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1 Product Claims Provides standard and custom certification and auditing programs for supply chains and raw materials, with technical development of assurance programs across areas such as food safety, quality and sustainable sourcing risk management. ANALYSIS & INSIGHTS Metrics and Reporting Utilizes data collection and interpretation of responsible sourcing performance metrics to assess program success and prescribe changes if necessary Business Intelligence Analyzes large data sets to optimize opportunities for competitive advantage REVIEW & IMPROVEMENT Benchmarking Compares client responsible sourcing processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies System Feedback and Enhancement Analyzes responsible sourcing practices and identifies opportunities for continuous improvement and optimization Training and Development Provides platforms to share knowledge, build relationships and challenge thinking Performance Trend Analysis Observes how client performance has developed over time, and predicts how it is likely to develop in the future Integration Support Facilitates alignment of responsible sourcing efforts with overall business strategy, including marketing For more information, contact: or +27 (0) ASSURED FOOD SAFETY NSF provides assurance through independent audits as well as accredited industry-recognised certification, supplemented by approved public training in global food standards. CERTIFICATION GLOBALG.A.P. localg.a.p. LEAF Marque Nurture HACCP SIZA Ethical BRC Food BRC Packaging BRC Distribution BRC Brokers IFS Food IFS Broker FSSC SANBWA ISO ISO ISO GFSI MCB RETAIL CONSULTING & TECHNICAL SERVICES Supply Chain Assurance Trading Law Retail & QSR Inspections Crisis Response Specification Management Recall Plan Review TRAINING We offer training in GLOBALG.A.P., Nurture, HACCP, ISO 22000, FSSC, BRC and Internal Auditing. Visit our 2017 Training Calendar at NSF INTERNATIONAL Call: +27 (0) Fax: + 27 (0) Visit:

2 CONTENTS VOLUME 16 PART 2 ELKE UITGAWE EVERY ISSUE Editorial 2 Voorwoord/Foreword 3 Spoeg n Pit 5 SA Fruit Journal Board of Directors 6 Fruitful Ideas 90 Last Word 93 The cover photograph and those on pages 30 and 31 are by Penny Carolan. BEDRYFSNUUS INDUSTRY NEWS BEDRYFSNUUS/ INDUSTRY NEWS R300 million empowerment project to uplift citrus industry 8 The Sustainability Initiative SA 12 FSA partners with The Great Fruit Adventure Africa 14 FSA makes inroads into China 15 'Beeplants of SA' book is launched 26 Tru-Cape Eselfontein Festival raises R for local charities 29 Tru-Cape opens Heritage Orchard to the public in February 89 SOUTH AFRICAN TABLE GRAPE INDUSTRY (SATI) SATI expects normal crop for 2016/2017 season 11 Breakthrough for SA table grapes in China 17 Tafeldruiwe produsent 2016 Agri-SA Toyota Jongboer van die Jaar 18 HORTGRO HORTGRO investing in people and communities 20 HORTGRO supports fundraiser 22 Vrugtebedryf Gala-aand wenners kry hulle blikbreine 22 Agri s got Talent-wenner dankbaar vir dié projek 23 Science Gratitude 25 Sainsbury's wins Retailer of the Year Award 27 CITRUS GROWERS ASSOCIATION (CGA) In Africa there is a belief Analyzing Export Cost Trends and how exchange rate changes influences Market Returns 32 Southern Hemisphere Citrus Exports in The Dikwiel Challenge 35 CGA Citrus Summit Programmes 36

3 RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CITRUS RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL (CRI) Extension Briefs 40 The European pepper moth as a citrus nursery pest in SA 52 Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) for the Oriental Fruit Fly 54 Ninth Citrus Research Symposium 62 HORTGRO SCIENCE INTERPERA 2016 A Pear Affair 66 The quest for the perfect pear 67 ARC efforts continue to prevent superficial scald on Packham s Triumph pears 68 New options to chemically thin 'Forelle pears? 70 More 'know how' about chilling pears 70 Position, position, position makes the difference 71 USDA Expert: There s a Plan B to hande apple replant disease 72 Phosphonates give roots a boost 72 Apple replant disease under spotlight 74 Soil: the true wealth of farmers 75 Interpoma HORTGRO EU visit FruitLook 82 Growing Fruit IQ: Propagating change 84 Crop Production Final Report Summaries 86 Matie scoops horticulture award in Italy 88 ADVERTORIALS PROMOSIE ARTIKELS NSF Training is the key to advancing Good Agricultural Practice 16 PROVAR 24 ABASEBENZI Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd 45 BREËRIVIER INGENIEURSWERKE Die wêreld se beste boordstrooier 61 FARM COSTING SOLUTIONS 64 re:inc se pienk en rooi vleisappel maak kenners se tonge los by Interpoma 79 STIHL Your partner in farm and orchard maintenance 92 Design and layout by Colleen Goosen Printed and bound by Novus Print Solutions.

4 EDITORIAL Be Stronger, together CHRISTA HAASBROEK I think it is essential to start a year, actually every day, with a new and fresh way of thinking. Keep it simple, enjoy what life offers and open your eyes and ears to the ideas and thoughts of those wonderful people around you. Do not allow negativity, politics and hidden agendas to steal your joy and sunshine or to prevent a lovely outcome of events. Be transparent in sharing information, visions and plans with those around you. Take hands and accept a mutual responsibility for building a better future it takes a village In his Foreword opposite, Willem Bestbier, CEO of SATI, shares his view on how the competitiveness and sustainability of the fruit industry today are totally reliant on the quality of the people, both employers and employees. Competent, skilled and motivated people will ensure well controlled processes which will deliver a quality and compliant product to the ultimate satisfaction of the consumer. Ultimately, as explained, it is the people. I am because we are - Every time I look at the beautiful picture on our cover, I am in awe. Read on page 30 about the inspirational story of Kaross, of building strong communities where the collective become stronger than the individual. The world should be looking to Africa for examples of community in action. I quote Irma van Rooyen, founder of Kaross: The Tsonga people told me their stories and I became inspired. By their humanity, their space, their life - so utterly proud! By their eagerness to be involved, and to be part of the project. These talented women and men, together, raised up the Kaross project from its humble beginnings. And now, the drive to never give up, to keep on exploring and developing and growing. And learning to be stronger, together. To you, whose path I am privileged to share, I owe my inspiration. On pages 28 and 29 you can read more about the ways in which HORTGRO invests in people and communities. HORTGRO is aware that in order to be a growing and developing country, we need to empower people. The onus is on us to be a force for leadership and change by investing in people thereby acting on our corporate tagline - Growing Fruit IQ, says Anton Rabe, Executive Director, HORTGRO. Become inspired by those around you. CHRISTA I offer you peace. I offer you love. I offer you friendship. I see your beauty. I hear your need. I feel your feelings. My wisdom flows from the highest Source. I salute the Source in you. Let us work together. For unity and peace. MAHATMA GANDHI S PRAYER FOR PEACE CLAUDIA WALKLETT FPEF CLAYTON SWART SATI TIM GROUT CRI GLORIA WEARE CGA ESTÉ BEERWINKEL HORTGRO DANE MCDONALD HORTGRO SCIENCE SA VRUGTE JOERNAAL FEB/MAART 2017

5 I firmly believe that the competitive edge in the market is almost invariably technology driven. The definition of technology in this regard is however broad and not limited to hardware like, computers, plant and equipment. It also includes, amongst others, software, systems, logistics and algorithms which are used to produce products and services to be more efficient and competitive. A progressive quality assurance program is an essential element of technology to have. As fruit producers and exporters in a developing country, geographically far away from our main export markets, we are increasingly challenged in the form of fierce competition, cost pressure and diminishing returns which jeopardise the long term viability and sustainability of the industry. The cost pressure is brought about by ever increasing input costs, for example wages, agro-chemicals, energy and fuel and packaging material. This is all exacerbated by a weak and deteriorating Rand exchange rate putting the imported components under even more pressure. We often hear that markets are not attractive or certain programs are not profitable because the risks of quality rejections and claims are too high and costly. The flaw in our quality assurance system is that we produce a final product in the form of a packed and fully dressed carton of fruit and then submit it for inspection, before it leaves our shore and when it arrives in the destination market. If and when non-compliant and rejected, the disputes, blame-game and, ultimately, the claims follow. Non-conformance at this point is not affordable, as quality cannot viably be assured through inspection. Maybe even more damaging than the monetary value of the non-conformance is the reputational risk associated with repeated non-conformance, both to the individual producer and exporter and South Africa as a reliable supplier of fresh fruit to our hard earned markets. The more progressive approach and system to ensure conformance and quality is to control processes. Well controlled processes, throughout the entire supply chain, deliver quality and compliant product. Incoming inspections are then not required. Granted, fresh fruit is highly perishable and the primary production is very much exposed to natural phenomena like climate and weather and phytosanitary challenges, which we have little control over. But this makes it even more compelling to control much better what can actually be controlled. Therefore, in the South African fresh fruit industry today it is a business imperative to advance to the next level of quality assurance and take it even beyond the above mentioned process control. The ultimate and matured quality level is reliant on quality people, throughout the supply chain. The competitiveness and sustainability of our industry today are totally reliant on the quality of our people, both employers and employees. Competent, skilled and motivated people will ensure well controlled processes which will deliver a quality and compliant product to the ultimate satisfaction of the consumer. This is how technology and our people drive our competitiveness. Ultimately, as explained, it is the people. FOREWORD People ensure quality and competitiveness WILLEM BESTBIER CEO, SATI ELISE-MARIE STEENKAMP HORTGRO Opinions expressed in advertisements and promotional articles are not necessarily those of the SA Fruit Journal. We do not accept responsibility for damage or injuries which may arise from possible inaccuracies. All rights reserved, none of the contents may be used in any other media without the prior consent of the SA Fruit Journal (Pty) Ltd. FEB/MARCH 2017 SA FRUIT JOURNAL 3 IGNATIUS VLOK ADVERTISING

6 Multicote Agri (8) Juvenile: The solution for growing new orchards A single application of Multicote Agri controlled-release fertilizer provides your young trees with a balanced nutrition over months, supporting establishment and enhancing growth. 1. Moisture penetrates the polymer capsule. 2. The moisture dissolves the nutrients in the capsule. 3. Nutrients are released into the soil by diffusion. Soil temperature controls the rate of release. Nutrition matches growth needs Better nutrient use efficiency Labor saving Nutrient availability independent of irrigation Reg. Nr. K 8834 (Act 36 of 1947) Scan the code for detailed information Pioneering the Future 4 SA VRUGTE JOERNAAL FEB/MAART 2017 Haifa South Africa PO Box 1409, Brackenfell, 7561, South Africa Tel: Fax:

7 Probleemdiere Die diere is bedrywig daar buite. Jagluiperd wen die Curriebeker, Springbok wen omtrent niks. Slang is besig met n staatstender en Jakkals maak nes in Nkandla. Hier in die somertyd lê Dassie vetgesmeer op Clifton se strand, Apie jaag al om die huis op sy Kersgeskenk en Renoster wys middelvinger vir n taxi op die snelweg. Almal bedrywig, ja op planeet Eden is dit maar net nòg n dag in die dieretuin. Sommige mense wat die Boek diep lees neem aanstoot wanneer na die mens as n dier verwys word, maar wat - in natuurterme - is die mens tog anders as net nòg n lewende spesie op aarde, nòg n dier? Hy s vlees en bloed net soos die ander diere, met die tipiese fisiologie van n soogdier. Trouens, hy lyk en tree op soos die primate en deel selfs n skeletvorm met die vlermuise. En dan nog sy dieregedrag. Die mens loop op twee bene soos n volstruis, pronk in bont vere soos n pou, aas wat hy kan soos n hiëna, is so dikvellig soos n skilpad, so vernielsugtig soos n bobbejaan en dikwels so vals soos n verkleurmannetjie. Party mense is koue krokodille, ander is snoesige hasies. Sommiges bly saam met rotte, ander tonnel weer soos molle. Daar s die sprinkane wat in swerms verwoes, en selfs die kil moordenaars wat alleen jag soos n luiperd. Die mens? Die ene dier! Selfs in sy huislike lewe. Hy baken weliswaar sy gebied af met Vibracrete en nie met mishopies soos die duiker nie, maar hy s steeds territoriaal, soos baie diere. En ook net so jaloers soos n rooibok of n seekoei wanneer hy paar. Loop kyk maar net hoe stamp die ramme kop daar waar n klomp jongmense by n watergat uithang. Ja, die mens is eintik maar n dier. Al wat hom werklik onderskei is sy intelligensie en denke, hoewel dit ook nie aldag so duidelik is nie. Hy s byvoorbeeld slim genoeg om gereedskap te gebruik en wiskunde te bemeester, maar terselfdertyd onnosel genoeg om in sy eie water te mors. Hy t die intellek om iets in diepte te ontleed en na te vors, maar tog laat hy hom verlei deur oppervlakkige goeters wat blink. Slim is hy miskien wel, maar sy slimmigheid is nog lank nie wysheid nie. Dit blyk duidelik as sy gedrag met dié van ander diere vergelyk word. Nie alleen kom hy dan domastrant voor nie, hy s heel uit lyn uit met die natuurwette wat balans op aarde onderhou. Hy oorbeset en oorbenut sy omgewing en hulpbronne so erg dat hy in werklikheid n probleemdier geraak het n bedreiging vir bykans al die ander spesies waarmee hy sy omgewing deel. Maar dis nie die mens se bestaan per se wat die gevaar is nie. Ook nie noodwendig sy getalle nie. Dis eerder sy gewoontes. Toe hy duisende jare gelede met landbou en die aanhou van vee begin het, was dit nie n probleem nie. Ook nie toe hy die aarde begin myn het nie. Selfs sy industriële revolusie rondom 1800 het aanvanklik nie n oorweldigende impak op sy medespesies gehad nie. Die mens het eers werklik n probleemspesie geraak gedurende die middel van die twintigste eeu - n skrale jaar gelede. Dit was die era na die tweede Wêreldoorlog, toe materiële welvaart skielik die Groot Doel geraak het. Dinge soos motorkarre, kommersiële vlugte, plastiekprodukte en die gebruik van kunsmis, gifstowwe en besproeiing in landbou het algemeen geraak en die mens se impak op sy omgewing het beduidend versnel. Daarmee saam het sy getalle geweldig gegroei, met n al groter vraag na verbruikersgoedere. Laasgenoemde was miskien die eintlike probleem. Want waar ander spesies se behoeftes by water en weiding gebly het, het die mens se honger na materiële dinge bykans onversadigbaar geraak. Ten spyte van sy intelligensie het hy verander in n wese wat hom vergryp aan besittings, sonder om te let op wat oorbly en te besef wat hy alles versteur. Hy VERVOLG OP BLADSY 6 HERMAN JONKER SPOEG 'N PIT Rubriek FEBRUARY/MARCH 2016 OCT/NOV SA FRUIT SPOEG JOURNAL 'N PIT 5

8 SAFJ DIRECTORS KONANANI LIPHADZI CEO, Fruit South Africa ANTON RABE Executive Director, HORTGRO Probleemdiere vermors skaamteloos, VERVOLG VAN BLADSY 5 asof daar geen perke aan sy misbruik en luukses hoef te wees solank hy dit kan bekostig nie. Die impak wat die gedrag van hierdie probleemspesie binne so n relatief kort tydperk op sy medediere gehad het, is geweldig: Volgens die WWF het die aarde soveel as helfte van sy dierebevolking verloor oor die laaste 40 jaar. Selfs die heel grotes sterf grootskaals. Duisende spesies sterf ook jaarliks finaal uit deur die mens vertrap, versmoor of ontheem. Dié verlies van biodiversiteit word geskat as tussen en maal hoër as die natuurlike uitsterwingstempo. Ook in planeetterme het mens, die probleemspesie, n massiewe impak gehad. Die aktiwiteite van die laaste twee of drie geslagte Homo Sapiens het veroorsaak dat die kritieke osoonlaag kwyn, dat die hele planeet warm word, poolys smelt, seevlakke styg, die oseane versuur en meer grond kunsmatig versteur word as wat deur natuurlike erosie plaasvind. Volgens die Uile met die brille is n grootskaalse natuurramp aan die gebeur - n onvermydelike globale uitsterwing. Nie vanweë natuurlike faktore nie, maar bloot as gevolg van hoe een spesie kies om te leef. En wat doen die mens hieromtrent? Wel, Skilpad trek sy kop onder sy dop in, Volstruis steek syne in die sand, Pou skud sy vere reg, Hiëna gryp wat oorbly, Bobbejaan koop nòg n stootskraper en Verkleurmannetjie rol sy oë en hou hom kamma groen. En Jakkals? Natuurlik: Oudergewoonte ontken hy alles. SAFJ SHAREHOLDERS ANTON KRUGER CEO, FPEF FPEF FRESH PRODUCE EXPORTERS FORUM Private Bag X5, Century City 7441 Tel: Fax: CGA CITRUS GROWERS ASSOCIATION PO Box 461, Hillcrest 3650 Tel: Fax: WILLEM BESTBIER CEO, SATI SATI SOUTH AFRICAN TABLE GRAPE INDUSTRY 63 Main Street, Paarl 7646 Tel: JUSTIN CHADWICK CEO, CGA SASPA SA STONE FRUIT PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION Tel: Fax: Main Street, Paarl PO Box 163, Paarl SAAPPA SA APPLE & PEAR PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION Tel: Fax: Main Street, Paarl PO Box 163, Paarl SA VRUGTE JOERNAAL FEB/MAART 2017

9 FEB/MARCH 2017 SA FRUIT JOURNAL 7

10 R300 million empowerment project to uplift citrus industry SUNDAYS RIVER The launch of a R300- million black economic empowerment project in the citrus-rich Sundays River Valley in the Eastern Cape could have significant ramifications for the rollout of similar empowerment deals around the country which until now have experienced very limited success. CITRUS EMPOWERMENT: Ken Nieuwenhuizen (left), SRCC director of transformation and development, and Frikkie Olivier, SRCC operations manager who oversees the various empowerment projects, stand in front of the company s empowerment training facility, the Masifunde Sonke Education and Training Centre. The newly unveiled Ikamva Lethu empowerment project in the Sundays River Valley could radically transform how future empowerment deals in the agricultural sector are handled. The difference between the newly launched Ikamva Lethu empowerment project and other failed agricultural empowerment deals is the collective, long-term buy-in by both land owners and previously disadvantaged members of the community working on farms in the region, say originators of the project. Initiated by the Sundays River Citrus Company (SRCC) which represents about 10% of South Africa s citrus industry and around 45% of the citrus coming from the Sundays River Valley, the Ikamva Lethu project Xhosa for our future is earmarked for about 700 hectares of farmland in the area. This is part of a ha tract of farmland which has been purchased and registered by the SRCC. The first significant milestone has been the recent allocation of a water licence by the provincial Department of Water and Sanitation, allowing the farm to draw 675 ha equivalent of water from the Sundays River Irrigation Scheme for the irrigation of citrus plantations. An environmental impact assessment (EIA) application for the development of the farmland which at present is just bush has now been submitted to the Department of Environmental Affairs, with authorisation for the project expected towards the end of The EIA will determine the exact amount of land which will be cultivated. MAJOR EMPOWERMENT DEAL Ken Nieuwenhuizen, SRCC director of transformation and development, explained the magnitude of the Ikamva Lethu project. To put it into perspective, the valley is one of the major players in the SA citrus industry and there are about 150 citrus farms here covering around hectares in total, said Nieuwenhuizen. So already we are looking at possibly the largest empowerment deal in the citrus industry in the country and one of the biggest farming enterprises in the valley, when it is fully realised. The knock-on effects of the project for the growth of downstream industries from transport and logistics to storage and packaging were significant, he said. Explaining the origins of the deal, Nieuwenhuizen said SRCC was guided by the National Development Plan (NDP). Ikamva Lethu is very broad-based; it s about inclusivity and participation. It will result in about 400 community members becoming shareholders and beneficiaries, and benefiting from the success of the project, he said. A suggested guideline in the NDP pertaining to land reform, empowerment and transformation within the agricultural industry is that 20% of farming This is the largest citrus industry empowerment deal in SA. This R300 m empowerment project will radically impact the Sundays River Valley. The deal will lead to 800 permanent and seasonal jobs. The project is set to be one of the largest citrus operations in the region. 8 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

11 enterprises be transferred to farm workers, with the farmer or landowner retaining ownership of half of the shares (10%). We wanted to use that as a guiding principle for our project. We want to share the success of the industry with the people who have been living and working on those farms for many years, said Nieuwenhuizen. For us as SRCC, it is a way of being proactive within the empowerment and transformation field. SHAREHOLDING The premise of the Ikamva Lethu project is that SRCC farmers wanting to empower their farmworkers can purchase shares in the project equivalent to up to 20% of their own farming enterprise. Half of the shares would be held by the farmer, and the other half would be held by his permanent farm workers within a trust established for this purpose, said Nieuwenhuizen. The workers will continue to work for the farmers on their [separate] farming operations, but will own 50% of the investment made in Ikamva Lethu, he said. Also included in the deal are permanent SRCC packhouse workers. The project was already provisionally fully subscribed, with over 35 farmers indicating intent to buy shares equivalent to 20% of their farming operations, said Nieuwenhuizen, adding that due to the oversubscription, farmers might not each receive a full 20% allocation. This buy-in would in turn provide capital for the project rollout, as the land needed to be developed with farming infrastructure from laying irrigation pipes and establishing orchards to erecting buildings and purchasing farming equipment. Also included in the plan was to mentor and train empowerment shareholders to become board members or directors within the project as it rolled out, he said. Provisionally, the plan is that SRCC will have a 5.5% shareholding and will support the Ikamvu Lethu farming business, with 60% of the shares belonging to permanently employed previously disadvantaged farm workers living and working on farms in the valley, as well as the future Ikamva Lethu farm workers and SRCC packhouse workers. The remaining 34.5% of shares will be held by participating citrus growers [farmers], said Nieuwenhuizen, adding that precise details were still being ironed out between stakeholders. JOBS BOOST The project will be a major jobs boost for the Eastern Cape agricultural sector, with up to 80 permanent employees and as many as 700 seasonal workers when fully operational. This was excluding the downstream job creation opportunities, said Nieuwenhuizen. Furthermore, there were on average five dependants for every employed person in the valley who would benefit from the project, he said. Frikkie Olivier, SRCC operations CONTINUED ON PAGE 10 CLOSE INSPECTION: Buyiswa Ndyenga, general manager of the Sundays River Farming Trust empowerment farm which was started by the SRCC, and Jafta April, a production manager on the farm, inspect an orchard of navels which are due to produce a crop in Ndyenga and April both began work for the SRCC in 2007 and 2008 respectively and have since been involved in education and training initiatives at the company which have seen them promoted to their current positions within an empowerment trust set up by the SRCC. SRCC is no stranger to empowerment projects. Having launched its transformation strategy in 2006, SRCC now has three farming enterprises, excluding Ikamva Lethu, which are owned by workers trusts: Luthando Farm, Mbuyiselo Farm and Sundays River Farming Trust. Luthando Farm, which is 75% owned by the workers trust and 25% owned by SRCC, boasts total export production exceeding citrus cartons per year. Mbuyiselo Farm, which is wholly owned by a workers trust, boasts total export production exceeding citrus cartons per year. Sundays River Farming Trust, which consists of five consolidated farms the land of which is still mostly owned by government has a current total export production of about citrus cartons per year, with further growth expected from the development of a farm recently acquired by the trust. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 9

12 Sundays River Citrus Company is the largest grower, packer and exporter of South African citrus. Originally established as a co-operative venture in 1924, SRCC now operates as a company in terms of its business structures but is still proudly grower-owned. Driven by a progressive board, the company seeks to expand access to international markets and promote transformation and development. SRCC consolidated its transformation strategy in 2006, with the purpose of overseeing the establishment of successful emerging farmers who can take up shareholding in the company. The long-term vision is to create a sustainable, transformed SRCC, which will facilitate effective land reform in the Sundays River Valley. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 9 manager who oversees the various empowerment projects, said many other empowerment projects failed to impart proper technical and financial support to beneficiaries. In the case of Ikamva Lethu, beneficiaries would be permanent farm workers in the community who worked off-site on other farms, while a further benefit of the project would be that new jobs would be created through employment opportunities on Ikamva Lethu. Support from financial to technical has been a major stumbling block in empowerment deals in the agricultural sector which have not succeeded, said Olivier. Nieuwenhuizen said: We have a hand in the project. We guide and help along the way. The project was a long-term one, said Olivier and Nieuwenhuizen. We are starting from absolutely nothing. We have bushland and water at this stage. Once we have the authorisation [from the EIA application], then we can start building infrastructure before we plant the trees, said Nieuwenhuizen. The first phase the first of four would include laying infrastructure and building dams, which would take about 18 months. This included cultivating the first 150 ha of orchards planting about trees. To put the enormity of the scale in perspective, the average size of a farm in the valley is 60ha, so effectively we ll be planting the equivalent of two farms a year, said Olivier, adding that the earmarked starting date for planting of trees was spring 2019, with completion scheduled for The first fruits of the project are expected to be borne in As the project unfolds, citrus varieties to be planted would be determined by market demand, and could also include juice processing opportunities, he added. 10 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

13 SATI expects normal crop for 2016/17 season The South African Table Grape Industry (SATI) released the 1st Crop Estimate for the 2016/17 table grape season with a normal crop estimated to be between 61,1 million and 63 million cartons. The early production regions started packing, one week earlier than the previous 2015/16 season; the Northern Provinces Region had a good start to the new season. It is expected that the Orange River Region will have a slower start to the season with early volumes slightly lower compared to the same period last year. The region however foresees that a normal pack out will continue after the slow start. Due to good rains during the winter months the Olifants River Region does not expect any water restrictions as was the case during the 2015/2016 season. A normal crop is thus expected. The two later regions of the Berg River and Hex River are experiencing reasonably good weather at this stage, although it is still too early to predict any changes in the weather and how it may affect the crop. However, it is unclear what effect the exceptionally dry and warm weather of the previous season will have on the new crop. Furthermore, the grip of the worst drought in decades seems to persist in some areas, which could also have an adverse effect on the crop. Willem Bestbier, Chief Executive Officer of SATI, confirmed as of this year crop estimates are done in co-operation with industry experts who are in close contact with growers in all regions, hence the expectation that we are working with the best information available. This structure should also enable us to be more responsive to in-season developments and deviations. The estimate was reached by taking into account the experience and observations of the group of experts, the latest industry vine census and historical data. 2016/2017 REGIONS FIRST CROP ESTIMATE ACTUAL PACKED VOLUMES Low High 2015/ / /2014 Northern Province 5,2 5, Orange River 18,7 19, Olifants River 4,2 4, Berg River 13,3 13, Hex River Valley 19,7 20, Grand Total 61, Table: Crop Estimate in 4.5 kg carton equivalents (Millions) This year s lower limit of 61,1 million is 5,4% higher than the actual intake of the previous season, which reflects an expected return to normal berry and bunch development. The upper limit takes into account the increasing hectares of new generation cultivars yielding a better pack out and an increase on total hectares of approximately 2%. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 11

14 LOUISE BRODIE The Sustainability Initiative South Africa As part of SIZA s capacity building initiatives, SIZA facilitates Occupational Health and Safety and First Aid Training to provide the necessary skills for the successful implementation of ethical trade compliance and for improvement of labour practices within the agricultural sector. Jennifer Lebaea and Ricardo Goosen are beneficiaries of the PG Kriel Workers Trust which has a 33% ownership of Uitvlugt, a table grape farm with 32 ha of table grapes near Worcester. Besides their obvious pride in their beautiful farm which they are establishing through hard work and patience, they are thrilled about the comprehensive Health and Safety and First Aid Training that they completed during 2016 as this has empowered them with the skills they need to implement the practices required by the SIZA Programme. The SIZA Programme has two focus areas, namely: Monitoring and verification of compliance and best practices on farms which takes place through self-assessments and third party ethical audits conducted by independent recognized Audit bodies; and The facilitation of capacity building initiatives to support growers, smallholders and workers with the implementation of ethical standard requirements through promoting awareness and understanding of the ethical standard as well as building practical and social skills to enhance productivity and well-being on farms. The SIZA improvement process has been designed to ensure ethical trade compliance from all suppliers in South Africa. The goal is to have a commitment of continuous improvement of labour conditions on farms in a practical and comprehensive manner which has the potential to benefit businesses and impact positively on hundreds of thousands of employees. SIZA is growing well within the South African agricultural industry as growing numbers of stakeholders in the production and retail sector become members and implement this ethical trade programme. In the initial process of implementation for SIZA standards and compliance on production units, it became clear that in some cases the people who would be implementing the system at ground level lacked some of the skills required to do this successfully. The area which proved to be the most challenging in this regard was the area of Health and Safety and in response to this, during 2016 SIZA, in conjunction with AgriSETA and Philani Training and Development Solutions have roll out Health and Safety training, Health and Safety Representative training, as well as Frist Aid Training. Throughout the year, a considerable number of farm workers, from commercial farming units as well as from emerging farming units, have successfully completed this training and now have the skills required to comply with the labour laws and the SIZA standard. Jennifer Lebaea and Ricardo Goosen two of the 21 beneficiaries of the PG Kriel Workers Trust which owns a share of Uitvlugt Farm. Together with their employers and partners in the farming operation father and son Boetie and Pieter Kriel, they are replanting and rejuvenating 12 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

