1 Recycling of polymers by pyrolysis W. Kaminsky To cite this version: W. Kaminsky. Recycling of polymers by pyrolysis. Journal de Physique IV Colloque, 1993, 03 (C7), pp.c c < /jp4: >. <jpa > HAL Id: jpa Submitted on 1 Jan 1993 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research documents, whether they are published or not. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers. L archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, émanant des établissements d enseignement et de recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires publics ou privés.
2 Colloque C7, supplkment au Journal de Physique 111, Volume 3, novembre 1993 Recycling of polymers by pyrolysis W. KAMINSKY Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 45, 2000 Hamburg 13, Germany ABSTRACT The pyrolysis of plastic waste, scrap tires and other polymeric materials in a fluidized bed has been carried out based on a scale up program (laboratory plants 70 g/h, 500 g/h, 3000 g/h, and pilot plant kg/h). The fluidized bed shows short residence times and high heat and mass transfers, and is heated indirectly up to OC. In the case of poly(methylmethacry1ate) (PMMA) or polystyrene as feedstock up to 97 wt.% of the monomer can be recovered. Other polymers give a more unspecific product spectrum. Depending on the process parameters between30 and 60 % of the polymeric material could be recovered as oil which is comparable to that of a mixture of light benzene and bitumious coal tar if the pyrolysis gas is used as fluidizing gas. The other fractions are gas anda residue containing fillers and impurities (heavy metals). The gas fraction contains mainly methane, ethane, ethene, and propene, the oil fraction benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene. INTRODUCTION The recycling of plastics and rubber is of increasing importance as landfilling and incineration becomes more expensive and the acceptance of these methods is decreasing. Most polymers are produced from oil and can be pyrolyzed into petrochemicals. There is a market for the recycling of pure plastics, especially of polyethylene but also residues from the plastic manufacturing industry. The collection of plastics, the mechanical sorting of wastes and the utilization of used cars, however, give plastic wastes that are mixed or contaminated and are expensive to separate and recycle. Many composites like filled plastics, elastomers, and duroplasts are not suited for regranulation and recycling on principle. Other than combustion under utilization of the energy content of the wastes, high molecular weight substances, that cannot be purified by physical processes like distillation, extraction, or crystallization, can only be recycled via thermal degradation (pyrolysis) of the macromolecules into smaller fragments. The pyrolyzate is then suited for the common petrochemical separation processes. Pyrolysis is the Article published online by EDP Sciences and available at
3 thermal cleavage in the absence or at least a lack of air with simultaneous generation of pyrolysis oils and gases, suited for chemical utilization or generation of energy. The advantage of pyrolysis over combustion is a reduction in the volume of product gases by a factor of 5 to 20 which leads to considerable savings in the gas conditioning. Furthermore, the pollutants are concentrated in a coke-like residue surrounding them as a matrix. On top of this it is possible to obtain hydrocarbon compounds and some processes even recover valuable crude chemicals. The pyrolysis is complicated by the fact that plastics, rubbers, or biopolymers show poor thermal conductivity while the degradation of macromolecules requires considerable amounts of energy. PROCESSES The pyrolysis of plastic wastes, used tires, and biopolymers has been studied in melting vessels, blast furnaces, autoclaves, tube reactors, rotary kilns, coking chambers and fluidized bed reactors [l-91. In the course of the development rotary kilns and fluidized beds have turned out to be the most suitable pyrolysis aggregates. Meltable plastic wastes can also be decomposed in agitator vessels. The vessels can be heated externally or by means of internal piping. Other processes are operating in autoclaves for the hydrogenation of plastics at 300 OC and bar hydrogen pressure. Rotary kiln processes are particularly numerous. They are marked by relatively long residence times of the waste in the reactor of 20 Minutes and more, whereas dwell times in fluidized bed reactors hardly exceed a few seconds with a 1,5 minute maximum. One of the first processes was the Kobe Steel process [lo] using a rotary kiln for the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The