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5 Distribution of sugarcane growers as per size of land holding The table 5 revealed that 28.5 per cent respondents owned small size of holdings, while 56. per cent respondents had marginal size of holdings and only 15.5 per cent respondents had medium size of holdings. It is clear that the majority of the sugarcane growers belonged to marginal farmers category followed by small and medium farmers, respectively. It is evident from table 6 that majority 66.8 per cent marginal farmers were having medium (5 to 8 members) size of family (Fig. 5). Fallowed by and 1.71 per cent were having small size of family (1 to 4 members) and large size of family (above 8 members), respectively. Whereas per cent small farmers were having medium size of family (4 to 8 members) fallowed by 19.3 and per cent were having small (1 to 4 members) and large (above 8 members) in family size, respectively. Similarity in case of medium farmers 61.3 per cent were having medium family (5 to 8 members) fallowed by and 12.9 per cent were having small (1 to 4 members) and large (4 to 8 members) size of family, respectively. Thus, it is clear from table 6 that the majority of the respondents were having medium family (4 to 8 members) who were growing sugarcane. Table.1 Age of sugarcane growers (N=) S.N. Age level N = 2 1. Young (18-3 years) (9.82) 2. Lower medium ( years) (24.) 3. Higher medium ( years) (52.68) 4. Old group (above 6 15 year) (13.39) 5 (8.77) 16 (28.7) 29 (5.88) 7 (12.28) 4 (12.9) 9 (29.3) 15 (48.39) 3 (9.68) Table.2 Education level of sugarcane growers (N=) S.N. Education level N = 2 1. Illiterate 7 (6.25) 2. Can read only 4 (3.57) 3. Up to primary 27 (24.) 4. Up to junior high school (17.86) 5. Up to high school 18 (16.7) 6. Intermediate 24 (21.43) 7. Graduate (9.82) 8. Post graduate and above 1 (.89) 2 (3.51) 3 (5.26) 17 (29.82) 8 (14.3) 12 (21.5) 8 (14.3) 6 (1.53) 1 (1.75) (6.45) 8 (25.81) 3 (9.68) 4 (12.9) 7 (22.58) 5 (16.13) 2 (6.45)

6 Table.3 Occupation of the sugarcane growers (N=) S.N. Occupation level N = 2 1. Agriculture 84 (75.) 2. Agriculture+ 24 Business (21.43) 3. Agriculture+ 4 Business+ service (3.57) 42 (73.68) 13 (22.81) 2 (3.51) 21 (67.74) 8 (25.81) 2 (6.45) Table.4 Caste composition of the sugarcane growers (N=) S.N. Caste category N = 2 1. Scheduled caste 23 (.54) 2. Backward caste 65 (58.3) 3. General caste 24 (21.43) (19.3) 3 (52.63) 16 (28.7) 2 (6.45) 18 (58.6) (35.49) Table.5 Distribution of sugarcane growers a per size of land holding (N=) S.N. Particulars Respondents Number Per cent 1. farmers (up to 1 ha) farmers (1 to 2 ha) farmers (2 to 4 ha) Table.6 Family size of sugarcane growers (N=) S.N. Particulars N = (1 to 4 members) (23.21) (5 to 8 members) (66.8) 3. Large 12 (more than 8 members) (1.71) (19.3) 37 (64.91) 9 ( (25.8) 19 (61.3) 4 (12.9) Table.7 Family type of sugarcane growers (N=) S.N. Particulars N = 2 1. Nuclear family 45 (.18) Joint family (59.82) 17 (29.82) (7.18) 9 (29.3) 22 (7.97)

7 Table.8 Annual income of sugarcane growers (N=) S. Annual income N. 1. Lower income (up to Rs. 15) 2. income (Rs ) 3. Higher income (Rs. Above 5) N = 2 54 (48.21) 42 (37.5) 16 (14.29) 3 (5.26) 44 (77.19) 1 (17.54) 1 (3.22) 23 (74.19) 7 (22.59) Table.9 Social participation of sugarcane growers (N=) S. N. Particulars N = 2 1. No membership of any 9 organization (8.4) 2. Membership of one 78 organization (69.64) 3. Membership of more 16 than one organization (14.29) 4. Office bearer 9 (8.3) 3 (5.26) 33 (57.9) 14 (24.56) 7 (12.28) (48.39) (35.48) 5 (16.13) Table.1 Material possession of sugarcane growers (N=) S.N. Particulars N = 2 1. Bullock Cart (5.) (71.93) 2. Motorcycle (41.96) (73.68) 3. Chaff Cutter (88.39) (1.) 4. Pump set (33.4) (38.6) 5. Tube bell - 31 (54.39) 6. Chair & Furniture 33 (29.46) (7.18) 7. Cultivator (39.29) (85.96) 8. Tractor 9 29 (8.3) (5.88) 9. Crasher - 2 (3.51) 1. Sprayer - 1 (17.54) 17 (54.83) 26 (83.87) 29 (93.54) 25 (8.65) 31 (1.) 26 (83.87) 31 (1.) 27 (87.9) 5 (16.13) 29 (93.55)

