INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS

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1 INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS Volume 2 Issue 1 (March, 2011) Page : Received : October, 2010; Accepted : January, 2011 Research Paper Resource use efficiency of pigeonpea in Bharuch taluka of South Gujarat H.H. MISTRY, R.T. KHATRI AND K.S. PATEL See end of the article for authors affiliations Correspondence to : R.T. KHATRI Soil and Water Management Research Unit, Navsari Agricultural University, NAVSARI (GUJARAT) INDIA ABSTRACT The present investigation was undertaken with the specific objectives viz., to study the resource use in production of pigeonpea. The basic data were obtained from the selected sample farmers by survey method through personal interviews with the help of a specially designed questionnaire. The tabular and regression technique were the main tools of analysis. The study showed that at the overall level, per hectare use of family human labour and hired human labour was found to be and man days, respectively. The per hectare bullock labour, seeds, chemical fertilizers (P and N), plant protection and manures were pair days, kgs, 9.69 kgs, 6.00 kgs, 2.76 lit and 2.46 cart loads, respectively. Mistry, H.H., Khatri, R.T. and Patel, K.S. (2011). Resource use efficiency of pigeonpea in Bharuch taluka of south Gujarat, Internat. Res. J. agric. Eco. & Stat., 2 (1) : Key words : Economics analysis, Proportion cost, Variable cost, Fixed cost, Pigeonpea, Cost and return INTRODUCTION In predominantly vegetarian population of India, pulses are an excellent supplement of protein which play an important role in Indian agriculture. Pulses form integral part of the vegetarian diet in the Indian subcontinent. Besides being rich sources of protein, they maintain soil fertility through biological nitrogen fixation. Thus pulses are considered life blood of agriculture. Pulses have been cultivated under rainfed conditions which are characterized by poor soil fertility and moisture stress. Sixty per cent of pulses area in Rabi and forty per cent in Kharif season. Pulses account for roughly one-fifth of the total area under food grain crops and contribute about one twelfth of the total food grain production in the country. In the year the area under pulses crops in India was around million hectares, the production around million tones and productivity about 630 kg/ha. India is the largest pulse producing nation in the world. The data reveal that the area under pigeon pea in Gujarat was 3,323 hundred hectares in the year out of which 1,094 hundred hectares was in South Gujarat. The production of pigeon pea in the Gujarat state was 1,870 hundred million tones in the year , while the production of pigeon pea during the same period was 746 hundred million tones in South Gujarat. The pigeon pea is the main pulse crop grown in South Gujarat region which contribute per cent of total pigeon pea production in the state. Thus in present state of technology, resources diversion to pulse production would only be possible by making production more economically. It is of vital importance to all concerned, to know the different resources, which go in production of pigeon pea, what is the the resources use efficiency of various inputs. and the details of by the farmers in selected region. i.e. Bharuch taluka in Bharuch district of Gujarat state (Anonymous 2003). MATERIALS AND METHODS To fulfill the selected objectives of this study, the three stage stratified random sampling has been adopted HIND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE

2 H.H. MISTRY, R.T. KHATRI AND K.S. PATEL for the selection of the sample with district as stratum, taluka within a district as first stage, village within taluka as second stage and farmers within a village as the final stage. In all, six villages were selected at random, from the Bharuch taluka. These were viz, (1) Nikora (2) Zanor (3) Bharathana (4) Nand (5) Bhadbhuj and (6) Bhuva. Keeping in view of the objective of the study, the data were collected by survey method. A comprehensive questionnaire was prepared for the collection of the data in this investigation. The data were collected with the help of a well designed pre-tested questionnaire on different aspects pertaining to the year The data collected were analyzed by simple tabular analysis such as percentages, arithmetic s means and various statistical techniques. Some of the important points in the analysis of cost data and methodology adopted are explained.in the present study the production relationship between various inputs and output in pigeon pea production. A Cobb- Douglass type of production function was studied. 