15 this previously neglected property. During June, July and August this year Jennifer and Ricardo completed comprehensive Health and Safety training for health and safety officers as well as training for Health and Safety committee members and a First Aid training course. The training was offered by Philani Training and Development Solutions NPC at various venues in De Doorns, Paarl and Robertson and has really made a huge difference to Jennifer and Ricardo s skills levels and confidence as far as complying with the implementation of the SIZA standard goes. I grew up on Non Pareil Farm in the Hex River Valley and after Matric (2003) I started working on the farm. The farming skills I have, I have largely learned in practice on the job so this formal training has really meant a great deal to me, says Jennifer. The training was very enlightening as with the Health and Safety issues we have been trained to recognise potential dangers and how to deal with these situations through being proactive and through ongoing scheduled communication with management. Ricardo also grew up on Non Pareil Farm and started working on the farm in 2004 straight after leaving school. I agree with Jennifer that we have really learned a great deal through this process, says Ricardo. The Health and Safety training really made us understand why we have to follow certain processes and how to recognise PG Kriel Workers Trust beneficiaries Jennifer Lebaea and Ricardo Goosen on their farm Uitvlugt near Worcester. During 2016 they completed Health and Safety and First Aid Training which will better enable them to implement the practices required for the SIZA ethical audit. potential threats and how to deal with them. The First Aid training has really taught us how to cope with a serious health crisis as well as other possible health problems we might have to deal with. This intensive course truly empowered us as I feel confident that I will cope if I would suddenly need to deal with a serious health crisis. As far as SIZA is concerned, many of the principles and rules required by SIZA are not really new to us as they are also contained in the other auditing processes that we already have implemented. Another simple example of was learning the significance of all the information printed on our payslips. Previously we just looked to see what our nett salary was but now we have a better understanding of all the information on our payslips, explained Ricardo. We are very proud of what we have achieved here on our farm at Uitvlugt, says Jennifer. People tell us that they see our farm and what is happening here when they drive past the farm on their way to town. The training has really increased our knowledge and we are now quite confident that we will be able to implement the principles of SIZA successfully and achieve well in our forthcoming SIZA Third Party Ethical Audit. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 13

16 Max (front) and Gareth (rear) left this market in London on 8 November 2016 and will spend about 4 months on these motorbikes as part of the Great Fruit Adventure. They aim to tell the stories of fresh fruit growers across Africa with their final stop in Cape Town late in February Fruit South Africa partners with The Great Fruit Adventure Africa Two explorers on motorbike trip across Europe and Africa to tell stories of our fruit growers. FRUIT SOUTH AFRICA (FSA) is a non-profit organisation formed by the CITRUS GROWERS ASSOCIATION of Southern Africa (CGA); HORTGRO (representing pome and stone fruit); SOUTH AFRICAN TABLE GRAPE INDUSTRY (SATI); SUBTROP (representing the avocado, litchi, mango and macadamia industries) and the FRESH PRODUCE EXPORTERS FORUM (FPEF) to address common issues in relation to all aspects of the fruit industry of South Africa. Fruit South Africa (Fruit SA) is proud to announce its partnership with The Great Fruit Adventure. The Great Fruit Adventure is about two intrepid explorers who are on a heroic 4 month long motorbike trip across Europe and Africa to raise awareness of the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption and to tell the story of producers who grow it. On 8 November 2016 Max MacGillivray and Gareth Jones started their motorbike journey from New Spitalfields Market in London, and Europe across Africa to eventually reach and end their journey in Cape Town, South Africa, visiting a wide range of fruit and veg growers along the way. MacGillivray and Jones plan to chronicle their story and more importantly the story of the growers to help raise awareness of how fruit and veg gets from where it is grown to British shop shelves. Fruit SA wishes Max and Gareth all the best with their Great Fruit Adventure journey. We look forward to welcoming you here in South Africa early next year. We re excited to share the story of our producers in the fresh fruit industry through this epic adventure with many of our end consumers in the United Kingdom and further afield, said Dr. Konanani Liphadzi, CEO of FruitSA. The Great Fruit Adventure is the brainchild of fruit industry veteran Max who was dismayed when he discovered that 6 out of 10 UK children had no idea where the fruit and veg they eat come from. Shocked by the figures, he came up with the idea of the trip to help educate children not only in the UK but internationally, tackle the ongoing ignorance of fresh produce and teach them that fruit doesn t just grow on trees. Fresh Produce is my lifelong passion and I ve put my heart and soul into the industry so I was dismayed to read that 6 out of 10 British children had no idea where the fruit and veg they eat comes from. Something had to be done. It s going to be an epic and challenging journey, says Max. They travel via Spain, North West Africa and then down the Eastern side of Africa onto South Africa itself finally arriving in Cape Town where FruitSA will welcome them in late February Along the way they will visit the likes of key citrus growers in Spain, the largest grower of sweetcorn in Senegal, an amazing fruit grower in Ghana that supplies Sainsbury s and Waitrose with prepared fruit products, amazing growers of flowers in Ethiopia and Mozambique, key exotic vegetable and coffee growers in Kenya as well as Tanzania and all of the beauty that South Africa offers in the total range of fresh produce! When they return home, the team will visit schools and colleges and attend events across the UK to showcase the story of growers and spread the word about their epic journey and the journey that fruit and veg goes through every day to find its way from Africa on to places in other parts of the world. 14 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

17 Fruit South Africa makes inroads into China The Vice Chairperson of Fruit South Africa (Fruit SA), Willem Bestbier, signed a Memorandum of Understanding at the end of October 2016 with his counterpart, Vice Chairperson of the Chinese Quarantine and Inspection Association (CIQA) Mr Wang Xin. This MOU is aimed at strengthening collaboration to ensure market access for fruit between South Africa and the Peoples Republic of China. China remains a country with the biggest market given its population of about 1,38 billion. The total imports of fruits into China during 2015 according to the graph below was 3,8 million tons valued at US$ 5 billion dollars. South Africa has only been able to export about tons of fruit during the same period which is a drop in the ocean. Given that South Africa currently export about 2,7 million tons of fruits globally, the value of its current export to China is very small and Fruit SA has been working hard in collaboration with the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to gain more access for other fruit types. The objective of the MOU between the two organisations is to address the challenges that are experienced currently in expanding and broadening market access which takes longer than desired. The agreement will ensure that the two organisations support their governments work in opening markets for fruits by providing the required technical information and guidance to speed-up the negotiations process for market access for new products. To date, South Africa can only export apples, citrus and table grapes to China and the process is painstakingly slow. The two governments are currently negotiating market access for pears which will be followed by avocadoes and then other types of fruits. The two parties will use the MOU to provide the support required during market access negotiations between the two countries by sharing information in the following areas: pest risk analysis, quarantine and inspections regulations, technology exchanges related to fruit production and market developments. The implementation of this agreement coupled with the acceleration of market access, the fruit industry aims to increase its exports to China to about tons in the next 5 years, which will be a boom for the agriculture economy and also for job creation as more orchards will be established to support this key market. Social media is already abuzz with excitement to spur Max and Gareth on. Follow them on where they have already received over 'likes' in under 5 months. Their website www. thegreatfruitadventure.com has had well over visitors since February The Great Fruit Adventure is a non-profit campaign and all proceeds raised after the cost of the trip will go to a select number of African facing nominated charities, being: FAIRTRADE Marshall PAPWORTH TUSK INFORMATION ON SA S FRESH FRUIT INDUSTRY EXPORTS: More than 50% of all agricultural exports from South Africa is fresh fruit. 2.7 million tons of fruit (out of 4.7 million tons produced) is exported to more than 92 countries in the world annually. The value of these exports are $2,5 billion. Major export destinations: EU, UK, Far East, Russia, Middle East, USA/Canada. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 15

18 ADVERTORIAL Training is the key to advancing Good Agricultural Practice As GLOBALG.A.P. standards evolve, companies must make sure their employees receive essential education and training to stay ahead of the curve. NSF International understands the challenges businesses face, and provides timely and pertinent public health training and instruction for the global food industry at all levels to achieve positive results. For course bookings and more information regarding our courses, use thefollowing link Or contact our office NSF International 21 Electron Avenue, Technopark Stellenbosch, South Africa Tel: /34 ask for Ilze Bosman Training is the key to advancing Good Agricultural Practice and transferring GLOBALG.A.P. quality and transparency demands to everyone we work with. We have three training programs to support our growing network of producers, trainers, farm assurers, auditors and inspectors. 1. GLOBALG.A.P. Fruit & Vegetables Version 5: Two-Day Course COURSE OBJECTIVES Attendees will learn about recent changes to the standard; general regulations related to registration, audit timing and compliance rules; interpretation of the compliance criteria and annexes; risk assessments; and requirements of the standard. TARGET AUDIENCE Farmers and producers of fruit and vegetables People new to the standard Anyone currently responsible for and managing a farm s GLOBALG.A.P. system Farm managers and system administrators CONTENTS Overview of the GLOBALG.A.P. regulations How to interpret the standards compliance criteria Using the GLOBALG.A.P. supporting documentation to help develop and implement Good Agricultural Practices DATES AND LOCATIONS 6-7 Feb 2017 Stellenbosch Mar 2017 Tzaneen May 2017 Gauteng 1-2 Aug 2017 Upington/ Kakamas Aug 2017 Stellenbosch Oct 2017 Nelspruit Nov 2017 Stellenbosch 2. GLOBALG.A.P. Fruit & Vegetables Refresher Workshop: One-day course COURSE OBJECTIVES Attendees will learn about recent changes to the standard; inspection timing; risk assessments; and an overview of amendments and additions TARGET AUDIENCE Farmers and producers of fruit and vegetables Persons previously trained in the GLOBALG.A.P. standard Anyone currently responsible for and managing a farm s GLOBALG.A.P. system Farm managers and system administrators CONTENTS Conversion from V4 to V5 and overview of the Standard Overview of the new requirements Overview of changes made to the standard DATES AND LOCATIONS 9 Feb 2017 Stellenbosch 20 Feb 2017 Fort Beaufort 22 Feb 2017 Kirkwood 23 Feb 2017 Patensie 7 Mar 2017 Citrusdal 16 Mar 2017 Tzaneen 17 May 2017 Gauteng 6 Jun 2017 Langkloof 4 Aug 2017 Upington/Kakamas 31 Aug 2017 Stellenbosch 5 Sep 2017 Vredendal 7 Sep 2017 Aussenkehr 27 Sep 2017 De Doorns 28 Sep 2017 Grabouw 11 Oct 2017 Riebeek-Kasteel 19 Oct 2017 Nelspruit 24 Oct 2017 Worcester 25 Oct 2017 Ceres 3. GLOBALG.A.P. E-Learning NSF International has developed an online GLOBALG.A.P. training that will be available from January 2017, for those who cannot afford to leave the farm for two days, including farmers, supervisors, administrators and workers. You can complete the self-paced course in your own time. Contact us for more details. Advance your farm assurance expertise and join one of the NSF International training opportunities. Stay up to date on the latest developments in your sector and industry. Gain access to the knowledge and tools that will help you provide your producers and customers with GLOBALG.A.P. excellence. NSF training session in Gauteng. 16 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

19 Breakthrough for SA table grapes in China According to South African table grape producers and exporters one of the biggest breakthroughs since deregulation in agriculture has been achieved through the joint cooperation of the South African Table Grape Industry (SATI) and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). The producer organisation SATI is delighted that China changed the cold treatment protocol of South African table grapes to a more fruit friendly protocol. This creates a market opportunity to increase table grape exports from South Africa to China to about R2,5 billion over the next five years. DAFF confirmed China s cold treatment protocol is immediately effective from the 2016/2017 season. The new protocol has changed to +0.8 Degree Celsius for a minimum of 20 days (it was -0.6 C for 22 days). Although this exciting market for South African table grapes has been open, the previous protocol held unaffordable risks in the form of cold related damage to grape berries and stems. SATI s chairperson, Michael Laubscher, described this opportunity as a big milestone for SATI that was initiated with commercial urgency and completed successfully. This will make China more accessible for South African producers and make our produce more competitive. SATI believes this breakthrough will enable producers and exporters to realise the enormous potential in China. We hereby acknowledge DAFF and all the other role players who enabled us to achieve this breakthrough, said Laubscher. According to Willem Bestbier, Chief Executive Officer of SATI, the breakthrough was made possible through an extraordinary and applied research project that SATI specially commissioned in January 2015 with Dr Tony Ware as researcher. Supported by these research results experts in DAFF led by Alice Baxter and her team as well as support from SATI ensured the protocol was changed in record time. According to an economic study about the market for table grapes in China, conducted by Dr Hoppie Nel in 2014, the estimated loss of income for South Africa was R214 million due to the loss of quality, market share and the price difference caused by the previous cold treatment protocol. The Chinese market for table grapes with imports of table grapes worth nearly $600 million in 2014 is the 5th biggest import market and shows the biggest growth by far at 30% per year over the past five years ( ). The Chinese market is also one of the markets that pay a premium for imported grapes. Although South Africa was the fourth biggest exporter of table grapes to China in 2014 with tons (2015, tons), the protocol prevented any significant increase. Peru and Chile exported a combined tons to China in 2014, mainly due to these countries receiving lower import tariffs and less stringent cold treatment protocols than South Africa. The new protocol and improved market opportunity presents table grape producers the opportunity to establish new vineyards to serve China, which could lead to the creation of a number of new local job opportunities. This breakthrough for the South African table grape industry once again shows with good cooperation between the government and agriculture a significant contribution can be made to the primary goals of the National Development Plan, namely job creation, rural development and the earning of foreign revenue. Willem Bestbier, Chief Executive Officer of SATI, receives the new protocol from Wu Hao, Director of Biosecurity at the China Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) organisation, with the South African Counsellor for Agriculture in Beijing, Mashudu Silimela. SATI believes this breakthrough will enable producers and exporters to realise the enormous potential in China. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 17

20 Tafeldruifprodusent 2016 Agri-SA Toyota Jongboer van die Jaar CLAYTON SWART het met Jacques Beukes, Jongboer van die Jaar 2016, gesels oor wat hom so suksesvol maak. Jacques Beukes, 2016 Toyota en Agri-SA Jongboer van die Jaar en sy vrou Heleen. Jacques Beukes (35), ʼn tafeldruifprodusent van De Doorns in die Hexriviervallei is in Oktober 2016 as Agri SA en Toyota SA se Jongboer van die jaar aangewys. Hy boer al tien jaar op die familieplaas, Modderdrift, maar vertel sy familie boer 103 jaar lank met tafeldruiwe. Hy is ʼn direkteur van die Hexvallei Tafeldruiwe Assosiasie, Agri Wes-Kaap se streekverteenwoordiger en die voorsitter van die Breedevallei Munisipaliteit se produsenteforum. Jacques wat ʼn B.Com-graad in Logistiek aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch behaal het, sê jongboere is die land se toekoms. Jongboere bring baie nuwe idees en energie na die ekonomie. Hulle hou van nuwe ontwikkelings en uitdagings, sê hy. Sy pa Pieter Beukes het in 2006 eienaarskap aan hom en sy broer Eugene gegee. Die span het hulself toegespits om die produksie op te stoot vanaf kartonne per hektaar, na plus per hektaar per jaar. Selfs in die vorige uitdagende 2015/16 seisoen het hulle kartonne per hektaar gepak kartonne per hektaar is die gemiddelde. Ons het die omset van die plaas tussen 2007 en 2016 met 930% gegroei. Ons het gaan sit en beplan en gekyk wat die sukses faktore is, waarna ons op vier besluit het: produksie, verpakking, bemarking en ons hart wat die mense is wie vir ons werk, verduidelik Jacques passievol. Ons het die besproeiing na drupbesproeiing verander en het baie meer selektief geword oor die tipe kunsmis wat ons gebruik. Sodoende het ons produksie opgetel en het ons die nodige groei begin toon. Volhoubaarheid van hoë voedselstandaarde geniet voorrang. Volgens Jacques is hy baie lief vir die tafeldruifbedryf. Dit is duidelik as gekyk word na hulle belegging en ontwikkeling van 30 hektaar tafeldruiwe per jaar vir die volgende twee jaar op die sowat 180 hektaar plaas Brandwacht in Worcester, wat aan die voete van die Brandwacht berge geleë is. Hulle bestuur ook die buurplaas Ambiance namens die sakeman Tebogo Mogashoa. Nuwe aanplantings van meer as 80 hektaar word oor die volgende drie jaar beplan. Deur die vestiging van die meer as 100 hektaar oor drie jaar op Brandwacht beoog Jacques om deur die bestuursvernuf van Modderdrift tussen 120 en 600 nuwe voltydse en tydelike werksgeleenthede onderskeidelik te skep. Ons was redelik grondhonger oor die afgelope drie jaar. Die doel is om van die beste tegnologie in verbouingspraktyke, besproeiing, sowel as pakstore in plek te sit. Die feit dat Jacques die kompetisie gewen het, is nie n prestasie wat hy enigsins op sy eie behaal het nie. Ons het almal mekaar nodig, veral in familiebesighede. Dit baat nie elke persoon neem n gedeelte op hul eie, terwyl julle saam soveel meer groei kan toon en meer werksgeleenthede vir selfs ander familielede kan skep. Advies aan produsente wat graag die jongste tegnologie wil bekom, maar net nie oor genoeg kapitaal beskik nie: Voor jy die ou trekker vervang moet jy eers daarop fokus om produksie te verhoog deur beter produksiepraktyke toe te pas. Ek glo die hemel bied geen perke nie. Dit is als deur die genade van die Here, is Jacques se laaste woorde, terwyl hy met planne in die hand heel opgewonde aan die elektrisiën uitwys wat volgende op die plaas gedoen moet word. 18 PROMOSIE FEB/MAART 2017

21 SUCCESS IS CULTIVATED it doesn t just happen Voor-Groenberg Nurseries has the knowledge, integrity and support to ensure your investment in the best plant material for wine, raisin and table grapes pays handsome dividends. Contact Johan Wiese or Andrew Teubes: Tel: Fax: FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWSwww.vgnurseries.co.za 19

22 HORTGRO - investing in people and communities Apart from making sure that our producers have access to the best research, market knowledge and support at their fingertips - HORTGRO is also committed to improving the lives of everyone that works in agriculture. ELISE-MARIE STEENKAMP At HORTGRO we recognise the importance of Corporate Social Investment (SCI) efforts, not just for the benefit of the communities we work in, but also for South Africa as a whole, says Anton Rabe, HORTGRO s Executive Director. SCI include the alleviation of poverty, job creation, infrastructure development, upliftment through education, reduction in crime, protection of the environment, encouragement of foreign direct investment as well as becoming a support structure rather than a source of critique. HORTGRO is aware that in order to be a growing and developing our country, we need to empower people. The onus is on us to be a force for leadership and change by investing in people thereby acting on our corporate tagline - Growing Fruit IQ, says Rabe. HORTGRO SCI AT A GLANCE: HORTGRO Bursary Scheme (HBS) The HBS currently supports 17 undergraduate bursary students and one post-graduate WAT DIE STUDENTE SÊ? Ek het baie geleer oor hoe om beter te kommunikeer, en veral hoe om konflik te hanteer. Dit was uitstekend. Ek het geleer om spaarsaam te werk met my geld. Dit was baie goeie ondervinding. Ek het geleer om nie so maklik opstandig te raak nie. Ek het ook geleer om in te klim en die bul by die horings te gryp. student studying in various aspects of agriculture. The students are enrolled respectively at Stellenbosch University, Elsenburg Agricultural Training College, Cape Town University of Technology, University of Pretoria and University of Limpopo. These bursaries are augmented with grants from the AgriSETA and the Deciduous Fruit Industry Development Trust. An amount of R was invested in the programme during the past financial year. In addition, a further 41 post-graduates and PhD students were involved in various research projects via HORTGRO Science at a value of a further R1.7 million. In 2016 HORTGRO in collaboration with Fruit South Africa, exhibited at the University of Pretoria Career Fair where various career opportunities within the agricultural fruit value chain were on display. This career fair served as an opportunity to meet and motivate aspiring students from various high schools interested in a career in agriculture. Health & Safety Training A total of 575 workers were trained as basic first aid officers, health & safety representatives and as members of health & safety committees, says Astrid Arendse, HORTGRO s Human Resources Officer. Health & safety is an important aspect in any business and the aim of this programme is to enable farm workers to identify risk factors before it becomes a safety hazard. Basic first aid empowers workers to act fast in case of an emergency and also provide them with tools to treat and understand minor cases. 20 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

23 Farm Worker Wellness Programmes These programmes empower employees with life skills in order to minimise social problems and to improve their circumstances. A total of individuals received training on 4 farms during A further people, indirectly benefitted from this programme. The 2016 programme focused on financial wellness, interpersonal skills, substance dependency and effective parenting. The wellness programme was rendered by PROCARE. According to PROCARE S Marietjie Bezuidenhout all the participants indicated that they experienced the training in a very positive way. The training was presented by social workers who were working on the farms. Therefore they already had relationships with the agricultural workers. Another important factor is that the social workers regularly visit these farms, that way we can keep an eye on the workers and ensure the necessary follow up consulting when it is needed. The feedback we received from participants indicated that they greatly benefitted from the wellness programme regarding: Discovering the self Conflict management styles Good and effective communication skills Financial planning Effective parenting skills Negative impacts of substance abuse The need for the continuation of the wellness programmes remains high and alternative sources of funding will be sought going forward, says Marietjie. The objective is to get support from all the growers who hopefully will see this as a start for continuous social support services on farms. According to Marietjie some individuals asked for further assistance which they will be happy to give as follow-up sessions is critical for any sustainable wellness process. Koue Bokkeveld Opleidingsentrum Internship Programme: In association with the Koue Bokkeveld Opleidingsentrum (KBOS) HORTGRO identified and sponsored 21 interns during The interns had to complete an academic component, were placed as an intern on a farm, underwent a mentorship and a life skills programme. In the end 19 students successfully completed their courses. The students experienced working with different cultivars and all aspects of agricultural production. According to Joy van Biljon from KBOS, the 2016 students were an excellent group. One student is going to further his studies at CPUT; 7 students were offered permanent positions with the organisations they did their internship with; 3 joined other companies. I think the mentorship programme made a great contribution to the success rate of employing new graduates, and we would like to continue with that in the future, she said. All students received two individual mentor sessions. They also had the opportunity to listen to guest motivational speakers. This component, combined with the life skills programme, created a positive environment to grow. In 2017 we are hoping to place 17 new students at 12 different organisations, Van Biljon said. WHAT THE STUDENTS SAY The programme and mentor sessions were an amazing experience. Learning about self-worth and life purpose. It is where I got a sense of who I am, and what I want to live for. "The presentations where always suitable for students, to implement in their own lives. I also learnt about responsibility, loyalty and analysing situations before reacting. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 21

24 Handing out apples An apple a day keeps the doctor away. HORTGRO supports fundraiser HORTGRO s new Events Coordinator, Thea Visser, with a smiling pupil from Dryden Primary School. HORTGRO donated 800 apples for a fundraising event held by the Business Women's Association of South Africa. The funds were raised for the Sani Sistas Project an NGO helping South African school girls with personal hygiene products so that they don t miss school. Post-event the red apples were handed out to the delightful children from Dryden Primary School in Salt River, Cape Town. Not even the Cape Doctor could dampen the children s enthusiastic smiles when they each received a red apple. Vrugtebedryf Gala-aand wenners kry hulle blikbreine Charmain Scholts, Irene Jansen en Sivuyile Maguga Solitswayi met hulle blikbreine. In November 2016 het Charmaine Scholtz, Spesialislandbouwerker van die Jaar; Irene Jansen en Sivuyile Maguga Solitswayi, gesamentlik Algemene Landbouwerker van die Jaar, hul Vrugtebedryf Gala-aand pryse in ontvangs geneem. Charmaine en Maguga het beide splinternuwe rekenaars gewen, terwyl Irene gekies het om haar prysgeld te gebruik om verder te studeer. Ek wil graag verstaan hoe n blom in n vrug verander. Wat maak dat sommige vrugte beter kwaliteit as ander het, sê sy. My droom is om n vrugte-inspekteur te word en ek hoop deur verdere studies sal ek eendag my droom kan verwesenlik. Maguga was baie opgewonde oor sy nuwe rekenaar en het gesê dit motiveer hom om nog harder te werk. Ek gee elke dag net my beste, sê die boordmasjien wat feitlik dubbel die produksie-uitsette van ander werkers lewer. Charmaine sien haar rekenaar as n groot geskenk vir haar gesin. Veral vir my kinders, nou kan hulle allerhande dinge leer en toegang hê tot die internet. Ons is baie opgewonde. Sivuyile Maguga Solitswayi kan nie wag om sy prys vir sy familie te wys nie. 22 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

25 Agri s got Talent wenner dankbaar vir dié projek ESTÉ BEERWINKEL AGRI S GOT TALENT 2016-WENNER NEVILLE FORTUIN MEEN ALLE LANDBOUWERKERS MÓET INSKRYF Hy beskryf homself as n lewendige ekstrovert en hy is in die kol. Neville Fortuin (21), wenner van Agri s got Talent 2016, is die lewe van elke partytjie en hy weet dit. Ek is gemaak vir die limelight, sê Neville. My ouers het my sangtalent op vyfjarige ouderdom ontdek. Ek het in die kerkkoor gesing en vir sangkompetisies ingeskryf. Ek het nog altyd geweet dat ek wil sing en optree. Die verhoog is waar ek my selfvertroue vandaan kry. Neville, n landbouwerker by Little Oaks op Villiersdorp, meen hy is nie vir een oomblik spyt dat hy vir Agri s got Talent (AGT) ingeskryf het nie. Dit was die beste ervaring van my lewe. Ek het so baie geleer en amazing mense ontmoet. Dit was n week van mekaar leer ken, saam huil en saam lag. Dit was meer soos n familie-byeenkoms as n kompetisie. Alhoewel Neville nog onseker is oor sy toekoms, is hy gretig om sy lewe op die verhoog te begin. Tydens die kompetisie het ek heeltyd gewonder waar ek na die tyd gaan wees. Die ondervinding en geleentheid om op die verhoog te wees was vir my die grootste prys. Hoewel ek steeds op die plaas werk, sal ek graag eendag voltyds wil optree. Volgens Neville moet hy deesdae koes vir sy aanhangers. Die Villiersdorpers is baie trots op my, mense sien en behandel my anders. In die toekoms sal ek graag dankie wil sê deur terug te ploeg in die gemeenskap. Hopelik met die afrig van sang by ons dorp se laerskole. Of hy die AGT ondervinding aan ander sal aanbeveel, is daar geen twyfel nie. Ek dink alle talentvolle landbouwerkers móét inskryf. Moenie bang wees om in te skryf nie, want AGT is die kans van n leeftyd. Jy leef vir n week lank soos n diva. Die kompetisie is soos n before and after-program. Jy is n heel ander mens wanneer jy daar wegstap. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 23

26 ADVERTORIAL Provar s driving goal is to provide an independent evaluation service to the deciduous fruit industry of South Africa through application of standardised protocols based on international best practice. Data collection is objective, credible and transparent to minimise risks when planting new cultivars. Progress Support for the evaluation programme of new cultivars and rootstocks started well this season through buy-in from various private IP owners. In total, 129 stone fruit cultivars and 64 pome fruit cultivars are under screening and advanced phase evaluation, to provide tree and fruit data to clients. Data is currently collected at 17 pome fruit and 17 stone fruit evaluation sites situated in Nature and Reach of Service We see our clients as Evaluation Partners, complimenting their in-house evaluation through a thorough screening and advanced evaluation that verifies the commercial potential of new cultivars and minimises planting risk for specific sites. The Provar Team: Iwan Labuschagne (Provar Manager and Evaluator), Carl Hörstmann (Evaluator), Human Steenkamp (Evaluator), Chantel Adams (Admin and Data management), Christiaan Lombard (IT Manager). all the major growing areas in the winter and summer rainfall areas. Tree Evaluation Provar performs Tree evaluation by monitoring and distinguishing horticultural characteristics at every stage during the season, providing the client with a full phenological sequence from bud break to harvest. Optimal harvest time, yield potential and all possible disorders and inherent limitations that may affect adaptability to the specific planting area are qualified. Fruit evaluation When it comes to the harvested product, Provar performs Visual and Sensory Fruit evaluation at four different stages. They evaluate Storage potential of cultivars and selections, assess shelf life performance and identify fruit disorders with great attention to detail. They characterise fruit according to size distribution and total weight to quantify commercial yield potential. Evaluation mainly occurs on IP owners evaluation plots during the first season, but for the following years Provar calls for early tree allocation to their own evaluation sites where cultivars and selections can be planted, ensuring representative planting in different areas. It is recommended that planting be performed as soon as material is released from quarantine, to reduce time before independent evaluation starts and to lower the costs of in-house tree management and evaluation. Other services include identification of cross pollinators, testing of cultivar authenticity and determining chilling requirements. The Provar team also manages rootstock evaluation. Technology To support an effective evaluation process, in-house software applications ( Apps ) are being developed by Provar. Adding value to the Provar offer, clients will be able to use these applications in their own initial evalu- 24 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

