# Chapter 2--Cost Terminology and Cost Behaviors

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1 Chapter 2--Cost Terminology and Cost Behaviors TRUE/FALSE 1. A cost object is anything for which management wants to collect or accumulate costs. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A production plant could be a cost object. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A specific product cannot be a cost object ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The portion of an asset s value on the balance sheet is referred to as an expired cost. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The portion of an asset that was consumed during a period is referred to an expired cost. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A variable cost remains constant on a per-unit basis as production increases ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A fixed cost remains constant on a per-unit basis as production changes. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The relevant range is valid for all levels of activity ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: An indirect cost can be easily traced to a cost object. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Both accountants and economists view variable costs as linear in nature. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Fixed cost per unit varies directly with production. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-2

2 12. Variable cost per unit remains constant within the relevant range. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that shifts upward or downward when activity changes by a certain interval is referred to as a mixed cost. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that shifts upward or downward when activity changes by a certain interval is referred to as a step cost. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: If the cost of an additive is \$5,000 + \$0.50 for every unit of solvent produced, the cost is classified as a mixed cost. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: If the cost of an additive is \$5,000 + \$0.50 for every unit of solvent produced, the cost is classified as a step cost. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: A predictor which has an absolute cause and effect relationship to a cost is referred to a cost driver. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A mixed cost will be an effective cost driver. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: A variable cost will be an effective cost driver. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Unexpired costs are reflected on the balance sheet. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Expired costs are reflected on the balance sheet. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Distribution costs are an example of product costs. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Distribution costs are an example of period costs. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-3

3 24. Retailers generally have a much higher degree of conversion than do manufacturing or professional firms. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Retailers generally have a much lower degree of conversion than do manufacturing or professional firms. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: In a service industry, direct materials are usually insignificant in amount and cannot easily be traced to a cost object. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: In a service industry, direct materials are usually significant in amount and can be easily traced to a cost object. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: There is an inverse relationship between prevention costs and failure costs. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: There is a direct relationship between prevention costs and failure costs. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: In an actual cost system, actual production overhead costs are accumulated in an Overhead Control account and assigned to Work in Process at the end of the period. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: In an normal cost system, actual production overhead costs are accumulated in an Overhead Control account and assigned to Work in Process at the end of the period. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: In a normal cost system, factory overhead is applied to Work in Process using a predetermined overhead rate. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: In an actual cost system, factory overhead is applied to Work in Process using a predetermined overhead rate. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-5

4 34. In an actual cost system, overhead is assigned to Work in Process Inventory with a debit entry to the account. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: In an actual cost system, overhead is assigned to Work in Process Inventory with a credit entry to the account. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: It is not necessary to prepare the Cost of Goods Manufactured statement prior to preparing the Cost of Goods Sold statement. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-6 COMPLETION 1. Anything for which management wants to accumulate or collect costs is known as a. ANS: cost object PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Costs that can be conveniently traced to a cost object are referred to as costs. ANS: direct PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Costs that cannot be conveniently traced to a cost object are known as costs. ANS: indirect PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that remains unchanged in total within the relevant range is known as a cost. ANS: fixed PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that varies in total in direct proportion to changes in activity is known as a cost ANS: variable PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-2

5 6. The assumed range of activity that reflects the company s normal operating range is referred to as the. ANS: relevant range PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that remains constant on a per unit basis within the relevant range is a cost. ANS: variable PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that varies inversely with the level of production is known as a cost. ANS: fixed PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that has both fixed and variable components is known as a cost. ANS: mixed PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that shifts upward or downward when activity changes by a certain interval is referred to as a cost. ANS: step PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Another name for inventoriable costs is costs. ANS: product PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The three stages of production for a manufacturing firm are,, and. ANS: raw materials, work in process, finished goods PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Costs that are incurred to improve quality by precluding defects and improper processing are referred to as costs. ANS: prevention PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-5

