1 JOB COSTING AND OVERHEAD Key Topics to Know Differences and similarities between job order and process costing Key document is the Job Cost Sheet Flow of product costs through inventory accounts to cost of goods sold o Raw materials o Work in process including manufacturing overhead o Finished goods o Cost of goods sold Flow of overhead costs: o How to compute predetermined overhead rates o Use of the Overhead account o How to apply overhead costs to production o How to compute over and under applied overhead o How to close it to the appropriate account o How to account for the under or over applied amount on the schedule of cost of goods sold. Flow of product costs and overhead costs through the three inventory accounts and overhead account into cost of goods sold. Journal entries required in a Job Order Cost system. Page 1 of 16
2 Problems Problem #1 The J & M Plastics Company uses a predetermined overhead rate based on direct labor hours to apply manufacturing overhead to jobs. Estimated and actual data for direct labor and manufacturing overhead for the last year are as follows: Estimated Actual Direct labor hours 500, ,000 Manufacturing overhead $1,000,000 $965,000 Required: a) Compute the predetermined overhead rate for the year b) Calculate the overhead applied for the year. c) What is the amount of over-applied or under-applied overhead? d) Journalize the entry to close the balance in overhead to COGS Problem #2 Dapper Corporation had one job in process on May 1. The job had been charged with $3,400 of direct materials, $4,640 of direct labor, and $9,200 of manufacturing overhead cost. The company assigns overhead cost to jobs using the predetermined overhead rate of $23.00 per direct labor-hour. During May, the following activity was recorded: Raw materials (all direct materials): Beginning balance $8,500 Purchased during the month $42,000 Used in production $48,500 Labor: Direct labor-hours worked 2,200 Direct labor cost incurred $25,520 Actual manufacturing overhead costs incurred $52,800 Inventories: Raw materials, May 30? Work in process, May 30 $32,190 Work in process inventory on May 30 contains $7,540 of direct labor cost. Raw materials consist solely of items that are classified as direct materials. Required: Compute the cost of goods manufactured for May. Page 2 of 16
3 Problem #3 The Jordan Company uses a job order costing system and applies overhead cost to jobs on the basis of direct labor hours. The following estimates were made for the purpose of computing the predetermined overhead rate: manufacturing overhead cost of $360,000 and direct labor hours of 900. The following transactions took place during the year: a. Raw materials purchased, $200,000. b. Raw materials used in production (all direct materials), $185,000. c. Salary and wages incurred: Direct labor (975 hours) 230,000 Indirect labor 90,000 Selling & administrative salaries 110,000 d. Utility costs incurred, $70,000 (90% related to factory operations, remainder to selling & administrative) e. Maintenance costs were incurred in the factory, $54,000. f. Advertising costs were incurred, $136,000. g. Depreciation was recorded for the year, $95,000 (80% related to factory equipment, remainder to selling & adm equip.) h. Rental costs incurred on the buildings, $120,000 (85% related to factory operations, remainder to selling & adm.) i. Manufacturing overhead was applied to jobs j. Cost of goods manufactured for the year, $770,000. k. Sales on account for the year totaled $1,200,000 with a cost to produce of $800,000. l. The balances in the inventory accounts at the beginning of the year were: Raw materials 30,000 Work in process 21,000 Finished goods 60,000 Required: a) Prepare the journal entries to record the information given above. b) Prepare T-accounts for Raw Materials, Work in Process, Finished Goods and Manufacturing Overhead. Post the relevant journal entries above to each T-account. Determine the ending balance in each account. c) What is the amount of over or under-applied overhead? d) Journalize the entry to transfer the ending in the overhead account to cost of goods sold. e) Job 412 was one of the many jobs started and completed during the year. The job required $8,000 in direct materials and 39 hours of direct labor time at a total direct labor cost of $9,200. The job contained only four units. If the company bills at a price 60% above the unit cost on the job cost sheet, what price per unit Page 3 of 16