27 Science Gratitude About 90 people attended the annual HORTGRO Science Researcher Thank You Breakfast in Stellenbosch. This popular event was held for the third time at the picturesque Mont Marie venue, just outside Stellenbosch. According to Hugh Campbell, General Manager at HORTGRO Science, the event is important as a lot of researchers, peer work group members and technical advisory committee members put a lot of time and effort into making the fruit industry great. This is our way of saying thank you. This year the award for Best Popular Article went to Caro Kapp, Antoinette Malan and Sheila Storey for their article: Nematode indicators for soil health monitoring of the Orchard of the Future at Oak Valley. The award for Best Science Communication effort, went to Jorisna Bonthuys and Caren Jarmain for their FruitLook series. The Best Final Report for Crop Production went to Laura Allderman. Best Final Report Crop Protection went to Noma Stokwe, and the Best Final Report for Post-harvest went to Mariana Jooste ation process to encourage delivery of favourable cultivars for next step evaluation by Provar. These applications will be used for tree characterisation, along with visual and sensory fruit evaluation in the laboratory and for industry tasting opportunities. Clients design their own Evaluation Package Provar is flexible in their approach and offers a tailor made package where the client can select evaluation sites (more than one site preferred), the period for evaluation (three years recommended) and the number of cultivars. A Screening evaluation will identify the front-runner from a selection of cultivars, and this is followed by a full evaluation trial. In the full trial, at least full bearing trees per area will be planted to quantify adaptability and commercial potential. A stamped Provar certificate will verify the authenticity of data collected in the full trial. 1. Grant Smuts (HORTGRO Science Advisory Council), Antoinette Malan, Sheila Storey, Caro Kapp and Hugh Campbell, HORTGRO Science General Manager. 2. Grant Smuts, Jorisna Bonthuys, Caren Jarmain and Hugh Campbell. 3. Grant Smuts, Noma Stokwe, Laura Allderman and Hugh Campbell. For our first-in-line clients, we offer free access to our EVALUATION APP, enabling them to standardise evaluation protocol and to become an evaluation partner to Provar. For long-term clients, we offer a planting plan for early evaluation - from quarantine to evaluation plot, reducing their own evaluation overheads and scaling down on internal evaluation expenses. says Iwan Labuschagne, Provar Manager. PROVAR OPERATES FROM THEIR LABORATORY IN ZANDWYK PARK (OFF THE R101), PAARL. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT DR. IWAN LABUSCHAGNE , OR 3. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 25

28 'Beeplants of South Africa' book is launched Without honeybees, our world would be a very different place: fewer food choices and more expensive agricultural production but what ecological infrastructure underpins the managed honeybee industry in South Africa? Beeplants of South Africa is a review of plants utilised by honey bees in the region. Data in the book shows a bee plant value for each plant species that gives an indication of how valuable the species are as honey bee forage. The book also contains additional information such as the flowering times of species, its common name, its morphology, its distribution and origin. Colour photographs of the main honey plants, as well as some representatives of important beeplant groups, are provided as a first step in plant identification. The book contains an extensive index to the scientific as well as English and Afrikaans common names used in the publication. Thousands of honey bee colonies are used every year to pollinate important crops across South Africa. More than 50 crops in South Africa reply on insect pollination. Our deciduous fruit industry, for example, relies on bees to pollinate blossom every spring. But it is difficult for beekeepers to sustain their colonies after the blossom season is over. For honey bee populations to withstand pests (e.g. Varroa mite) and diseases (e.g. American Foulbrood), as well as some degree of pesticide exposure, a healthy diet is crucial for a fullyfunctioning immune system. Beekeepers use a variety of flowering plants species to provide forage (food) for their colonies through the year. Eucalyptus trees, certain crop species, indigenous trees and shrubs, and even urban gardens and roadside weeds are used to provide the pollen (protein) and nectar (carbohydrates) that the honeybees need to build a strong and healthy colony. While the pollinator-dependent crop grower is reliant on the beekeeper for the pollination service their honey bees provide to their crops during the short flowering season, the beekeepers in turn are reliant on numerous and variable forage sources and habitats that can sustain their honeybee colonies throughout the year. As a result of author Martin Johannsmeier s years of research, we now have a broad understanding of honey bee forage needs and resources in South Africa, and this book is an excellent resource for anyone wishing to plant bee-friendly plants, says Tlou Masehela, who has recently completed his PhD on forage resources for honey bees through the South African National Biodiversity Institute (publishers of the book) and Stellenbosch University. Carol Poole, the Project Coordinator involved in SANBI s research projects, notes: This book will assist beekeepers, farmers, landscapers, gardeners and restoration experts with more information about plants they can consider conserving or growing. We also hope that this book is valuable to many other audiences into the future as we learn to protect and grow our honey bee forage resources sustainably. WHO IS MR MARTIN F. JOHANNSMEIER? Martin Johannsmeier is a retired entomologist of the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council. His career began in the field of chemical insect control, but he was later transferred to the Government Apiary in Pretoria, where beekeeping advice was the main line of work. The emphasis later shifted to beekeeping research, and Martin tested new hive materials, determined factors that affected honey flows, investigated honey bee pollination of different crops, and surveyed nectar and pollen flora, amongst other research. The study of beeplants became his main interest, and he developed a simple method to establish the nectar and pollen value of a plant, using honey bee foragers. He continued with bee and flower watching as one of his hobbies after retirement. Mr Johannsmeier is also the author of Beeplants of the South-Western Cape (with the first edition published in 1995 by the Department of Agriculture, revised edition published in 2005 by ARC s Plant Protection Research Institute handbook No.17), several journal papers, and was editor of the famous beekeeping handbook Beekeeping in South Africa (published in 2001 as Handbook No. 14 by the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria). SANBI AND THE POLLINATION AND HONEY BEE FORAGE PROJECTS: This book contributes to the outcomes of the Global Pollination Project and the Honeybee Forage Project, both implemented by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) between 2010 and The Global Pollination Project (Conservation and Manage- 26 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

29 ment of Pollinators for Sustainable Agriculture through an Ecosystem Approach) was implemented in 7 countries Brazil, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan and South Africa. The project was coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, with financing from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implementation support from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The Honeybee Forage Project was a national project in South Africa funded by the Working for Water Programme, Environment Programmes, and Department of Environmental Affairs. Outputs of both projects are available on and include case studies, academic papers, InfoSheets, and a short film featuring Martin Johannsmeier and Tlou Masehela. The SANBI staff members and students who worked on the Global Pollination Project and Honey Bee Forage Project include: Dr Ruan Veldtman, Dr Jonathan Colville, Ms Carol Poole, Mr Mbulelo Mswazi, Mr Tlou Masehela, Ms Annalie Melin and Mr James Hutton-Squire. HOW TO ORDER THE BOOK: The book (ISBN ) is available in hardcover A4. Price: R It can be purchased from the SANBI Bookshop by contacting Thomas Mapheza at or sanbi.org.za or Tel: Further information about the projects and book is available from: Ms Carol Poole, Project Coordinator: Biodiversity Research, SANBI. Tel: The SANBI Graphics & Editing team members who worked on the book, together with the author (from L to R): Sandra Turck (graphic designer), Martin Johannsmeier (author), Alicia Grobler (editor) and Yolande Steenkamp (editor). Sainsbury s wins Stone Fruit Retailer of the Year award Sainsbury s has won the title of Stone Fruit Retailer of the Year for its performance during the 2015/2016 season, more than doubling its sales of South African stone fruit. South African growers association, Hortgro, presents the prize to one retailer annually for outstanding results and support for the category during the southern hemisphere stone fruit season. Jacques du Preez (General Manager: Trade & Markets, Hortgro), said: Sainsbury s has worked extremely hard to develop sales of stone fruit during the winter season and has achieved really impressive growth of more than 100 per cent year-on-year. We are delighted to present Sainsbury s with this year s title of Stone Fruit Retailer of the Year. Nicholas Dicey (Chairperson of Hortgro s SA Apple & Pear Association); Finbar Cartlidge (head of fruit buying at Sainsbury s); Jacques du Preez, (General Manager Trade & Markets, Hortgro); James Kingman (key account manager at Chingford Fruit) and Anton Rabe (Executive Director, HORTGRO). FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 27

30 Deliver the superb CRUNCH that consumers crave, without greasiness or scald. As it complements your storage-management program by maintaining the fresh-picked quality of your apple harvest, the SmartFresh SM Quality System allows you to: Maintain high firmness during storage, throughout transport, and at destination, Maintain the appealing color of Granny Smith apples, Significantly extend shelf life at retail level, Prevent greasiness, Control superficial scald. To learn more, please contact your AgroFresh representative: Wehan Groenewald: , Peter Wood: , 28 SA VRUGTE JOERNAAL FEB/MAART AgroFresh. All rights reserved. SMARTFRESH is a trademark and service mark of AgroFresh.

31 Pieter Carstens and Flippie Jordaan rode the Tru-Cape Eselfontein MTB in Tru-Cape colours. Tru-Cape s managing directo, Roelf Pienaar (left) with Eselfontein s Deon Malherbe under the finishing arch. Tru-Cape Eselfontein Festival raises R for local charities Although the Tru-Cape Eselfontein MTB Festival is the least costly of all Ceres events to enter, it has successfully raised R for local Ceres charities. Fifth-generation Eselfontein owners and Tru-Cape growers, Deon and Janene Malherbe, hold this annual event to contribute much needed funds to their community. Schools get 30% of every entry fee, Janene explains. The funds will also be shared with homes Maudie Kriel, Ceres Tuiste and Peter Strauss for the aged. Deon says that the Ceres schools supported, include Charlie Hofmeyr, Gericke Primary School, and FD Conradie Primary in Prince Alfred Hamlet. In the mixed category Sean Stack and Tarryn Povey came first competing as team Sexy Niners in a total time of 8h35min40sec in the three stages. The winning female team, The BikeHub 1 made up of Joanna Dobinson and Maria Meija achieved the three stages in 9h35min23sec while GetawayMTB2 of Joel Schaefer and Ryan Lenferna made the three stages in the quickest time of 7h20min31sec. Next year s event will be between October 13 and 15. The Tru-Cape Eselfontein Festival includes a three-stage Mountain Bike event and Trail Run which begins with a 40 km day/ night challenge at 18:00 on Friday. Routes on Saturday, include the 60 km MTB kicking off at 07:00 as well as a 21 km trail run and 10 km fun run/walk. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 29

32 KAROSS: IN AFRICA THERE IS A BELIEF THAT I am because we are In Africa there is a belief that I am because we are. This deeply ingrained sense of community, putting the We before the I, is a powerful value that empowers in ways few people can appreciate. Prepared by JANINE PRETORIUS (nee van Rooyen) Submitted by ALEXAN COETZER CGA Regional Representative: Letsitele One of the many admirable facets of African culture is how people come together to create things. It may be music, food, wood carvings or beautifully crafted textiles what matters, is the combined inspiration and commitment to creativity that people bring to the proverbial party. Truly, the world has always been fascinated by Africa. It s the cradle of humanity, where art and culture first took a foothold and shaped the development of a plethora of people across the globe. Living on such a culturally rich landscape, how could one not expect exceptional works of art? Kaross embodies the essence of being African of bringing people together in a way that makes the world a better place. It is not simply about the beauty and passion that goes into creating incredible hand-embroidered works of functional art. It s about the long-lasting benefits of job-creation within a community. What s more is how the jobs are created FOR the women in rural areas, developed AROUND who they are and their potential. It s not a job telling them WHAT to do and HOW to do it, but rather a special way of extracting value from something the Vatsonga people have handed down over many generations. It is for this reason that Kaross mission is to provide opportunities based on these pre-existing skills and wealth of experience. Kaross was founded in 1988 by Irma van Rooyen, a fine artist in her own right, but also the wife of a citrus farmer. Burgert and Irma van Rooyen started farming citrus in the Letsitele area in 1984 and created a family business known today as Groep 91 uitvoer (Pty) Ltd. From the beginning, both as a family and as a citrus grower and exporter, they have believed in working together with their colleagues, employees and the community to create a sustainable, respectful environment in which everyone can benefit and grow. As an artist and newly established citrus farmer, Irma was immediately inspired by the seasonal farm workers and their vibrant culture, and wanted to get involved by creating an extra income for otherwise rural woman and men. Irma says the following about what inspired her: The Tsonga people told me their stories and I became inspired. By their humanity, their space, their life - so utterly proud! By their eagerness to be involved, and to be part of the project. These talented women and men, together, raised up the Kaross project from its humble beginnings. And now, the drive to never give up, to keep on exploring and developing and growing. And learning to be stronger, together. To you, whose path I am privileged to share, I owe my inspiration. 30 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

33 In keeping with the African way, the citrus farming business of Groep 91 not only brought people together, but also created a platform and financial support for Kaross to be born with just 5 ladies sitting on a blanket a 'Kaross'- doing what they know and do best according to their cultural heritage. Embroidery is a traditional skill for most Vatsonga and Northern Sotho people. Kaross revived this skill by making it commercially viable and over the past 27 years, Kaross has grown into a South African success story that now employs around 1300 embroiderers in the Letsitele/Giyani area. It produces a comprehensive range of premium quality products from placemats to cushion covers, handbags and wall hangings. These individual hand-crafted works of art retail through outlets in major tourist hubs such as our international airports, or direct to the public through the newly launched Kaross online shop. Africa needs more companies who actively seek to improve the lives of others of building strong communities where the collective become stronger than the individual. The world should be looking to Africa for examples of community in action. If we don t encourage development and the realisation of potential, then what are we doing? What kind of a community are we fostering and what is the end result if we forget about the we, and lose ourselves to the ever-lonely I. To see Kaross in action, or to view the full range of Kaross products, visit kaross.co.za or follow them on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 31

34 Analysing Export Cost Trends and Assessing how Exchange Rate changes influences Market Returns MITCHELL BROOKE CGA Chart 1: Citrus Export Cost Trends to (North West Continent) When one assesses the increasing average cost to export citrus from South Africa to the North West Continent (Mediterranean, Northern Europe and the UK), one becomes increasingly concerned at how this has a potentially negative influence on the overall returns to producers. On the local front logistics costs are influenced by cost of transport and port related costs (FOB costs) which has been estimated to have increased by 35% between 2010 and The largest component of export costs is the cost of the sea freight and bunker charges; which are charged in US Dollars. When the Rand weakens against the US Dollar the sea freight and bunker charges are negatively affected. Since 2010, the Rand weakened from an average of R7.50/ USD to an average of R14.41/USD (92% deflation of the Rand/USD). Sea freight and bunker charges are estimated to have increased by 96% between 2010 and The average overall costs to export a pallet of citrus to the North West Continent are estimated to have increased by 72% between 2010 and So the question is, has this scenario negatively affected the nett returns to producers? The most appropriate answer is - it will depend on the average market price and what producers received in Rand value after the export costs have been deducted. Chart 1 highlights the negative impact the weaker Rand has had on the cost of logistics over time. Table 1: Evaluation of Gross Average Market Prices, Average Total Logistics and Export Costs and Nett Average Return Price Gross average market price per carton R94.50 R R R R R R Average logistics and export costs per carton R37.48 R40.42 R44.87 R50.05 R53.37 R57.06 R62.28 Nett average price per carton R57.02 R60.38 R58.63 R82.25 R90.03 R87.64 R94.72 % Average logistics and export costs vs. gross average market price per carton 40% 40% 43% 38% 37% 39% 40% % Average logistics and export costs vs. nett average market price per carton 66% 67% 77% 61% 59% 65% 66% % Nett average price per carton vs. gross average market price per carton 60% 60% 57% 62% 63% 61% 60% 32 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

35 To determine if the weaker rand has a negative effect on producer returns, a short scenario can be drafted as outlined in Chart 2. Chart 2 displays the average Rand Exchange rate against the US dollar (between June and August when most citrus fruit is shipped) and the Euro between (July and September when most citrus fruit is sold). A fixed market price of Euro per carton (purely as an example) is used to indicate the average sales price of citrus in Europe against the Rand/Euro exchange rate to determine an indication of the gross Rand return value over time. The average total export cost has been established and is shown over time. Based on this scenario it can be determined that if market prices are relatively fixed over time, the weaker Rand exchange rate could potentially benefit producers who sell into the North West Continent. Based on this scenario (using a fixed market price as an example) it would appear that the nett return value to producers increases at a higher rate than the increased total export cost. Chart 2: Evaluation of the Weaker Rand and the Effects on Producer returns based on a fixed Euro market price and the Average Rand Exchange Rates over time. Chart 3 right is based on the scenario using a fixed market price (10.00 Euro) and a fixed total export cost (fixed FOB in Rand value with fixed sea freight and bunker charges in US Dollars) to determine the effect of a change in the Rand exchange rates on the nett return value. Based on this scenario it can be determined that as the Rand exchange rate weakens, the gross return value therefore increases and exceeds the higher total cost of exports with nett returns increasing at a higher rate relative to a weaker Rand exchange rate. Chart 3: Evaluation of a Weaker Rand and the Effects on Producer returns based on a fixed prices and weaker Rand Exchange Rates. FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 33

36 Southern Hemisphere Citrus Exports in 2016 JOHN EDMONDS CGA Export volumes from the Southern Hemisphere Association of Fresh Fruit Exporters (SHAFFE) member countries (Argentina, Australia, Chile, Uruguay, Peru and South Africa) totalled 2.5 million tons in 2016; the same as Whilst South Africa saw a drop in total exports due to the drought in the northern areas where Valencia and grapefruit production was affected, Argentina s increased lemon exports together with Australia s. ORANGES The drought effect in South Africa caused the SHAFFE supply to drop to 1.3 million tons from last year s 1.35 million tons. Australia almost doubled her orange exports, again mainly directed to Asia to supply twelve percent of the southern hemisphere supply. South Africa dominates three quarters of the total supply of this commodity distributing its fruit mainly to Europe (30%) and the Middle East (20%) with South East Asia, USA, Russia, China and Japan making up the balance. GRAPEFRUIT As with oranges, South Africa dominates the grapefruit offering with no meaningful comparison to the other SHAFFE members. Northern Europe and Japan continue to take the bulk of Southern African grapefruit. LEMONS Lemon exports continued to rise, growing by a tons in total to almost tons. The growth came from a resurgent Argentina, reclaiming her status as the biggest lemon exporter whilst South Africa s expected growth did not materialise and their volume matched that of last year. Chile also showed growth to claim 15% of the lemon export share. Almost half of the southern hemisphere lemon exports end up in Europe with northern Europe and southern Europe each consuming around tons and Argentina supplying around three quarters of this volume. In fact, since 2014 Argentina has doubled its exports from tons to tons. Fortunately for the same period Europe almost doubled its consumption from tons to tons and so South Africa was also able to significantly increase its lemon exports without negative consequences. Interestingly Chile more than doubled its lemon exports from tons to tons to this market. At tons, the Middle East takes 17% of the supply almost exclusively from South Africa. Russia imported tons (9%) whilst South East Asia, United Kingdom and U.S.A each consumed between 5 and 6 % of the exports. The export share shifted in Russia where in 2015, tons of lemon imports were shared equally between Argentina and South Africa. In 2016 Russian imports dropped to tons of which Argentina supplied 73%. 34 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

37 SOFT CITRUS Soft fruit exports from the southern hemisphere suppliers also continues to grow strongly, reaching tons in 2016 after a period of stable supply around tons since In 2016 South Africa (37%) was the dominant exporter followed by Chile (20%), Peru (16%) Argentina (11%) and Australia (11%). Almost a third of the total soft citrus exports are destined for the United States ( tons) and naturally South American suppliers Chile and Peru dominate this market. These countries have benefited in a three-fold growth in the USA imports of summer soft citrus in the last ten years. The United Kingdom is the next biggest soft citrus market, taking a 17% share of the exports. Here South Africa and Peru have traditionally competed for the spoils in about a 70/30 split. A shift in the exchange rate is probably the cause of a shift of supply from UK to Europe in 2016 which grew to tons whilst UK dropped almost tons to around tons. Australia s growth in soft citrus exports is directed towards Asia where it is the dominant southern hemisphere supplier. It supplied all of Japan s summer soft citrus requirements and showed strong growth in China and the rest of South East Asia. The Russian market which absorbed 9% of the soft citrus exports saw a decline from to tons with Argentina (59%), South Africa (26%) and Uruguay (13%) holding similar share of the market to last year. Canada and the Middle East were stable in terms of overall volume and supplier market share. The winning team Miami Canners. The Dikwiel Challenge The Vula Vula cycle race is an annual fund raising event organised by the Dutch Reformed Church of Letsitele in September each year. The success of a race like this depends greatly not only on sponsorship but also the number of entries. ALEXAN COETZER CGA Regional Administrator (Letsitele) This year the organising committee approached the marketing slightly differently by contacting the farmers to include some of the farm workers. The most obvious groups were the so called water boys of the respective farms, the reason for this being that they already owned bicycles despite them being a dikwiel with back pedal action for brakes! FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 35 CONTINUED ON PAGE 36

38 The Laeveld Citrus team. The results of the Dikwiel Challenge were: 1. Miami Canners (Farm) 2. Gubitz Farming 3. De Nysschen Farming PHOTOS BY LOUIS JORDAAN AND DUSTY JOUBERT Entry fees were sponsored by the respective farming institutions. The organising committee issued a challenge to all farmers to enter a team of four riders with dikwiel bicycles and farmers were able to brand their riders T-shirts. It was a condition of the race though that the riders had to wear a cycling helmet and had to complete the 45 km as a team. The team's official time was calculated by the time of the slowest rider in a particular team. In other words, the idea was not that riders compete against fellow team members but as a team against neighbouring farms. One can just imagine what camaraderie resulted out of this. The interest was so overwhelming that nine teams of four entered in this inaugural Dikwiel Challenge. Some of the farmers who entered their farm workers were Laeveld Sitrus, Mahela, Gubitz, CP Minnaar, De Nysschen Broers and Miami Canners. The day of the challenge saw spirits running high with all the farm teams saying they thought they were going to be the winners because they could ride a Dikwiel. A lot of the guys got slow punctures and had to stop and pump their tyres and then other team mates would ride along and they would catch up. Some of them even stopped for a smoke break, to make a call on their cell phones or to catch up with some friend standing on the side of the road. All riders got a Miami Canners hamper varying in size for first, second and third prizes. The winning team also got R400 (R100 for each rider). The success of the event inspired a lot of interest and it is clear that one should not be surprised if there are closer to forty teams participating in the 2017 Vula Vula Cycle Race. And they re off!! The start of the 2016 Vula Vula Cycle Race in Letsitele. PRE-SUMMIT STUDY TOUR PROGRAMME MONDAY 6TH & TUESDAY 7TH MARCH 2017 Tour cost of R1 500 (excl VAT) includes transport, lunches, refreshments and overnight accommodation. (This draft programme below is subject to change.) MONDAY 6th MARCH 2017 ITEM VENUE DESCRIPTION XSIT Sundays River Valley Observe release of sterile moths and XSIT operations Visit new Packhouse SRCC Kirkwood Tour the facilities of the new SRCC Packhouse Overnight in Sundays River Valley Guest House Various guesthouses available 36 BEDRYFSNUUS FEB/MAART 2017

39 Programme subject to change. Draft Programme Tuesday, 07 March 2017 Welcome Dinner, sponsored by Villa Crop Protection Wednesday, 08 March 2017 Draft: :00:00 to late Session Topic Description Presenter Time Duration End time 1 Sponsor: PPECB Chair: Pieter Nortjé Morning tea Lunch 2 Sponsor: Mpact Chair: Piet Smit 3 Welcome The Economic and Political Landscape Sustainable Development Guest Speaker Address South Africa's Next Ten Years: Rise of the Right Mayor Athol Trollip (Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality) Mohammad Karaan (Dean of Faculty Agri Sciences, Stellenbosch University) 09:00:00 10:00 09:10:00 09:10:00 30:00 09:40:00 Nico Groenewald (Standard Bank) 09:40:00 30:00 10:10:00 Frans Cronjé (Institute of Race Relations) 10:10:00 40:00 10:50:00 10:50:00 30:00 11:20:00 Transformation in Agriculture John Purchase (CEO, Agbiz) 11:20:00 30:00 11:50:00 Citrus Growers' Response to Grower Development Citrus Growers' Response to Human Capital Development Measurement of Transformation Success Mono Mashaba (Chairman, CGA- GDC) Jacomien de Klerk (General manager, Citrus Academy) 11:50:00 15:00 12:05:00 12:05:00 15:00 12:20:00 Thembeka Meyiwa (Intern, CGA) 12:20:00 10:00 12:30:00 Discussion 12:30:00 30:00 13:00:00 13:00:00 01:00:00 14:00:00 Brand Awareness Julian Ribeiro (TBWA Hunt Lascaris) 14:00:00 20:00 14:20:00 Sponsor: TBC Market Development Hortgro Case Study in Deciduous Fruit Jacques du Preez (Hortgro) 14:20:00 20:00 14:40:00 Chair: George Hall Afternoon tea 4 Sponsor: TBC Chair: Fanie Meyer Fruit SA Market Awareness Activities Anton Kruger (CEO, FPEF) 14:40:00 20:00 15:00:00 15:00:00 40:00 15:40:00 Responding to Lemon Volume Hannes de Waal (CGA Lemon Focus Increase Group) 15:40:00 10:00 15:50:00 Grapefruit: supplying the right quality Jan-Louis Pretorius (CGA Grapefruit 15:50:00 10:00 16:00:00 and quantity at the right time Focus Group) Market Development (cont.) Responding to Soft Citrus Volume Graham Barry (Cultivar specialist) 16:00:00 10:00 16:10:00 Increase Discussion 16:10:00 40:00 16:50:00 Summit Closure 16:50:00 10:00 17:00:00 Gala Dinner, sponsored by Humansdorp Co-op (The Co-op) 19:00:00 to late Thursday, 09 March Sponsor: Capespan Chair: Ben Vorster Gaining, Retaining and Optimising Market Access Morning tea Gaining, Retaining and Optimising Market Access (cont.) 6 Sustainable Production Sponsor: River Bioscience / X- Sit Chair: Pieter Nortjé Understanding the Indian Market Parth Karvat (Yupaa Group, India) 08:00:00 40:00 08:40:00 Challenges in the EU Rocco Renaldi / Deon Joubert (CGA EU representatives) 08:40:00 20:00 09:00:00 Ups and Downs in the Russian Market Mikhail Fateev (CGA Russia representative) 09:00:00 20:00 09:20:00 Discussion 09:20:00 40:00 10:00:00 10:00:00 20:00 10:20:00 Opportunities in the USA Bruce McEvoy (CGA USA Representative) 10:20:00 20:00 10:40:00 Biosecurity: The Threat of Asian Vaughan Hattingh (CEO, Citrus Greening Research International) 10:40:00 20:00 11:00:00 Planet Friendly Citrus Production Inge Kotzé (World Wide Fund for Nature) 11:00:00 20:00 11:20:00 Discussion 11:20:00 30:00 11:50:00 Platinum Sponsor Lunch Summit Closure 11:50:00 10:00 12:00:00 12:00:00 01:00:00 13:00:00 CGA Members Meeting 13:00:00 01:00:00 14:00:00 TUESDAY 7th MARCH 2017 SEE Platinum ADVERT OVERLEAF Sponsor ITEM VENUE DESCRIPTION River Bioscience River Bioscience Offices SRV Observe River Bioscience operations Farm Visit To be confirmed Visit a local citrus farm Return to Port Elizabeth FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 37

40 8th - 9th MARCH 2017 To be held at the Boardwalk Hotel, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth The Citrus Growers Association of Southern Africa is hosting the second CGA Citrus Summit on the 8th and 9th of March The purpose of the Summit is to bring together growers and other citrus industry stakeholders from all over southern Africa to discuss matters of common interest. The Summit is a unique networking opportunity where growers, exporters, government representatives and service providers can meet. Visit the CGA website : CGA Events or register now at cgasummit.co.za Limited seats available. PROUD PLATINUM SPONSOR GOLD SPONSOR SILVER SPONSOR BRONZE SPONSORS For more information contact Citrus Growers Association on or