process ran over a long period and was combined with a cement factory. The pyrolysis products were used instead of heating oil. The core of the Salzgitter pyrolysis is an externally heated rotary kiln. This 26 m long reactor with a diameter of 2,8 m is subdivided into six segments in the reactor at temperatures of OC and yields pyrolysis gas and oil as well as solid residues. The purified pyrolysis gas is used as a fuel for operating the plant and excess gas is converted to electricity in a linked power plant. The fluidized bed has a number of special advantages for the pyrolysis, because it is characterized by an excellent heat and mass transfer as well as constant temperature throughout the reactor which results in largely uniform product spectra absence of moving parts in the hot zone of the reactor - completely closed system, i.e. the reactor can easily be sealed. The fluidized bed is generated by a flow of air or an inert gas that is directed from below through a layer of fine grained material, e.g. sand or carbon black, at a flow rate that is sufficient to create a
4 swirl in the bed. At this stage the fluidized bed behaves like a liquid. In Japan fluidized bed pyrolysis plants are operated with air or oxygen feed [lo]. The partial oxidation generates a part of the necessary fission energy while on the other hand a part of the products is burnt. The product oils are partly oxidized and their energy content is some 10 % below that of pure hydrocarbons. FLUIDIZED BED A number of projects that have been conducted at the University of Hamburg in recent years were aimed at determining the suitability of plastic wastes, used tires, and waste oil residues as a source of raw materials after pyrolysis in an indirect heated fluidized bed reactor. Laboratory plants with capacities for g/h and two pilot plants for kg/h of plastic and 120 kg/h of used tires were installed and run at the Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry with financial support from BMFT, Verband Kunststofferzeugende Industrie (VICE), C.R. Eckelmann company (CRE), and Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) [ll-151. Figure 1 shows the scheme of the pilot plant for the pyrolysis of plastics. The core of the plant is a fluidized bed reactor with inner diameter of 450 mm. An auxiliary fluidized bed of quartz sand with a temperature of 600 to 900 OC is used for the pyrolysis of plastics that are fed into the reactor through a double flap gate or a screw. Pyrolysis gas preheated to 400 OC is used to create the swirl in the fluidized bed. The heat input takes place indirectly through heat radiation fire pipes which are heated by pyrolysis gas. The exhaust gases are then directed through a heat exchanger. The product gases emerging from the fluidized bed are separatet from residual carbon and fine dust in a cyclone and then cooled to room temperature by product oil in a condenser. The gas flow is then directed through two packed condensation columns. The condensed oil fractions are distilled in two distillation columns using the fraction boiling from OC (mostly xylenes) as a quenching medium. Also produced are tar with a high boiling range as well as two fractions, one rich in toluene and the other in benzene. The gas, largely stripped of liquid products, passes to an electrostatic precipitator where it is freed from small droplets. Subsequently, it is compressed in five membrane compressors, connected in parallel, and stored in three gas tanks, each 0,5 m3 in volume. Part of the gas serves as fuel for the radiation heating tubes, while the remainder, preheated by hot fuel gases in the heat exchanger, is used for fluidizing the sand bed. The excess gas is burnt in a torch. Up to 50 % of the input material may be retrieved in liquid form, which corresponds to a mixture of light benzene and bituminous coal tar with about 95 % aromatics. The oil may be processed into chemical products according to the usual petrochemical methods. Optimal reaction management aims at high yields of aromatics. Comparable raw material value analysis showed that the chemical processing of this type of high aromatic oil is better converted to valuable raw materials than used for heating or propulsion purposes.