8 Table. Source of irrigation of the sugarcane growers (N=) S. N. Source of irrigation N = 2 1. Own tube well/ 8 pump set (7.14) 2. Canal 55 (49.) 3. Canal + private 49 tube well/ pump set (43.75) (35.9) 25 (43.86) 12 (21.5) 22 (7.97) 6 (19.35) 3 (9.68) Fig.1 Age of sugarcane growers (N=) MARGINAL SMALL MEDIUM YOUNG LOWER HIGHER OLD Fig.2 Education level of sugarcane growers (N=) MARGIGAL SMALL MEDIUM 1224

9 Fig.3 Occupation of the sugarcane growers (N=) Agriculture Agriculture+ Business Agriculture+ Business+ service Fig.4 Caste composition of the sugarcane growers (N=) Scheduled caste Backward caste General caste Fig.5 Family size of sugarcane growers farmers farmers farmers Respondents 1225

10 Fig.6 Family type of sugarcane growers: (N=) members members Large Fig.7 Annual income of sugarcane growers MARGINAL SMALL MEDIUM 1 9 Nuclear family Joint family 1226

11 Fig.8 Social participation of sugarcane growers Lower income income Higher income Fig.9 Social participation of sugarcane growers (N=) No membership of any organization Membership of one organization Membership of more than one organization Office bearer Family type of sugarcane growers It is evident from table 7 that maximum per cent marginal farmers were belonging to joint family system and.18 per cent were belonging to nuclear family system. Similarly 7.97 per cent medium farmers and 7.18 per cent small farmers belonged to joint family. The.18 per cent marginal farmers, per cent small farmers and 29.3 per cent medium farmers, respectively belonged to nuclear family (Fig. 6). Thus, it is clear from table 7 that most of the sugarcane growers belonged to joint family system. It is evident from table 8 that maximum per cent marginal farmers belonged to lower income group followed by 37.5 and per cent marginal farmers belonging to medium and higher income groups, respectively. In case of small farmers majority per cent belonged to medium income group followed by 17.5 per cent and 5.26 per cent belonging to high and low income 1227

12 groups, respectively. In case of medium farmers majority per cent belonged to medium income group followed by and 3.22 per cent belonging to high and low income groups, respectively. Thus, it is clear from table 8 that the majority of the sugarcane growers belonged to medium income group and remaining belonged to either higher group or lower income group (Fig. 7). It is revealed from table 9 that per cent marginal farmers were having membership of one organization, and 8.3 per cent marginal farmers were from membership of more than one organization and office bearer, respectively (Figs 8 and 9). The 8.4 per cent marginal farmers were not having membership of any organization. In case of small farmers maximum 57.9 per cent were having membership of one organization followed by 24.56, 5.26 and per cent were having membership of more than one organization, no membership if any organization and office bearer, respectively. In case of medium farmers maximum per cent were having membership of one organization followed by and per cent medium farmers were having membership of more than one organization and office bearer, respectively. In case of big farmers maximum per cent were having membership of one organization followed by 38.7, 9.67 per cent big farmers were having membership of more than one organization and office bearer, respectively. There was no such farmers reported who have no membership of any organization. Thus, it is clear from table 9 that the most of the sugarcane growers were having either membership of the organization or membership of more than one organization Material possession of sugarcane growers It is evident from table 1 that highest majority per cent marginal farmers processed chaff cutter followed by 5., 41.96, 39.29, 33.4, ad 8.3 per cent marginal farmers who possessed bullock cart, motorcycle, cultivator, furniture and tractor, respectively. In case of small farmers highest majority 1. per cent possessed chaff cutter followed by 85.96, 73.68, 71.93, 7.18, 54.39, 5.88, 38.6, and 3.51 per cent small farmers who possessed cultivator, Motorcycle, bullock cart, chair and furniture, tube well, tractor, pump set, sprayer and crasher, respectively. In case of medium farmers highest majority 1. and 1. per cent possessed cultivator and tube well followed by 93.55, 93.54, 87.9, 83.87, 83.87, 8.65, 54.83, and per cent possessed sprayer, tractor, motorcycle, chair and furniture, pump set, bullock cart and crasher, respectively. Thus, it is clear from table 1 that medium farmers were having well of material possessions in comparison to the other categories. Source of irrigation of the sugarcane growers In case of medium farmers 7.97 per cent were using own tube well/ pump set as a source of irrigation fallowed by 9.68 and per cent medium farmers were using canal + private tube well/pump set and canal as a source of irrigation. On the basis of research findings the following conclusions were drawn that most of the farmers in agriculture belonged to backward casts, medium farmers category, having above 5 to 8 members in a family, belonged to medium income group. In case of production level, most of the farmers belonged to the category of medium

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