41

42 EXTENSION BRIEFS FOR FEB & MAR '17 J.J. BESTER & M.C. PRETORIUS J.J. Bester Citrus Research International M.C. Pretorius Citrus Research International INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT MEALYBUG S.D. MOORE Growers should be scouting for mealybug regularly, by inspecting underneath calyces and thereby determining percentage of fruit infested. Where mealybug is under good biocontrol, infestation should peak during December in the northern production areas and during January in the Cape production areas. If mealybug infestation does not decline during January and February, respectively, suppression with a chemical treatment is advisable on early maturing cultivars. Buprofezin (Applaud) is by far the most effective corrective option for mealybug control. It must be targeted against the younger stages of mealybug, i.e. eggs, crawlers and second instars. Where buprofezin cannot be used, methomyl and chlorpyrifos can be used if preharvest intervals allow. The species of mealybug present should also be determined, as it appears that the biocontrol complexes of oleander mealybug and longtailed mealybug, in particular, might not be as effective as those of citrus mealybug. Therefore, treatments can be applied more readily when either of these species is identified as the dominant species. The phytosanitary status of certain species must also be borne in mind. Finally, a mealybug infestation can also attract a carob moth infestation. Therefore, if the fruit is to be exported to a market which is sensitive to carob moth, mealybug must effectively be controlled well before harvest. FALSE CODLING MOTH S.D. MOORE Effective false codling moth (FCM) control begins in November or even October with diligent orchard sanitation and the application of a registered control treatment. Follow up treatments should be applied as often as necessary, bearing in mind that there is zero tolerance for FCM by certain markets, making the decision a phytosanitary one rather than an economic one. It is also imperative to refrain from using broad-spectrum long-residual pesticides (most often used for thrips control) as early as possible in the season. Naturally occurring egg parasitoids can be extremely effective in reducing FCM levels and one should therefore conserve them. One of the cornerstones of good FCM management is accurate monitoring of the pest. This should not only be conducted using pheromone traps, but far more importantly, by monitoring infestation in fallen fruit from at least five data trees per orchard on a weekly basis. The data collected will provide the most accurate indication of FCM levels in the orchard, whether additional control measures are required, and assist in postharvest decision-making regarding packhouse grading and export markets. Granulovirus products (Cryptogran, Cryptex and Gratham), Delegate and Broadband are the only pesticide sprays for FCM, which are permitted in all markets. The granuloviruses and Broadband can be used up until the day of harvesting. A virus application should be applied shortly after a peak in FCM activity, determined by the use of a pheromone trap. However, this may be difficult to determine late in the season when FCM levels are low and generations are overlapping. Runner, Delegate and Coragen are all registered to be applied once or twice per season and all have withholding periods of 30 days or less for most markets. They are therefore suitable products for a final application against FCM before harvest, which ideally should not be applied later than 3-5 weeks before harvesting begins. Other chemical options are triflumuron (Alsystin), teflubenzuron (Nomolt), fenpropathrin (Meothrin) and Cypermethrin. However, there are some difficulties associated with these products such as prohibitive MRLs for certain markets, development of resistance by FCM, or secondary pest repercussions. They should therefore be used with discernment. In addition to the insecticides, there are two mating disruption products Isomate and Checkmate and an attract and kill product, namely Last-Call FCM. However, all of these products are most effective when their use is initiated early in the season while FCM levels are still low. If this has not been done, initiation of their use late in the season is not recommended. Additionally, as the weather cools towards autumn, these pheromone-based products may become less effective due to a 40 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

43 reduction in release rate. In such a case it may be necessary to follow up these treatments with a spray for FCM. Early maturing mandarins, such as Satsumas, which will be harvested during March, should be strongly considered for a registered spray treatment for FCM during February, i.e. approximately four weeks before harvest. An effective treatment at this time should reduce post-harvest risks associated with FCM. BUD MITE T.G. GROUT The period February to May is the optimal time for bud mite sprays and Mitigate (fenpyroximate) can be used during this period at 150 ml per 100 L water. The preharvest interval for Europe has changed to 60 days but for Canada and for citrus types other than mandarins going to South Korea the preharvest interval currently remains 150 days, or no applications after the end of October. Orchards with fruit going to markets that do not have an MRL can be sprayed immediately after removing all fruit in winter. In trials with Mitigate, this product was found to have similar efficacy to Acarol against bud mite so although a spray after harvest is not at the optimal time it will still have more impact against this pest than other unregistered options. Mitigate will also suppress citrus red mite when sprayed during autumn for bud mite and CRI research has shown that it is also effective against citrus grey mite. FRUIT FLY A. MANRAKHAN Fruit flies are pests of phytosanitary concern. There is a zero tolerance of fruit fly eggs and larvae in fruit consignments for export. The fruit fly pests affecting citrus are: Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly), Ceratitis rosa (Natal fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) previously known as Bactrocera invadens (B. i.) which is now present in the northern and north eastern parts of South Africa. Ceratitis rosa was recently split into two species: Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis quilicii. Both species are present in South Africa. Fruit fly management consists of two components: monitoring and control. Monitoring of Medfly and Natal fly should be carried out using Capilure and Questlure baited Sensus traps. Monitoring of Oriental fruit fly should be conducted using bucket type traps such as Chempac Bucket trap, McPhail type trap and Lynfield trap baited with Methyl Eugenol (ME). The Biolure fruit fly containing ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine is also recommended for monitoring all fruit fly pest species. Monitoring of Oriental fruit fly per Production Unit Code (PUC) is a requirement for phytosanitary registration of citrus, deciduous and subtropical fruit for export to the special markets (USA, Japan, South Korea, China and the European Union - EU). Each PUC should have at least one ME baited trap for monitoring of Oriental fruit fly. Monitoring of Oriental fruit fly should be carried out throughout the year. Trapping guidelines for surveillance of Oriental fruit fly in fruit production areas should be followed. Guidelines are available at under Plant Health Division or at Trap details and trap servicing should be recorded as per trapping guidelines. All trapping results should be supplied to Early Warning Systems ( at the end of each export season. Density of methyl eugenol baited traps should be between 2 and 5 traps per 100 ha in areas where Oriental fruit fly is considered present or where specimens of the pest fruit fly were detected. All fruit fly traps must be checked weekly and trapping records should be documented. Lures and insecticides inside traps must be replaced every 6-8 weeks. Traps are used to determine the presence/ absence of a fruit fly pest and to indicate whether the control strategy is adequate. Detection of suspect Oriental fruit fly specimens in areas considered free of this pest should be reported immediately to the relevant surveillance co-ordinator (Citrus- Aruna Manrakhan: ) or to DAFF (Jan Hendrik Venter: ). Trap thresholds have currently been set for specific trapping systems. Trap thresholds should be adhered to. For Medfly, the threshold in a Capilure baited trap is 4 males per week. For Natal fly, the threshold in a Capilure baited trap is 2 males per week. When using Questlure in a Sensus trap, the threshold is one female fly per FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 41

44 trap per week for both Medfly and Natal fly. For the Oriental fruit fly, the threshold in a methyl eugenol baited trap set by DAFF is 3 flies per trap per week. If trap thresholds are exceeded, control actions must be increased. Fruit fly control practices should be initiated at least two months before the earliest expected harvest date. However, for farms either with mixed fruit crops (such as mangoes or deciduous fruit) or near fruit types prone to high fruit fly infestation, fruit fly control practices should be implemented even earlier in line with the ripening and harvesting of the other fruit types. Fruit fly baiting and good orchard sanitation form the core of fruit fly control practices. For fruit fly baiting, the use of either one or a combination of the following registered methods is recommended: weekly bait sprays (either mixture of protein hydrolysate and malathion/trichlorfon or GF-120), M3 fruit fly bait station and Magnet MED. For the use of malathion in bait sprays, the pre-harvest interval is 7 days for citrus. The pre-harvest interval when using GF-120 is 1 day. When using bait stations such as M3 fruit fly bait station or Magnet MED, there is no pre-harvest interval. Precautions must be taken when using bait sprays on specific citrus cultivars with fruit at particular maturity stages. Ground-based spray application of GF-120 should be avoided on Nadorcott at the green and colour break stages due to possible phytotoxicity on fruit. Ground-based spray application of GF-120 is however safe to use when Nadorcott fruit is at the fully coloured ripe stage. In areas affected by the Oriental fruit fly, the Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) must be used. A number of male annihilation methods such as wooden fibre blocks impregnated with ME and malathion (e.g. ready to use Invader-b-Lok, Chempac ME liquid for combination with malathion 500 EC with the mixture impregnated into wooden blocks) as well as SPLAT technology containing ME and spinosad such as STATIC Spinosad ME have been registered for B. dorsalis control in South Africa. All fruit fly control products should be applied correctly. Instructions provided in labels of control products must be followed strictly. Fruit fly control must always be combined with proper management of insect pests such as FCM, which also damage mature fruit. All records of fruit fly control practices including MAT application need to be kept. In all B. dorsalis quarantine areas, a removal permit is required for movement of fruit outside those areas. Applications for removal permits should be made through DAFF 30 days before fruit need to be moved out of B. dorsalis quarantine areas or 30 days before the expiry of the permit. The contacts at DAFF are Removal- Mashangoane Mabelebele and Gloria Phahlamohlaka gov.za) GRONDGEDRAAGDE SIEKTES J. VAN NIEKERK & M.C. PRETORIUS Grond en wortelmonsters behoort elke drie jaar geneem te word om sodoende die sitrusaalwurm en Phytophthora status in sitrusboorde te bepaal. Resultate sal dien as `n bestuurshulpmiddel wat gebruik kan word om grondpatogene effektief te beheer. Phytophthora bruinvrot/wortelvrot Weens die gevaar van fitotoksisiteit op gevoelige sitruskultivars tydens hoë temperature, wat gedurende Februarie / Maart kan voorkom, moet die gebruik van fosfonaatblaarbespuiting streng volgens die etiket geskied (GEEN SAGTE- SITRUS KULTIVARS - behoort weens hul gevoelige skille gedurende hierdie tyd van die jaar en met die produkte gespuit te word nie). Hoë dag temperature, tydelike vogstremming en warm bergwinde kan veroorsaak dat fosfonate swart stippeltjies soortgelyk aan koperskade op vrugte veroorsaak. Bome moet daarom nie gespuit word as toestande nie optimaal is nie. n Wortelvrot beheerprogram (blaarbespuiting) sal bruinvrot ook effektief kan beheer. Bruinvrot ontwikkel slegs wanneer die klimaatstoestande gunstig is vir die patogeen (Phytophthora) om te infekteer en te ontwikkel. Indien dit dus ʼn droë najaar is en geen of slegs ligte reënbuie voorkom, is voorkomende fosfonaatblaarbespuitings nie nodig nie. Indien dit egter ʼn nat na-jaar is kan bome met kontakmiddels soos koper of mancozeb (let op beperkings 42 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

45 FRUIT PROTECTION POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGIES CONTROL-TEC DOS Dosage and application CONTROL-TEC CAM Fruit degreening, ripening, storage and elimination of astringency CONTROL-TEC ECO Water reduction, reuse and purification : Specialists in Fruit and Vegetables Health and Quality in Post-harvest, with the best Products, Technologies and Consultancy and After-sales Services. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 43

46 na markte) asook sistemiese produkte soos fosfonate (let op etiket aanbevelings vir weerhoudings tydperk en waarskuwings), gespuit word om bruinvrot te beheer. Bo en behalwe droogte en hitte kan ʼn oormaat vogtige toestande (baie reën) ook bome onder tydelike verwelkte toestande plaas wat ʼn gevaar inhou vir blaarbespuitings. Bome moet dus nie tydens of kort na sulke toestande gespuit word nie. Laastens beïnvloed drag ook ʼn boom se gevoeligheid vir droogtespanning. Hoe hoër die drag, hoe gevoeliger is die boom vir uitdroging en hoe groter is die risiko vir fitotoksisiteit. Sitrusaalwurm Wortelmonsters kan enige tyd van die jaar getrek word om die status van die sitrusaalwurmpopulasies in boorde te bepaal. Wyfietellings word gebruik om te bepaal of die toediening van ʼn aalwurmdoder geregverdig is. Die drempelwaarde voordat ʼn aalwurmdoder oorweeg word is 1000 wyfies/10 g wortels. Daar word aanbeveel dat aalwurmdodertoedienings in aanvang neem tydens die begin van die reënseisoen. Dit sou daarom die regte tyd wees vir produsente in die Wes-Kaap om hulle aalwurmmonsters in Maart te trek sodat hulle weet watter boorde om te behandel wanneer winterreëns begin. Residu-weerhoudingstydperke moet in ag geneem word. Dit is belangrik om ʼn aalwurmbeheerprogram te volg aangesien ʼn enkele aalwumdodertoediening nie effektief genoeg is nie en het geen noemenswaardige onderdrukking van die aalwurmpopulasies op die langduur nie. Meermalige toedienings twee maande uit mekaar verseker dat die larfies wat uitbroei gedood word voordat hulle volwasse wyfies kan raak wat weer eiertjies kan lê. Tydens die toediening van aalwurmdoders is dit uiters belangrik dat ten minste 40 mm besproeiing toegedien word nadat produkte toegedien is om te verseker dat die middels in die grondprofiel ingewas word. Die meeste aalwurmdoders loog baie stadig. Die effektiwiteit van die doders word dus belemmer indien hulle nie behoorlik deur die wortelsone versprei word nie. Geen aalwurmdoder behoort deur drupbesproeiingsstelsels toegedien te word nie. Indien toedienings in boorde met druptoediening gedoen moet word behoort die middels as ʼn bandplasing (half meter aan beide kante van die drupperlyn) oor die drupperlyn gedoen te word. Dit kan wel deur mikro-besproeiingstelsels toegedien word. Indien beplan word om ʼn boord te verwyder behoort ʼn aalwurmmonster geneem te word voordat die boord verwyder word sodat bepaal kan word of sitrusaalwurms teenwoordig is. Dit dien as ʼn bestuursriglyn om n geskikte onderstam te kies in gevalle waar ʼn herplantstrategie uitgewerk moet word. HORTICULTURE Fruit production & quality O.P.J. STANDER, P.J.R. CRONJE Internal quality: If properly timed, regulated deficit irrigation can result in increased total soluble solids (TSS) and an increase or no response in titratable acidity. Deficit irrigation retards the breakdown of acid and can influence the solids:acid ratio at harvest for better or worse, depending on cultivar characteristics. It is mainly aimed at early cultivars like Satsuma, but other early maturing cultivars with low internal quality could benefit. Less water is applied, and at longer intervals. Therefore, irrigation is continued but at a reduced level. Trees should be irrigated lightly two weeks prior to harvest. No water stress should be imposed during the initial growth phase of the fruit, i.e., during and after flowering, but only during the final maturation phase, i.e., the last two months prior to harvest (January for Satsuma). Any water stress earlier than the end of January could lead to reduced fruit size and loss of rind integrity. In high rainfall areas, regulated deficit irrigation may not be successful. The deficit should be imposed slowly, so that the trees can adjust without symptoms of drought. Severe water stress can have adverse effects on tree health, fruit size and fruit quality. High nitrogen is antagonistic to the effect of deficit irrigation. Management of this technique is much easier when trees are planted on ridges and when the right scheduling equipment is used. Additionally, regulated deficit irrigation imposed the last two months prior to harvest also enhances the rate of colour development. Selective harvest of outside fruit and delaying harvest of inside fruit will result in a higher proportion of fruit with higher TSS and better colour. CONTINUED ON PAGE TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

47 ADVERTORIAL ABASEBENZI SOUTHERN AFRICA (PTY) LTD WADE GOODWIN General manager strategic services. Business development division. HISTORY (Who are we)? Abasebenzi Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd, was originally conceived by what is commonly known today as a TESP, (Temporary Employment Services Provider), otherwise known back then as a 'labour broker', back in 1999, but changed its primary business activities, in keeping with our clients Irvin & Johnson Ltd and Sea Harvest (Pty) Ltd s requests. We are essentially a 'Specialist' Operations Service Provider, operating from the premise that clients countrywide are outsourcing their 'non-core' functions and looking to companies like ourselves to operate and manage these functions in keeping with the client s corporate strategic and operational objectives. As an organization, we pride ourselves with conducting a thorough needs and operational analysis of our clients existing operations model and their functional expectations, with the explicit goal of meeting and exceeding their operational performance indicators as defined by their (our clients) Balanced Scorecard. VALUE PROPOSITION (What we offer)? PRIMARY BUSINESS FUNCTION: We take all your casual, permanent casual and seasonal workers off your hands and offer them 'contracts' with Abasebenzi SA, so in effect, they become our employees from that point onwards. 1. We provide PPE, first-aid assistance, staff meals, licenses and transportation (if necessary). 2. We manage the staff daily/weekly timesheets, weekly and fortnightly wages bill. 3. We manage the end-to-end HR/IR functionalities. 4. We manage the end-to-end PAYE, UIF, WCA and SDL payments and functionalities. 5. We provide staff HSE, induction and operational training (if necessary). 6. We provide for PLC (Public Liability Cover Insurance) for all our staff members. 7. We provide and manage all our staff s legal compliances. CONTACT DETAILS: Unit 2, 1st Floor, Viking Business Park, Epping Industry PO Box 100, Eppindust 7475 Tel: Fax: Mobile: FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 45

48 Figure 1. (Top) Historical fruit growth rates (mm per day) of different citrus cultivars in the Western Cape region. Figure 2. (Above) Historical fruit growth rates (mm per day) of different citrus cultivars in Limpopo. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 44 Maturity indexing on early cultivars like Satsuma should commence. Maturity indexing is done to predict the rate of change in fruit maturity in order to harvest fruit at optimal maturity, to maintain acceptable commercial shelf life. The aim is to define changes or rate of change in acids and sugars and to build up a data base over a number of years for comparison. Random sampling of fruit every week from each of ten representative trees should start 4 to 6 weeks before the expected harvest date. Titratable acidity is determined by titration with sodium hydroxide, sugar content (Brix) is determined using a refractometer, the sugar:acid ratio calculated and fruit colour should be read from a colour chart. All the parameters mentioned above should be plotted on a graph over time. Once plotted, trends will become apparent, harvest dates can be estimated and problem areas in internal and external quality parameters can be identified and manipulated. Fruit growth and size: Fruit growth during this time is important to achieve optimum size at harvest. Fruit growth is in the peak of phase II, in which the majority of fruit size increase takes place for most cultivars (Figs. 1 and 2). Ensure optimal irrigation and try to avoid stress conditions, as this might have an adverse effect on fruit size. Fruit thinning plays a critical role in fruit size (see Cutting Edge no. 32: Fruit size improvement). Correct pruning practices are the most effective way to manipulate the number of fruit per canopy volume and the eventual fruit size. For more information, refer to SA Fruit Journal Oct/Nov 2015: The reproductive phenology of Citrus III: Morphogenesis from flower to fruit. Regrowth control should be done, especially after heavy pruning earlier in the season. A lot of regrowth adversely affects fruit size and is antagonistic to fruit colour development, especially for early maturing cultivars. Oleocellosis: Late summer vegetative growth of bearing trees should be kept to a minimum as excessive vegetative vigour during this period is associated with high incidence of oleo at harvest. Rind colour development: Late nitrogen application and the use of heavy summer oil sprays should be avoided as these treatments are antagonistic to rind colour development. GEÏNTEGREERDE BEMESTING T. VAHRMEIJER Blaar- en grondontledings By sitrus word blaaren grondmonsters gedurende Februarie en Mei geneem maar die periode kan tot Julie verleng word. Daar moet net in gedagte gehou word dat wanneer monsters in Julie geneem word, is die tyd beperk om resultate betyds terug te kry om bemestinaanbevelings te maak vir bemesting wat in Julie/Augustus begin word. Geen ontleding, hoe gesofistikeerd ookal, kan die kwaliteit van die monster verbeter nie. Bestee dus tyd, 46 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

49 energie en aandag aan die monsternemingsproses. Op grond van die resultate van dié monsters word baie geld aan kunsmis bestee, terwyl die oes ook benadeel kan word. Monster elke jaar dieselfde groep bome (Indeksbome) en hou by dieselfde prosedure en tyd. Soos by enige monster moet dit die eenheid wat gemonster word, in alle opsigte verteenwoordig. Leaf analyses Leaf analyses are an indicator of the nutritional status of the trees. During the research into this method a relationship was established between the concentration of the nutrient elements in the leaves and production. This relationship was developed for almost every nutrient element. For some like chloride and sodium only the maximum tolerable concentration was determined. Let ook op die volgende spesifieke vereistes. Verdeel die boorde in monster eenhede, verkieslik nie groter as 5 ha nie. Kies twee of vier INDEKS-RYE wat die monstereenheid in alle opsigte verteenwoordig en merk die rye. Gebruik elke jaar dieselfde indeksrye om blaar- en grondmonsters te neem. Pluk sowat 50 tot 75 blare per monster deur aan die linker- en regterkant (son- en skadukant) tussen heup- en kophoogte, blare te gepluk. Pluk blare van agter ʼn vrug, wat op dieselfde takkie as die vrug, en in die lente gevorm is (Figuur 3). Pluk die blaarmonsters gedurende Februarie tot Mei. Plaas die blare in ʼn skoon plastiek sakkie, druk die lug uit en knoop toe. Merk die monsters deur ʼn etiket op die sakkie te plak of aan die sakkie te bind. Ensure that the correct leaf is picked from the trees in the index rows or blocks. The correct leaf is one that was formed during the previous spring and situated behind a fruit on the same twig as the fruit. Collect 50 to 100 leaves per sample. Take the soil sample at the same index trees. Collect 15 to 20 subsamples, mix and submit 500 g of the composite samples for analyses. If the soil was sampled, prepared and fertilized properly before planting, it is not necessary to take leaf samples from non-bearing trees. Figuur 3. Voorstelling van die soort blaar wat vir blaarontleding geneem moet word. However, it is never too early to monitor the nutritional status. Grondmonsters Grondontledings verskaf inligting wat help om te besluit watter stappe geneem kan word om tekorte, wanbalanse en oormate in die voedingstatus van die bome reg te stel. Met ʼn grondontleding word gepoog om binne sekondes of minute ʼn massa van die voedingstowwe uit die grond te ekstraheer, wat die bome in 8-10 maande sal opneem. Elke metode wat gebruik word, het dus net waarde indien dit gekalibreer is en presies so uitgevoer word, soos wat dit in die kalibrasie gebruik is. Neem van grondmonsters vir bemestingsadvies Die grondmonsters word in dieselfde indeksrye as die blaarmonsters soos volg geneem. Monsterneming by mikrospuite Neem ʼn submonster vanaf die oppervlak (verwyder slegs die blare, maar geen grond nie) tot 30 cm diep onder die blaarkap. Gebruik ʼn graaf of monsterboor. Neem sowat 15 tot 20 submonsters by die bome in die indeksrye. Plaas dit in ʼn plastiekemmer, meng deeglik en neem ±400 g en verpak vir versending na die laboratorium. Merk die monster met die boordnaam (u verwysing) of boordkode plus u besonderhede. Soil sampling at drippers (Figure 4). Remove the top 5 cm of soil plus debris. Take the sub-sample from 5 to 30 cm deep. Figure 4. Taking soil samples. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 47

50 Take the sample between the dripper and the perimeter of the wetted zone. If the wetted zones of two adjacent drippers overlap, take the sub-sample between the two drippers. Collect 15 to 20 sub-samples at the index trees. Put the sub-samples in a plastic bucket, mix properly and retain ± 500 g for sending to the laboratory. Mark the samples with your name and that of the orchard plus all relevant information on a label and stick or tie it to the outside of the container. Dit word sterk aanbeveel dat n submonster, 30 tot 60 cm diep, elke twee tot drie jaar geneem word om die grond-ph en opbouing van soute in die wortelsone te monitor. POST HARVEST PATHOLOGY WASTE PREVENTION CHECKLIST K.H. LESAR & W. DU PLOOY Sanitation: NB: For reducing fungal spore load, as well as keeping FCM and fruit fly under control remove all fallen fruit and decayed fruit from the orchard. Bury or macerate fallen fruit and allow to dry in the sun away from the orchards. Remove dead wood from all citrus trees to reduce the spore load of the latent citrus pathogens. Good fruit fly control: Use traps and bait regularly. FCM: Apply pre-harvest treatments according to trap counts and fruit drop data. Skirt trees for brown rot control: Ensure that trees are adequately skirted, preventing low hanging fruit, especially in heavily laden trees, and thereby reducing the risk of Phytophthora brown rot infection during the rainfall season. Do not pack any fallen fruit that could be infected, or any fruit touching the ground. These fruit should be removed from the orchard a day or two before harvest. Swaar reënval Phytophthora bruinvrot waarskuwing!!!! Phytophthora bruinvrot word versprei wanneer Phytophthora nicotianae of P. citrophthora spore tydens reën vanaf besmette grond op vrugte spat. Infeksie vind plaas en die vrug vrot na ʼn tydperk van 4-6 dae. Dit gebeur dus dat geinfekteerde vrugte gepluk en gepak kan word en tydens versending bruinvrot kan ontwikkel. ʼn Enkele vrot vrug kan die hele karton vrugte besmet. Die swam penetreer die skil binne drie ure, dus is dit belangrik dat bruinvrot voorkomend in die boord, voor pluk, behandel word. PREVENT INJURIES: Test for injuries. Indigo- Carmine should be used for this purpose. Test both in the orchard and the packhouse. NB: Ensure that proper picking practices are adopted. There are far too many injuries every season, resulting in unnecessary high waste levels. LET WEL: Sorg dat gepaste plukpraktyke toegepas word. Plukbeserings veroorsaak elke seisoen onnodig hoë vlakke van bederf. Apply packhouse fungicides with care and proper management: Check the mixing / application rates. PACKHOUSE SANITATION: Never allow any fruit, and more importantly any fungicide-treated fruit, to lie around in the packhouse and develop spores. Constantly monitor concentrations of sanitisers in dump tanks, descaler water, rinses, etc. Spray the packhouse with sanitisers regularly and immediately after finding a single mouldy fruit. Spray trailers/picking bins with a suitable sanitiser before they leave for the orchard. Transport cartons to the ports as soon as possible and prevent packed fruit standing on the packhouse floor where it is hot. Green mould develops faster at 10 C than at 4.5 C. Store retention samples for each consignment and check regularly for waste and other developing factors. THE CONTROL OF POST-HARVEST DISEASES ON EXPORT CITRUS USING THE POST- HARVEST FUNGICIDE THIABENDAZOLE There seems to be a general reduction in the use of thiabendazole within the SA citrus industry. This is particularly alarming since latent pathogen infections have been observed in abundance during recent citrus production seasons. Why use thiabendazole (TBZ)? TBZ was the first fungicide registered (1960s) for the control of the Penicillium moulds and the latent pathogens, Diplodia stem-end rot, Phomopsis stem-end rot and Anthracnose on citrus fruit. 48 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

51 TBZ and benomyl belong to the benzimidazole group of fungicides. The benzimidazoles are distinguished from other traditional fungicides in that they control diseases both by contact and systemic action. Due to the extensive pre-harvest application of benomyl for the control of citrus black spot and the post-harvest application of TBZ for control of Penicillium, populations of Penicillium that were resistant to the benzimidazoles developed rapidly. There is therefore an unfortunate perception in the industry that TBZ is of no value in controlling important post-harvest pathogens. However, TBZ is still effective in controlling the latent pathogens on citrus: Diplodia stem-end rot, Phomopsis stem-end rot and Anthracnose. All export citrus should therefore be treated with TBZ. Application of TBZ in the wax to fruit also reduces the risk of some physiological rind conditions developing on sensitive cultivars during storage and export, e.g. chilling injury, pitting etc. GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING THE RISK OF CHILLING INJURY ON GRAPEFRUIT EXPORTED UNDER EXTENDED COLD STERILISATION CONDITIONS: Citrus in general is known to be sensitive to cold damage (chilling injury) during shipping and storage, but certain cultivars, with light or yellowish pigmentation (some soft citrus cultivars, lemons and grapefruit varieties), are particularly prone to chilling injury, especially when exposed to cold sterilisation temperatures. It is especially the yellow pigmented citrus cultivars viz. lemons, Satsumas, Marsh grapefruit, and even the yellow areas of Star Ruby and Rose grapefruit which are the most sensitive, as they do not contain sufficient levels of carotenoids which act as anti-oxidants that protect the fruit against chilling injury. The extended cold sterilisation treatment, as recently adopted by China (24d at -0.6 C), is particularly problematic. It is generally accepted that it is not feasible to export lemons under these conditions. Though grapefruit is also highly sensitive to chilling injury, the application of TBZ can reduce the risk of chilling injury. Picking window The South African grapefruit season, in the traditional production areas, extends from the middle of March to the end of June. The picking window for grapefruit is often manipulated in an attempt to access markets early or to extend the season. However, harvesting grapefruit too early in the season, when the fruit rind is still immature and also at or beyond the end of the season when the fruit is well coloured and very mature, is when grapefruit is most sensitive to cold injury. It is a major risk to export such sensitive fruit to markets where cold sterilisation is a requirement. Thorough maturity indexing is essential to determine the ideal harvesting window. Commencing 5 weeks before anticipated harvest, pick samples of grapefruit (20-25 fruit). Mark the representative trees (data trees from different rootstocks, selections, tree ages or microclimates). Evaluate and record average fruit colour and full internal quality assessments. Repeat every week until optimal harvest date, ensuring that the samples are drawn similarly for comparison. Plot the results on a graph to determine whether the season is early or late compared to the previous year, thereby determining the optimal picking window for the specific cultivar. Commencement of export packing of grapefruit to cold steri markets should start 14 days later, as the rinds will still be too cold sensitive at the beginning of the normal optimal picking window. Harvesting of grapefruit for coldsteri markets should also not be extended beyond the end of the optimal picking window. Post-harvest wilt conditioning Conditioning (wilting) trials where Marsh grapefruit (exported to Japan) was conditioned for 2, 4 and 6 days at 16 C and 20 C prior to cold treatment, showed a dramatic reduction in the incidence of chilling injury relative to the non-conditioned control fruit. Unfortunately extending the time between packing and introduction into the cold chain can also increase the incidence of post-harvest rind pitting and decay in sensitive fruit. Nonetheless, wilting at ambient for 7 days is part of the standard handling procedure for grapefruit exported to Japan and should be implemented by anybody wishing to risk exporting grapefruit under an extended cold treatment regime. The role of TBZ It is known that inclusion of thiabendazole (TBZ) in citrus wax applied FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 49