92 Y = a X 1 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 e ut where, Y = Total production of pigeon pea (yield) in Qtls. a = Intercept X 1 = Area in ha = Human labour (days) per farm = Bullock labour (pair days) per farm = fertilizers (Rs.) per farm = Manures (cart load) per farm = Quantity of seed (kg) per farm = Plant protection (Rs.) per farm = Total capital use (Rs.) bi s = Regression coefficients e ut = Error term The information obtained on physical inputs use was analyzed by a simple tabular method for studying per hectare. Physical input use such as, human labour, bullock labour, seeds, manures and fertilizers etc. Human labour was divided into the different type s viz., (a) family labours and (b) hired labours. Hired labours were charged at the prevailing wage rate in the locality for casual labour. Family labours were charged at the rate of hired labour charges prevailing in the region. Owned bullock labour was evaluated on the basis of the hire rate prevailing in the village for bullock pair. Actual cost paid by the cultivators for the seed material in the selected area has taken as the expenditure incurred on seed material for the farm produced seed. The cost of farm yard manures produced on the own farm was estimated at the prevailing rate in the locality. In case of purchased farm yard manure, the actual price paid and transportation cost was taken into account. The actual cost of insecticides and pesticides paid by the farmers was considered and charges of appliances were also considered. Hired implements and machinery used were charged at the hiring rates prevailing in the locality. The items of fixed capital which were required for the cultivation of pigeon pea considered. The interest on fixed capital was calculated at the rate of 10 per cent per annum on the fixed capital. Rental value of owned land was worked out as 1/6 th of the gross value of the produce. It is one of the important items in the overhead cost. The interest on working capital was calculated on total working capital for life period of pigeon 12 per cent per annum. Rental value of owned land was worked out as 1/6 th of the gross value of the produce. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The physical inputs are necessary in growing any crop per hectare. The use of major inputs used by the sample farmers in the cultivation of pigeon pea in study area has been worked out. The information on utilization of different inputs on per hectare basis is presented in Table 1. In general, total human labour days used for pigeon pea cultivation were days. Total human labour days consist of family and hired human labour days for the cultivation. The share of family and hired human labour days was worked out to be per cent and per cent in the total human labour days, respectively. Kennedy et al. (1990) examined the costs and returns, resource use efficiency and production constraints of growing the three pulses crops viz., black gram, red gram and Bengal gram, in Gantur district, Andhra Pradesh. A total sample of 150 farmers was selected from Ponnur, Gurazala and Rentachintala Mandals; the data relate to the crop season. Resource productivity, returns to scale and resource use efficiency were estimated using a Cobb- Douglas type production function. Garrett s ranking technique was employed to test the severity of production constraints. The calculated elasticities of land, human labour and plant protection chemicals were positive indicating that increase of these inputs would increase exhibited constant returns to scale. The constraint ranked as of highest important by farmers was lack of technical knowledge regarding pulses cultivation. Overall utilization of seeds was kegs per hectare. The seeds utilization was more in marginal size farm group i.e kegs per hectare than the farmers of large size farm group (15.21 kegs), medium size farm group (15.15 kegs) and small size farm group (15.36 kegs). It was observed that the

3 RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF PIGEONPEA IN BHARUCH TALUKA OF SOUTH GUJARAT Table 1 : Per hectare inputs use by the sample farmers in cultivation of pigeonpea Sr. Size of farm groups Particular of Inputs No. Marginal Small Medium Large 1. Human labour Overall (A) Family (man days) (54.40) (53.48) (35.03) (29.57) (40.14) (B) Hired (man days) (49.60) (46.52) (64.97) (70.43) (59.86) (C) Total (man days) (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) 2. Bullock labour (pair days) Seeds (kg) Manures (carts load) Chemical fertilizer N P K Insecticide/pesticide (lit) Note : Figures in the parenthesis denote the percentages to total utilization of seeds shows direct relationship with size of farm group. Shukla et al. (1992) in their study analyzed the input use efficiency of seed, land, human labour and irrigation in the cultivation of arhar and gram in Chiraigaon block of Varanasi district in Uttar Pradesh. Cobb-Douglas