in increase in yield of main crop during succeeding year. Conclusion This multiple cropping system confirmed maximum utilization of space available in his field followed by conservation of resources like water, labour and ultimately high net returns from the unit area. This method of mixed cropping helps in reaping maximum benefits from whatever land and resources available with the farmers. Farmers of Kalikiri, Vayalpadu and Piler mandals were sensitized on this cropping system and they expressed that this system is more profitable than their traditional practice. Six farmers from Piler and Kalikiri mandal adopted the technology of multiple cropping depending upon the resources. References Beets W C Multiple cropping and tropical farming systems, Gower Publishing Co.Jurgen Ehrmann and Karl ritz, Plant: soil interactions in temperate multicropping production systems. Plant and soil. Volume 376, Issue 1 2, pp Nath V, Das B, Yadav M S, Kumar S, Sikka A K Guava - a suitable crop for second floor in multi-storied cropping system in upland plateau of eastern India. Acta Horticulture 735, Swain S C Performance and profitability study of different mango based intercropping systems in Eastern ghat high land zone of Odisha. Journal of Crop and Weed, 10(2):

419 A The Sector Adaptation Plan of Action (SAPA) for the Renewable NaturalResources Sector, Second Draft, April 2013 In: agriculture (ed.). Thimphu: The Council of RNR Research of Bhutan. 408

420 Participatory Management Process in Natural Resource Management (NRM) by Women Groups Waheeda Munawer*, S.Senthil Vinayagam**, D.Raghunatha Reddy*** MANAGE, Hyd, **NAARM, Hyd, ***JNTU, Hyd Women s participation plays a vital role for sustainable livelihood development and also performs different farming activities in agricultural development. To empower the women and to enhance their socio-economic status for better livelihoods, self-help groups were formed by both the Government Organizations (GO) and Non-Government Organizations (NGO). Hence, there is a need to assess the involvement of GOs and NGOs in women empowerment for the sustainable livelihood development among poor families in the rural societies. With this back drop, a study on Participatory Management, empowerment and attitude of women for sustainable livelihood development has been designed and undertaken. Natural resource management and poverty alleviation are being considered as two-sides of the same coin. Conserving the natural resource results to improved agricultural productivity and which is a key driver for poverty reduction in rural areas. Agricultural growth generates the income and livelihood for the poorest people. The experiences gained in watershed management programmes proved that the livelihood of the rural people depends on agriculture which links with watersheds and natural resources importance. The challenges in sustainable Natural Resources Management (NRM) is urgently to be addressed by involving participation of communities who are living in close association with these natural resources. Many approaches are given to involve women in the planning, implementation, execution and monitoring of natural resources. Many researches have been initiated to implement and enhance this participatory process management. Out of which one of the most significant outcome of NGOs on participatory natural resource management, which has been undertaken in different parts of the country. The GOs and NGOs have provided a skill on women's participation, is a very important and new addition into the sustainable livelihood development. This aspect holds the key to meaningful participation of women in Participatory Natural Resource Management. The present investigation was designed with the following objectives: i. To find the distribution of the women groups in different stages of NRM activities ii. To study the influence of profile, supportive, structural and functional racteristics on participatory management in NRM activities Methodology An ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. All the three regions of united AP (Telangana, coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema) were selected for the study and from each region one district was selected based on the more number of women groups (SHGs). 409

421 A total of 240 SHGs (120 from Government promoted groups and 120 from Non- Government promoted groups) and 60 GO and NGO officials were selected from three districts constituted the sample size. A pre-tested interview schedule with the measurement of selected variables was used for data collection. The obtained data was analyzed and tested with the help of standard statistical tools and findings emerged were as follows: Findings and Discussion Participatory approaches in natural resource management have the potential to bridge knowledge systems (e.g. local ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge), empower local people, increase adaptation, enhance human capital and promote higher compliance to regulations (Kalikoski and Satterfied 2004, Berkes 2007, Seixas 2006a). Participatory management is operationally defined as the women members of different women groups (SHGs) involved in different development activities by way of interaction with Natural Resource Management officials, expressing their views and sharing their responsibilities during pre-watershed stage, planning stage, implementation stage, maintenance stage and evaluation stage components. Participatory management was quantified with the scale consisting 30 statements developed for the study based on the lines of scale construction procedure adopted by Venugopala Reddy (1992) with slight modification. A critical review at data in Table 1 reveals that majority(38.75%) of the women in groups were involved in high level during pre-watershed stage. This may be due to their involvement and interest towards establishment of watershed activities in their locality and to establish some economic activity for their livelihood and maximum (42.08%) of the women in groups were involved in planning stage at medium level. This may be due to minimum availability of experts in the groups to involve in planning process. It could be also seen from Table 1 that majority of the respondents were at low level at implementation stage (40.83%), maintenance stage (37.50%) and at evaluation stage (52.50%). This may be due to less income from watershed activities during planning stage, more expenditure and delay of release of amount from funding agency for maintenance purpose and involvement of group leader only for evaluation stage. Distribution of respondents according to their involvement in different stages of NRM activities : From the above table on total participatory management, it could be inferred that majority of the respondents (59.58%) had medium level of participation in watershed management activities under NRM. The reason for such trend was medium level of awareness on NRM activities both by government and non-government organization and also capacity building programmes offered by promoting agencies are to be informed to the women groups well in advance. Relationship between profile, supportive, structural and functional characteristics and Participatory Management of women in groups : In order to study the nature of relationship between the profile, supportive, structural and functional characteristics and 410