4 would have been charged to the customer? Problem #4 Allenton Company is a manufacturing firm that uses job-order costing. At the beginning of the year, the company's inventory balances were as follows: The company applies overhead to jobs using a predetermined overhead rate based on machine-hours. At the beginning of the year, the company estimated that it would work 31,000 machine-hours and incur $248,000 in manufacturing overhead cost. The following transactions were recorded for the year: a. Raw materials were purchased, $411,000. b. Raw materials were requisitioned for use in production, $409,000 ($388,000 direct and $21,000 indirect). c. The following employee costs were incurred: direct labor, $145,000; indirect labor, $61,000; and administrative salaries, $190,000. d. Selling costs, $148,000. e. Factory utility costs, $12,000. f. Depreciation for the year was $121,000 of which $114,000 is related to factory operations and $7,000 is related to selling, general, and administrative activities. g. Manufacturing overhead was applied to jobs. The actual level of activity for the year was 29,000 machine-hours. h. The cost of goods manufactured for the year was $783,000. i. Sales for the year totaled $1,107,000 and the costs on the job cost sheets of the goods that were sold totaled $768,000. j. The balance in the Manufacturing Overhead account was closed out to Cost of Goods Sold. Required: Prepare the appropriate journal entry for each of the items above (a. through j.) assuming that all transactions with employees, customers, and suppliers were conducted in cash. Page 4 of 16
5 Multiple Choice Questions 1. When units are completed, the cost associated with the job is debited to which account? a) Raw Materials Inventory b) Work in Process Inventory c) Finished Goods Inventory d) Cost of Goods Sold 2. Which of the following would be used to apply manufacturing overhead to production for the period? a) Raw Materials Inventory would be debited b) Work in Process Inventory would be debited c) Manufacturing Overhead would be debited d) Work in Process Inventory would be credited 3. If a company uses a predetermined overhead rate, which of the following statements is correct? a) Manufacturing Overhead will be debited for estimated overhead b) Manufacturing Overhead will be credited for estimated overhead c) Manufacturing Overhead will be debited for actual overhead d) Manufacturing Overhead will be credited for actual overhead 4. Mantilla Inc. estimated manufacturing overhead to be $200,000 for the year along with 20,000 direct labor hours. Actual manufacturing overhead was $215,000, and actual labor hours were 21,000. The journal entry to close the balance in the Manufacturing Overhead account would include which of the following? a) Cost of Goods Sold would be credited for $15,000 b) Cost of Goods Sold would be credited for $5,000 c) Cost of Goods Sold would be debited for $5,000 d) Cost of Goods Sold would be debited for $15, Cost of goods sold is the amount of cost transferred a) From of Finished Goods Inventory and into Cost of Goods Sold. b) From of Work in Process Inventory and into Cost of Goods Sold. c) From of Work in Process Inventory and into Manufacturing Overhead. d) From of Work in Process Inventory and into Finished Goods Inventory. Page 5 of 16
6 6. Arthur Company provided the following information for the year: Direct materials used 110,000 Direct labor used (5,000 hours) 150,000 Manufacturing overhead incurred 166,000 The predetermined overhead rate was $35 per direct labor hour for the year. Assuming the ending balance in Work in Process Inventory is $17,000, what was cost of goods manufactured? a) $260,000 b) $426,000 c) $435,000 d) $418, Jackson Company had the following information for the year: Direct materials used 190,000 Direct labor used (5,000 hours) 245,000 Manufacturing overhead incurred 273,000 Jackson Company calculated a predetermined overhead rate using estimated overhead of $320,000 and 8000 estimated direct labor hours. Finished Goods Inventory had a balance of $9,000 at the end of the year. What was adjusted cost of goods sold? a) $715,000 b) $708,000 c) $706,000 d) $699, Homer Inc. had the following information for the preceding year: Beginning balance Ending balance Raw materials 0 0 Work in process?? 35,000 Finished goods?? 30,000 The following additional information is available for the year: Direct materials used 200,000 Direct labor 150,000 Manufacturing overhead applied 160,000 Page 6 of 16
