The negative impact of heat stress on the high yielding dairy cow

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1 The negative impact of heat on the high yielding dairy cow Cirio workshop February 8, 2017 Dr,. Israel Flamenbaum Dr. Flamenbaum (Cow Cooling Solutions) Ltd. 1

2 In these days, hot summers are considered to cause the largest economical losses to the world dairy sector (even more than mastitis and low fertility) A Large scale survey carried out by Prof. N. St. Pierre, Economist, Ohio State University St. Pierre, 2003, J. Dairy Sci. 86: (E52 E77) 2

3 .. No matter where you live, you can t afford to ignore heat. Even if it only lasts for a week or two, the lingering effect of heat can be detrimental to your pocketbook.. Shirley Roenfeldt Dairy Herd Management Magazine May

4 The problem of the dairy cow in the summer is the high heat production Described through 100W lamp (Published in Hoard s Dairyman Magazine, May 2000) A man in rest produce the heat of 1 lamp. Non lactating cow produce the heat of 9 lamps. Additional heat production of 1 lamp for every lit. of milk produced. 45 lit./day cow produces the amount of heat equivalent to 19 lamps. Exposing the cow to the sun will add 16 lamps. 4

5 The financial impact of environmental heat on the global dairy industry probably exceeds that of mastitis and other economically detrimental parameters like poor reproduction.. (N, St. Pierre, The Ohio State University, Columbus - personal communication) From: Roads et al -Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 92, 2009 No. 5:

6 6

7 Effect of heat production in heifers and lactating cows 7

8 When do cows start suffering from heat? 8

9 THI - Temperature Humidity Index 9

10 Behavior changes under Heat Stress conditions Reduce general activity Reduce rumination time Increased water consumption Reduce feed intake Seek for shaded areas Standing and crowding Seek for natural ventilation Reduce time and intensity of estrous behavior 10

11 Summer heat conditions leads to: - Decreased milk production. - Reduced milk fat and protein content. - Reduce Dry Matter (DM) consumption - Reduced feed efficiency (feed conversion to milk). - Reduced conception rate (prolongation of calving interval ). - Increase in post-calving health problems. - Impairment of udder development in late pregnancy. 11

12 Performance losses caused by heat in dairy cows Lower Peak lactation (10-15% ) Lower annual milk production (5-20%). Lower milk fat and protein content (0.4 and 0.2 percentage units). Higher milk Somatic Cell Count,SCC (100,000 units). Lower conception rate ( percentage units). Reduce heat detection rate (50%). Reduce feed efficiency ( 10 15%). Reduce immune status. 12

13 13 Seasonal changes in herd milk fat and protein content in the USA (Hoard s Dairyman - September 19, 2009)

14 14 Seasonal changes in herd cell count in the USA (Hoard s Dairyman - September 19, 2009)

15 Negative effect of heat on the fertility process Follicular development ovum quality Ovulation time in relation to time of estrus and artificial Insemination. Reduce the duration of estrus (lowering heat detection probability) Reduce fertilization probability. Reduce conception rate Increase early and late pregnancy losses. 15

16 Two main factors influencing the interaction between heat conditions and feed efficiency 16

17 22 C 32 C 17

18 Nutritional efficiency ביגוןas related כלכלי משקי to level כלליים ניתוח of production נתונים ( Kg DM of feed required to produce 1 lit. of milk) ק"ג ח"י לליטר חלב וליטר חמ"א לפי תנובה Litros/vaca ליטר R 2 = R 2 = חיMilk לליטר חי LCE* לחממ ליניארי )חי Milk לליטר( ליניארי )חי LCE לחממ( * LCE = Energy Corrected Milk 18

19 The increase in feed efficiency in heat conditions Normal conditions kg milk to 1 kg feed DM Heat Stress conditions 1.2 kg milk to 1 kg feed DM Decrease in feed efficiency) by 15 % In Italian farm conditions this means loosing annual income potential of 90 Euro per cow/year!!! (feeding cost of 5 Euro/cow/day X 120 summer ful days X 15%) 19

20 .. Production losses during heat are Just the tip of the iceberg. You must account for the losses that occur after the heat subsides... Shirley Roenfeldt Dairy Herd Management Magazine May

21 residual effect of cooling cows in summer Dhuyvetter et. al Kansas State Univ. Heart of America Dairy Management Conference, St. Joseph. MO. 21

22 A Large scale survey carried out by Prof. N. St. Pierre, Economist, Ohio State University St. Pierre, 2003, J. Dairy Sci. 86: (E52 E77 Economical losses caused by heat conditions causes to the average US cow US$ /year. In extremely warm regions (Texas, Florida, Arizona), where > 50% of year time is above critical THI, milk production and economical losses are expected to be of 2000 lit/year and 700 US$, respectively. In temperate regions (Montana, Idaho), where less than 15% of year time is above critical THI, milk production and economical losses are expected to be of 150 lit/year and 50 US$, respectively. 22

23 23 Flamenbaum - workshop on Heat in Italy, May 2016

24 24

25 25

26 26

27 The Intensity of heat, the losses in annual milk production and annual income (US$), in large scale dairy farms located in 5 main milk producing states in USA. State % hours annually with THI > 68 Decrease feed consumption (Kg/cow/year) Decrease milk production (lit./cow/year) Increase open days Reduce income (US$/cow/year California New Mexico Arizona Florida , Texas ,

28 Factors influencing the negative effect of heat on the cow Environmental factors (Temperature, Humidity, Radiation, wind) Cows breed Level of production Age and number of lactation Phase of lactation Type of feeding (especially fiber type and content) Type of housing and installations Type of management 28

29 Thanks for your attention Questions? 29

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