52 to grapefruit can significantly reduce the incidence of chilling injury. Inclusion of TBZ is also a good standard packhouse procedure and should be used if anybody wishes to risk exporting grapefruit under these extended cold sterilisation conditions. Pre-cooling and storage A critical factor affecting the extent of chilling injury of grapefruit, is the duration of exposure to temperatures below 4.5 C. This exposure period is cumulative and can occur during pre-cooling (the period prior to loading during which the temperature of the fruit is reduced to the cold sterilisation level), the cold sterilisation treatment itself and post-shipping storage. Pre-cooling for 3d is a compulsory component of the disinfestation treatment, but any other pre-loading storage at temperatures below 4.5 C should be avoided. Storage of grapefruit after shipping should be at an intermediate storage temperature of 7 to 8 C and should be kept to the minimum necessary duration. The role of waxes The main purpose of a wax emulsion is to: Protect fruit against moisture loss, which results in longer shelf life and less weight loss of the fruit. To provide shine to the fruit at the point of sale. It is important to note that this shine needs to be sustained throughout the chain of distribution (some waxes break down more rapidly than others). Provide a barrier of protection against chilling injury and fungi. The type of wax that you choose and the way in which you apply the wax will have a significant influence on the above points. Choosing the right wax: The lighter waxes (e.g. lower solids or carnauba based waxes) offer less resistance to gas transfer (respiration) than heavier waxes (e.g. shellac or high solids polyethylene based waxes). Thus light wax emulsions will protect fruit with sensitive rinds far better than a heavier wax emulsion and will also allow for better colour development. On the other hand, lighter waxes break down more quickly, and are therefore not suitable for long storage programs, especially cold sterilisation programs. Research has indicated that heavy waxes that slow down breathing (respiration) and retain a high level of CO 2 (10%+) on the surface of the fruit, reduce the incidence of CI. Unfortunately, the use of heavy waxes may increase the incidence of post-harvest rind pitting on sensitive fruit. Nonetheless, the high risk of chilling injury on grapefruit under conditions of extended sterilisation, make it appropriate to consider preferentially using such waxes when exporting to markets that require such extended cold treatment. Wax application Uneven waxing, under-waxing and over-waxing all have a deleterious effect on fruit quality. The wax barrier need not be thick, and in fact a very thin barrier provides enough of an integral film to prevent most of the moisture loss without interfering with the respiration process. NB: Adhere to the wax manufacturer s recommended application rate adhere to the product label instructions. Please note Fruit should be dry before waxing. Where possible the packhouse should use a hot water bath for fungicide application as this helps the drying of fruit before waxing. Fruit must move evenly through the waxing unit and flow of fruit entering the packing line must be consistent. When fruit leaves the waxing unit, all parts of the fruit needs to be covered with a film of wax. Examine fruit after the waxing unit regularly. Brushes in the wax applicator must be in good condition and should rotate at a speed of about 90 rpm. The last brush in the wax applicator should always be wet, so as not to remove wax from the fruit. Over application Inhibits the breathing (respiration) of the fruit. The movement of oxygen and CO 2 on the surface of the fruit is inhibited resulting in poor colour development and off-flavours caused by the process of an aerobic fermentation. Inhibits colour break. Encourages rind disorders on sensitive fruit. Unnecessary expense!! Under application Excessive weight loss and shrinkage of fruit. Poor shelf life / storage. Susceptibility to chilling injury. 50 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

53 Chemicals don't discriminate - rather use nature's pathways... River Bioscience is a leading biocontrol company which is a fully owned commercial subsidiary of the Southern African Citrus Growers Association. It is our pledge to provide growers with affordable and effective biological control agents to ensure a safer, quality crop. Cryptogran TM controls false codling moth (Thaumatotibia leucotreta) and is registered for use on citrus, avocados, grapes, macadamias, pecans, peppers, plums, peaches, nectarines, pomegranates, persimmons and litchi s. Helicovir TM controls bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and is effectively used on most grains, vegetables and fruit crops such as citrus, apples, peaches, plums and berries. Invader-B-lok controls male oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) by means of 'attract-and-kill' technology. M3 TM fruit fly bait stations are proven to safely control female fruit flies as part of an integrated fruit fly control programme. RB Tuta Hook is a complete formulation ready to use for selective annihilation of South American leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) males by means of 'attract-and-kill' technology. Tuta Lure is the isomerically pure pheromone of Tuta absoluta that is identical to the natural pheromone, and therefore, species specific. The pheromone is loaded into a controlled-release rubber septa dispenser that may be used in traps for monitoring and mass trapping of Tuta absoluta. For more information visit our website or contact us: Keith Danckwerts Chris Hendriks General Manager Marketing Manager +27 (0) (0) RIVER BIOSCIENCE (PTY) LTD PO Box Humewood Port Elizabeth 6013 South Africa EFFECTIVE QUALITY BIOCONTROL FEB/MARCH 2017 VALUE TECHNOLOGY CRI 51 NO RESIDUES

54 The European pepper moth as a citrus nursery pest in South Africa SEAN MOORE 1,2 AND FRANCOIS JOUBERT 3 1 Citrus Research International, Port Elizabeth 2 Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 3 BF Joubert Kwekery, Kirkwood Recently, the European pepper moth, Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was recorded for the first time as a pest in a citrus nursery in South Africa. The insect is endemic to the Mediterranean region but is now established in many countries in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, including South Africa (Putnam et al. 2010; It has a broad host range, but is considered a serious agricultural pest of peppers and strawberries in Europe. It also attacks aquatic ornamental plants. Its natural habitat is freshwater and saltwater marshlands, so ornamental aquatic plants (especially if grown in a greenhouse setting) are particularly susceptible (Stocks and Hodges, 2011). Fig. 1. Dead European pepper moth adult on the soil surface. The adult moth is 9-12 mm long with a wingspan of mm (Fig. 1). The female can lay up to 200 eggs, singly or in small batches on plants and other surfaces (Jackel et al. 1996). Larvae are light to dark brown with a dark brown head capsule (Fig. 2). They produce silk and may be found in association with webbing along the soil surface and in the plant. Larvae pupate either on the plant surface or the soil surface. There may be multiple generations throughout the year. Larvae can apparently damage roots, leaves, flowers or buds, or can feed primarily on crop debris such as fallen leaves. Chewing damage can also be seen on the undersides of leaves, resulting in leaf necrosis, and stem girdling may also occur (Bethke and Vander Mey, 2011). The damage observed on citrus seedlings at a nursery in Kirkwood (Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape) was girdling of the stems, caused by soil-dwelling larvae (Fig. 3). This was also observed on small seedling (< 10 cm) within tunnels in the nursery. As no previous record of the European pepper moth attacking citrus of any sort or age (including seedlings) anywhere in the world could be found, it is not clear whether there is potential for ongoing infestations or if this was an isolated incidental attack. Nevertheless, nurseries and growers should be on the lookout. Elsewhere in the world, the application of Bacillus thuringiensis against small larvae has been reported to be an effective control measure (Messelink and Van Wensveen, 2003; Bethke et al., 2012). Our own experience has shown that if larvae are too large (approximately 1 cm or longer), the application of a product like methomyl at a relatively high concentration may be necessary (chlorpyrifos did not appear to be effective). However, there are of course no registered products available in South Africa. 52 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

55 Opsomming Onlangs is die Europese pepermot, Duponchelia fovealis, vir die eerste keer as n plaag in n sitruskwekery in Suid-Afrika aangeteken. Die skade wat op sitrus saailinge by n kwekery op Kirkwood opgelet is, is stamringelering wat deur die grondgedraagde larwes veroorsaak is. Omdat daar geen vorige rekord van aanvalle vanaf die Europese pepermot op sitrus van enige soort of ouderdom ter wêreld is nie, is dit nie duidelik of daar potensiaal vir verdere gevalle van besmetting is nie, en of dit bloot n eenmalige toevallige aanval was. Nietemin moet kwekerye en produsente op die uitkyk wees. Elders in die wêreld is aangetoon dat Bacillus thuringiensis blykbaar n doeltreffende beheermaatreël teen klein larwes is. Ons eie ondervinding wys dat as larwes te groot is, mag die gebruik van n produk soos metomiel dalk nodig wees. Fig. 2. European pepper moth larva. Acknowledgements Martin Krüger of Ditsong Museums, Pretoria, is thanked for identification of the moth. References BETHKE, J.A. AND VANDER MEY, B Duponchelia fovealis: A new invasive moth for CA Agriculture. CAPCA Advisor, April 2011, 14(2): BETHKE, J.A., OSBORNE, L.S., STOCKS, S.D., VANDER MEY, B., HODGES, A.C. AND SCHUBLE, D.L Real and Potential Impact of the European Pepper Moth on Ornamental Plant Production and Agriculture. JACKEL, B., KUMMER, B. AND KURHAIS, M Biological control of Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, 321: 483. MESSELINK, G. AND VAN WENSVEEN, W Biocontrol of Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with soil-dwelling predators in potted plants. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 68(4): PUTNAM, A.H., BRAMBILA, J. AND STOCKS, I The European Pepper Moth, Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a Mediterranean Pest Moth Discovered in Central Florida. Pest Alert created 2-December Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. STOCKS, S. AND A. HODGES Featured Creatures: European pepper moth: Last viewed on 10/7/2011. Fig. 3. Girdled stem of a citrus seedling in a nursery, caused by the European pepper moth larva. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 53

56 MALE ANNIHILATION TECHNIQUE (MAT) FOR THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY: Efficacy of different commercially available MAT products in citrus in South Africa ARUNA MANRAKHAN, JOHN-HENRY DANEEL AND ROOIKIE BECK Citrus Research International, PO Box 28, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa SUMMARY The male annihilation technique (MAT) is recommended for control of the new fruit fly pest Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, which is currently present in the north and north-eastern parts of South Africa. In MAT, B. dorsalis is targeted through deployment of stations or substrates containing a mixture of the male attractant, methyl eugenol (ME), and an insecticide. The aim of MAT is to realise high levels of male kill thereby reducing the number of matings and fruit fly population level. In South Africa, a number of MAT products are commercially available for control of the Oriental fruit fly. In 2014 and 2015, trials to determine the performance of these different MAT products for B. dorsalis control were conducted in Star Ruby grapefruit orchards in a farm near Letsitele, Limpopo Province. Two types of fibre board blocks containing ME and malathion: Invader-b-lok and B.I. Toolkit, were compared with drop applications of SPLAT Spinosad ME (ME and spinosad) and Last Call B.I. (ME and permethrin). Additionally, two application rates of Invader-b-lok were evaluated: 4 blocks per ha versus 12 blocks per ha. All MAT treatments were evaluated in combination with a standard fruit fly protein bait - M3 fruit fly bait station. As a control (no MAT), a treatment with only M3 fruit fly bait station was included in the field studies. In the field trials, efficacy of all treatments were evaluated using ME baited traps and traps baited with food-based attractants. An assessment of fruit was also carried out at harvest to determine fruit fly infestation. Results over the two years of study showed that numbers of B. dorsalis males were generally lower in blocks treated with MAT and M3 fruit fly bait stations compared to blocks treated with only M3 fruit fly bait stations. In the first year, there were no significant differences in catches of B. dorsalis males between the different MAT treatments. In the second year, significant differences in catches of B. dorsalis males were found between some of the MAT treatments. The fibre board blocks: Invader-blok and B.I. Toolkit, set at 12 units per ha as well as Last Call B. I. had significantly lower numbers of B. dorsalis males than the other treatments. A higher reduction in numbers of B. dorsalis males was observed in blocks treated with Invaderb-lok at 12 units per ha versus those treated with Invader-b-lok at 4 units per ha. No fruit fly infestation was found in Star Ruby grapefruit on trees at harvest. However, in the second year, B. dorsalis flies were reared from ground-collected Star Ruby grapefruit in blocks treated with only M3 bait stations and in blocks treated with Static Spinosad ME and M3 bait stations where average B. dorsalis male catches were above 5 flies per ME trap per week during the treatment. The conclusion from these field studies is that MAT is an essential component in the control of B. dorsalis. OPSOMMING Die mannetjie-uitwissingstegniek (MAT) word aanbeveel vir die beheer van die nuwe vrugtevliegplaag die Oosterse vrugtevlieg, Bactrocera dorsalis, wat tans in die noord noord-oostelike gedeeltes van Suid-Afrika teenwoordig is. Met die gebruik van MAT, word Bactrocera dorsalis geteiken deur die ontplooiing van lokstasies of substrate bevattende ʼn mengsel van die mannetjie lokmiddel, metiel-eugenol (ME) en ʼn insekdoder. Die doel van MAT is om hoë getalle mannetjies dood te maak en sodoende die aantal parings en die vrugtevlieg populasievlak te verminder. In Suid-Afrika is ʼn aantal MAT produkte kommersieel beskikbaar 54 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

57 Figure 1. Male annihilation products commercially available in South Africa: (A) Invader-b-lok, (B) Static Spinosad ME, (C) Last call B.I. and (D) B.I. Toolkit vir die beheer van die Oosterse vrugtevlieg. Gedurende 2014 en 2015, is proewe in Star Ruby pomeloboorde op ʼn plaas naby Letsitele, Limpopo Provinsie uitgevoer, om die werking van hierdie verskillende MAT produkte vir die beheer van B. dorsalis te bepaal. Twee tipes veselbordblokke, bevattende ME en malathion: Invader-b-lok en B.I. Toolkit, is met druppeltoedienings van SPLAT Spinosad ME (ME en spinosad) en Last Call B.I. (ME en permethrin) vergelyk. Twee toedieningsdigthede van Invader-b-lok is addisioneel geëvalueer: 4 blokke per ha teenoor 12 blokke per ha. Alle MATbehandelings is in kombinasie met ʼn standaard vrugtevlieg proteïenlokaas, die M3 vrugtevlieg lokaasstasie, geëvalueer. As ʼn kontrole (geen MAT), is ʼn behandeling met slegs M3 vrugtevlieg lokaasstasies in die veldstudies ingesluit. In hierdie veldproewe, is die effektiwiteit van alle behandelings geëvalueer deur gebruik te maak van ME-lokvalle en lokvalle wat met voedsel-gebaseerde lokmiddels gelaai is. ʼn Opname is tydens die oestyd geloods om vrugtevlieg besmetting te bepaal. Resultate oor twee jaar verkry dui daarop dat die getalle van B. dorsalis mannetjies oor die algemeen laer in blokke wat met MAT en M3 vrugtevlieg lokaasstasies behandel is as in vergelyking met blokke wat slegs met M3 vrugtevlieg lokaasstasies behandel was. In die eerste jaar was daar geen betekenisvolle verskille in vangste van B. dorsalis mannetjies tussen die verskillende MAT-behandelings nie. In die tweede jaar, was daar betekenisvolle verskille in die vangste van B. dorsalis mannetjies tussen sommige MATbehandelings. Die veselbordblokke: Invader-blok en B.I. Toolkit, geplaas teen 12 eenhede per ha asook Last Call B.I., het aansienlik laer getalle B. dorsalis mannetjies as die ander behandelings gehad. ʼn Groter verlaging in getalle van FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 55

58 Figure 2. Mean catches of (A) B. dorsalis males in ME baited traps and (B) B. dorsalis females in Biolure and Torula Yeast baited traps in Star Ruby grapefruit orchards under different male annihilation treatments in a farm near Letsitele, Limpopo Province South Africa in 2014 and B. dorsalis male catches were significantly affected by treatment during the treated period in 2014 and 2015 (Kruskal- Wallis test: 2014: P=0.003; 2015: P< ). There were no significant differences in catches of B. dorsalis females under the different male annhilation treatments over the two study years (Kruskal-Wallis test: 2014: P=0.243; 2015: P= 0.498). B. dorsalis mannetjies is waargeneem in blokke wat met Invader-b-lok teen 12 eenhede per ha behandel was, in vergelyking met blokke wat met Invader-b-lok teen 4 eenhede per ha behandel was. Geen vrugtevlieg besmetting is op Star Ruby pomelos, nog op die bome, tydens oes gevind nie. In die tweede jaar is B. dorsalis vlieë egter geteel uit Star Ruby pomelos wat vanaf die grond versamel is, in blokke wat slegs met M3 lokaasstasies behandel is en in blokke wat met Static Spinosad ME plus M3 lokaasstasies behandel is, waar die gemiddelde B. dorsalis mannetjie vangste meer as 5 vlieë per ME lokval per week tydens die behandeling was. Vanuit hierdie veldstudies is die gevolgtrekking dat MAT ʼn noodsaaklike komponent in die beheer van B. dorsalis. INTRODUCTION The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is currently present in the north and north-eastern areas of South Africa (Manrakhan et al., 2015). In Africa, B. dorsalis was reported to cause important damage on commercial fruit such as mango and citrus (Goergen et al., 2011; Leonhardt et al., 1989; Mwatawala et al., 2006; Rwomushana et al., 2008; Vayssieres et al., 2009). Bactrocera dorsalis is listed as a quarantine pest in Europe and in United States of America. It is therefore important that fruit being exported is free of this pest. Studies conducted in and outside of Africa have shown that B. dorsalis can be effectively controlled using a combination of protein bait application (protein bait sprays or use of bait stations) and methyl-eugenol based male annihilation technique (MAT) (Fay et al., 1997; Grout and Stephen, 2013; Seewooruthun et al., 2000; Vargas et al., 2010). Recent studies conducted in Kenya have shown that MAT on its own was able to reduce B. dorsalis infestation on mangoes (Ndlela et al., 2016). MAT involves the use of male lures as long distance stimuli (Cunningham, 1989b; Foster and Harris, 1997). In MAT, the male lure is combined with an insecticide, and the mixture is incorporated in a carrier (gel or an absorbent surface like a wooden block). MAT carriers are 56 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

59 deployed to effect high mortality of fruit fly males which would then cause population suppression through a reduction in the number of matings and production of fertile offspring (Cunningham, 1989a). Methyl eugenol (ME) is the male lure used to target B. dorsalis (Cunningham, 1989b). Currently in South Africa, a number of male annihilation methods (MAT methods) such as wooden blocks impregnated with ME and malathion (e.g. Invader-b-Lok, B.I. ToolKit), Specialised Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) containing ME and spinosad such as STATIC Spinosad ME (Vargas et al., 2008) and gels containing ME and permethrin (e.g. Last Call B.I.) are commercially available for B. dorsalis control. Previous field studies in Hawaii have revealed differences in attractiveness of different ME based MAT treatments such as SPLAT-MAT-ME with spinosad and gel with ME and an organophosphate to B. dorsalis males (Vargas et al., 2009; Vargas et al., 2008). To date, however, there is very little knowledge on the relative field efficacy of different MAT treatments in suppressing B. dorsalis populations. In this study, we compared the efficacy of different MAT products in suppressing B. dorsalis populations in citrus orchards. We also determined the control efficacy of different densities of one MAT product - the Invader-b-lok. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study site In 2014 and 2015, studies were conducted in Star Ruby grapefruit orchards in a farm near Letsitele (S23º E30º ), Limpopo Province, for a period of 14 weeks between February and June. Treatments Five male annihilation treatments (Fig. 1) were compared: (1) Invader-b-Lok (River BioScience (Pty) Ltd, Humewood, South Africa) placed at 4 units per ha. (2) Invader-b-Lok (River BioScience (Pty) Ltd, Humewood, South Africa) placed at 12 units per ha. (3) STATIC Spinosad ME (Dow Agro Sciences Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd, Bryanston, South Africa) applied at 300 ml per ha. The product was placed in rolled up paper cylinders which were distributed in the orchard at every 49 m. In each cylinder, 5 ml of Static Spinosad ME were placed. (4) Last call B.I. (Insect Science (Pty) Ltd, Tzaneen, South Africa) applied at 150 g/ha. Last Call B.I. was applied as drops using an applicator, with each drop containing 0.05 g of the product. Ten drops were placed per tree in the orchard, being careful to avoid contact with the fruit. (5) B.I. Toolkit (Insect Science (Pty) Ltd, Tzaneen, South Africa) placed at 12 units per ha. All treatments included a bait application treatment - M3 fruit fly bait station (Green Trading CC, Brits, South Africa). M3 fruit fly bait stations were placed on every second tree in the orchard with a resulting density of 240 stations per ha. A control treatment of only M3 fruit fly bait stations (No MAT) was also included in the trial. There were 2 replicate blocks per treatment in each orchard. Each treatment was applied to a block of about 1 ha of Star Ruby grapefruit orchard. Treatments remained exposed within treated blocks for a period of 12 weeks. Fruit fly monitoring Three attractants were used for monitoring B. dorsalis adult population levels: (1) Torula Yeast (ISCA Technologies Inc., Riverside, California), (2) Biolure Fruit fly (Chempac (Pty) Ltd, Suider Paarl, South Africa) and (3) Invader lure containing ME (River BioScience (Pty) Ltd., Humewood, South Africa). Torula yeast and 3-component Biolure were contained in Chempac Bucket traps (Chempac (Pty) Ltd, Suider Paarl, South Africa). Torula yeast was prepared as 1 tablet in 300 ml of water which was then poured into the trap. In the Torula Yeast traps the capturing mechanism was by drowning. The ME dispenser Invader lure, was placed in Lynfield traps (River BioScience (Pty) Ltd., Humewood, South Africa). A dichlorvos strip was placed inside the ME baited Lynfield trap and Biolure baited Chempac Bucket trap to kill attracted flies. Traps were hung about 1.5 m above ground. In a treatment block, there were 2 traps of all attractants except ME. For ME, only one trap was placed in a treatment block in order FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 57

60 not to add to any control effects. The distance between each trap in a block was approximately 30 m. Adult fruit fly trapping in each block was initiated 1 week before start of treatment and was carried out on a weekly basis during the treated period. Attractants and insecticides were renewed after 6 weeks. With the Torula yeast traps, water was added whenever required in order to maintain the liquid level to the original level when first baited. Catches were identified to species and sex. Fruit damage assessment Each year, a fruit damage assessment was carried out at harvest where 500 fruit in each block were selected at random on the trees (10 fruit on each of 50 trees) and visually examined for fruit fly stings. Any suspected damaged fruit were brought to the lab, weighed and reared individually in aerated containers to determine percentage infestation and degree of infestation. In the second year, 9-10 fruit showing fruit fly damage symptoms were collected from the ground from each block. The fruit collected from the ground were weighed and incubated in aerated plastic containers over a layer of fine sand for a period of 8 weeks to determine fruit fly infestation rates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Treatments with MAT had significantly lower catches of B. dorsalis males than treatments without MAT (only protein bait application) over the two years of study (Fig. 2). These results strongly support the inclusion of MAT for B. dorsalis control in areas affected by the pest in South Africa and concur with results of previous suppression and eradication programmes whereby MAT was used in combination with bait application for control of B. dorsalis (Fay et al., 1997; Manrakhan et al., 2011; Seewooruthun et al., 2000). During the treated period in 2014, there were no significant differences in B. dorsalis male catches between the different MAT treatments and even between the two densities of Invaderb-lok (Fig. 2). However during the treated period in 2015, STATIC Spinosad ME had higher catches of B. dorsalis males compared to the other MAT treatments. The STATIC Spinosad ME used in the 2015 trial was from the same batch used in the previous year. The date of manufacture of the STATIC Spinosad ME product used was May Since STATIC Spinosad ME effectively controlled B. dorsalis males in 2014, it is likely that the efficacy of the product was compromised in the second year due to long storage on shelf before use (more than a year of storage after manufacture). Although there were no significant differences in efficacy of control between the two densities of Invader-b-lok tested, the percentage reduction of B. dorsalis males (from pre-treatment to during treatment) was higher for blocks treated with Invader-b-lok at 12 units per ha (97% and 86% in 2014 and 2015 respectively) than for those treated with Invader-b-lok at 4 units per ha (94% and 11% in 2014 and 2015 respectively). These results indicate that when using Invader-b-lok, the rate recommended on the label of the product (10-12 units per ha) would be able to suppress numbers of B. dorsalis at a faster rate than when using lower Invader-b-lok densities. In 2014 and 2015, there were no significant differences in catches of B. dorsalis females between the different treatments (Fig. 2). This was possibly due to similar protein bait application method M3 fruit fly bait station used in all the treatments. In the two years of study, no fruit fly damage was recorded on grapefruit at harvest on the trees. In the second year, B. dorsalis flies were reared from Star Ruby grapefruit collected from the ground in blocks treated with only M3 bait stations and in blocks treated with STATIC Spinosad ME plus M3 bait stations. The numbers of B. dorsalis flies reared per kg of ground collected Star Ruby grapefruit in blocks treated with only M3 bait stations and in blocks treated with STATIC Spinosad ME plus M3 bait stations were 0.35 ± 0.35 and 0.49 ± 0.49 respectively. In the two treatments with positive fruit fly infestation, B. dorsalis male catches were on average above 5 flies per trap per week. The current established threshold of 3 B. dorsalis males per ME baited trap per week set by the Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries during the fruiting season would be conservative but is at the same time an attain- 58 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

61 Dopluis se doppie is geklink! Firefly Advertising NXS10893/Sitrus Nexus AG is n trotse ondersteuner van die Suid-Afrikaanse boerdery bedryf Nexus AG maak gebruik van uitgesoekte produkte en verskaffers en verseker sodoende dat ons jou die mees doeltreffende oplossing vir elke boerdery-behoefte bied, hetsy oesbeskerming, plantvoeding of grondkondisionering. Omdat die boerdery bedryf een van Suid-Afrika se belangrikste hoekstene is en getrou die nasie voed, stel Nexus AG elke boer se belange hoog op prys. Nexus AG neem met trots die voortou om te sorg dat Suid-Afrika se boere die hulp en ondersteuning verkry wat hulle benodig. Maak staat op Nexus AG om jou deur dik en dun by te staan met persoonlike diens en optimale oes-beskermingsoplossings vir jou spesifieke gewasse sodat jy sorgeloos vooruit kan boer tot in lengte van dae. Maak op ons staat vir: AVCASA-geregistreerde kundiges met spesialis-kennis van oesbeskerming Regstreekse boerdery-ervaring Wêreldklas-produkte van die hoogste gehalte Kontak ons vandag nog vir n besoek van jou naaste Nexus AG -kundige en ontgin die volle potensiaal van jou boerdery. Tel: E-pos: Web: FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 59

62 able goal if MAT treatments, bait application and orchard sanitation are being implemented. Since all MAT products were found to be equally effective at least in the first year of this study, the choice of products for use in the field would be highly dependent on the cost, availability and registration status of the products. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Dr Tertia Grove, Agricultural Research Council, for suppport provided in this study. We acknowledge field support of Big Boy Thobela. We are indebted to Gustav van Veijeren and Petrus Botha for providing us farm access and for all the field support. We acknowledge River Bioscience (Pty) Ltd, Insect Science (Pty) Ltd and Dow Agrosciences Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd for the MAT products provided in this study. This study was funded by Citrus Research International (Pty) Ltd. REFERENCES CUNNINGHAM, R.T., 1989A. Male Annihilation, In: Robinson, A.S., Hooper, G. (Eds.), Fruit flies: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp CUNNINGHAM, R.T., 1989B. Parapheromones, In: Robinson, A.S., Hooper, G. (Eds.), Fruit flies, their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp FAY, H.A., DREW, R.A.I., LLOYD, A.C., The eradication program for Papaya fruit flies (Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock) in North Queensland, in: Allwood, A.J., Drew, R.A.I. (Eds.), Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. A regional symposium. ACIAR, Nadi, Fiji, pp FOSTER, S.P., HARRIS, M.O., Behavioural manipulation methods for insect pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 42, GOERGEN, G., VAYSSIERES, J.-F., GNANVOSSOU, D., TINDO, M., Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: Host Plant Range and Distribution in West and Central Africa. Environmental Entomology 40, GROUT, T.G., STEPHEN, P.R., Controlling Bactrocera invadens by using protein bait and male annihilation. SA Fruit Journal 12(4), LEONHARDT, B.A., CUNNINGHAM, R.T., RICE, R.E., HARTE, E.M., HENDRICHS, J., Design, effectiveness, and performance criteria of dispenser formulations of trimedlure, an attractant of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 82, MANRAKHAN, A., HATTINGH, V., VENTER, J.-H., HOLTZHAUSEN, M., Eradication of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Entomology 19, MANRAKHAN, A., VENTER, J.H., HATTINGH, V., The progressive invasion of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa. Biological Invasions 17, MWATAWALA, M.W., DE MEYER, M., MAKUNDI, R.H., MAERERE, A.P., Seasonality and host utilization of the invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens (Dipt., Tephritidae) in central Tanzania. Journal of Applied Entomology 130, NDLELA, S., MOHAMED, S., NDEGWA, P.N., ONG'AMO, G.O., EKESI, S., Male annihilation technique using methyl eugenol for field suppression of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango in Kenya. African Entomology 24, RWOMUSHANA, I., EKESI, S., GORDON, I., OGOL, C.K.P.O., Host plants and host plant preference studies for Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Kenya, a new invasive fruit fly species in Africa. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101, SEEWOORUTHUN, S.I., PERMALLOO, S., GUNGAH, S., SOONNOO, A.R., ALLECK, M., Eradication of an exotic fruit fly from Mauritius, In: Tan, K.H. (Ed.), Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, pp VARGAS, R.I., PINERO, J.C., MAU, R.F.L., JANG, E.B., KLUNGNESS, L.M., MC INNIS, D.O., HARRIS, E.B., MCQUATE, G.T., BAUTISTA, R.C., WONG, L., Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela. Journal of Insect Science 10:135. insectscience.org/ VARGAS, R.I., PINERO, J.C., MAU, R.F.L., STARK, J.D., HERTLEIN, M., MAFRA-NETO, A., COLER, R., GETCHELL, A., Attraction and mortality of oriental fruit flies to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol with spinosad. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 131, VARGAS, R.I., STARK, J.D., HERTLEIN, M., NETO, A.M., COLER, R., PINERO, J., Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of Oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology 101, VAYSSIERES, J.-F., KORIE, S., AYEGNON, D., Correlation of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation of major mango cultivars in Borgou (Benin) with abiotic and biotic factors and assessment of damage. Crop Protection 28, TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