7 Cost of goods manufactured 525,000 Cost of goods sold (unadjusted) 544,000 What was the beginning Finished Goods Inventory balance on 1/1? a) $49,000 b) $65,000 c) $50,000 d) $69, Hibshman Corporation bases its predetermined overhead rate on the estimated machine-hours for the upcoming year. At the beginning of the most recently completed year, the Corporation estimated the machine-hours for the upcoming year at 10,000 machine-hours. The estimated variable manufacturing overhead was $6.82 per machine-hour and the estimated total fixed manufacturing overhead was $230,200. The predetermined overhead rate for the recently completed year was closest to: a) $29.84 b) $23.15 c) $23.02 d) $ CR Corporation has the following estimated costs for the next year: Direct materials $4,000 Direct labor $20,000 Rent on factory building $15,000 Sales salaries $25,000 Depreciation on factory equipment $8,000 Indirect labor $10,000 Production supervisor s salary $12,000 CR Corporation estimates that 20,000 labor-hours will be worked during the year. If overhead is applied on the basis of direct labor-hours, the overhead rate per hour will be: a) $2.25 b) $3.25 c) $3.45 d) $4.70 Page 7 of 16
8 11. Sirmons Corporation bases its predetermined overhead rate on the estimated labor-hours for the upcoming year. At the beginning of the most recently completed year, the Corporation estimated the labor-hours for the upcoming year at 70,000 labor-hours. The estimated variable manufacturing overhead was $9.93 per labor-hour and the estimated total fixed manufacturing overhead was $1,649,200. The actual labor-hours for the year turned out to be 74,000 labor-hours. The predetermined overhead rate for the recently completed year was closest to: a) $32.22 b) $9.93 c) $33.49 d) $ Cribb Corporation uses direct labor-hours in its predetermined overhead rate. At the beginning of the year, the estimated direct labor-hours were 17,900 hours and the total estimated manufacturing overhead was $341,890. At the end of the year, actual direct labor-hours for the year were 16,700 hours and the actual manufacturing overhead for the year was $336,890. Overhead at the end of the year was: a) $22,920 underapplied b) $17,920 overapplied c) $17,920 underapplied d) $22,920 overapplied 13. The following data have been recorded for recently completed Job 323 on its job cost sheet. Direct materials cost was $2,260. A total of 37 direct laborhours and 141 machine-hours were worked on the job. The direct labor wage rate is $13 per labor-hour. The Corporation applies manufacturing overhead on the basis of machine-hours. The predetermined overhead rate is $14 per machine-hour. The total cost for the job on its job cost sheet would be: a) $3,259 b) $2,741 c) $2,287 d) $4,715 Page 8 of 16
9 14. Smallwood Corporation has provided the following data concerning manufacturing overhead for January: Actual manufacturing overhead incurred $64,000 Manufacturing overhead applied to Work in Process $59,000 Cost of Goods Sold was $223,000 prior to closing out its Manufacturing Overhead account. The Corporation closes out its Manufacturing Overhead account to Cost of Goods Sold. Which of the following statements is true? a) Manufacturing overhead for the month was overapplied by $5,000; Cost of Goods Sold after closing out the Manufacturing Overhead account is $228,000 b) Manufacturing overhead for the month was underapplied by $5,000; Cost of Goods Sold after closing out the Manufacturing Overhead account is $218,000 c) Manufacturing overhead for the month was underapplied by $5,000; Cost of Goods Sold after