6 14. Costs incurred for monitoring or inspecting products are known as costs. ANS: appraisal PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Costs that result from defective units, product returns, and complaints are referred to as costs. ANS: failure PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-5 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The term "relevant range" as used in cost accounting means the range over which a. costs may fluctuate. b. cost relationships are valid. c. production may vary. d. relevant costs are incurred. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Which of the following defines variable cost behavior? Total cost reaction to increase in activity Cost per unit reaction to increase in activity a. remains constant remains constant b. remains constant increases c. increases increases d. increases remains constant ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: When cost relationships are linear, total variable prime costs will vary in proportion to changes in a. direct labor hours. b. total material cost. c. total overhead cost. d. production volume. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-2

7 4. Which of the following would generally be considered a fixed factory overhead cost? Straight-line Factory Units-of-production depreciation insurance depreciation a. no no no b. yes no yes c. yes yes no d. no yes no ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: An example of a fixed cost is a. total indirect material cost. b. total hourly wages. c. cost of electricity. d. straight-line depreciation. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A cost that remains constant in total but varies on a per-unit basis with changes in activity is called a(n) a. expired cost. b. fixed cost. c. variable cost. d. mixed cost. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A(n) cost increases or decreases in intervals as activity changes. a. historical cost b. fixed cost c. step cost d. budgeted cost ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: When the number of units manufactured increases, the most significant change in unit cost will be reflected as a(n) a. increase in the fixed element. b. decrease in the variable element. c. increase in the mixed element. d. decrease in the fixed element. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-2

8 9. Which of the following always has a direct cause-effect relationship to a cost? Predictor Cost driver a. yes yes b. yes no c. no yes d. no no ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: A cost driver a. causes fixed costs to rise because of production changes. b. has a direct cause-effect relationship to a cost. c. can predict the cost behavior of a variable, but not a fixed, cost. d. is an overhead cost that causes distribution costs to change in distinct increments with changes in production volume. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Product costs are deducted from revenue a. as expenditures are made. b. when production is completed. c. as goods are sold. d. to minimize taxable income. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: A selling cost is a(n) product cost period cost inventoriable cost a. yes yes no b. yes no no c. no yes no d. no yes yes ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Which of the following is not a product cost component? a. rent on a factory building b. indirect production labor wages c. janitorial supplies used in a factory d. commission on the sale of a product ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-3

9 14. Period costs a. are generally expensed in the same period in which they are incurred. b. are always variable costs. c. remain unchanged over a given period of time. d. are associated with the periodic inventory method. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Period costs include distribution costs outside processing costs sales commissions a. yes no yes b. no yes yes c. no no no d. yes yes yes ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The three primary inventory accounts in a manufacturing company are a. Merchandise Inventory, Supplies Inventory, and Finished Goods Inventory. b. Merchandise Inventory, Work in Process Inventory, and Finished Goods Inventory. c. Supplies Inventory, Work in Process Inventory, and Finished Goods Inventory. d. Raw Material Inventory, Work in Process Inventory, and Finished Goods Inventory. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Cost of Goods Sold is an a. unexpired product cost. b. expired product cost. c. unexpired period cost. d. expired period cost. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The indirect costs of converting raw material into finished goods are called a. period costs. b. prime costs. c. overhead costs. d. conversion costs. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Which of the following would need to be allocated to a cost object? a. direct material b. direct labor c. direct production costs d. indirect production costs ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-3

10 20. Conversion cost does not include a. direct labor. b. direct material. c. factory depreciation. d. supervisors' salaries. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The distinction between direct and indirect costs depends on whether a cost a. is controllable or non-controllable. b. is variable or fixed. c. can be conveniently and physically traced to a cost object under consideration. d. will increase with changes in levels of activity. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Langley Company is a construction company that builds houses on special request. What is the proper classification of the carpenters' wages? Product Period Direct a. yes yes no b. yes no yes c. no no no d. no yes yes ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Langley Company is a construction company that builds houses on special request. What is the proper classification of the cost of the cement building slab used? Direct Fixed a. no no b. no yes c. yes yes d. yes no ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Langley Company is a construction company that builds houses on special request. What is the proper classification of indirect material used? Prime Conversion Variable a. no no no b. no yes yes c. yes yes yes d. yes no no ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-3