production function was fitted to the field data in respect of pulses crops. Input use efficiency is studies by estimating bi values and MVP/MC ratios. The results indicated positive bi values for both the crops. MVP/MC ratios also were found to be more than unity, indicating their optimum use. The need is emphasized to ensure timely availability of inputs with technical know-how at reasonable cost, within the reach of the farmers. Bollappa et al. (1998) analyzed the resource use efficiency and returns to scale in red gram production of 75 farmers who have adopted Integrated Pest Management vis-à-vis 75 non-ipm farmers in Gulbarga district of Karnataka state for the agricultural year using a modified Cobb- Douglas production function. The results indicate that land and fertilizers were found to influence production significantly for both types of farmers. However, the influence of plant protection chemicals was negative and statistically significant indicating its excessive use in negative return. In IPM farmers, the effect of plant protection chemicals on production was positive and the ratio (1.023) of marginal value product (MVP) to marginal fixed cost (MFC) was nearer to one clearly indicating its use optimally in red gram production. Thus, there is need to educate farmers on the benefits of IPM technology through various extension so that its adoption can be extended. On an average use of FYM was 2.46 cartloads per hectare. Farmers belonging to medium size farm group Table 2 : Results of functional analysis Particulars of farm a (constant) X 1 (Land) Marginal ** (0.6790) Small ** (0.5782) Medium ** (0.7465) Large ** (0.3383) Overall ** (Human labour) ** (0.2719) ** (0.5881) ** (0.5416) ** (0.1689) ** (Bullock labour) ** (0.2740) ** (1.6300) ** (0.5056) ** (0.3417) ** (Fertilizers) * (0.0685) ** (0.1714) ** (0.0547) (0.0400) ** (0.2065) (0.1065) (0.2677) (0.0166) Note : Figures in brackets denote S.E. * and ** indicate significance of values at P=0.05 and 0.01, respectively (Manures) (Seeds) ** (0.3816) ** (0.1069) (0.1139) (0.0652) (0.4172) ** (0.1922) ** (0.2888) ** (0.1675) (Plant protection) (0.0818) (0.3733) * (0.1092) * (0.1007) ** (0.0596) (Total capital) ** (0.5186) ** (2.8301) ** (0.6955) ** (0.5263) ** (0.3790) R

4 H.H. MISTRY, R.T. KHATRI AND K.S. PATEL used comparatively more FYM i.e cartloads per hectare than large size farm group i.e cartloads per hectare. The marginal and small size farm group not used the manures. All the pigeon pea growers used the chemical fertilizer. Proper use of plant nutrient particularly chemical fertilizer plays an important role in increasing the production. Different types of fertilizers are available in the local market. Among which nitrogenous fertilizer such as urea etc. are more popular. However, tendency of cultivators is to use mixed fertilizers. Among the mixed fertilizers, different combination of N, P and K. are more popular. Overall doses of nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) should be 6.00 and 9.69 kg/hectare, respectively. The highest use of nitrogen was observed in small size farm group (12.61 kg/ hectare), while the lowest in marginal size farm group (2.04 kg/hectare). More phosphorus was utilized by small size farm group (15.74 kg/hectare), while less used by marginal size farm group (2.82 kg/hectare). Its use varied between 2.82 kg/hectare and kg/hectare. It was seen from the table that the plant protection inputs used by small farmer (3.34 lit/hectare) was more than medium (3.07 lit/hectare), large (2.65 lit/hectare) and marginal size farmer (2.21 lit/hectare). However statistically, there was no significant variation. The inputs like manures, seeds and fertilizers, fertilizers showed very less share in inputs utilization in cultivation of pigeon pea. Vairavan and Marimuthu (2000) examined the non-monetary inputs which contribute to higher pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) production. Field studies were conducted at National Pulses Research Centre, Vamban, Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu, India during the Kharif seasons of 1994, 1995 and The treatments comprised 4 factors: time of sowing, variety, planting density and time of weed removal. Improved variety practices (timely sowing and weeding and optimum spacing) and improved variety produced significantly higher yields, with the contribution of timely weeding and sowing being the highest. It is concluded that timely weeding and sowing are the most important non-monetary inputs which contributes to higher net returns in pigeon pea production. An attempt has been made to study the production relationship between various major inputs and output in pigeon pea production. A Cobb- Douglas type of production function has been used. The results of the estimated production are