63 Sedert AIR PRO sowat 20 maande gelede die lig gesien het, het hierdie presissie strooier nie net sy stempel op die mark afgedruk en n merkbare markaandeel verwerf nie, maar ook merkbare veranderinge ondergaan. Alhowel AIR PRO al kan spog met verskeie kliënte wat 2 en 3 eenhede aangeskaf het, is daar al twee landbou groepe wat spog met 5 elk. Daar was ook hard gewerk aan bemarking en AIR PRO word tans direk en deur 7 agente wat gesamentlik 18 vrugte verbouingsareas bedien, bemark en ondersteun. Die strooier self is ook geen vordering en ontwikkeling gespaar nie. Die voorheen geverfde trekstang en onderstel word nou uit duursame 3CR12 gemaak. Behalwe dat die bak, deksel en uitlaatstelsel nog steeds van tipe 304 vlekvrye staal is het alle boute, moere en wassers ook vlekvry geraak. Skarniere en knippe is ook met die beste vervang en daar is 'n handige numatiese silinder wat die deksel vashou in sy oop posisie. Aan die tegnologiese kant het AIR PRO ook voorwaarts beweeg. Deur die toevoeging van n tweede stel ratte as addisionele opsie kan AIR PRO nou ook met gemak slakpille vanaf 5 Kg/Ha toedien. Op aanvraag van Sitrus -, Makadamia- en Avokadoboere waar rywydtes dit toelaat het AIR PRO nou ook n 1 Ton ouboet in die mark geplaas. Verder het ons n vennootskap met EFS, Effective Farming Solutions beklink waardeur AIR PRO nou ook as opsie deur GPS beheer kan word om, of die strooi van kunsmis te monitor of die strooi proses heeltemal daardeur te beheer. Dit stel nou die vrugteboer in staat om nie net akkuraat per hektaar of blok te werk nie maar ook om varieerende dosis toedienings in dieselde ry te doen volgens die spesifieke grondbehoeftes in daardie blok. Dan is daar ook nou 'n opsie wat binnekort standaard sal raak om die linker- en regter uitgooi afsonderlik vanaf die trekker te beheer om optimale toediening op dwars aanplantings en buite rye te vergemaklik. ADVERTORIAL Die wêreld se beste boordstrooier AIR PRO BARS UIT SY NATE! MEER AS 160 STROOIERS LANDSWYD VERKOOP IN 24 MAANDE... Kalibreer van die grond af, in die ry toediening is hoër as 98% akkuraat en die links regs uitset ook hoër as 98% akkuraat - toediening spoed is dus so vinnig as wat die terrein toelaat; Het akkurate, maklik en vinnige slinger verstelling met 'n aanwysingslyn; Het onafhanklike hoër kwaliteit nylotron uitgooiers; Het 'n afsluit sluis om die bemesting van buiterye moontlik te maak sonder vermorsing; Koppel en ontkoppel met 'n hidroliese koppelaar; Is die enigste strooier met 'n vlekvrye staal bak, deksel en uitlaatpype; Strooi slegs die wortelgroei area onder die boom; Strooi met lugdruk wat 'n eweredige val van die korrels verseker; Het 'n 500 kg kapasiteit; Het 'n swaardiens raamwerk met 1.6 Ton as; Is 100% plaaslik vervaardig met alle parte maklik beskikbaar; Is slegs 1 215mm breed en loop in 'n boord trekker se spoor; Is verbind tot uitmuntende naverkoopdiens en gee 'n 12 maande waarborg op die raam, bak, aste en ratte; At the time of going to press, the Agri s got Bied dus die mees effektiewe en kostedoeltreffende bankie kunsmis strooi opsie Talent vir wingerde winner en boorde was not tans announced op die mark. yet, but keep an eye out for the full story on the new Kontak: Bertus Muller winner in our October/November edition. Epos: Sien die videogreep van hierdie briljante strooier in aksie by breerivier engineering strooier FEB/MARCH 2017 ADVERTORIAL 61

64 CITRUS RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL S FEEDBACK TO THE CITRUS INDUSTRY: Ninth Citrus Research Symposium LIEZL VAN DER LINDE Exhibitors hall. Buttress hall. Jakkie Stander from CRI. All citrus producers and role-players in the dynamic and competitive South African Citrus industry, value opportunities for scientific information and feedback regarding the latest research results. That is exactly what Citrus Research International has been doing with its biennial Citrus Research Symposium. This year s symposium was the ninth CRI Citrus Research Symposium and it took place from 21 to 25 August at the Champagne Sports Resort in the Drakensberg. CRI s dedicated team of researchers, as well as other stakeholders such as universities, the Agricultural Research Council and the private sector, play a pivotal role in scientific innovation and world class research in the citrus industry. As in every industry, constant innovation and dynamic advancement are necessary in order to face challenges both locally and internationally. This is exactly what CRI accomplishes with its dedicated resources of research Antonio Parenti from BASF, the main sponsor of the symposium. partners and staff, who generate scientific findings that guard and enhance the survival and success of the industry. The objective of the biennial symposia is to share the previous two years research and new expertise with producers and industry role-players. Therefore, the symposium is attended by a wide spectrum of industry role-players, including citrus producers and technical staff, citrus consultants (SASCCON), citrus exporters, the citrus nursery industry (SACNA), the Citrus Improvement Scheme (CIS), members of the CRI Postharvest Technical Forum (CRI-PTF), which includes packhouses and paper and carton manufacturing companies, DAFF representatives, PPECB and logistics service providers, the chemical industry and delegates from other related industries, such as the suppliers of spraying, fertilising and irrigation equipment. This year, six international and three South African keynote speakers were hosted at the symposium. The sessions were divided according to the wideranging specialist fields, including the Citrus Improvement Scheme, Graft Transmissible Diseases, Integrated Pest Management, Soil Health and Water Use, Postharvest Disease Management, Pre-harvest Disease Management (particularly Citrus Black Spot), Horticulture: Pre- and Postharvest, Cultivars, Climate Change and World Market Trends. More than 79 talks were presented by specialists in their respective areas of expertise over a three-day period. Thirty research-related posters could also be viewed in the exhibition hall. The sessions were extremely informative and provided critical feedback to the delegates on citrus research and innovation. 62 TEGNOLOGIE CRI FEB/MAART 2017

65 Technical Merit Award, Dr Tian Schutte with Dr Vaughan Hattingh. André Oberholzer from Sappi, main sponsor of the Gala dinner. In recognition of citrus technical excellence the CRI also presents their Technical Merit Awards every two years to certain individuals who have made a substantial difference or contribution to the citrus industry with their expertise and knowledge. This year Technical Merit Awards were presented to Dr Tian Schutte, Dassie Smit and Mike Holtzhausen. The symposium would not have been possible without the generous support of all the sponsors. These include the main sponsor: BASF, Golf day sponsor: Noordchem, Welcome Dinner: Arysta Life Science, the well-known happy hour: River Bioscience and the prestigious gala dinner by Sappi. Villa Crop Protection sponsored the entertainment during the gala dinner, ending the 2016 symposium on a high note. All the Gold, Silver and Bronze Sponsors also participated to ensure the success of an event of this magnitude. The work that emanated from the symposium will help to maintain and support a viable industry, secure substantial exports, and retain the jobs that hinge on the success of the industry. For this reason, CRI will continue striving to bring innovative research to the Southern African citrus industry. The citrus industry generates an annual revenue of R9.4bn, 90% of which accrues from exports. In addition to being Africa s leading citrus exporter, the South African Citrus industry also provides jobs to South Africans. Apart from the CRI Research Symposium, where the focus is on research feedback, CRI also presents various regional workshops each year in the main citrus production regions of South Africa with the focus on extension. These workshops have become the premier technology transfer vehicle for the producers and related role-players. These workshops focus on the specific technical aspects of the industry and they also strive to bring updated and relevant information to the producers and stakeholders. The industry faces major challenges, but with support from government, research alliance partners, universities, the Agricultural Research Council and private research service providers, CRI will continue to execute world-class research and bring this information to the producer at ground level in order to ensure a lucrative industry for South Africa. Hannes Bester, Sean Moore, Vaughan Hattingh, Paul Fourie, Hoppie Nel, Jon Pinker, M.C Pretorius, Tim Grout (CRI personnel). Keynote Speakers, Georgios Vidalakis, Megan Dewdney, Peter Johnson, Tim Williams, Evan Johnson, Magally Williams, Jim Graham, Graham Barry (Absent in photograph : Wilma du Plooy and Zak Laffite). Noordchem Golf day Participants. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY CRI 63

66 ADVERTORIAL FARM COSTING SOLUTIONS Nuwe produkte en dienste inkorporeer die jongste tegnologie Die afgelope 20 jaar het Farm Costing Solutions (FCS) hulself as die leier in harde- en sagteware oplossings vir die bestuur van uitgawes en arbeid in die landbou gevestig. Met hul innoverende produkte en uitstaande kliëntediens het FCS van Suid- Afrika se top landbouondernemings soos, die DuToit Groep, De Keur, Fruitways (Melsetter), Namibian Grape Company, Cape Orchard Company en Capespan, ingepalm. FCS is bekend vir Time Management Solutions (TMS) dit is n stelsel wat elektronies die papierwerk vir alle arbeidverwante aktiwiteite op die plaas uitskakel o.a. Tyd en Bywoning, Stukwerk en Taak-kosteberekening. FCS se sagteware sluit ook in n Betaalstaatpakket (Payroll), asook n volledige Plaasbestuurpakket wat n verskeidenheid van kostes op die plaas, soos die spuitprogram, bemesting en die voertuigvloot, vereenvoudig en bestuur. Om te verseker dat hulle in die toekoms steeds die voortou neem, het FCS n aantal nuwe produkte en opgraderings gedoen. Dit sluit in die herskryf van sagteware, n splinternuwe leser en Kommunikasie Bediener (Hub). Eers na indringende konsultasie met hul bestaande kliënte, is die nuutste tegnologie inkorporeer. Dus is dit geen verrassing toe FCS die nuutste produktereeks onlangs in Ceres bekendgestel het, dat talle nuwe maatskappye ingekoop het nie. Verbeterde sagteware Die ingenieurs van FCS het al die sagteware in n sentrale SQL databasis herskryf. SQL sorg vir die naatlose integrasie tussen al die FCS produkte dit sluit in TMS, Betaalstaat en die Plaasbestuurpakket. Kliënte kan hul eie verslae skryf en data aanpas om aan hul unieke behoeftes te voldoen. Ander voordele van die nuwe sagteware is dat dit vinniger en meer stabiel is, n groter databasis het, sekuriteit verbeter is, opgradering van sagteware is vinniger en oordrag tussen verskillende toestelle verloop glad. Ons het baie tyd en hulpbronne gebruik om die sagteware in SQL te herontwikkel. Die pakette integreer nou naatloos en is aansienlik beter as die ou stelsel, sê Fritz Wesson, stigter van die maatskappy. V5 elektroniese leser slim en gebruikersvriendelik Die nuwe V5 draagbare leser is n slimmer en meer gebruikersvriendelike toestel en is volgepak met nuwerwetse eienskappe. Die slanker en kleiner ontwerp beteken dat die toestel maklik in n broeksak pas, maar is terselfdertyd sterk genoeg om die eise van die plaaslewe te weerstaan. Die Lithium-polymer battery sal tot twee dae hou voor dit herlaai moet word. Ander nuwe kenmerke is dat die werknemer se besonderhede, die boord, aktiwiteit en variëteit aangedui word. Daar is ook n LCD liggie en n GPS opsporingstelsel. Toekomstige programmering: Die leser het vier digitale en vier anoloog metodes vir toevoer en uitvoer asook n ingeboude GSM-skyfie met n simkaart gleufie. Sagteware gaan ontwikkel word om GSM (selfoonkommunikasie), n biometriese skandeerder, n koppelvlak vir draaihekke en magnetiese deure, n skaal- of vragsel en n kamera, moontlik te maak. Die taal en ander inligting wat op die skerm vertoon word, kan ook indien nodig vir elke gebuiker aangepas word. Die nuwe lesers het stoorruimte vir +/- 60 miljoen transaksies in vergelyking met van die ou toestelle. Alle data word op n 8 gigagreep (GB) SD-kaart, wat beskerming bied teen harde stampe, 64 PROMOSIE FEB/MAART 2017

67 magnetiese velde en weerlig, gestoor. Drie baie prominente knoppies maak dit maklik om tussen Tyd en Bywoning, Stukwerk en Taakkosteberekening oor te skakel. Inligting oor individuele werkers kan direk van die toestelle verkry word en toesighouers kan maklik n werker, of n span, se werkverrigting monitor. Werkers se name en vordering word op die skerm vertoon wanneer hulle hul veegkaartjies trek. Om bedrog te voorkom, het elke leser n tyd-houer wat verhoed dat werkers meer as een keer binne n sekere tydperk kan registreer. Waar die ou stelsel net vir een registrasie voorsiening gemaak het, kan die registrasieperiode(s) nou vir elke leser afsonderlik gestel word. n Alarm word aktiveer as n werker binne die stellings probeer registreer. Kommunikasie Bediener (Hub) Die Kommunikasie Bediener is ontwikkel om dit makliker te maak vir kliënte om data af te laai. Met die vorige stelsel is data direk vanaf die leser na die kliënt se rekenaar gestuur. Beurtkrag en wanfunksie van Windows het baie probleme veroorsaak. Na gesprekke met ons bestaande kliënte, het ons besef dat die probleme met die direkte oordrag van data na die rekenaars móét aangespreek word. Faktore wat buite ons beheer is, soos byvoorbeeld kragonderbrekings en rekenaarprobleme, het somtyds verhoed dat die data korrek aflaai. Met die nuwe bediener is daardie probleme iets van die verlede, sê Wesson. Lesers word op die leserrak (rack) ingeprop en data word na die Kommunikasie Bediener gestuur na aangang van skedules daar word dit gestoor totdat die rekenaar (PC) gereed is om dit te aanvaar. Die ingeboude battery beteken ook dat die Bediener sonder elektrisiteit kan funksioneer. Twee SD-kaart gleuwe (aktiewe data en rugsteun [backup]) verseker dat tot soveel as 60 miljoen transaksies veilig gestoor kan word. Vanaf die Kommunikasie Bediener kan data deur n USB-kabel of deur die Ethernet (PC netwerk) oorgedra word. Toekomstige programmering: Aangesien die Bediener n ingeboude GSM-skyfie met n simkaart gleuf het, gaan sagteware ontwikkel word om deur die selfoonnetwerk te kommunikeer. Dit beteken dat lesers en leserrakke wat aan die Bediener gekoppel is, ver verwyderd kan wees en steeds data via GSM na die lonekantoor kan oordra. Toekomstige ontwikkeling FCS gebruik kliënte se lisensiegeld vir verdere ontwikkeling. Wesson sê dat van die nuwe produkte wat vir die afsienbare toekoms beplan word, is biometriese identifikasie, weegvermoë en n alkohol-toetser (breathalyser). FCS beplan om n toepassing (app) bekend te stel, en oorweeg om die databasis in die cloud te huisves. Ons bly op hoogte met globale tegnologiese ontwikkelings en inkorporeer dit in ons produkte. Dit alles dra daartoe by dat ons kliënte hul besighede op die mees doeltreffende en koste-effektiewe wyse kan bestuur, sê Wesson. Vanuit hul hoofkantoor in Kaapstad bedien FARM COSTING SOLUTIONS boere dwarsoor Afrika. Vir meer inligting kontak: Landlyn: +27 (0) Fritz Wesson: +27 (0) of Val Harker: +27 (0) of FEB/MARCH 2017 ADVERTORIAL 65

68 'A Pear Affair' ELISE-MARIE STEENKAMP More than a hundred international and local pear enthusiasts joined the Pear Revolution and gathered in Simondium in November 2016 to attend the 9th annual Interpera World Pear Congress, which was held in South Africa for the first time. INTERPERA 2016 join the pear revolution Nicholas Dicey, chairman of the South African Apple and Pear Producers Association (SAAPPA) said it was an honour for the local industry to host such a prestigious event. This is a great opportunity to learn from one another and to tackle global industry challenges together. It is also an opportunity for our local growers to network with our international colleagues and global role-players. Jacques Dasque, Secretary General of AREFLH, said throughout the world the pear was never well represented at international events, but with Interpera the pear has found its place in the universe of fresh fruit. The industry is dynamic and Interpera is a platform where we share technical biological innovations, trade trends and discover how different countries produce their fruit. International business analyst, Chantell Ilbury, discussed future scenarios for the South African and international pear industry. We operate in a global environment where changes happen globally. We are in the age of uncertainty. It is easy to feel insecure and react accordingly. The challenge is to identify red flags, connect the dots, analyse risks, and look for options and make strategic decisions. The decisions you make today, will have implications five to ten years from now, when the business world could look very different. With Brexit and Trump we can expect international trade to push away Jacques du Preez (HORTGRO Manager: Trade & Markets), Nicholas Dicey (Chairman of the South African Apple and Pear Producers Association), Dr Richard Volz (New Zealand pear breeder) and Chantell Ilbury (business strategist). IF YOU HAVE MISSED THE EVENT, FIND THE PRESENTATIONS HERE: events-newsroom/ The Graskoue Trappers, a Rieldans group from Wupperthal, entertained the overseas guests. 66 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

69 Congress Day 1, Last Session Speakers: (FLTR) Ignasi Iglesias (IRTA), Manel Simon Barbero (Afrucat), Luciano Trentini (AREFLH), Filip Fontaine (BelOrta), Phillipe Appeltans (Verbond van Belgische Tuinbouwveilingen [VBT]), Jean-Marie Fabre (Vergers de Beauregard), Jacques du Preez (HORTGRO), Jacques Dasques (AREFLH), Mariette Kotzé (HORTGRO), Bob Gix (Pear Bureau Northwest), Vincent Guérin (ANNP) and Joan Serentill Rubio (Fruilar). from globalisation to a more protectionist stance. However in Africa we should look for collaborations between regions, based on the food, energy and water nexus. In an uncertain economic world, the fruit industry would be wise to invest in research and technology to make sure products are consistent and of high quality. Dr Richard Volz, well-known New Zealand pear breeder, explained their quest to find the perfect pear. According to Volz they are trying to create a ready-to-eat pear that will satisfy consumers from different countries. Even though the South African pear industry is a small international player, about 50% of our pears are exported. South Africa can definitely lay claim to the title of producing the best tasting fruit in the world, said Jacques du Preez, HORTGRO Manager: Markets & Trade. We have a unique climate with lots of sunshine that help our growers to produce sweet tasting fruit. According to an international report South Africa has been ranked number one for its production efficiency. That means we manage to produce more pears on less hectares than any other country in the world. Even though pear consumption has not really grown, the South African pear industry is buoyant and healthy, he said. The quest for the perfect pear ENGELA DUVENAGE Thousands of years ago, Chinese farmers in the Yellow River Valley unintendedly started one of the world s first pear breeding programmes. By going about their normal way of life they helped select one of the core characteristics that Chinese pears are known for a very long storage and shelf life. They stored fruit in caves, to have food available during winter when times were tough, said Dr Richard Volz, who heads up the leading apple and pear breeding programme of the New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research (PFR). They collected seeds from those that survived the longest, and planted them out over hundreds and hundreds of years, until Chinese pears were selected for very long storage periods. At Interpera Volz reported on the PFR s pear breeding efforts since 1983 at Havelock North on the North Island and Riwaka in the Nelson region of the South Island. We want to develop a new type of pear that is more convenient to the consumer, one they can eat any time, that is already ripe, can be eaten off FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 67

70 THE BUILDING BLOCKS Apple varieties mainly have one species at their core. The major eating varieties of pears, on the other hand, can all be traced back to three species. These are also used in PFR s breeding programme: The European pear (Pyrus communis) has diverse and strong aromatic flavours and soft and buttery textures. It requires postharvest chilling and conditioning, and ripens quite quickly, which leaves a narrow eating window. The Japanese pear or Chinese sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) can be eaten straight off the tree or after storage. It has a fine, crisp and juicy texture. It ripens on the tree, but not after picking. The Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) can be stored for extended periods and is slow to ripen. Its lightly sweet flesh is crisp, juicy yet coarse, but can sometimes have stone cells. the tree and has a long eating window, he set out the motivation behind the PFR s interspecific pear programme. It s about delivering a consistently great eating experience. To do so, PFR researchers play with different complementary combinations of the prime qualities of the three most prominent species of pear (European, Japanese and Chinese, see side bar). These include selecting for bright skin colouring and specific shapes, a high scuffing tolerance and resistance to flesh spot decay, a storage disorder typical of Asian species. In the process first generation varieties such as Crispie and Maxie have been bred, but these have not yet had commercial success. Volz pointed out that despite the genetic variety in pears being huge there has in recent ARC efforts continue to prevent superficial scald on 'Packham s Triumph' pears The Agricultural Research Council (ARC) is continuing trials to find the best nonchemical way to control the development of unsightly superficial scald on the more than 5.8 million cartons of Packham s Triumph pears being exported each year. Based on their findings technologies have over the past few years been made available to the local industry on for instance how to best use Dynamic Controlled Atmosphere (DCA) storage systems for apples and pears. The postharvest work was started by Kobus van der Merwe of the ARC Infruitec Nietvoorbij, and has been taken forward since his retirement by Anél Botes. At Interpera, Botes reported on the latest trials conducted during the 2015 and 2016 season on fruit picked in Grabouw and Ceres. The trials set out to establish the shortest time that is needed for pears to be exposed to DCA conditions before scald starts to develop. According to Botes, no scald was found after any of the exposure periods tested. The maximum period was 20 weeks of DCA, followed by a 10 week shipment-handling period. Botes however noted that once the shelf life of the DCA-stored fruits was over, these were less firm than fruit stored under regular atmosphere conditions. A study she conducted in 2015 in Grabouw and Ceres showed that scald does not develop when DCA is applied in controlled yet interrupted sessions during a 32-week storage period. Pears can then be shipped off to arrive on shelves six weeks later, without signs of scald being noted. A cycle of sixteen weeks of DCA treatment, followed by two weeks at regular atmosphere and then another sixteen weeks of DCA treatment was tested. Such intermittent breaks do not reduce the efficacy of DCA, said Botes. The ARC s work is continuing to also include further investigations into the use of the advanced control of respiration technique (ACR), repeated low oxygen stress (RLOS), and its combination with among others controlled atmosphere and ultra-low oxygen storage. 68 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

71 decades been very little innovation in terms of new marketable varieties. He believes that new breeding tools such as large-scale DNA fingerprinting and genotyping which allows for a better understanding of the genetic profile of species will be a time-saver. It could cut down considerably on the 13 years currently required on average to go through the pre-commercial testing phases of new varieties. It will revolutionise the breeding process of tomorrow, Volz said. Genomic selection helps us determine which plants in the next populations have the best phenotype or fruit quality traits to take forward, he explained the methods used at PFR. Such sifting is done when the seedling is only 2 cm high, and is therefore much more time-efficient compared to the five years that just the fruit quality measurements of current breeding efforts require. PremP009 One of the PFR s successes is PremP009, a pear with a red skin colour that brightens from a dark brown-red to a more vibrant red during maturation. It has a crisp, juicy flesh right from harvest. Its European pear flavour develops during storage, which makes it ideal for shipping to export markets that require extended shipping periods. Skin colour changes during maturity is a major harvest index for PremP009, said Volz. Prevar markets and licenses it as PIQA Boo under a new fruit brand called PIQA. Prevar is tasked with commercialising material coming from PFR s apple and pear breeding programmes. US Plant Patent laws do not allow new hybrids to be tested in public forums such as shopping malls. Therefore formal consumer testing panels are carried out at PFR s sensory laboratories and are used as part of the Institute s selection processes. Tasting studies are sometimes carried out in rooms fitted with red light bulbs, to take away some of the visual cues that testers might otherwise respond to. Consumers have so far responded favourably to PIQA Boo, and have picked up on its juiciness, crispness, sweet, floral and tropical taste. This taste profile is in line with how consumers in previous studies have described their ideal pear. Chinese New Zealanders (as representatives of the Asian market) for instance rated the juiciness, sweetness and crispness of PIQA Boo highly and as being close to their ideal pear. With new interspecific pear hybrids there might also be a need to consider new tree architectures, changes in tree system management and a move away from using central leaders. It might also allow more mechanisation in our orchards, Volz hinted. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 69

72 New options to chemically thin 'Forelle' pears? Thinning is a tricky business. It is a constant weighing up of fruit size versus yield, as well as of cost. I n South Africa all chemical thinning products must be registered per cultivar, which requires a great deal of testing before a specific product can become part of a producer s arsenal. Chemical and mechanical thinning methods and the registration of new products for use on fruit as alternatives to hand thinning are among the issues investigated by Prof Karen Theron of the Department of Horticulture at Stellenbosch University. Various field trials are being done as part of her work as HORTGRO Science Chair in Applied Pre-harvest Deciduous Fruit Research. Theron reported on products being tested for use in Forelle pear orchards at Interpera. Forelle is a relatively small fruited cultivar, and therefore can have different thinning requirements than for instance Bon Chretien. Trials at Lushof near Ceres and Oak Valley Estates near Grabouw were completed in collaboration with Schalk Reynolds of Philagro SA and Gustav Lötze of Stellenbosch University. Theron reported that a combination of products seems to be one possible way to go. Some of the best results came from a tank-mix of naphthylacetic acid (NAA, sold as PoMaxa ) combined with 6-benzyladenine (6-BA, sold as MaxCel ), rather than when the products were used on their own. While it does reduce the fruit set and the amount of hand thinning needed, there is no sign that the mixture impacts on yield, which is a good thing, said Theron, who noted that the registration of the NAA/6-BA combination for Forelle will follow soon. Two studies showed that S-Abscisic acid (ABA, sold as ProTone ) works very well as a thinning agent. As a bonus, fruit size is also increased significantly when ABA is used at 100 g to 150 g per 100 litres of water. Theron did point out that in extreme cases necrotic spots developed on some leaves, but she did not deem it to be a big problem. More 'know how' about chilling pears ANDREA CUCCHI AgroFresh researchers are constantly testing new ways to use SmartFresh technology, so that the best possible advice can be given to customers using it in their cool storage regimes. Studies in Argentina have among others shown that William pears can be protected from developing senescent scald even when the fruits have been harvested a week or two later than is normal, before being treated with SmartFresh during storage. It allows you to pick later, but not too late, said Andrea Cucchi, AgroFresh Research and Development Manager for Europe, the Middle East and Africa at Interpera. There s a fine art in defining the correct application timing. AgroFresh markets SmartFresh, a synthetic produce quality enhancer containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). It is used in storage facilities and shipping containers and is often combined with controlled atmosphere technology to slow down the ripening process and eventual production of ethylene in fruit. In the 70 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

73 Position, position, position makes the difference pears growing on the outside of a tree in full sun seem destined to develop Forelle soft, dry and mealy flesh, while those within the confines of a shady canopy tend to ripen to be soft, moist and juicy. This is one of the preliminary findings from Stellenbosch University (SU) student Rudolph Cronje s MSc study in Horticultural Science on the preharvest canopy conditions influencing the postharvest quality of the second most popular pear cultivar farmed within South Africa. Cronje wants to find out if and why some Forelle pears are more predisposed to mealiness than others. He will also investigate the influence of the microclimate within the canopy and pollination on fruit anatomical differences which may predispose some fruit more than others to mealiness development postharvest, his study leader, Dr Elke Crouch of Stellenbosch University explained at Interpera. Crouch has been researching mealiness in Forelle pears since In the process Crouch and her students have established that the condition tends to occur in: Larger, softer fruit with a higher sugar content; Fruit with a higher sugar content and a redder colour on the blush side. Normally the spaces between the flesh cells are very tiny. Mealiness is created when these cells move apart, which then leads to large air spaces and even cell breakage and damage to pores, Crouch explained. The development of mealiness cannot be spotted with the naked eye. This makes it difficult for producers and packhouses to predict which fruit once ripened will ultimately be a let-down to consumers. Through different projects SU researchers have established that such predictions can be made using different non-invasive scanning methods. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) can be used on farm and packhouse level to predict the occurrence of mealiness, based on among others sugar content and hue angle. Statistical models such as OPLS discriminant analysis are used in the process. Scanning the neck of a ripe pear with X-ray computer tomography reveals tell-tale signs of mealiness, such as higher cell porosity and dense and dark voxels between cells. process the lifespan of stored fruit is extended. Climatic variables, the correct dose calibration and the monitoring of crops are all essential parts of the process, said Cucchi. Fruit from an orchard in a warm region for instance has different requirements to those picked in cooler regions. Studies in Chile showed that there is also value in delaying the SmartFresh application until the very beginning of the climatic peak, said Cucchi. The concentration of SmartFresh to apply depends on the volume of ethylene being produced during cold storage, and at what stage in the cold storage process this is applied. There isn t one unique recipe to fit all different conditions in one go, Cucchi added. Cucchi noted that there is also value in using SmartFresh together with other storage options, such as low oxygen stress technologies (LOS). It can in fact extend the shelf life quality of certain varieties. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 71