11 25. Which of the following costs would be considered overhead in the production of chocolate chip cookies? a. flour b. chocolate chips c. sugar d. oven electricity ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: All costs related to the manufacturing function in a company are a. prime costs. b. direct costs. c. product costs. d. conversion costs. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Prime cost consists of direct material direct labor overhead a. no yes no b. yes yes no c. yes no yes d. no yes yes ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Plastic used to manufacture dolls is a prime cost product cost direct cost fixed cost a. no yes yes yes b. yes no yes no c. yes yes no yes d. yes yes yes no ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The term "prime cost" refers to a. all manufacturing costs incurred to produce units of output. b. all manufacturing costs other than direct labor and raw material costs. c. raw material purchased and direct labor costs. d. the raw material used and direct labor costs. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-3

12 30. Conversion of inputs to outputs is recorded in the a. Work in Process Inventory account. b. Finished Goods Inventory account. c. Raw Material Inventory account. d. both a and b. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: In a perpetual inventory system, the sale of items for cash consists of two entries. One entry is a debit to Cash and a credit to Sales. The other entry is a debit to a. Work in Process Inventory and a credit to Finished Goods Inventory. b. Finished Goods Inventory and a credit to Cost of Goods Sold. c. Cost of Goods Sold and a credit to Finished Goods Inventory. d. Finished Goods Inventory and a credit to Work in Process Inventory. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The formula to compute cost of goods manufactured is a. beginning Work in Process Inventory plus purchases of raw material minus ending Work in Process Inventory. b. beginning Work in Process Inventory plus direct labor plus direct material used plus overhead incurred minus ending Work in Process Inventory. c. direct material used plus direct labor plus overhead incurred. d. direct material used plus direct labor plus overhead incurred plus beginning Work in Process Inventory. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The final figure in the Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured represents the a. cost of goods sold for the period. b. total cost of manufacturing for the period. c. total cost of goods started and completed this period. d. total cost of goods completed for the period. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: The formula for cost of goods sold for a manufacturer is a. beginning Finished Goods Inventory plus Cost of Goods Manufactured minus ending Finished Goods Inventory. b. beginning Work in Process Inventory plus Cost of Goods Manufactured minus ending Work in Process Inventory. c. direct material plus direct labor plus applied overhead. d. direct material plus direct labor plus overhead incurred plus beginning Work in Process Inventory. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-6

13 35. Which of the following replaces the retailing component "Purchases" in computing Cost of Goods Sold for a manufacturing company? a. direct material used b. cost of goods manufactured c. total prime cost d. cost of goods available for sale ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Costs that are incurred to preclude defects and improper processing are: a. prevention costs c. appraisal costs b. detection costs d. failure costs ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Costs that are incurred for monitoring and inspecting are: a. prevention costs c. appraisal costs b. detection costs d. failure costs ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Costs that are incurred when customers complain are: a. prevention costs c. appraisal costs b. detection costs d. failure costs ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-5 Mitchell Company The following information has been taken from the cost records of Mitchell Company for the past year: Raw material used in production \$326 Total manufacturing costs charged to production during the year (includes direct 686 material, direct labor, and overhead equal to 60% of direct labor cost) Cost of goods available for sale 826 Selling and Administrative expenses 25 Inventories Beginning Ending Raw Material \$75 \$ 85 Work in Process Finished Goods

14 39. Refer to Mitchell Company. The cost of raw material purchased during the year was a. \$316. b. \$336. c. \$360. d. \$411. ANS: B Beginning Inventory 75 +Purchases 336 =Goods Available for Sale 411 -Ending Inventory (326) Materials Used in Production 85 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Refer to Mitchell Company. Direct labor cost charged to production during the year was a. \$135. b. \$216. c. \$225. d. \$360. ANS: C Total production costs \$686 - Raw materials \$326 Conversion Costs \$360 Let x = Direct Labor Let.60x = Factory Overhead x +.60x \$360 x \$225 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Refer to Mitchell Company. Cost of Goods Manufactured was a. \$636. b. \$716. c. \$736. d. \$766. ANS: C Beginning WIP Inventory \$ 80 Costs of Production 686 less: Ending WIP Inventory (30) Cost of Goods Manufactured \$736 ==== PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-6