indicated in Table- 2 which indicated that R 2 value was 0.99 in case of large size farm, 0.97 in case of small size farm, o.95 in case of marginal size farm and 0.94 in case of medium farm group size. It implies that 99, 97, 95 and 94 per cent variation in the production of pigeon pea have been explained by various factors under consideration on large, small, marginal and 94 medium farm size groups, respectively and 0.94 per cent variation in the production of pigeon pea have been explained by various factor under consideration on overall farm size groups. In case of overall farm, land (x 1 ), human labour (x 2 ), bullock labour (x 3 ) and plant protection (x 7 ) were observed to be significant. However, sign of x 3 and x 4 was negative indicating that there was excess use of that factor (bullock labour and fertilizers). As regards the regression coefficient of land (x 1 ), human labour (x 2 ) and plant protection (x 7 ) use, it indicates that with 1 per cent increase in land, human labour, seeds and plant protection use, production in pigeon pea would increase 0.56, 0.006, 0.20 and per cent, respectively. Same way, capital has also shown significant and positive relationship with production. It denotes that with 1 per cent increase in capital, production of pigeon pea will increase 0.36 per cent on overall farm size. It can be seen that capital response to the positive and significant relationship with production of pigeon pea. The per hectare family and hired human labour for pigeon pea cultivation was found to be and man days, respectively. It was observed that use of hired human labour increased with increase in size of farmers and family human labour decreased with increase in size of farmers; except small size. It was also noticed that per hectare bullock labour, seeds and manures were pair days, kegs and 2.46 cart loads, respectively. The per hectare chemical fertilizers, nitrogen, phosphorus and plant protection used were 6.0 kg/ha, 9.69 kg/ha and 2.76 lit/ha, respectively. Seeds and manures showed decreasing trend in accordance with size groups of farmers. The chemical fertilizer use was more on small farms followed by medium, large and marginal size group of farmers. In case of marginal and small size farmers, land (x 1 ), human labour (x 2 ), bullock labour (x 3 ) and total capital (x 8 ) were observed to be significant. In case of medium and large farmers land (x 1 ), human labour (x 2 ), bullock labour (x 3 ) seeds (x 6 ), plant protection (x 7 ) and total capital (x 8 ) were observed to be significant. Except fertilizers incase of large farm size. In case of overall farm size all resources use were observed to be significant, except manures. Gowada et al. (1994) made an attempt to evaluate the cost of threshing pigeon pea using different local practices and a comparison is made with mechanical threshing methods such as Japanese threadle thresher and power driven wheat thresher. The results showed that the cost of threshing per unit weight was highest using the club method and lowest using the stone roller and bullocks.

5 RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF PIGEONPEA IN BHARUCH TALUKA OF SOUTH GUJARAT Authors affiliations: H.H. MISTRY AND K.S. PATEL, Department of Agricultural Economis, N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, NAVSARI (GUJARAT) INDIA LITERATURE CITED Anonymous (2000). Agricultural Economics, Statistics and Extension Education Sub-committee of the Research Council, Gujarat Agricultural University, Navsari Report for Anonymous (2003). Zonal Research and Extension Action Committee (ZREAC) report for Kharif-2003, Department of Agril. Economics, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari (Gujarat). Bolappa, Shivaraya, Hugar, L. B., Hiremath, G. K. and Shivaraya, B. (1998). Resource use efficiency in red gram production under Integrated Pest Management technology in Gulbarga district. Karnataka J. agric. Econ., 11 (3) : Gowada, M.C., Ramaiah, R. J., Banadkar, A.S. and Sandchowde, G. M. (1994). Economics of threshing pigeonpea. Curr. Res., 23 (1-2): Kennedy, G., Ram, P.R., Naidu, M. R. and Nivasulu, R. S. (1990). Economic analysis of major pulses in Guntur district, A.P. Agric. Situ. India, 45 (3): Shah, V. D. (2001). Evaluation of management of seed supply in oilseeds and pulses in Rajasthan research study. Researchstudy-Agro-Economics-Research Centre, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar (Gujarat), India No pp Shukla, B. D.; Bharti Dinesh Kumar and Jha, R. K. (1992). Input use efficiency in Indian Agriculture. A study of pulse crop. Indian J. agric. Econ., 47 (3): 493. Vairavan, K. and Marimuthu, R. (2000). Economics analysis of non-monetary inputs in pigeonpea. Madras agric. J., 87 (10-12): * * * * * * * * 95

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