6 The product gases are a highly energetic fuel gas with a calorific value of about 50 MJ/ m? Only about 40 % of them are needed as fuel for the radiation fire tubes, the rest is available as excess gas. Any kind of plastic waste can be pyrolyzed even when it is soiled. In Table 1 the input plastics and rubber which have been investigated, are summarized. TABLE 1 Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste in a Fluidized Bed. Different Feeds and their Products Feed Pyrolysis Gas Oil Residue Others (Temp. OC) (wt.%) (wt.%) (wt.%) (wt.%) Polyethylene PE ,8 42,4 1,8 C 64,9 Styrene Polypropylene PP ,6 48,8 1,6 C Polystyrene PS 580 9,9 24, ,9 Styrene Mixture PE/PP/PS ,O 46,6 114 Polyester ,8 40,O 7,l 2,l H20 Polyurethane ,9 56,3 0,5 5,O H20;0,3 HCN Polyamid PA-G ,2 56,8 O,6 3,4 HCN Polycarbonate ,5 46,4 24,6 2,5 H20 Poly(methy1 methacrylate ) 450 1,25 1,4 0,15 C 97,2 MMA Poly(viny1 chloride) 740 6,8 28,l 8,8 56,3 HC1 Poly(tetraf1uoroethylene) ,3 10,4 0,3 Medical syringes ,3 36,4 5,8 1,5 steel Plastic from household separation ,6 26,4 25,4 4,6 H20 Plastic from carshreddering ,9 26,7 27,6 14,O metals; 1,8 H20 EPDM-Rubber* ,3 19,2 47,5 1,O H20 SB-Rubber** ,l 31,9 42,8 0,2 H2S Scrap tires ,4 27,l 39,O 11,5 steel Lignin 500 3,4 29,9 49,3 17,4 H20 Cellulose (Wood) ,l 23,O 18,6 C 11,3 H20 Sewage Sludge ,3 27,7 33,2 4,8 820 * EPDM: Ethene-Propene-Diene-Monomers ** SB: Styrene-Butadiene Normally it is difficult to win back the monomers by pyrolysis. So the yields of ethene and propene produced from polyolefins, does not exceed a maximum of 60 %. The situation is different when poly(methylmethacry1ate) (PMMA) or polystyrene is used; about 64 % of the monomeric styrene could be recovered by pyrolysis. The liquid has to be purified in an expensive process to give polymerization-grade monomer. In contrast to this the fluidized bed pyrolysis of PMMA gave very large amounts (97 %) of monomeric methyl methacrylate . In the case of PVC the product consists mainly of hydrogen chloride (56 %) and carbon black, while the composition of the component is similar to that of polyethylene. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
7 are formed from polyester, polyurethanes, polyamides and cellulosecontaining materials. The collected plastic fraction from household separation contains 57 % polyolefins, 14 % poly(vinylch1oride) (PVC), 19 % polystyrene, 5 % other plastics or paper, and 5 % inorganic materials (sand, salts). Table 2 shows the pyrolysis conditions for three runs in the technical plant. The composition of the products of mixed plastics and some other plastics (polyethylene, polyester, polyurethanes) are summarized in Table 3. The main compounds in the gas are methane, ethane, ethene, propene, and in the oil benzene, toluene, and naphthalene. The yield of oily products can be raised at the expense of lower gas yields when aromatics are alkylated by olefinic gases (ethene, propene) in the presence of zeolithes. This increases the weight fraction of liquid products up to 70 %. Plastic wastes obtained from separate collection contain about 15 % PVC. TABLE 2 Pyrolysis Conditions of Three Runs at Different Temperatures of Mixed Plastics (Temperature 790 OC) Throughput of plastics Throughput of dolomite Pyrolysis time Flow rate of fluidizing gas Pressure before fluidized bed Pressure after cyclone Temperature in the quench coolers Stock of xylene in the coolers Stock of sand in the fluidized bed 130 4,5 (lime) 6, By addition of lime to the fluidized bed, the hydrogen chloride from the decomposition of PVC can be bound chemically. The calcium chloride that is formed in the process, however, has a tendency to clog the fluidized bed at higher concentrations. Therefore it is attempted to eliminate HC1 gas in a preliminary step at OC before more extensive cracking reactions take place. The dry HC1 gas would then be available for further use. The residual content of organic chlorine is of great importance for the value of the pyrolysis oils. For processing in existing petrochemical plants the chlorine content should not exceed 10 ppm. Oils that are obtained from the pyrolysis of plastic mixtures contain between 50 and 200 ppm of organically bound chlorine. Fortunately, no chlorinated dibenzodioxines were found among these chloroorganic compounds. This was confirmed by numerous analyses in other institutes in connection with a BMFT project. When the dioxines in question are present in the material to be pyrolyzed, e.g. sewage sludge, their concentration is reduced to 75 % by a single pyrolysis cycle in the fluidized bed. A further dehalogenation of the pyrolysis oil was achieved by dosing sodium vapour into the flow of pyrolysis gas by analogy with the Degussa process in which chlorine containing oils are dehalogenated within a few minutes in the liquid phase using sodium. In the gas phase at 500 OC the same process takes only seconds. Another possi-