15 42. Refer to Mitchell Company. Cost of Goods Sold was a. \$691. b. \$716. c. \$736. d. \$801. ANS: B Beginning Finished Goods Inventory \$ 90 Cost of Goods Manufactured 736 less: Ending Finished Goods (110) Inventory Cost of Goods Manufactured \$716 ==== PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-6 Davis Company. Davis Company manufactures wood file cabinets. The following information is available for June 2008: Beginning Ending Raw Material Inventory \$ 6,000 \$ 7,500 Work in Process Inventory 17,300 11,700 Finished Goods Inventory 21,000 16, Refer to Davis Company. Direct labor is \$9.60 per hour and overhead for the month was \$9,600. Compute total manufacturing costs for June, if there were 1,500 direct labor hours and \$21,000 of raw material was purchased. a. \$58,500 b. \$46,500 c. \$43,500 d. \$43,100 ANS: C Begin Inv Purch Ending Inv Raw Materials \$6,000 \$21,000 \$(7,500) \$19,500 Rate Hours Direct Labor \$ ,500 14,400 Overhead 9,600 \$43,500 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-5

16 44. Refer to Davis Company. Direct labor is paid \$9.60 per hour and overhead for the month was \$9,600. What are prime costs and conversion costs, respectively if there were 1,500 direct labor hours and \$21,000 of raw material was purchased? a. \$29,100 and \$33,900 b. \$33,900 and \$24,000 c. \$33,900 and \$29,100 d. \$24,000 and \$33,900 ANS: B Begin Inv Purch Ending Inv Raw Materials \$6, \$21,000 \$(7,500) \$19,500 Rate Hours Direct Labor \$ ,500 14,400 Overhead 9,600 Prime Costs = Raw Materials + Direct Labor-- \$19, ,400 = \$33,900 Conversion Costs = Direct Labor + Factory Overhead--\$14, ,600 = \$24,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Refer to Davis Company. Direct labor is paid \$9.60 per hour and overhead for the month was \$9,600. If there were 1,500 direct labor hours and \$21,000 of raw material purchased, Cost of Goods Manufactured is: a. \$49,100. b. \$45,000. c. \$51,000. d. \$49,500. ANS: A Beginning WIP Inventory \$ 17,300 Raw Materials \$ 19,500 Direct Labor 14,400 Factory Overhead 43,500 9,600 Ending WIP Inventory (11,700) Cost of Goods Manufactured \$ 49,100 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-6

17 46. Refer to Davis Company. Direct labor is paid \$9.60 per hour and overhead for the month was \$9,600. If there were 1,500 direct labor hours and \$21,000 of raw material purchased, how much is Cost of Goods Sold? a. \$64,500. b. \$59,800. c. \$38,800. d. \$53,800. ANS: D Beginning WIP Inventory \$ 17,300 Raw Materials \$ 19,500 Direct Labor 14,400 Factory Overhead 43,500 9,600 Ending WIP Inventory (11,700) Cost of Goods Manufactured \$ 49,100 Beginning Finished Goods Inventory 21,000 Ending Finished Goods Inventory (16,300) \$ 53,800 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Steelman Company manufacturers desks. The beginning balance of Raw Material Inventory was \$4,500; raw material purchases of \$29,600 were made during the month. At month end, \$7,700 of raw material was on hand. Raw material used during the month was a. \$26,400. b. \$34,100. c. \$37,300. d. \$29,600. ANS: A Beginning RM Inventory + Purchases - Ending RM Inventory = RMaterials Used \$4, ,600-7,700 = X X = \$26,400 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Legend Company manufacturers tables. If raw material used was \$80,000 and Raw Material Inventory at the beginning and end of the period, respectively, was \$17,000 and \$21,000, what was amount of raw material was purchased? a. \$76,000 b. \$118,000 c. \$84,000 d. \$101,000 ANS: C Beginning RM Inventory + Purchases - Ending RM Inventory = RMaterials Used \$17,000 + X - 21,000 = \$80,000 X = \$84,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-5