74 USDA EXPERT: There s a Plan B to handle apple replant disease There s no need to pine for the days when the unlimited use of chemicals to control apple replant disease (ARD) was still allowed. Experiments show that soils can be biologically 'fumigated' adequately using anaerobic soil disinfestation methods or by working in Brassica seed meal. These methods are in any case better for soil life, and may yield more resilient and productive cropping systems than is currently the case with chemical fumigation. KEY CONCEPTS Apple replant disease (ARD) is often experienced after a piece of land has been replanted with the same species of plant that was previously grown on it. In apples, it means that trees that are planted on old orchard ground do not attain the same potential in terms of yield and growth compared to that observed on sites not previously planted with apple. ARD goes hand in hand with the occurrence of various combinations of fungi and nematodes in the soil. It is also known as sick soil syndrome and is not only limited to apples. It is also a thorn in the side of gardeners who tend roses and producers of plums, pears, almonds and many other fruits. Fumigation is a pest control method which is used to sterilise a specific area or piece of land. With chemical fumigation for instance, gaseous pesticides or fumigants are injected or sprayed into an area. In the process the pests within are suffocated be it a building, grain, soil or wood. The method is also used to suppress ARD. Brassica plant species belong to the mustard family. It includes vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, turnip and canola, as well as a few types of weeds. Seed meal is what remains after oil has been extracted from seeds, such as canola or cotton. It is used in animal feed or as organic fertiliser. This is according to soil microbiologist Dr Mark Mazzola of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). He was the main speaker at a well-attended mini-symposium hosted by HORTGRO and Stellenbosch University in September. We started off using broad spectrum chemicals because they were cheap, readily available and because we knew so little about the disease itself and how it differed from one area to another, Dr Mazzola acknowledged. Because researchers now know more about the dynamics of the disease, there is a move away from a one size fits all approach to the use of more specific interventions per production region. However, much depends on the region in which an orchard is found, the soil types and the soil life. Dr Mazzola and his colleagues have been doing ARD trials for the past twenty years in 13 orchards throughout Washington State, the dominant apple production region of the US. In the process they have pinpointed fungi like Ilyonectria and Rhizoctonia, many species of Phytophthora and Pythium, and the lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans as among the causal agents of ARD. Phosphonates give roots a boost Makomborero Nyoni. Stellenbosch University plant pathology PhD student Makomborero Nyoni is investigating how to use phosphonates (H₃PO₃) at best to control the soil borne root rot and crown rot causing pathogen Phytophthora cactorum in young non-bearing apple trees. Through his research he has further found phosphonates to be one of the key semi-selective chemicals that can potentially be used to manage apple replant disease. Phosphonates are already used to treat sudden oak death in Europe and root rot in Australian and South African avocado trees. Phosphonic acid (also known as phosphites) is the breakdown product of phosphonates in plants. The esters or salts of phosphoric acid is not very toxic, is biodegradable and not too costly. I hope the research will ultimately lead to the registration of phosphonates for use in apple orchards in South Africa, says Nyoni. His trials involve different concentrations and formulas of phosphonates, and the testing of application methods such as foliar sprays, soil drenching and stem sprays. Preliminary data Nyoni has applied phosponates to young trees 72 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

75 They have also made great strides in testing the value of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and mustard seed meal soil amendments. Their work started off on Californian strawberry farms, and now extends to other types of fruits such as apples and raspberry. A 25% increase in yield was noted in an orchard planted with Gala apples on M9 rootstock. It was established on soil to which a seed meal mixture of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and white mustard (Sinapsis alba) was added the year before. The formulation among others biologically suppressed the re-infestation of plant pathogenic lesion nematodes and Pythium species found in the soil. According to Dr Mazzola, ASD is all about suppressing soil-borne pathogens under anaerobic conditions by adding carbon sources and water. In strawberries, for instance, it entails working in labile plant material that is easily degraded by soil microoganisms, irrigating fields to their capacity and covering the soil with a virtually impermeable film such as tarp. This traps biologically active volatiles and prevents oxygen infiltration. Promising results were found after a nursery trial was conducted on a replant site over two growing seasons. The increase in diameter of apple trees cultivated in ASD treated soils was equivalent to that attained in response to soil fumigation. "Grass is a good source of carbon to use in orchards, because it is readily available and generates effective chemical and biological disease control, advised Dr Mazzola. He added that producers should experiment with different plant materials and seed meals to find the most cost-effective and best solutions. In California for instance, prices skyrocket after strawberry farmers started using rice bran almost exclusively when implementing ASD. Dr Mark Mazzola. History of managing apple replant disease Until 2014 the odourless gas methyl bromide was the go-to pesticide and fumigant to control apple replant disease. The use of this chemical was however restricted by the Montreal Protocol after it was realised that it leads to ozone layer depletion. Since then, chemicals such as 1,3-Dichloropropene and chloropicrin have been used, but these too are now being phased out in among others the European Union because of health concerns. In the US, more and more restrictions are being placed regionally on the fumigants that can be used. Some, such as methyl iodide, was withdrawn after only one year on the market, while for others, such as 1,3-dichloropropene in California, use are geographically restricted to a specific quantity in a given year. planted on fumigated soil. Preliminary data from these trials show that: Phosphonates have no negative influence on tree growth. Even though it is labour intensive, stem painting works best to deliver high quantities of phosphites to the root system of apple trees. Applications during winter allow phosphite to persist better in a tree s root system. For best results a top-up application is required in summer. When using stem sprays, higher concentrations must be used. Foliar sprays involving ammonium phosphonate or potassium phosphonate showed promising results for summer applications. Testing, testing Data from among others avocado tree studies in Australia suggest that the higher the concentration at which phosphonates are present in plant tissue, the better it is able to help control diseases. Unfortunately no commercial laboratory tests are available in South Africa to test phosphite concentrations in apple roots. Therefore Nyoni together with the Central Analytical Facility at SU developed an analytical chemistry technique using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is easily reproducible and allows us to statistically accurately determine what the impact of different treatments is, he explains. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 73 CONTINUED ON PAGE 72

76 Apple replant disease under spotlight ENGELA DUVENAGE Prof Adele McLeod. " Many a producer knows the exasperation of chemically cleaning an orchard before it is replanted, only to note in due course that apple replant disease (ARD) still affects the growth and yield of the new trees. Nursery material is the more likely external inoculum source of such continued ARD growth reductions, while irrigation water is only so on occasion, noted Prof Adéle McLeod of the Department of Plant Pathology at Stellenbosch University (SU) at the recent HORTGRO mini-symposium on ARD. It is also possible that fumigation was conducted incorrectly, she added when presented findings from various HORTGRO funded SU research projects on ARD done in recent years. In one of these, masters student Sharooz Moein tested irrigation water of several farms in the Koue Bokkeveld and Elgin/Grabouw areas. Overall, most disease-causing pathogens were found in less than 10% of water samples. The harmful soil-borne pathogen Phytium irregulare, which inhibits yield in many crops, was detected in 50% of the orchard irrigation water. Rootstocks from 400 trees in five local nurseries were analysed in 2013 and Most trees (80-100%) were infected with Pythium irregulare. Also worrying was that high numbers of lesion-causing nematodes from the Pratylenchus genus were found in one in every five young trees (22%) tested in Pratylenchus infestation levels varied from nursery to nursery. Because there are no visible symptoms by which to recognise whether plant material is infected or not, it becomes a bit of a lucky packet for producers purchasing nursery trees, says Prof McLeod. DNA identification methods are available, but can be costly. I therefore think that the benefit of fumigating soils before replanting is reduced when ARD pathogens are again introduced to orchards through external inoculum sources, she added. Prof McLeod says a one-size-fits-all approach to managing ARD is difficult. This is because a range of pathogens associated with ARD have been detected in Western Cape orchards in different combinations, depending on the production area. Research conducted by Stellenbosch University doctoral student Makomborero Nyoni has shown that there is value in using semi-selective chemicals (phenylamides, imidaclorpid, phosphonates and fenamiphos) within the first three years of an orchard s establishment. These could potentially improve tree growth on fumigated soils. This could be due to the suppression of pathogens on nursery material, says Prof McLeod. She says the semi-selectives should be applied in the first year, and phosphonates annually. These compounds most likely play an important role in ARD pathogen suppression, she adds. SU researchers are now also investigating the use of more environmentally friendly semi-selective treatments, such as fluopyram. Registration work is also planned for fungicides such as phosphonates and metalaxyl. 74 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

77 JORISNA BONTHUYS Soil health came under the spotlight recently at the 1st Annual Soil Health Day held in Stellenbosch in October Presentations focused on how healthy soils, rich in biological diversity can help support food security in our region According to Nemlab director Sheila Storey an understanding of soils and the employment of practices like no-till and planting cover crops can help to increase crop resilience. She believes farmers should use a soil health analysis approach to get a clear idea of soil health in their orchards and vineyards. Keynote speaker Dr Wendy Taheri, a microbial ecologist from TerraNimbus in America, discussed how soil organisms provide natural services and mechanisms that make cropping systems more resilient. Farming with minimal soil disturbance, using crop rotations and how to exploit the characteristics of soil fungi in farming, were discussed. UNLOCKING FOOD AND MINERALS A single teaspoon of healthy soil contains millions of micro-organisms, including fungi, bacteria, nematodes and other minute lifeforms, she indicated. Many of these organisms (some are tiny plants, some are tiny predators) are so small you need a microscope to see them. Yet they are part of how nature provides enough resources to support plant growth. Bacteria, fungi, (mycorrhizae) protozoa, nematodes, earthworms and microarthropods all form part of this belowground diversity that is unlocking food and minerals for crops. Dr Taheri focused on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These enigmatic microbes provide a multitude of services that result in larger, stronger and healthier plants that are more likely to survive whatever Mother Nature throws their way. This is because of the different mechanisms used to make cropping systems more resilient, said Taheri. There are many reasons why farmers should take these soil fungi seriously, she said. These mycorrhizal fungi affect every aspect of plant physiology. Taheri elaborated further that the FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 75 Science shows what many innovative farmers using conservation agriculture techniques have already discovered no-till, cover crops and crop rotations can boost soil health and fertility.

78 fungi help to increase soil fertility by making organic phosphorous available, increase drought tolerance because they make more water available and increase yield by building soil structure. They also act as a form of biocontrol because they protect crops from a variety of pathogens. Living soils are crucial to sustainable and productive farming practices, given current resource pressures, she said. In future, producers will have to farm more with less, given pressures like climate change, water scarcity and declining yields. The world is not only approaching a peak oil scenario but also a peak phosphate scenario, she indicated. This means that farmers' reliance on fertiliser cannot continue at its current rate. There is also a growing realisation that sustainable food production must work in harmony with nature, rather than against it. In a world where agricultural production must increase 70% over current production rates to provide food for 9 billion people, knowing the difference between soil and dirt becomes really important, she argued. According to Taheri the challenge is to nearly double agricultural production on less land. We can only do that if we start thinking differently about soil. We need to restore lost farmland and regenerate soil. "LESS IS MORE APPROACH" No-till, cover crops and crop rotations are having a massive effect on soil health, she said. No-till practices ensure that intricate communities of soil organisms are not disturbed. This would leave the soil biology intact and reduce erosion. Tillage destroys soil organic matter, causes a loss of soil carbon, increases CO ² respiration and reduces the water holding capacity of soil. It Healthy soils for healthy profit? If you are a fruit grower it would be a smart move to get the entire soil food web on your side in the quest to keep production profitable and sustainable. This intricate web of life secures producers' livelihoods thanks to an ancient partnership developed between plants and the tiny lifeforms that support it in the soil. Because we mostly see what appears above the ground, we tend to forget the importance and role of what is happening below ground level. Yet there is a symbiotic relationship of life below ground and life above it, says Sheila Storey from Nemlab and the Soil Health Support Centre. The ground beneath our feet is brimming with life, except where soil health has been compromised. Some scientists say that there are more species of organisms in a shovel of soil than can be found above ground in the entire Amazon rainforest. In extreme cases of overworked or compromised topsoil soil can become lifeless dirt that gets blown away. Luckily, a lot can be done to improve soil health and fertility. But first, producers need to know what they are dealing with. Storey and her team are involved in doing a series of standardised tests that give producers a snapshot of the chemical, biological and physical soil profile of their farms. This soil health analyses approach provides a window into many processes happening together at the same time in the soil. Understanding soil health is vital. You cannot manage what you do not measure, says Storey. WIDE ARRAY OF TESTS The scientists at the laboratory not only extract information by using traditional chemical tests, but also measure the soil's vitality by looking at the symbiotic relationship between the fungi that clusters around crop roots and make nutrients and water available to it. This approach, that has been gaining traction worldwide, enables producers to farm more sustainably and in ways that support living, healthy landscapes. Storey explains, It enables you to measure what is available in your soils with what nature has supplied. You then only add the chemistry that nature hasn't given you or that has got lost along the way because of certain practices. An array of tests are available to help unravel the soil profile on farms, she explains. This includes the Solvita test, the Haney test, the nematode bio-indicator test and the mycorrhizae colonisation percentage test. Collectively, these tests enable scientists to establish the soil health profiles of farms. These comprehensive 76 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

79 also reduces soil fungi populations and diversity, destroys soil structure and results in loss of nutrients and topsoil. A less is more approach to fertiliser could boost farmers and sustainable agriculture, she believed. Dr Hendrik Smith, the Conservation Agriculture Facilitator at Grain SA, said there is growing interest in conservation farming in South Africa. An estimated 1.7 million ha of land is currently under conservation farming in the country. No-tillage is gaining traction, especially in the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. The slowest pick-up towards conservation agriculture (including using cover crops and no-tillage) is currently in the Free State, Northwest and Mpumalanga, he said. Currently, about 40% of farmers are adopting conservation agriculture in the grain sector. Lots more can be done towards effective conservation farming. It will be good for the farmers and the environment. Cover crops work and are profitable, he indicated. A recent modelling case study showed maize producers can increase yield and reduce input cost by employing conservation agriculture on a commercial scale. But farmers need to do their homework, he said. That includes understanding the soil health status of their farms. To start no-tillage on a dead soil, which is low in organic matter as well as low in micro-organisms will lead to lower yields than in conventional tillage systems. Start by analysing your soil's biology. There is generally a poor understanding of soil life and how to put that life back into your soil, said Smith. Climate change will test all existing agriculture practices. We need to build resilience into our soils and crops. We need to take a long-term view. profiles are useful for producers who want to manage their input costs, she says. Soil is not a chemistry set, Willie Pretorius from Soil Health Solutions points out. Pretorius is also involved in the Soil Health Support Centre. Doing chemical tests alone will not give you a whole picture of the status of soil health, he says. Without biology, you are stuck with ph as the sole arbiter of what is available to plant roots. But add organisms, and plant nutrition is no longer ruled by chemistry alone. The Solvita test, for instance, is used as an indicator of soil health and potential nutrients in it. Continuous cultivation depletes soil biology and humus; yet normal soil nutrient tests don t reveal the loss. The SLAN test, for instance, reveals forms of organic nitrogen that are held in root and plant debris. This indicates recent biological activity and nitrogen that can potentially be mineralised. This information can be employed to adapt farm management practices if needed. The CO² turnover in the soil is improved with practices such as cover cropping and reduced tillage, which help build organic matter in the soil, says Pretorius. FOCUS ON PROFIT Like the plants need soil, so the soil needs plants. The emerging view is that the soil functions as a self-regenerating system, says Pretorius. Biology regulates crop growth delivery of nutrients and soil physical integrity. The cost of not looking after your soil can be extremely expensive. According to Pretorius large parts of the Free State topsoil has been transformed into dirt and transferred across the landscape by massive dust storms. It costs us 3 tons of topsoil to produce 1 ton of maize in this country. Clearly, this is not sustainable. Soil health can benefit tremendously from introducing the right cover crops. This is already evident in the Southern Cape and parts of the wheat producing region. Too many producers are obsessed with increasing yield when they should focus on profit. Increased soil health can help with this, says Storey. Local fruit producers are starting to explore best practices when it comes to soil health management and using cover crops, compared with some of the other agricultural sectors. Using cover crops can for instance help build more crop resilience on farms and it really is an investment in your soil, according to Storey. Visit for information. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 77

80 INTERPOMA 2016: Knowledge & science - key to fruit producers in the future DANE MCDONALD BOLZANO, ITALY Knowledge and science will play an increasingly important role in the paths chosen by fruit producers in the future, delegates heard at Interpoma 2016 held in Bolzano, Italy in November. The South African fruit industry was well represented at Interpoma (FLTR) Hannes Halgryn (Fruitways), Prof Karen Theron (SU), Johan Kotze (Dutoit Agri), Richard Myburgh (Cortina Farms), Anton Muller (Kromco). The apple capital of Europe, South Tyrol, hosted its 10th Interpoma apple trade show, which is one of the biggest events of its kind and focuses on the cultivation, storage and marketing of apples. The trade show was spread across square meters where around 450 exhibitors displayed their wares. Approximately visitors from over 70 countries were expected for the duration of the event. Dr Joan Bonany of IRTA, an agricultural and technology research institute owned by the Catalonian government in Spain, sketched a current global situation characterised obesity, poverty, biodiversity loss, population growth, and climate change. Bonany introduced delegates to a concept which he described as a word that in principle can be contradictory. Experts have coined the term sustainable intensification and Bonany believes that it makes sense. The goal of sustainable intensification is to increase fruit production while minimising pressure on the environment, he said. HORTGRO Science would like to thank the Trade Desk of the Italian Embassy in Johannesburg, especially Anna Minucci, who made this trip possible. According to Bonany technological innovation would be driven by focus areas which included light interception (orchard design), genetic resources, soil and fertiliser management, water stress, and labour vis-à-vis mechanisation. Of further importance to South African producers is the decline in European apple consumption. German fruit market analyst, Helwig Schwartau, said that Europe was undergoing a return of nationalism where consumers showed preference for eating local produce. Schwartau told HORTGRO Science that it was becoming difficult for South Africa to export apples to the European market. The [European] quality is getting better. We have better storage quality and we have had good sales in the last period of the season from May to August (2016). We only need small imports from the southern hemisphere it will decline year by year. Schwartau said that South African producers should rather focus on African markets in the future. Stephen Rabe, Director of Agricultural Services at Fruitways in South Africa, who also attended Interpoma said that while Europe provided good returns, Africa was becoming a very important market for business. Europe from a money point of view is still going to be our most important client, but from a volume point of view, I think that Africa and the emerging markets are going to become really important for us, he said. Rabe agreed that going forward science will play an important role in the evolution of the South Africa fruit industry to make it sustainable and profitable. Science and big data will decide how we farm in the future. And considering water shortages in Africa, a scientific approach will increasingly determine how we farm, he said. According to Rabe farm labour was also changing with young workers having access to technology like cell phones and data connectivity which provided more opportunities to this sector. The level of orchardists has evolved to become more technical and high-skilled, using mechanisation, probe irrigation and drones. 78 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

81 ADVERTORIAL re:inc se pienk en rooi vleis appel maak kenners se tonge los by Interpoma re:inc innovation se nuwe pienk en een rooi vleis appels het appelkenners aan die praat nadat hulle pas by die twee-jaarlikse Interpoma skou in Italië aangewys is as die beste in hul klas in die wêreld deur die appelkenners wat die skou bygewoon het. re:inc innovation het hulle nuwe appels wat in Europa geteel is bekend gestel by Interpoma, in Bolzano in die hartland van Italië se appelstreek. Daar was by hierdie jaar se kongres 450 maatskappye wat appels, masjienerie en items soos produksie insette uitgestal het. Sowat besoekers van 70 lande het oor die drie dae die skou besoek. Riaan van Wyk, CEO van re:inc innovation, sê dat 23 internasionale appelkenners genooi is om re:inc se nuwe appel seleksies te evalueer en te vergelyk met die beste appels wat vandag beskikbaar is. Oor die algemeen was hulle beïndruk met wat hulle gesien en geproe het, veral omdat een van die pienk vleis en een van die rooi vleis appels so hoog aangeslaan word. Beide die appels is geteel by die East Malling Research Centre in Brittanje en re:inc innovation het in % eienaarskap daarvan bekom. Die pienk vleis appel het n geel skil met pienk vleis wat deur die skil skyn. Dit lyk amper soos n koejawel en is baie uniek, sê mnr Van Wyk. Die vrug is baie crunchy en vol sap met n sterk aroma van jelly babies, sê hy. Volgens appelkenners is dit n ideale appel wat in die snack kategorie pas en dit behoort baie gewild te wees onder kinders. Mnr Van Wyk sê die rooi vleis appel het n unieke interne voorkoms en is helder rooi aan die buitekant. Die appel se hoë anti-oksidant vlakke sal vir baie kopers aantreklik wees. re:inc innovation teel ook appels en ander vrugte in Suid-Afrika en beskik reeds oor meer as verskillende appel saailinge. Elkeen van hierdie appels is uniek en ons kyk na hulle soos ons kinders, maar elkeen is nie noodwendig n wêreldster nie, sê Liezel Kriegler, direkteur van re:inc innovation. Sy sê re:inc innovation is veral opgewonde oor seleksies van n pienk Gala appel en n pienk skil appel wat 6 weke vroeër gepluk word as die bekende Pienk appel wat sy oorsprong in Australië het en wat internasionaal onder n bekende handelsmerk bemark word. Seleksie 36: Pienk vleis appel. Seleksie 8 : Rooi vleis appel. 'n Pienk appel wat 6-7 weke vroeër gepluk word as Royal Gala. n Pienk Royal Gala appel. Die appel word saam met Royal Gala appels gepluk maar skilkleur is pienk. Indien produsente belangstel om die proe sessies van appels en pere by te woon, is hulle welkom om te skakel met Liezel Kriegler by of Riaan van Wyk by of by die kantoornommer FEB/MARCH 2017 ADVERTORIAL 79

82 WETEN OM TE GROEIEN HORTGRO EU VISIT 2016 Hugh Campbell, Wiehann Steyn and Xolani Siboza (HORTGRO), Karen Theron (HORTGRO Chair in pre-harvest deciduous fruit research at Stellenbosch University), and Ferdie Ungerer (Witzenberg range nurseries) visited Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands during Aug/Sept 2016 with the following objectives: To learn what s new in the fields of orchard design, rootstock research and plant-environment interaction at the Orchard Systems symposium in Bologna. To ascertain new developments relating to tissue culture propagation of pome and stone fruit. To see EU best practice with regards to plant material management and nursery tree practices. To investigate best practice with regards to commercial apple and pear breeding. Assess the state of applied research in Belgium and The Netherlands. Dr Oriano Navacchi of Vitroplant explaining the virtues of a M9 rootstock plant produced through tissue culture. The sponsor board at Proeftuin Randwijk. What did we learn at the symposium? We weren t overly impressed by the state of research in this field. It is clear that whole tree physiology as a research field has lost track globally. This is probably because it is difficult to publish a lot of articles every year in this more applied field. Employers of researchers certainly find fields such as molecular biology, proteomics, and metabolomics much more rewarding. We should develop and retain access to those few key people who are equally at home in front of a scientific audience and in an orchard they are becoming a very scarce resource. Does tissue culture have a place in South Africa? For stone fruit, tissue culture is the norm in Europe and potted cultivation of nursery trees is gaining ground. Together these practices ease the propagation of difficult-to-root material and decrease disease risk. Most M9 liners in Europe are still produced in layer beds this won t change soon although interest in more difficult to root Geneva rootstocks may require other means of propagation. Poor performance in past trials gave a bad name to tissue culture production of apple trees. However, with lower hormone levels being used and tissue culture used for rootstock production rather than to establish mother blocks for liner production, there seems to be some scope for apple rootstock production through tissue culture. There is potential in South Africa for a nursery specializing in tissue culture rootstock production for various industries. What s best practice for commercial breeding programmes? The breeders that we met have a very good handle on what the market requires and what they need to breed. These private programmes are studies in efficiency. Crosses are directed at very clear targets (ideal cultivars), the juvenility period is reduced in the greenhouse, seedling numbers are reduced by strict screening and selection is then sped up by grafting to precocious rootstocks. There is a clear focus on developing improved cultivars as products in this sense, the programmes are comparable to Ford, Volkswagern and Mercedes developing new models. It s about producing a product that the client will want. Are EU nurseries better than local nurseries? EU nurseries have to be the best at producing trees in order to survive. There is much more competition between nurseries in the northern hemisphere. Nurseries cannot afford to have poorer trees than their competition this is one of the reasons why the same soil will never be 80 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

83 Hugh Campbell checking out the cherries. Knipbome at Fleuren Boomkwekerij. Some of the South Africans attending the XI International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems in Bologna, Italy. used for more than one batch of trees. Since the market is much larger in the northern hemisphere, nurseries can benefit from economy of scale and can also specialize. Life is made easier by M9 being by far the predominant apple rootstock this is why our industry should standardise on rootstocks. Can we improve on plant improvement in South Africa? Yes, we can. Nurseries obtain plant material from so-called bud parks that are planted far away from bearing orchards. Cultivars are not allowed to carry fruit in these bud parks except with cultivars like Gala that is not very stable and much care is taken to reduce disease and pest risk. It is inconceivable to the Dutch and Flemish that one would cut bud wood from commercial orchards, due to the high risk of propagating and spreading disease. What s up with applied research in the Netherlands and Belgium? Very little applied research is done at University. Applied research is mostly done by private (part grower, part agri business owned) companies. Much less technical support is available compared to South Africa. Key take-home messages? Applied whole tree physiologists are becoming scarce globally. We can improve our nursery tree quality. We can improve our management of plant material. Modern fruit breeding is a commercial enterprise that is strongly client focused and efficiency driven. Looks like there will be enough! A M9 liner bed at Vergeer Boomkwekerij. See an article on page 88 about a Stellenbosch student who scooped a horticultural award in Italy. COMPANIES AND EVENTS VISITED Congress: XI International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems Bologna, Italy. NURSERIES AND BREEDERS Vitroplant Italia tissue culture lab and nursery, Cesena, Italy (Host Dr Oriano Navacchi). Better3Fruit, Rillaar, Belgium (Host: Nico Stevens) Boomkwekerij René Nicolaï, Alken, Belgium (Host: Florent Geerdens). Boomkwekerij Johan Nicolaï, St.-Truiden, Belgium (Host: Johan Nicolaï). Fleuren Boomkwekerij, Baarlo, The Netherlands (Host: Han Fleuren). Verbeek Boomkwekerijen, Steenbergen, The Netherlands (Host: Han Verbeek). PLANT IMPROVEMENT ORGANISATIONS NAKTuinbouw (Host: Hans Konings) and Vermeerderingstuinen (Host: Gerard Jongedijk) in Horst, The Netherlands. and RESEARCH STATIONS PCFruit, St.-Truiden, Belgium (Hosts: Jeff Vercammen and Tom Deckers). Proeftuin Randwijk, Randwijk, The Netherlands (Host: Fruitconsult, Pieter van der Steeg). FRUIT MARKETING Fruitmasters at Geldermalsen, The Netherlands (Host: Henk Nooteboom). FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 81

84 JORISNA BONTHUYS FruitLook SUPPORT FOR FARMERS The face of agriculture and natural resource management is changing with satellites and remote sensing playing an increasing role to inform decision making. We look at how a service called FruitLook is strategically placed to help support local fruit producers, and agriculture in general, on their journey towards more efficient water use. More about FruitLook FruitLook is an online tool that helps farmers improve yield and save resources. It helps farmers monitor their crops and optimise irrigation. FruitLook integrates satellite data with geographical data and weather information in complex models and produces user-friendly, farm-specific maps and information for producers and consultants alike. FruitLook offers a unique view on different aspects of a production unit, including water use and crop production. This is possible thanks to its ability to collate relevant information that is not always visible to the naked eye. FruitLook allows a grower to see where an orchard or vineyard has received too much or too little irrigation. It provides the opportunity to save water and to ensure that a production unit stays within the required norms to optimise production. Almost half of the producers using it indicated they have cut their water use by a tenth. One in every ten producers says they are using almost a third (30%) less water than before. It has been a really challenging year in the agriculture sector with the effect of recent drought being felt widely, including in the local fruit sector. Last season's drought (the worst in 112 years according to the weather gurus' records) has emphasised yet again just how important efficient resource use is to local farmers. Even before last season s drought hit, water availability was already set to be the single biggest factor in limiting agriculture production. Demand is already outstripping supply in many catchment areas. In the Western Cape the heart of the country's fruit and wine producing region water allocations to the agricultural sector have already been capped. This means that water efficiency measures like precision agriculture and 'satellite farming' will be crucial for any further agricultural expansion that requires irrigation. There is an increasing need to improve the efficiency of resource use to mitigate impacts of climate change, says André Roux, Director for Sustainable Resource Management in the Western Cape's Department of Agriculture. Farmers will need to produce 'more crop per drop', especially given rising input costs and more erratic weather patterns emerging. Rising input costs (especially energy) and increased competition for water compel producers to improve their water use efficiency in terms of agricultural yield per amount of water consumed. It is imperative to measure crop water use in order to achieve high water productivity and food security, he believes. You can't manage what you don't measure, says Roux. This is where a data service called FruitLook has proven especially useful to many producers. It employs the latest satellite technology to help farmers precisely manage crop productivity, growth and water use. FruitLook uses satellitederived information to help farmers decide about optimal timing, extent and location of inputs such as water and fertiliser. As an example, FruitLook monitors just how much water is released from fruit trees and vineyards through evapotranspiration and how efficiently water is used for crop growth. Says Roux, The satellites can, for instance, tell you how well your crop is growing, how much water it is using and also how effectively it is doing that. Water user associations are also seeing the benefits of FruitLook and are encouraging their members to use it. Quinton Brynard from the Winelands Water User Association says: We encourage our members to use FruitLook, not only to use water more effectively but also to do more with the water that is available. Our resources are under incredible stress and this is not going to change in the foreseeable future. We need to find ways to do more with less. Christiaan Olivier from the Hexvallei Water Users Association believes producers can benefit from using it. The user must (however) understand the technology and spend time analysing it. Due to the expected crises with the limited irrigation water available during the 2016/17 season, the area covered by FruitLook was recently extended. The area under its satellites' scrutiny now roughly stretches from Lutzville/ Vredendal (in the north) to the Hemel en Aarde Valley (in the south) and Montagu and Bonnievale (in the east). Roux's department is currently subsidising farmers to use this high-tech remotesensing information service, free of charge. 82 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