closing out the Manufacturing Overhead account is $228,000 d) Manufacturing overhead for the month was overapplied by $5,000; Cost of Goods Sold after closing out the Manufacturing Overhead account is $218, Caber Corporation applies manufacturing overhead on the basis of machinehours. At the beginning of the year, total estimated overhead was $60,600. Actual manufacturing overhead for the year was $59,000 and actual machinehours were 5,900. The predetermined overhead rate for the year was $10.10 per machine-hour. Overhead for the year was: a) $1,010 underapplied b) $590 overapplied c) $1,010 overapplied d) $590 underapplied 16. Acton Corporation, which applies manufacturing overhead on the basis of machine-hours, has provided the following data for its most recent year of operations. Estimated manufacturing overhead $139,080 Estimated machine-hours 3,800 Actual manufacturing overhead $137,000 Actual machine-hours 3,780 Page 9 of 16
10 The estimates of the manufacturing overhead and of machine-hours were made at the beginning of the year for the purpose of computing the company's predetermined overhead rate for the year. The applied manufacturing overhead for the year is closest to: a) 136,269 b) $138,348 c) $136,987 d) $137, Meyers Corporation had the following inventory balances at the beginning and end of November: November 1 November 30 Raw Materials $17,000 $20,000 Finished Goods $50,000 $44,000 Work in Process $9,000 $11,000 During November, $39,000 in raw materials (all direct materials) were drawn from inventory and used in production. The predetermined overhead rate was $8 per direct labor-hour, and direct labor workers were paid $10 per hour. A total of 300 hours of direct labor time had been expended on the jobs in the beginning Work in Process inventory account. The ending Work in Process inventory account contained $4,700 of direct materials cost. The Corporation incurred $28,000 of actual manufacturing overhead cost during the month and applied $26,400 in manufacturing overhead cost. The raw materials purchased during November totaled: a) $42,000 b) $45,000 c) $36,000 d) $39, On March 1, Metevier Corporation had $37,000 of raw materials on hand. During the month, the company purchased an additional $62,000 of raw materials. During March, $69,000 of raw materials were requisitioned from the storeroom for use in production. These raw materials included both direct and indirect materials. The indirect materials totaled $6,000. The journal entry to record the requisition from the storeroom would include a: a) debit to Work in Process of $69,000 b) debit to Work in Process of $63,000 c) debit to Raw Materials of $69,000 d) credit to Manufacturing Overhead of $6,000 Page 10 of 16
11 19. Chelm Music Corporation manufactures violins, violas, cellos, and fiddles and uses a job-order costing system. What is one of the accounts that Chelm should credit when goods are sold? a) Finished goods b) Work in Process c) Cost of Goods Sold d) Manufacturing Overhead 20. During February, Irving Corporation incurred $65,000 of actual Manufacturing Overhead costs. During the same period, the Manufacturing Overhead applied to Work in Process was $60,000. The journal entry to record the incurrence of the actual Manufacturing Overhead costs would include a: a) debit to Manufacturing Overhead of $65,000 b) credit to Manufacturing Overhead of $65,000 c) credit to Work in Process of $60,000 d) debit to Work in Process of $60, Echo Corporation uses a job-order costing system and applies overhead to jobs using a predetermined overhead rate. During the year the company's Finished Goods inventory account was debited for $360,000 and credited for $338,800. The ending balance in the Finished Goods inventory account was $36,600. At the end of the year, manufacturing overhead was overapplied by $15,900. The balance in the Finished Goods inventory account at the beginning of the year was: a) $15,900 b) $15,400 c) $21,200 d) $36,600 Page 11 of 16