18 49. Morris Company manufacturers computer stands. What is the beginning balance of Finished Goods Inventory if Cost of Goods Sold is \$107,000; the ending balance of Finished Goods Inventory is \$20,000; and Cost of Goods Manufactured is \$50,000 less than Cost of Goods Sold? a. \$70,000 b. \$77,000 c. \$157,000 d. \$127,000 ANS: A Beg Fin Goods Invy + Cost of Goods Manufactured - Ending Fin Goods Invy = COGS X + \$57,000 - \$20,000 = \$107,000 X = \$70,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-6 Long Enterprises Inventories: March 1 March 31 Raw material \$18,000 \$15,000 Work in process 9,000 6,000 Finished goods 27,000 36,000 Additional information for March: Raw material purchased \$42,000 Direct labor payroll 30,000 Direct labor rate per hour 7.50 Overhead rate per direct labor hour Refer to Long Enterprises. For March, prime cost incurred was a. \$75,000. b. \$69,000. c. \$45,000. d. \$39,000. ANS: A Begin Inv Purch Ending Inv Raw Materials \$18,000 \$42,000 \$(15,000) \$45,000 Rate Hours Direct Labor \$ ,000 30,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-5 \$75,000

19 51. Refer to Long Enterprises. For March, conversion cost incurred was a. \$30,000. b. \$40,000. c. \$70,000. d. \$72,000. ANS: C Begin Inv Purch Ending Inv Direct Labor \$ ,000 30,000 Rate Hours Overhead \$ ,000 40,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Refer to Long Enterprises. For March, Cost of Goods Manufactured was a. \$118,000. b. \$115,000. c. \$112,000. d. \$109,000. \$70,000 ANS: A Beginning WIP Inventory \$ 9,000 Raw Materials \$ 45,000 Direct Labor 30,000 Factory Overhead 40, ,000 Ending WIP Inventory (6,000) \$ 118,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: 2-6 SHORT ANSWER 1. Define relevant range and explain its significance. ANS: The relevant range is that range of activity over which a variable cost remains constant on a per-unit basis and a fixed cost remains constant in total. Managers can review the various ranges of activity and the related effects on variable cost (per-unit) and fixed cost (in total) to determine how a change in the range will affect costs and, thus, the firm's profitability. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-2

21 PROBLEMS 1. Given the following information for Graves Corporation, prepare the necessary journal entries, assuming that the Raw Material Inventory account contains both direct and indirect material. a. Purchased raw material on account \$28,500. b. Put material into production: \$15,000 of direct material and \$3,000 of indirect material. c. Accrued payroll of \$90,000, of which 70 percent was direct and the remainder was indirect. d. Incurred and paid other overhead items of \$36,000. e. Transferred items costing \$86,500 to finished goods. f. Sold goods costing \$71,300 on account for \$124,700. ANS: a. RM Inventory 28,500 A/P 28,500 b. WIP Inventory 15,000 Manufacturing OH 3,000 RM Inventory 18,000 c. WIP Inventory 63,000 Manufacturing OH 27,000 Salaries/Wages Payable 90,000 d. Manufacturing OH 36,000 Cash 36,000 e. FG Inventory 86,500 WIP Inventory 86,500 f. A/R 124,700 Sales 124,700 CGS 71,300 FG Inventory 71,300 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Prepare a Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured (in good form) for the Chandler Company from the following information for June 20X8: Inventories Beginning Ending Raw Material \$ 6,700 \$ 8,900 Work in Process 17,700 22,650 Finished Goods 29,730 19,990 Additional information: purchases of raw material were \$46,700; 19,700 direct labor hours were worked at \$11.30 per hour; overhead costs were \$33,300.