85 Beyond the farm gate The data behind FruitLook can also be useful beyond the farm gate. It can be used for regional analysis (including research into yield prediction) and water resource management (including drought detection, water audits and water footprinting). ' In the case of FruitLook, the application of remote sensing is very specifically aimed at providing farmers with the right information to help them increase their water use efficiency (enough water at the right time). There are several 'by-products' from FruitLook's work that help to improve the efficiency of water use in agriculture in a different way. FruitLook's datasets have shown many linkages, overlaps and potential areas of collaboration with other satellite and remotesensing research underway, says independent researcher Dr Caren Jarmain. The work that underpins FruitLook is an example of where the science of agriculture and water meets, she says. Jarmain is involved in a research project on behalf of the Water Research Commission (WRC) performed by the University of Stellenbosch to determine the actual area under irrigation and the volume of water required annually for this. In this project FruitLook data is used to calibrate models that are being developed to estimate actual crop water use across the country. FruitLook is considered one of the most advanced remote sensing tools applied to local agricultural practices. Shelly Fuller, WWF- SA's Fruit & Wine Programme Manager says FruitLook and other remote sensing technologies have enormous potential to help the agricultural sector become more water use efficient. Remote sensing and satellite data services offer a valuable option for farmers, she says. It enables producers to know what to use where and when and save costs. The government can use it to establish realistic baselines in terms of water usage figures per crop and region and to establish risk areas in the future (where to shift crops across the country). FruitLook could be used for a catchment level view of water efficiency. GreenCape, a sector development agency that supports businesses operating within the green economy, is using some of the results from Fruitlook to validate crop water requirements they have calculated as part of their own water research project in the Western Cape. Although they are not currently using FruitLook for research purposes, this data could have application in water footprinting models as it provides information about crop water requirements, according to Claire Pengelly from GreenCape. Following this line of thought, David Black from the consulting service Blue North has been involved in efforts to use remote sensing data to determine the water footprints of stone fruits. He considers FruitLook as a powerful and cost-effective water management tool. Blue North has used Fruitlook's evapotranspiration data to calculate the green and blue components in their water footprinting work as part of efforts to curb water risk on farms. Says Black, Because it is modelled on real data, crop water use figures should be more accurate than those obtained through a crop water balance model (given the range of input assumptions), and obviously far more practical than actual in-field measurements. The output of a water footprint is expressed as a volume per mass of product figure (i.e. m 3 / ton) and is comprised of the green, blue and grey water components. This is not grey water in the conventional sense, but an indicator of the negative impacts of contaminants on local water resources. Says Black, It is an effective means of identifying water-related risks and opportunities within agri-value chains, and communicating these risks and opportunities with stakeholders further up the value chain. Regular and consistent recording of remotesensing data, combined with withdrawal quotas and records, can also CONTINUED ON PAGE 85 FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 83

86 Propagating change WIEHANN STEYN People have likened the planning and planting of an orchard to building a jigsaw puzzle. A lot of different pieces need to fit together seamlessly for the orchard to be a success. If any piece is missing or doesn t fit properly, the puzzle cannot be completed and orchard will be less than picture perfect. "Progress lies not in enhancing what is, but in advancing toward what will be." KHALIL GIBRAN Unfortunately, growers often do find that one of the corner pieces in their puzzle doesn t fit. This square peg in the round hole tends to be the quality and establishment performance of nursery trees. Planning and planting an orchard with poor quality nursery trees is akin to planning for a road trip through Africa, ordering a big 4x4 from the rental company, and then to be handed a skedonkie at collection you are going to arrive somewhere, but it is more likely to be Carnarvon than Cairo One of our jobs (as we see it) at HORTGRO Science is to identify and then hopefully dissolve sticky issues. These issues are complicated, enduring and tough structural or systematic shortcomings that hamper progress in our industry and affect our competitiveness. Local breeding as well as cultivar and rootstock evaluation were the sticky issues that got much attention in However, growers that read the SAFJ, attended the June symposium or SAPO s nursery day, would have noticed that we are getting around to nursery tree quality, one of the most revenue limiting sticky issues in our industry and one of of our grower s biggest gripes. It may sound like it, but this blog article is not going to be about blaming nurseries. All the nurserymen I know would like to produce trees that are all uniformly 2 m tall, perfectly hardened off at the time of lifting, all surviving and going off like a rocket after planting. I also acknowledge that mistakes sometimes happen after the trees have left the nursery while sometimes the vagaries of our soils, or climate and Murphy s Law is to blame for poor tree performance the reader is referred to the 4-article series on nursery tree quality and handling errors that were published in the SAFJ and is available at document-archives/. This article is thus more about acknowledging that nursery tree quality can be improved and providing the reader with my thoughts on this as well as a glimpse of how we intend to drive improvement. Big problems are not tackled in a haphazard way. It takes time to strategize and draw up action plans to resolve sticky issues. It takes even longer for positive change to happen due to inherent inertia in changing the way we do (and have always done) things. To improve nursery tree quality, we first need to know what the problems are ergo the 4-article SAFJ series looking at nursery tree quality from a physical, physiological and health perspective, fact finding visits to other countries and talks with other fruit industries (grapes, avo, etc.) to establish nursery best practice. The problems need to be acknowledged and it takes a while to collect the data and gather enough information to convince affected parties that we actually do have problems and that they can be solved. This is where Lizel Mostert s research comes in. Lizel has been researching the pathogen status of clean nursery trees and the possible sources of contamination. The evidence suggests that we should minimise wounding of trees to decrease the risk of infection. More such work is being done. After getting to the root of the problem, we need a clear plan of how we are going to improve nursery tree quality. At this stage we 84 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

87 involve the experts, like Prof Karen Theron, and set up a think tank (our Rootstock and Nursery Tree Quality Workgroup) consisting of nurserymen, researchers, technical experts and growers to thrash out the attributes of the nursery tree of the future. Although instructive, blindly replicating what other countries are doing might not necessarily be the best way forward in our specific conditions. Therefore, we need a testing phase to evaluate practices like growing trees in bags and planting in autumn, possibly without first defoliating. We need to research the best way to harden-off trees in autumn to remove leaves without incurring losses or damage, and we need to revisit the minimum specifications of certified nursery trees (are two roots enough?). Many bigger growers are starting up their own nurseries due to unavailability of the rootstocks they require, or to reduce the cost and minimise the risk of planting at very high densities. There is nothing wrong with this. I do believe though that we need greater specialisation to improve nursery tree quality. Preferably, we don t have locks playing flank and scrumhalves playing wing. In this regard, I am of the opinion that a gap exists for a nursery specialising in delivering on-demand rootstocks to various fruit industries. Tissue culture should be investigated as a means to produce difficult to root rootstocks so that our growers can plant the first choice rootstock for specific conditions and not the fall-back number two or three choices that work easier in the nursery rootstocks should be judged on orchard rather than nursery performance. Over the next year or two, we will keep you up to date as we embark on the journey to improve nursery tree quality available to our growers. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 83 be a powerful tool for driving catchment-scale water management discussions, especially in agricultural regions. Black adds, The capabilities of remote-sensing seem to be constantly evolving as new algorithms are developed and tested, and is no doubt the future of resource-efficient agriculture. I m sure Fruitlook, and its product offering, will continue to evolve accordingly, and it would be great to see a country-wide roll-out of Fruitlook. How does the current FruitLook fit into these regional and nationwide strategies to deal with water and environmental issues? Roux explains, FruitLook can guide the irrigators to optimise the water use in the current week. Water savings in excess of 10% are attained by users of the FruitLook data and saving water also result in electricity savings. Reduced irrigation water run-off reduces/eliminates the pollution of our rivers and streams with fertiliser enriched water, which has a tremendous positive impact on the environment. Roux believes the optimal use of the limited irrigation water available this summer season due to the drought will be crucial for farmers to produce a quality crop with the water restrictions in place. FruitLook's data will greatly contribute towards an increase in agricultural water use efficiency. This all starts by assisting irrigators to manage their limited water resources in the upcoming irrigation season. Visit for more information or send an to FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 85

88 Crop Production Final Report Summaries HORTGRO Science would like to showcase the final reports received by several researchers at the end of Here are summaries from the Crop Production Programme and the Post-harvest Programme. Chemical thinning of stone fruit PROF KAREN THERON At long last, chemical thinning may become a viable option for plum producers. Stone fruit growers in Tulbagh told HORTGRO that they really need a chemical thinning option, especially for heavy setting cultivars like African Rose. We approached thinning expert, Prof Karen Theron, who subsequently evaluated ACC, a natural plant product and ethylene precursor, for thinning efficacy in plums, peaches and nectarines. She found that ACC was very effective in thinning African Rose and other plum cultivars, were effective in some peach cultivars, but was not effective in nectarines apologies if you are a nectarine producer... Philagro SA, the distributor of ACC in South Africa, is currently conducting registration trials and we hope that ACC will soon be available commercially. Mechanical thinning of pome fruit PROF KAREN THERON Hand thinning is costly and chemical thinning can be unpredictable. Prof Theron evaluated the tractor driven Darwin 300TM and BAUM as well as the hand-held Boom Bandit TM for thinning efficiency on apples and pears. The bottom line was that machine thinning gave erratic results due to the unsuitability of our pome fruit orchards for mechanisation our orchard designs, tree shapes and orchard floors also limit the efficiency of other tasks such as harvesting and spraying and we sure need to improve in this regard by copying the more fruit, spray and labour friendly designs of our competitors. The Boom Bandit TM gave promising results and can be an alternative to chemical thinning, despite taking more time than machine thinning. Apple root study DR ELMI LÖTZE This project by Dr Elmi Lötze showed why we need local research. Any text book will tell you that apple roots can potentially grow throughout the year but peaks in white root growth these are the roots responsible for uptake of calcium generally occur just before bud break and after harvest. Elmi s work unearthed a peak in white root growth in different orchards and soil types in both Ceres and EGVV in the middle of winter! We can only speculate on how this timing of white root growth may relate to storage carbohydrate levels, bud break and mineral nutrition, bearing in mind that we may still have an active transpiration stream until late season under local conditions. Establish the effect of rest breaking agents on vegetative and reproductive development of apples in the Koue Bokkeveld and Witzenberg Valley WILLIE KOTZE The 2016/17 season will be remembered for the relatively poor bud break in the EGVV, but also in Ceres. Daan Brink and then Willie Kotze applied various rest breaking treatments over three seasons in the Koue Bokkeveld and Witzenberg Valley. The treatments increased and condensed bud break as well as improved some yield parameters in both 2011/12 and 2013/14. They only did not benefit trees in the exceptionally cold 2012 when close to 1900 Richardson chill units accumulated. Based on this research, it seems sensible to apply rest breaking agents even in the Koue Bokkeveld and Witzenberg Valleys. Willie, who now works in Ceres, says that many growers in that region have started applying rest breaking agents. 86 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

89 WIEHANN STEYN & RICHARD HURNDALL Determining the chill requirement of important stone fruit rootstocks available to the South African fruit industry LAURA ALLDERMAN The South African stone fruit industry has at its disposal a wide range of rootstocks and close to an infinite number of scion cultivars. The combinations rootstock and scion are plenty and then we also have varying climates, variable soils Laura s research on the dormancy progression of stone fruit rootstocks will make it easier to fit a scion to a rootstock for each specific orchard situation. Her findings will be used to update Dr Piet Stassen s rootstock matrix so that rootstocks can be chosen that dance to the same growth rhythm beat as the scion to which they are matched. Tolerance and susceptibility of commercial stone fruit rootstocks for plantparasitic nematodes DR PIET STASSEN Evaluating new rootstocks takes a long time and is costly. Dr Stassen together with Dr Antoinette Malan evaluated a quick-screen pot test to determine the host status of stone fruit rootstocks to ring and root knot nematodes. The results show that the pot test can indicate whether a rootstock is a host or not, but it does not indicate whether the rootstock is tolerant (grow and produce without damage) or susceptible. For the time being, field trials remain the only option to determine ring nematode sensitivity. Broken stones in plums DR MARIANA JOOSTE A substantial amount of export plums is affected by broken stones and need to be marketed as Class II a detrimental blow to income generated from this fruit! Dr Mariana Jooste and MSc student Imke Kritzinger found that warm spring temperatures, wet orchard conditions and rapid fruit growth at the start of stone hardening play the most important roles in the development of broken stones in susceptible cultivars. Growing region and the application of calcium and silicate had no effect on broken stone incidence. Until we find a way to control climatic conditions when the plum stones harden, our only option is to check new cultivars for this problem before it is planted for commercial purposes. Postharvest Final Report Summaries RICHARD HURNDALL CONTINUED ON PAGE 88 & 89 Investigation on product residue levels, and product efficacy for decay control, of Monilinia and Botrytis, dependent on method of application, product concentration and spray volume for two registered products on plums, nectarines and peaches. DR IDA PAUL, EXPERICO The different application methodologies had a marked influence on decay control. In some instances decay observed by dipping plums in fungicide solutions was significantly less than when fungicides were applied with an atomiser, with resultant residues also being notably lower. Volume of application also notably influenced the levels of decay control observed. In contrast, high volumes of certain fungicides applied to nectarines and peaches generally delivered poor decay control, along with residue levels above the default minimum residue limit. The application of Scholar at the recommended dosage, at a higher volume of application, consistently gave best results over all three fruit groups tested, for both brown rot and grey mould. It can therefore be deduced that the last mentioned product and method combination might significantly support decay control in the stone fruit industry in South Africa. FEB/MARCH 2017 TECHNOLOGY HORTGRO 87

90 Matie scoops horticulture award in Italy DANE MCDONALD A Stellenbosch University horticulture PhD student caught the attention of the international horticultural community with his work on sunburn in plums. Read the article on page 80 about the Hortgro EU visit to Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands. Brian Makeredza, aged 40, won the award for best student poster presentation at the 11th Orchard Systems Symposium in Bologna, Italy held in September According to Makeredza sunburn discolouration on the surface of fruit is caused by high temperatures and high sunlight. It s a cosmetic issue. When consumers buy plums they do not want blemishes on them, especially the export market, he says outside the Horticultural Science Department in Stellenbosch. Zimbabwean-born Makeredza says his investigation into plum sunburn builds on his prior MSc work on the same problem in apples. In my previous work in apples we realised that the issue of whether the tree is water stressed or not contributed to the susceptibility of the fruit to sunburn. For his study design Makaredza included low irrigation, normal irrigation, and high irrigation trials. We found that if you over irrigate you don t necessarily decrease sunburn. But definitely, if the tree is moisture stressed it is more vulnerable to sunburn. According to Makeredza it is recommended that trees are adequately irrigated, but water should not be wasted on over irrigation thinking that the problem will go away. During the poster session Makeredza, a firsttime visitor to Italy, had to face some engaging delegates who had prepared questions beforehand. The two and a half hour session included a viewing of around 25 posters which were judged on content, presentation, and attention to detail. He describes winning the prize as very unexpected: I was shocked and overjoyed at the same time, because I did not expect that I would win. But when I did I obviously jumped for joy. And I said oh ja, that hard work we put in finally paid off. Makeredza also attributes some of his achievement to his supervisor, HORTGRO Science Crop Production Programme Manager Prof Wiehann Steyn. He is a very strict about quality which is a very good thing that is why I would attribute winning the PhD presentation to his input, he says. Makeredza says he has always been interested in research and would like to pursue Postdoctoral research opportunities permitting. However he is keeping his focus on the task at hand to get the PhD out of the way and to take it from there. Crop Production Final Report Summaries To determine if pear cultivars, other than Forelle, can be successfully cold stored using the FEMA model. DANIEL VILJOEN, EXPERICO CONTINUED FROM PAGE 87 Williams Bon Chretien pears should only be subjected to a FEMA type programme if it is harvested at an advanced maturity (firmness of 7.4 kg). This firmness was only attained 3 weeks after commercial harvest which could be a risk in terms of fruit drop and green skin colour loss. Abate Fetel pears did not adhere to the FEMA programme in terms of crispness and sweetness. Fruit lacked sweetness and were not as juicy. It is therefore not recommended to subject Abate Fetel pears to a FEMA type programme. Cheeky pears were not crisp enough. Fruit subjected to SmartFresh SM tended to be rubbery and generally more consumers preferred untreated fruit regarding taste. It is therefore not recommended to subject Cheeky fruit to a FEMA type of programme without additional research. 88 TEGNOLOGIE HORTGRO FEB/MAART 2017

91 Tru-Cape opens Heritage Orchard to the public in February 2017 Tru-Cape Fruit Marketing, the largest marketer of South African apples and pears, is opening its Heritage Orchard of historic apple and pear trees to the public for a guided tour hosted by Tru-Cape s Quality Assurance Manager, Henk Griessel and New Varietal Expert, Buks Nel at Oak Valley Estate in Grabouw on Saturday, February 4, between 10:00 and 12:00. There will be an opportunity to see and taste historic fruit no longer in commercial production. While there is no charge for the two hour experience, places are limited to 30 people and tickets must be shown at the gate. Please note that no seating, bathroom or refreshment facilities are available in the orchard. Please wear sensible walking shoes and be sure to have appropriate weather and sun protection. Perhaps also consider visiting The Apple Museum in Grabouw. Contact Norma on tel to arrange a museum visit or, to make a reservation for lunch at The Pool Room restaurant on Oak Valley Estate, contact: tel or Booking for the Tru-Cape Heritage Orchard Open Day via Quicket.co.za or link Conducting scanning trials on additional dual-temperature regime plums, to enable successful shipping at a single temperature with the use of SmartFresh SM. HANDRE VILJOEN, EXPERICO Dual-temperature plums were treated with SmartFresh SM with and without a warming period, to overcome the coldsterilisation treatment. Quality of African Rose, Sapphire, Fortune and Ruby Red plums were best maintained over the 3 seasons of testing, by applying Smart- Fresh SM during the accumulation period, followed by no warming before shipping, and applying SmartFresh SM during the accumulation period, followed by 3 days warming at 20 C before shipping. African Rose, Sunkiss and Sapphire plums were also maintained by applying SmartFresh SM, during the accumulation period, followed by 10 days warming at 7.5 C before shipping in some of the seasons. Further testing is required. Determine the maximum delay of SmartFresh SM application for FEMA protocol DANIEL VILJOEN EXPERICO Research into the maximum delay for SmartFresh SM treatment on FEMA Forelle was established as 14 days (current recommendation 7 days) for a storage period of 6 weeks. (THE BALANCE OF THE FINAL REPORTS ARE DUE END-FEB 2017.) FEB/MARCH 2017 INDUSTRY NEWS 89

92 AT THE KITCHEN TABLE 32 - SUMMER The Lure of Aromatherapy PART 3 It is really summer the soft green mornings of early summer are forgotten and I am reminded once again of the intense heat and discomfort of the summer harvesting season on the farm. One wonderful compensation though, is the beautiful intense fragrances of the oils distilled in the summer season. The summer harvest also serves as a very necessary pruning for the bushes. I share some of my personal favourite essential oils today. Next time I will look at my favourite South African indigenous essential oils and natural organic carriers. ELMARIE DE BRUYN Cell: Using essential oils becomes a lifestyle as they are a natural way to replace unnatural chemicals with the pure, potent and concentrated cures of nature. Because of the strength, I am cautious of overusing them - please make sure to always use them safely. Note: Essential oils are concentrated - for example; 150 kg lavender flowers will only produce 1 kg of lavender oil - 1 hectare of roses will produce 1 kg of rose oil. So this illustrates how a very small amount of essential oil has the qualities of many litres of herbal tea from the same herb: 1 drop of lavender essential oil could have the same impact as 10 litres of lavender water-infusion. Use essential oils carefully and in safe quantities. A good rule is to always dilute essential oils in a carrier: water, cold pressed oils or natural plant waxes. LAVENDER True Lavender, Spike Lavender, Lavandin and Lavandula intermedia essential oil can often be confused. I cannot explain it better than the USA West Coast Institute of Aromatherapy: Although it won t give you the whole picture, this is what you can tell about these three oils by looking at their chemistry, so each oil should be evaluated on the attributes of the constituents. TRUE LAVENDER Lavandula angustifolia normally has the largest amount of esters which means that it will have the largest degree of the balancing, calming, cell regenerating, antiinflammatory at the primary phase of infections properties of the three. It also has a significant amount of alcohols which bring with them antifungal, antiviral, strong bactericidal, balancing and immunostimulant properties. SPIKE LAVENDER Lavandula latifolia has a significant amount of oxides which bring antiviral, decongestant, mucolytic, immune stimulating and stimulant properties to the oil. It doesn t have as much alcohol as True Lavender so while it will share the antifungal, antiviral, strongly bactericidal, balancing, and immunostimulant properties they will not be available in the oil to the same degree. LAVANDIN As can be expected from a hybrid L angustifolia x L latifolia, Lavandin will have elements from both oils. Lavandin has the largest amount of alcohols of the three which means that its antifungal, antiviral, strong bactericidal, balancing and immunostimulant properties are likely to be the strongest of the three. It has esters like True Lavender but not to quite the same degree so it s balancing, calming, cell regenerating, anti-inflammatory at the primary phase of infections properties won t be as strong. Apart from the curing properties of lavender, I absolutely love the scent of lavender essential oil and diffuse it as an air freshener. I sometimes add a drop of lavender to bug bites or burns to cool the sting and use it to calm a headache or sunburn. The calming and soothing qualities of lavender are well known. Use as a fragrance under pillows to help encourage a peaceful sleep. Place a few drops on a cotton ball and place it in closet for a natural moth repellent. Combine 250 ml of Epsom salt and 4 drops lavender oil and add to a hot bath. Make a basic body scrub with coconut oil, sugar, and lavender oil. Unwind with a Lavender-infused neck or back massage. Create a room freshener with Lavender oil and water to banish stale odours. Note: Contra-indications: Generally considered non-toxic, non-irritating, non-sensitizing and non-phototoxic. It is suggested that it be avoided in the first trimester of pregnancy. 90 SA VRUGTE JOERNAAL FEB/MAART 2017

93 PEPPERMINT Mentha pepperita is the mint most commonly cultivated commercially and is thought to be a hybrid between spearmint (Mentha spicata) and water mint (Mentha aquatica). It has analgesic, expectorant, digestive and cooling properties. Stimulating and cleansing, peppermint can help focus and invigorate when inhaled, and is the most powerful herb for digestion. Peppermint essential oil gives a cooling sensation and has a calming effect on the body, which can relieve sore muscles when used topically. It also has antimicrobial properties so it can help freshen bad breath and soothe digestive issues. Put a little dab under your nose first thing in the morning as a wake-up or inhale it as a pick-me-up. Mix a drop with a glass of water and gargle with it. Use it on feet for nausea or fever, on the neck area for headaches and in the diffuser. Note: Contra-indications: Avoid in pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Avoid with homeopathic remedies. Do not use with epileptics. Do not use on children under 5 years or animals. CITRUS FRAGRANCES LEMON, Citrus limon, belongs to the Rutaceae family. The essential oil is found in the rind of the fruit. Traditionally a pale yellow to mid green essential oil has been obtained from the fruit peel through cold expression, however a steam distilled oil is also available. Lemon oil is composed mainly of monoterpenes, approximately 90%, of which around 70% is limonene. Lemon has calming and clarifying properties. It can help one to think clearly and aid concentration. On the physiological level lemon has anti-fungal, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal and calming properties. Lemon is also stimulating and cleansing. Inhale it anytime you need some uplifting. Use lemon and other citrus essential oils aromatically by diffusing them in to the air. You can add drops of citrus oil to all your homemade cleaning products for a fresh and clean smell without the chemicals. Note: Contra-indications: Cold expressed Lemon Oil has mild phototoxic properties so care should be taken not to expose the skin to sun after use. Steam distilled Lemon oil is considered safe to use on the skin. BERGAMOT Citrus bergamia essential oil is commonly used for relieving psychological stress and anxiety - bergamot essential oil is great to have around as a natural relaxant. Bergamot has calming, uplifting and antidepressant properties. Bergamot has antiseptic, expectorant and anti-spasmodic properties. Note: Contra-indications: Expressed bergamot is known to cause phototoxicity when applied to the skin. Exposure to sunlight should be avoided after application. It may also irritate sensitive skin. LEMONGRASS is a fast-growing aromatic grass native to tropical Asia. Cymbopogon citratus, is native to Sri Lanka and lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus is native to eastern India. A yellow essential oil is steam distilled from the fresh and partially dried grass. The major chemical constituent of both oils is the aldehyde citral (around 80%). Lemon grass oil is useful for headaches, stress related conditions, nervous exhaustion, irritability and lack of concentration. On the physiological level it can be used for acne, athlete s foot, skin parasites, bruises, excessive perspiration, enlarged pores, oily skin and oily hair. Lemongrass brings light to the conscious mind. Strong, sweet and lemony fragrance. Note: Contra-indications: Generally considered non-toxic, possible dermal irritant so use with care with dermal applications. Avoid in pregnancy. FEB/MARCH 2017 SA FRUIT JOURNAL 91

94 ADVERTORIAL Farming is tough. So many factors cannot be controlled - especially the weather. It s a relief to rely on top quality power tools that deliver an outstanding performance, day after day. Your partner in farm and orchard maintenance has a proven history dating STIHL back more than 90 years, and we are proud to be supporting farmers in 160 countries across the globe. STIHL produces professional-grade power tools and equipment designed specifically for the demanding conditions of the agricultural sector. With its attention to user comfort and convenience, STIHL offers a choice of quality petrol, electric and battery-powered cordless products for a broad range of applications. STIHL chainsaws are the root of its reputation and stands on the podium for being the best-selling chainsaw brand in the world. From smaller models for neatening up branches to heavy duty models for removing trees, there s a STIHL chainsaw for the job. STIHL also has a range of brushcutters, with lightweight models for trimming and professional-grade models for bigger clearing tasks. Another popular part of the STIHL range are STIHL blowers, which are invaluable for clearing away dry organic material from hard to reach areas around roots and stones and can be an important element of a fire-management programme. STIHL s commitment to R&D is an essential component in ensuring that its products meet the needs of farmers, with a focus on working smarter and faster. The easy-to-use and ergonomic STIHL mistblowers and sprayers ensure the effective distribution of fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides and even seeds, and are tough enough for agricultural conditions. Another typically hard-working and much-used piece of farming equipment is the auger. STIHL augers are designed for the hardened soil of Africa and the popular BT 130 offers high torque power and combines the benefits of two-stroke and four-stroke technology with its 1.4kW STIHL 4-MIX engine. To cater for the unique needs of farmers, landscapers and gardeners, STIHL has a range of pruning equipment for all pruning applications. The HT 100 and HT 101 pole pruners are petrol powered by the STIHL 4-MIX low emission motor and have a telescopic shaft for cutting branches up to 5m high while users remain safely on the ground. The HLA 85 is a cordless model that is quietly powerful for noise-sensitive areas. STIHL also offers handheld pruning shears, loppers and secateurs for precise pruning of trees and bushes. With a legacy dating back to 1926, STIHL products deliver performance, innovation and quality, supported by superior after-sales service through a network of more than 180 expert dealers across South Africa. STIHL also offers a guaranteed 10 years spares availability on its products. By partnering with STIHL, you know that you are investing in the best, because as a farmer, you need to be able to depend with certainty on your equipment. 92 SA VRUGTE JOERNAAL FEB/MAART 2017

95 THE LAST WORD... MARIETTE KOTZÉ has been involved in the Deciduous Fruit industry for many years and has recently been appointed as the Group Operations Manager at HORTGRO. LOUISE BRODIE REPORTS... Mariette, what is your background and how did you become involved in the Deciduous Fruit industry? I had the privilege of growing up on a small farm at Waboomskraal, situated between George and Oudtshoorn in the Southern Cape. The area is now known for the production of hops but previously during the 1970 s and 1980 s the majority of the farms in this area were pome and stone fruit farms. My father had a mixed farming enterprise with mainly peaches, table and wine grapes, seasonal vegetables and cattle. This is what I knew and loved growing up so it comes as no surprise that I ended up in the agricultural industry and especially the fruit industry. After school I studied Agricultural Management at NMMU (then Saasveld) and in 2002 a number of the final year agriculture students assisted with a deciduous fruit industry survey. This was basically my first official encounter within the larger fruit industry. Later that year I was contracted by the Deciduous Fruit industry as a research assistant to assist with the processing and reporting of this data and to compile enterprise budgets. Since then I have been involved in the industry at different levels for the past 14 years and what a journey it has been! FEB/MARCH 2017 SA FRUIT JOURNAL 93

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