8 TABLE 3 Components (wt.%) by the Pyrolysis of Different Plastic Wastes in a Fluidized Bed Process Feed Poly- Plastics Poly- Polyethylene from ester urethanes household separation Temperature (OC) Hydrogen 0, ,30 0,23 Methane 23,6 17,5 3,8 315 Ethane 6 I 7 2,9 0, Ethene 19, ,4 Propane 0,08 0,08 0,Ol 0,Ol Propene ,08 1,7 Butenes 0,54 0,13 0,Ol - Butadiene 1, 6 0,44 0,04 1,2 '332-2,3 17,2 14,4 CO ,4 8, 7 HCN ,31 HC1 (CaC12) - 7,2 - - Hexenes 0,02 0,002 0,02 0,2 Benzene 19,l 13,8 18,3 5ro Toluene 3,9 5, , 8 Styrene ,1 0,ol Indene 0,25 1,o 0, Naphthalene 2,8 3,8 1,4 1,5 Methylnaphthalenes 0,63 0,84 0,25 0,69 Biphenyl 0,30 0,41 1,47 0,15 Fluorene 0,20 0,22 0,18 0,27 ~henanthrene/ Anthracene 0,52 0,66 0,08 0,62 Phenylnaphthalenes 0,08 0,36 0,21 0,Ol Fluoranthene 0,08 0,26 0,02 0,Ol Acetonitrile - 0,58 Acrylnitrile 0,95 Benzonitrile - 1, 8 Ketones, Acetales I2 - - Acetophenone 1,4 0,3 Other compounds ,7 34,l Carbon black 1, ,1 0,s Water - 2,6 2,1 5 -, 0 Inorganic compounds - 5,3 - bility is to carry the hydrogen chloride out of the reactor with ammonia. The ammonium chloride can be washed out easyly . Through a combination of waste oil dehalogenation with sodium, distillation of the oil, and pyrolysis of the distillation residue it is possible to regenerate more than 90% of pure hydrocarbons from waste oil. The common purification processes using sulfuric acid produce about 25 % of acid resins that are difficult to dispose of. A semi-industrial plant that is working according to the Hamburg process of fluidized bed pyrolysis was built in Ebenhausen near
9 F i gu r e 2 Flow Diagram of the Prototype Reactor for Whole-Tire Pyrolysis. (I) steel wall with fireproof bricking; (2) fluidized bed; (3) tiltable grate; (4) radiation fire tubes; (5) nozzles to remove sand and metal; (6, 8, g) flange for observation and repairs; (7) gas tight lock; (10) shaft for steel cord
10 Ingolstadt and operated by the Asea Brown Boveri company (ABB) with a throughput of 5000 t/a. The process has been shown to be successful for the pyrolysis of polyolefins. To process plastics with high PVC content it is necessary to scale down by one step (250 kg/h) and test the plant in continuous operation. PYROLYSIS OF RUBBER After experiments on the pyrolysis of plastic wastes had shown how individual pieces that were only slightly smaller than the reactor's inner diameter could be pyrolyzed in the fluidized bed a larger pilot plant with a 90 cm square fluid bed was used to decompose whole used tires (Fig. 2). The tires were introduced to the reactor through a lock with pneumatic gates. The steel parts remaining in the reactor, after the pyrolysis was complete, were forked out of the fluidized bed by means of a grate at programmable intervals and deposited in a silo. The solid powdery products were carried out of the reactor by the gas stream and separated in a cyclone. By pyrolysis of more than 4500 kg of whole used tires in several series of experiments it could be shown that whole tires with a maximum weight of 20 kg were completely pyrolyzed within 1,5 to 4 minutes at temperatures above 650 OC. The amount of pyrolysis gas produced in the process was sufficient to heat the reactor without additional supply of energy. The products of the pyrolysis were obtained in the following five fractions (weight %): Gas Oil Water 5-10 Carbon black and filling materials Steel cord 5-20 Main components next to the solids carbon black and steel cord are methane, ethylene, ethane, benzene, and toluene. It is also remarkable about the product spectrum that the hydrogen sulfide content was found to be below 0,3 wt-% in all experiments although some 2,O % of sulfur are incorporated in the rubber. After the pyrolysis the main portion of sulfur is found in the carbon black fraction in the form of zinc or calcium sulfide. During the pyrolysis a reaction of sulfur containing fission products with alkaline filling materials takes place. The carbon black that is obtained is suitable for recycling as filling materials. OUTLOOK The necessity of economizing on the amount of raw materials taken from natural deposits to preserve sufficient amounts of resources for future generations and the need to minimize the production of wastes calls for an extensive recycling of raw materials. Through pyrolysis of plastic wastes, used tires, waste oil residues