422 dependent variables towards the women groups, correlation coefficients (r) were computed and values were presented. Table 1: Correlation analysis of profile, supportive, structural and functional characteristics Participatory Management. Correlation coefficient (r) values- Participatory Management S.No. Independent variable Government (n= 120) NGO (n= 120) Total (n= 240) 1. Age Family Type Family Size 0.177* 0.221* 0.199** 4. Caste Education/ literacy level 0.351** 0.261* 0.278** 6. Farming Experience 0.041** 0.312** 0.187** 7. Occupation Annual income ** 9. Awareness on NRM activities 0.194* 0.345** 0.162* 10. Land Holding Capacity Building in NRM Extension Contact 0.255** 0.289** 0.328** 13. Socio-Political Participation 0.392** 0.169* 0.349** 14. Mass Media Exposure 0.365** 0.338** 0.423** 15. Information seeking Behavior Decision Making Ability Working Age of the group * Group Size 0.211* 0.342** 0.369** 19. Supportive Environment 0.465** 0.262** 0.178* 411

423 20. Nature of economic activity 0.194* 0.227* 0.152* 21. Frequency of group meeting Group Process 0.458** ** 23. Group Sustainability 0.412** 0.208* 0.272** 24. Group norms 0.450** 0.353** 0.347** 25. Group Leadership 0.714** 0.431** 0.597** 26. Team Work 0.372** 0.265** 0.303** 27. Group Achievement 0.442** 0.214* 0.309** * : Significant at 5 per cent level of significance It could be inferred from the Table 2 that the profile characteristics such as family size, education, farming experience and annual income, supportive characteristics such as awareness on NRM, extension contact, socio-political participation and mass media exposure, structural characteristics such as group size, supportive environment and nature of economic activity, functional characteristics such as group process, group sustainability, group norms, group leadership, team work and group achievement had positive and significant relationship with participatory management. It could be inferred from the results that the functional characteristic of the women in groups had more significant and positive relationship with participatory management than profile, supportive and structural characteristics. Hence strengthening the women in groups through developing leadership, group processing, team work, group achievement and formulating group norms helps in developing more participatory approach towards watershed management under NRM activities. Influence of profile, supportive, structural and functional characteristicson Participatory Management Table 3: Influence of profile, supportive, structural and functional characteristics Participatory Management. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the profile, supportive, structural and functional characteristics in predicting the participatory management of women groups towards participatory approach in NRM activities. F value R 2 Intercept

424 S.No. Independent variable Regression Coefficient Standard Error 't' Value 1. Age Family Type ** 3. Family Size * 4. Caste (ST, SC, BC, OC) Education/ literacy level * 6. Farming Experience Occupation Annual income * 9. Awareness on NRM activities Land Holding Capacity Building in NRM Extension Contact Socio-Political Participation Mass Media Exposure * 15. Information seeking Behavior Decision Making Ability Working Age of the group Group Size * 19. Supportive Environment ** 20. Nature of economic activity ** 21. Frequency of group meeting Group Process

425 23. Group Sustainability * 24. Group norms Group Leadership ** 26. Team Work ** 27. Group Achievement ** * : Significant at 5 per cent level of significance On the whole it is observed from the Table 3 showed that in the both Government and NGO promoted women groups the selected independent variables on participatory management together explained the variation to the extent of 59.2 per cent. The unexplained variation to the extent of 40.8 per cent may be attributed by the variables which were not included in the study. The F value was found to be showing significant variation. Family type, supportive environment, nature of economic activity, group leadership, team work and group achievement were most visible and tangible aspect that made variation in the participatory management of the respondents at 1 per cent level of significance while family size, education, annual income, mass media exposer, group size and group sustainability contributed significantly to brought up the variation in the participatory management at 5 per cent level of significance. Conclusion: Women are highly linked with different activities both in farm and non-farm by using appropriate natural/agricultural resources and/or their product. They also receive support from GOs and NGOs through various schemes and programmes and encourage the women participation. This paper revealed that majority of the respondents of the women had medium level of total participatory management followed by high level and low level. The reason for such trend was medium level of awareness on NRM activities both by government and non-government organization and also capacity building programmes offered by promoting agencies are to be informed to the women groups well in advance. The variables namely family size, education, farming experience, annual income, awareness on NRM, extension contact, socio-political participation, mass media exposure, group size, supportive environment, nature of economic activity, group process, group sustainability, group norms, group leadership, team work and group achievement had positive and significant relationship with participatory management. The results suggested to attract young women by creating more avenues and enterprises based on the NRM activities and to develop strategies for promotion of marketing support for the women groups to market their produce for ensuring sustainable livelihood. 414

426 References: Berkes, F Community-Based Conservation in a globalized world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (39): Kalikoski, D.C. and Satterfield, T On crafting a fisheries co-management arrangement in the estuary of Patos Lagoon (Brazil): opportunities and challenges faced through implementation. Marine Policy 28: Seixas, C.S Barriers to local-level ecosystem assessment and participatory management in Brazil. In: Reid, W.V., Berkes, F., Wilbanks, T.J. and Capistrano, D. (Editors). Bridging scales and knowledge systems. Concepts and applications in ecosystem assessment / Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Washington, USA: Island press 415


428 Extension Interventions Promotes Pride in Farming: Successful models in India R. Ratnakar, Team Leader Impact Evaluation Study of Centrally Sponsored Scheme National Food Security Mission, 2017 Empowerment of Our farmers is important for our progress, for inclusive growth and for food security. This task can be accomplished by strengthening the capacity building of Agricultural Extension Personnel and in turn farming community. As a component of NFSM institutional building, capacity building has assumed greater significance in 12 th FYP. Training of farmers and agricultural ext