22 ANS: Chandler Company Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured For the Month Ended June 30, 20X8 Work in Process (June 1) \$ 17,700 Raw Mat. (June 1) \$ 6,700 Purchases 46,700 Raw Mat. Available 53,400 Raw Mat. (June 30) (8,900) Raw Mat. Used \$ 44,500 Direct Labor (19,700 x \$11.30) 222,610 Manufacturing Overhead 33,300 Total Manufacturing Costs 300,410 Total Goods in Process \$318,110 Work in Process (June 30) (22,650) Cost of Goods Manufactured \$295,460 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: In June 20X8, the Evans Company has Cost of Goods Manufactured of \$296,000; beginning Finished Goods Inventory of \$29,730; and ending Finished Goods Inventory of \$19,990. Prepare an income statement in good form. (Ignore taxes.) The following additional information is available: Selling Expenses \$ 40,500 Administrative Expenses 19,700 Sales 475,600 ANS: Evans Company Income Statement For the Month Ended June 30, 20X8 Sales \$475,600 Cost of Goods Sold: Finished Goods (June 1) \$ 29,730 Cost of Goods Mf'd 296,000 Total Goods Available \$325,730 Finished Goods (June 30) (19,990) Cost of Goods Sold (305,740) Gross Margin \$169,860 Operating Expenses: Selling \$40,500 Administrative 19,700 Total Operating Expenses (60,200) Income from operations \$109,660 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-6

23 4. The following information is for the Cameron Manufacturing Company for November. Inventories Beginning Ending Raw Material \$17,400 \$13,200 Work in Process 31,150 28,975 Finished Goods 19,200 25,500 Direct Labor (21,000 \$13) Raw Material Purchases \$120,000 Insurance-Office 2,570 Indirect Labor 11,200 Office Supplies Expense 900 Factory Supplies Used 350 Insurance-Factory 1,770 Other Expenses: Depr. Office Equipment 3,500 Depr.-Factory Equipment 17,300 Repair/Maintenance-Factory 7,400 Calculate total manufacturing costs, cost of goods manufactured, and cost of goods sold. ANS: Manufacturing Costs: Raw Material (Nov. 1) \$ 17,400 Purchases 120,000 Raw Material Available \$137,400 Raw Material (Nov. 30) (13,200) Raw Material Used \$124,200 Direct Labor (21,000 x \$13) 273,000 Overhead: Depr.-Factory Equipment \$17,300 Repairs/Maintenance-Factory 7,400 Indirect Labor 11,200 Insurance-Factory 1,770 Factory Supplies Used 350 Total Overhead 38,020 Total Manufacturing Costs \$435,220 Cost of Goods Manufactured: Total Manufacturing Costs \$435,220 Work in Process (Nov. 1) 31,150 Work in Process (Nov. 30) (28,975) Cost of Goods Manufactured \$437,395 Cost of Goods Sold: Finished Goods (Nov. 1) \$ 19,200 Cost of Goods Manufactured 437,395 Total Goods Available \$456,595 Finished Goods (Nov. 30) (25,500) Cost of Goods Sold \$431,095 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-6

24 5. From the following information for the Seabrook Company, compute prime costs and conversion costs. Inventories Beginning Ending Raw Material \$ 9,900 \$ 7,600 Work in Process 44,500 37,800 Finished Goods 36,580 61,300 Raw material purchased during the period cost \$40,800; overhead incurred and paid or accrued for the period was \$21,750; and 23,600 direct labor hours were incurred at a rate of \$13.75 per hour. ANS: Prime Costs: Raw Material (Beginning) \$ 9,900 Purchases 40,800 Raw Material Available \$50,700 Raw Material (Ending) (7,600) Raw Material Used \$ 43,100 Direct Labor (23,600 x \$13.75) 324,500 Prime Costs \$367,600 Conversion Costs: Direct Labor (Above) \$324,500 Overhead 21,750 Conversion Costs \$346,250 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: The following miscellaneous data has been collected for a manufacturing company for the most recent year-end: Inventories: Beginning Ending Raw material \$50,000 \$55,000 Work in process 40,000 45,000 Finished goods 60,000 50,000 Costs recorded during the year: Purchases of raw material \$195,000 Direct labor 150,000 Cost of goods sold 595,000 Required: Prepare a cost of goods manufactured statement showing how all unknown amounts were determined.