11 and other organic waste materials it is possible to obtain hydrocarbons and to generate petrochemicals and reusable carbon black from rubber products. Separate collection and sorting of wastes, as they are carried out in many industrialized nations at the moment, produce increasing amounts of materials that are suitable for recycling through pyrolysis. The new recycling processes also help to relieve the waste disposal problem and cut down the emission of pollutants. Several pyrolysis plants have been tested for years. Since oil and gas are generated as valuable substances, the profitability of the process depends largely on the price of mineral oil. It is to be expected that some of the processes can be established in the market under more favourable conditions as they are given by new waste collection laws. LITERATURE [I] ANDREWS G.D., SUBRAMANIAN P.M., Emerging Technologies in Plastic Recycling, ACS Symposium Series 513, Washington 1992, p. 60 [ 2 ] MATSUMOTO K., KURIZU S., OYAMOTO T. in: Conversion of Ref use to Energy, Montreux 3-5 Nov., 1975, Conf. Papers IEEE Catalogue no. 75, Eiger AG, Zurich, p. 538  KAMINSKY W., Plastics, Recycling, in: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Vol. A 21; VCH Weinheim 1992, p. 57  SUEYOSHI H., KITAOKA Y., Hydrocarbon Process 161 (1972)  FERRERO G.L., MANIATIS K., BUEKENS A., BRIDGEWATERR A.V., Pyrolysis and Gasification, Elsevier A. Science, London 1989  MENGES G., MICHAEL1 W., BITTNER M., Recycling von Kunststoffen, Carl Hanser Verlag, Miinchen 1992  KAMINSKY W., Possibilities and Limits of Pyrolysis, Makromol. Chem.Macromol.Symp. 57 (1992) 145  SINN H., KAMINSKY W., JANNING J., Angew. Chem. 88 (1976) 737; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 15 (1976) 660  PISKORZ J, RADLEIN D, SCOTT D.S. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 9 (1986) 121 [lo] Jpn. Chem. Week 14 (12.7.) (1973) 3 [ll] KAMINSKY W., SINN H., JANNING J., Chem. Ing. Tech. 51 (1979) 419  KAMINSKY W., Ressour. Recovery Conserv. 5 (1980) KAMINSKY W., SINN H., Hydrocarbon Process 59 (1980) 187  KAMINSKY W., J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 8 (1985) 439  KAMINSKY W., KUMMER A.B., J. Analy. Appl. Pyrolysis 16 (1989) 2 7  KAMINSKY W., FRANCK J., J.Analy.Appl.Pyrolysis 19 (1991) 311  POHLMANN K., Dissertation, University of Hamburg, 1991
Effects of temperature on monotonic and fatigue properties of carbon fibre epoxy cross ply laminates Y. Matsuhisa, J. King To cite this version: Y. Matsuhisa, J. King. Effects of temperature on monotonic
Silicon carbonitrides - A novel class of materials H. Schönfelder, F. Aldinger, R. Riedel To cite this version: H. Schönfelder, F. Aldinger, R. Riedel. Silicon carbonitrides - A novel class of materials.
Plastic to Fuel Technologies Author: Mauro Capocelli, Researcher, University UCBM Rome (Italy) 1. Theme description The growth of economy and consumes, combined with the modern models of production, have
Technical Review UDC 669. 1. 054. 8 Development of Technology for Advanced Utilization of Hydrogen from By-product Gas of Steelmaking Process Ken-ichiro FUJIMOTO* Kimihito SUZUKI 1. Introduction Huge volumes
Fatigue of High Purity Copper Wire N. Tanabe, A. Kurosaka, K. Suzuki, O. Kohno To cite this version: N. Tanabe, A. Kurosaka, K. Suzuki, O. Kohno. Fatigue of High Purity Copper Wire. Journal de Physique
Densification superficielle de matériaux poreux par choc laser D. Zagouri, J.-P. Romain, Blanche Dubrujeaud, Michel Jeandin To cite this version: D. Zagouri, J.-P. Romain, Blanche Dubrujeaud, Michel Jeandin.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt Automotive Recycling Engineering Workshop at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University NMMU Port Elizabeth South Africa 2011 4 Shredder operation and post shredder Technologies
ATOM-PROBE ANALYSIS OF ZIRCALOY H. Andren, L. Mattsson, U. Rolander To cite this version: H. Andren, L. Mattsson, U. Rolander. ATOM-PROBE ANALYSIS OF ZIRCALOY. Journal de Physique Colloques, 1986, 47 (C2),
Continuous melting and pouring of an aluminum oxide based melt with cold crucible B Nacke, V Kichigin, V Geza, I Poznyak To cite this version: B Nacke, V Kichigin, V Geza, I Poznyak. Continuous melting
Impact of cutting fluids on surface topography and integrity in flat grinding Ferdinando Salvatore, Hedi Hamdi To cite this version: Ferdinando Salvatore, Hedi Hamdi. Impact of cutting fluids on surface
World CTX Carbon To X Processes Processes and Commercial Operations World CTX: let s Optimize the Use of Carbon Resource Carbon To X Processes Carbon To X technologies are operated in more than 50 plants
Fact Feb 2011 Energy Recovery index Fact 1. DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGY 2. CURRENT DISTRIBUTION AND PROSPECTIVE OF TECHNOLOGY 3. Legal and political FRAMEWORK 3.1 Landfill Directive 3.2 Waste incineration
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Environmental Guidelines for Coke Manufacturing Industry Description and Practices Coke and coke by-products (including coke oven gas) are produced by the pyrolysis
Ductility of Ultra High Purity Copper S. Fujiwara, K. Abiko To cite this version: S. Fujiwara, K. Abiko. Ductility of Ultra High Purity Copper. Journal de Physique IV Colloque, 1995, 05 (C7), pp.c7-295-c7-300.