12 Solutions to Problems Problem #1 a) Predetermined overhead rate $1,000,000/500,000 dlh = $2.00 per dlh b) Overhead applied 480,000 dlh * $2.00 = $960,000 c) Under-applied overhead $965, ,000 = $5,000 d) Cost of Goods sold 5,000 Manufacturing overhead 5,000 Problem #2 Direct materials $3,400 Direct labor Manufacturing overhead 9,200 Beginning work in process $17,240 Direct materials used in production $48,500 Direct labor 25,520 Manufacturing overhead ($23.00 per direct labor-hour x 2,200 dlh) 50,600 Total manufacturing costs 124,620 Add: Beginning work in process 17, ,860 Deduct: Ending work in process 32,190 Cost of goods manufactured $109,670 Page 12 of 16
13 Problem #3 a) Predetermined Overhead Rate: $360,000/900 = $400 per direct labor hour Actual direct labor rate: $230,000/975 = $ per direct labor hour a. Raw materials inventory 200,000 Accounts payable 200,000 b. Work in process 185,000 Raw materials inventory 185,000 c. Work in process 230,000 Manufacturing overhead 90,000 Salary & Wage Expense 110,000 Wages payable 430,000 d. Manufacturing overhead 63,000 Utilities Expense 7,000 Accounts payable 70,000 e. Manufacturing overhead 54,000 Accounts payable 54,000 f. Advertising Expense 136,000 Accounts payable 136,000 g. Manufacturing overhead 76,000 Depreciation Expense 19,000 Accumulated depreciation 95,000 h. Manufacturing overhead 102,000 Rent Expense 18,000 Accounts payable 120,000 i. Work in process 390,000 Manufacturing overhead 390,000 (975 dlh x $400/dlh = 390,000) j. Finished goods inventory 770,000 Work in process 770,000 k. Accounts receivable 1,200,000 Sales 1,200,000 Cost of goods sold 800,000 Finished goods inventory 800,000 Page 13 of 16
14 b) Manufacturing OH 90, ,000 63,000 54,000 76, ,000 5,000 overapplied c) Raw Materials Work in Process Finished Goods 30, ,000 21,000 60, , , , , , , ,000 45,000 56,000 30,000 d) Manufacturing overhead 5,000 Cost of goods sold 5,000 e) Cost of manufacturing Job 412: Direct materials $8,000 Direct labor 39 dlh x $ = 9,200 Manufacturing overhead 39 dlh x $ = 15,600 Total Cost $32,800 Units produced 4 Cost per unit $8,200 Markup % 60% Markup 4,920 Selling price Cost + markup = $13,120 Page 14 of 16
15 Problem #4 Predetermined Overhead Rate: $248,000/31,000 = $8 per machine hour a) Raw materials inventory 411,000 Cash 411,000 b) Work in process 388,000 Manufacturing overhead 21,000 Raw materials inventory 409,000 c) Work in process 145,000 Manufacturing overhead 61,000 Administrative salary expense 190,000 Cash 396,000 d) Selling expanses 148,000 Cash 148,000 e) Manufacturing overhead 12,000 Cash 12,000 f) Manufacturing overhead 114,000 Depreciation Expense 7,000 Accumulated depreciation 121,000 g) Work in process 232,000 Manufacturing overhead 232,000 $8 per mh x 29,000 mh = $232,000 h) Finished goods inventory 783,000 Work in process 783,000 Cash 1,107,000 Sales 1,107,000 Cost of goods sold 768,000 Finished goods inventory 768,000 i) Manufacturing overhead 24,000 Cost of goods sold 24,000 Overapplied overhead: 208,000 incurred 232,000 applied = 24,000 overapplied Page 15 of 16
16 Solutions to Multiple Choice Questions 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. D 7. D 8. A 9. A 10. A 11. C 12. C 13. D 14. C 15. B 16. B 17. A 18. B 19. A 20. A 21. B Page 16 of 16
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Similarities Between Job-Order and Process Costing 4-1 Both systems assign material, labor, and overhead costs to products and they provide a mechanism for computing unit product costs. Both systems use
Exercise 3-12 1. The overhead applied to Ms. Miyami s account would be computed as follows: 2002 2001 Estimated overhead cost (a)... $144,000 $144,000 Estimated professional staff hours (b)... 2,250 2,400
Lecture 2: Flow of resource costs Cost Object: anything for which a separate measurement of costs is required, e.g. products, services, customers, projects, processes, segments of the value chain, divisions/departments,
E19-4, Determine the total amount of various types of costs. Drew Company reports the following costs and expenses in May. Factory utilities $11.500 $69.100 Depreciation on factory equipment Depreciation
19-2 C 1 COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS Process Costing Job Costing Chapter 20 Used for production of large, unique, or high-cost items. Built to order rather than mass produced. Many costs can be directly traced