25 ANS: BEGIN WIP \$ 40,000 + DM (1) 190,000 + DL 150,000 + OH? = \$250,000 - END WIP (45,000) = COGM (2) \$585,000 (1) BEG RM \$ 50,000 + PURCHASE 195,000 - END RM (55,000) = DM \$190,000 (2) BEGIN FG \$ 60,000 + COGM? = \$585,000 - END FG (50,000) = COGS \$595,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: The following information was taken from the records of the Beaumont Corporation for the month of July. (There were no inventories of work in process or finished goods on July 1.) Units Cost Sales during month 8,000 \$? Manufacturing costs for month: Direct material 32,000 Direct labor 20,000 Overhead costs applied 15,000 Overhead costs under-applied 800 Inventories, July 31: Work in process 1,000? Finished goods 2,000? Indirect manufacturing costs are applied on a direct labor cost basis. The under-applied balance is due to seasonal variations and will be carried forward. The following cost estimates have been submitted for the work in process inventory of July 31: material, \$3,000; direct labor, \$2,000. Required: a. Determine the number of units that were completed and transferred to finished goods during the month. b. Complete the estimate of the cost of work in process on July 31. c. Compute cost of goods manufactured for the month. d. Determine the cost of each unit completed during the month. e. Determine the total amount debited to the Overhead Control accounts during the month.

26 ANS: a. 8,000 SOLD + 2,000 ENDING FG = 10,000 UNITS b. DM \$3,000 DC 2,000 OH 1,500 =\$15,000/\$20,000 x \$2,000 \$6,500 c. DM \$32,000 DL 20,000 OH 15,000 - END WIP (6,500) = COGM \$60,500 d. COGM/COMPLETE UNITS = \$ 60,500 = \$6.05/UNIT 10,000 UNITS e. OH APPLIED \$15,000 + OH UNDERAPPLIED 800 ACTUAL OH \$15,800 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: The Sherwood Groves Corporation had the following account balances: Raw Material Manufacturing Overhead Bal. 1/1 30,000? 420, ,000? Bal. 12/31 60,000 Wages Payable Bal. 1/1 Direct material 70,000 Work in Process Factory 810, ,000 Bal.1/1 10, , ,000 Direct labor 110,000 Overhead 400,000 Bal. 12/31? Bal. 12/31 6,000 Sold Bal. 1/1 40,000? Finished Goods?? Cost of Goods Bal. 12/31 130,000

27 Required: a. What was the cost of raw material put into production during the year? b. How much of the material from question 1 consisted of indirect material? c. How much of the factory labor cost for the year consisted of indirect labor? d. What was the cost of goods manufactured for the year? e. What was the cost of goods sold for the year (before considering under- or overapplied overhead)? f. If overhead is applied to production on the basis of direct material, what rate was in effect during the year? g. Was manufacturing overhead under- or overapplied? By how much? h. Compute the ending balance in the Work in Process Inventory account. Assume that this balance consists entirely of goods started during the year. If \$32,000 of this balance is direct material cost, how much of it is direct labor cost? Manufacturing overhead cost? ANS: a. \$30,000 + \$420,000 - \$60,000 = \$390,000 b. \$390,000 - \$320,000 DM = \$70,000 c. \$175,000 - \$110,000 DL = \$65,000 d. \$810,000 e. \$40,000 + \$810,000 - \$130,000 = \$720,000 f. \$400,000/\$320,000 = 125% DM Cost g. OH Actual \$385,000 OH Applied 400,000 OH Overapplied \$ 15,000 h. Beginning WIP \$ 70,000 DM \$32,000 + DM 320,000 DL (To Balance) 18,000 + DC 110,000 FOH (1) 40,000 + OH 400,000 End WIP \$90,000 - Ending WIP (90,000) = COGM \$810,000 (1) \$32,000 x 125% = \$40,000 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-6

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