Thermal Treatment 2 Introduction: Thermal treatment Technologies using high temperatures to treat waste (or RDF) Commonly involves thermal combustion (oxidation) Reduces waste to ash (MSW c. 30% of input)
Aeration control in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant: impact on performances, energy consumption and N2O emission A. Filali, Y. Fayolle, P. Peu, L. Philippe, F. Nauleau, S. Gillot
A simple gas-liquid mass transfer jet system, Roger Botton, Dominique Cosserat, Souhila Poncin, Gabriel Wild To cite this version: Roger Botton, Dominique Cosserat, Souhila Poncin, Gabriel Wild. A simple
Development status of the EAGLE Gasification Pilot Plant Gasification Technologies 2002 San Francisco, California, USA October 27-30, 2002 Masaki Tajima Energy and Environment Technology Development Dept.
Optimization of operating conditions of a mini fuel cell for the detection of low or high levels of CO in the reformate gas Christophe Pijolat, Guy Tournier, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Nicolas Guillet To cite
Options for Polyurethane Recycling and Recovery Polyurethane Repair and Reuse Mechanical Recycling Chemical Recycling Feedstock Mechanical Energy Recovery Long-life products, such as building panels can
THE EFFECT OF SILICA ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF MnZn FERRITES A. Giles, F. Westendorp To cite this version: A. Giles, F. Westendorp. THE EFFECT OF SILICA ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF MnZn FERRITES. Journal de
DISLOCATION RELAXATION IN HIGH PURITY POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM AT MEGAHERTZ FREQUENCIES M. Zein To cite this version: M. Zein. DISLOCATION RELAXATION IN HIGH PURITY POLYCRYSTALLINE ALU- MINUM AT MEGAHERTZ
An Integrated Approach to the Recovery of Fiber, Chemicals and Energy from Fibrous Textile and Carpet Waste Robert Evans, Carolyn Elam, and Stefan Czernik National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Paper not
Biobased materials and fuels via methanol The role of integration Joint Task 33 & IETS workshop at Göteborg, Nov2013 Ilkka Hannula VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland 2 Gasification and Gas Cleaning
Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste Salman Zafar Renewable Energy Advisor INTRODUCTION The enormous increase in the quantum and diversity of waste materials and their potentially harmful effects on the
Evolution of the porous volume during the aerogel-glass transformation T. Woignier, J. Quinson, M. Pauthe, M. Repellin-Lacroix, J. Phalippou To cite this version: T. Woignier, J. Quinson, M. Pauthe, M.
The 5 th ISFR (October 11-14, 2009, Chengdu, China) CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION OFLOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) Zheng Jiao*, Chi Yong Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, State
Nufarm DNBP as a Styrene Polymerization Retarder DNBP (2,4-dnitro-6-sec butyl phenol) is the most commonly used polymerisation control additive in the distillation of styrene monomer. It is used similarly
Journal of Physics: Conference Series PAPER OPEN ACCESS Development and optimization of a two-stage gasifier for heat and power production Related content - Design and implementation of a laserbased absorption
GASIFICATION THE WASTE-TO-ENERGY SOLUTION WASTE SYNGAS STEAM CONSUMER PRODUCTS HYDROGEN FOR OIL REFINING TRANSPORTATION FUELS CHEMICALS FERTILIZERS POWER SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS W W W. G A S I F I C A T
Defining Thermal Manufacturing Thermal manufacturing relies on heat-driven processes like drying, smelting, heat treating, and curing to produce materials such as metals, glass, and ceramics, as well as
Mini converter carbons and wastes for Biogas production and Energy Cogeneration model «ПТК-52» Team: System processing of raw materials, thermochemical conversion reactor. Features: the team is a model
Introduction to Chemical Plant Design Life Cycle Process Safety Consideration Chemical Plant Design A project/endeavour/task to determine the structure of a process to produce a product in the way that
Synergic effects of activation routes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag () used in the precast industry Martin Cyr, Cédric Patapy To cite this version: Martin Cyr, Cédric Patapy. Synergic effects
THERMAL UTILISATION of wastes Incineration of sewage sludges Energy efficiency Closing of material cycles Cost reduction RELIABLE WASTE DISPOSAL: BASED ON EFFICIENT PLANT TECHNOLOGY GENDORF (Germany) Fluidised
Emission Challenges in Cement Making due to alternative Fuels March 2017 / Carl-Henrik Persson Yara Environmental Technologies AB firstname.lastname@example.org Presentation Contents Yara s start in environmental
LASER CLADDING BY POWDER INJECTION : OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESSING CONDITIONS M. Sahour, A. Vannes, J. Pelletier To cite this version: M. Sahour, A. Vannes, J. Pelletier. LASER CLADDING BY POWDER INJECTION
WESTINGHOUSE PLASMA GASIFICATION Hazardous Waste Management Hazardous waste is just that hazardous. Medical, industrial and petrochemical wastes are all types of hazardous waste and pose threats to human
IRISH CEMENT PLATIN INVESTING IN OUR FUTURE INTRODUCTION Investing in our future. The next phase of investment in Platin will see further energy efficiency improvements with on site electricity generation
Experiences in using alternative fuels in Europe and Germany Martin Schneider, Düsseldorf Kielce, 13 November 2008 Structure Boundary conditions in waste legislation Use of alternative fuels in the cement
The Effect of Magnetic Field on Metal Anodizing Behaviour T Kozuka, H Honda, S Fukuda, M Kawahara To cite this version: T Kozuka, H Honda, S Fukuda, M Kawahara. The Effect of Magnetic Field on Metal Anodizing
Report No. 29 ETHYLENE by SHIGEYOSHI TAKAOKA August 1967 A private report by the PROCESS ECONOMICS PROGRAM I STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE MENLO I PARK, CALIFORNIA CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION........................
Q1.A student investigated simple cells using the apparatus shown in the figure below. If metal 2 is more reactive than metal 1 then the voltage measured is positive. If metal 1 is more reactive than metal
PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS BY METHANE AND COAL CO-CONVERSION IN FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR Jinhu Wu, Yitain Fang, Yang Wang Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences P. O. Box 165, Taiyuan, 030001,
STRUCTURES OF AMORPHOUS MATERIALS AND SPECIFIC VOLUME VARIATIONS VERSUS THE TEMPERATURE J. Sadoc, R. Mosseri To cite this version: J. Sadoc, R. Mosseri. STRUCTURES OF AMORPHOUS MATERIALS AND SPECIFIC VOLUME
ABSTRACT Thermal Pretreatment For TRU Waste Sorting T. Sasaki, Y. Aoyama, Y. Miyamoto, and H. Yamaguchi Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 Japan Japan Atomic Energy
January 2009 Briefing Pyrolysis, gasification and plasma This is a draft revision of the briefing, and any comments are welcome please email them to Becky Slater on email@example.com. Introduction
DAVID BRENNAN SUSTAINABLE PROCESS ENGINEERING CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES, EVALUATION, AND IMPLEMENTATION Pan Stanford Publishing Contents Acknowledgements Preface xvii xix Part A: Concepts Introduction to Part
MULTI-WASTE TREATMENT AND VALORISATION BY THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES Corona, F.; Hidalgo, D.; Díez-Rodríguez, D. and Urueña, A. Francisco Corona Encinas M Sc. PART 1: THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES Introduction.
Evaluation of Hydrogen Production at Refineries in China The new UOP SeparALL TM Process Bart Beuckels, UOP NV IChemE Gasification Conference March 12, 2014 Rotterdam, the Netherlands 1914-2014 A Century
THE USE OF COSORB R II TO RECOVER HIGH PUITY CARBON MONOXIDE FROM A FEED GAS BY ARNOLD KELLER AND RONALD SCHENDEL KINETICS TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION MONROVIA, CALIFORNIA PRESENTED AT AICHE SUMMER
GRADE 10: Chemistry 2 The chemical industry UNIT 10AC.2 11 hours About this unit This unit is the second of six units on chemistry for Grade 10 advanced. The unit is designed to guide your planning and
50 Years of PSA Technology for H 2 Purification 1 50 Years of PSA Technology for H2 Purification The first industrial application of Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) went on stream in 1966 at a Union Carbide
Korean J. Chem. Eng., 18(5), 770-774 (001) Gas Yields from Coal Devolatilization in a Bench-Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor Byung-Ho Song, Yong-Won Jang, Sang-Done Kim* and Soon-Kook Kang** Department of Chemical
Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass Tony Bridgwater Bioenergy Research Group Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK Biomass, conversion and products Starch & sugars Residues Biological conversion Ethanol;
ELLPSOMETRY OF NCKEL-OXDES AND -HYDROXDES N ALKALNE ELECTROLYTE W. Visscher To cite this version: W. Visscher. ELLPSOMETRY OF NCKEL-OXDES AND -HYDROXDES N ALKA- LNE ELECTROLYTE. Journal de Physique Colloques,
Process description in rotary furnaces For the secondary production of aluminium, materials containing aluminium such as scrap, machining turnings, and dross are prepared, smelted and refined. Preparation
VIRIDOR WASTE MANAGEMENT ARDLEY EFW PLANT EP APPLICATION - NON TECHNICAL SUMMARY S1014-0340-0008MPW NTS Rev1.doc Print Date 19 February 2009 ISSUE NUMBER 1 DATE 19/02/09 AUTHOR CHECKED MPW SMO Title Page
DRI Production Using Coke Oven Gas (COG): Results of the MIDREX Thermal Reactor System TM (TRS ) Testing and Future Commercial Application Gary Metius a, Henry Gaines b, Michael F. Riley c, Lawrence E.
C10J PRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES (synthesis gas from liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons C01B; underground gasification
LOW CARBON AND SILICON STEEL QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS H. Fukuma, N. Kumagai, Y. Takeuchi, K. Endo, M. Komatsubara To cite this version: H. Fukuma, N. Kumagai, Y. Takeuchi, K. Endo, M. Komatsubara. LOW CARBON
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL PROCESS AND PRIMARY RAW MATERIALS THE CHEMICAL PROCESS The chemical process industry includes those manufacturing facilities whose products result from:
1 Technical Description Package Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS ) written consent of Terragon Environmental Technologies Inc. is forbidden. Date 2 1. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION 1.1. Process Overview Terragon
Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes ChE 464 Instructor: Dr. Ahmed Arafat, PhD Office: building 45 room 106 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.kau.edu.sa.akhamis files Book Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes
WESTINGHOUSE PLASMA GASIFICATION 2 clean renewable energy Westinghouse Plasma has over 30 years of experience in research, development, testing, design and commercial use of proven plasma torch technology.
EU market for process heat applications 4 April 2013 OECD, Paris Workshop on "Technical and Economic Assessment of Non Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy Vincent Chauvet vincent.chauvet@lgi consulting.com
Experience In Motion SIHI Gas separation by using membranes Pump Supplier to the World 2 Flowserve is the driving force in the global industrial pump marketplace. No other pump company in the world has
Abstract Process Economics Program Report No. 88A ALKYLATION FOR MOTOR FUELS (February 1993) Alkylation has become an important refinery process because of increasing demand for high octane and low vapor
Report No. 104 THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS by ROBERT H. SCHWAAR with oontxibutions by James J. L. Ma November 1976 A private report by the PROCESS ECONOMICS PROGRAM STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE I MENLO PARK,
NEW EAF DUST TREATMENT PROCESS : ESRF BY MICHIO NAKAYAMA * SYNOPSYS: Electric arc furnaces (EAF) generate much dust during operation, which contains very high percentages of zinc, lead, and iron, as well
CHARACTERISTICS OF FERRITE ELECTRODES S. Wakabayashi, T. Aoki To cite this version: S. Wakabayashi, T. Aoki. CHARACTERISTICS OF FERRITE ELECTRODES. Journal de Physique Colloques, 1977, 38 (C1), pp.c1-241-c1-244.
Reforming Natural Gas for CO 2 pre-combustion capture in Combined Cycle power plant J.-M. Amann 1, M. Kanniche 2, C. Bouallou 1 1 Centre Énergétique et Procédés (CEP), Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines
GCE Environmental Technology Energy from Biomass For first teaching from September 2013 For first award in Summer 2014 Energy from Biomass Specification Content should be able to: Students should be able
WWT Two-Stage Sour Water Stripping Improve performance of sulfur recovery units ben efits The Chevron WWT Process is a two-stage stripping process which separates ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from sour
The 5 th ISFR (October 11-14, 2009, Chengdu, China) STUDY OF AN OIL RECOVERY SYSTEM FOR WASTE PLASTIC Zar Zar Hlaing*, Mariko Adachi, Shin Suzuki, Shoji Kodama and Hideki Nakagome Graduate School of Engineering,
Lecture- 10 Principles of Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the one of the most common methods in thermal conversion technology of biomass. In pyrolysis, biomass is heated to moderate temperatures, 400-600
ASR - FROM WASTE TO PRODUCTS Sattler, H.-Peter and Laage, Bernd LSD Umwelt- und Recyclingtechnologie GmbH, Hanau and R-plus Recycling GmbH, Eppingen Germany The paper will explain WESA-SLF, a dry-mechanical
How Resilient Is Your Organisation? An Introduction to the Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) Erik Hollnagel To cite this version: Erik Hollnagel. How Resilient Is Your Organisation? An Introduction to the
Part-I: Objective type questions and answers Chapter 2.6: FBC Boilers 1. In FBC boilers fluidization depends largely on --------- a) Particle size b) Air velocity c) Both (a) and (b) d) Neither (a) nor
Techno-Economic Analysis for Ethylene and Oxygenates Products from the Oxidative Coupling of Methane Process Daniel Salerno, Harvey Arellano-Garcia, Günter Wozny Berlin Institute of Technology Chair of