A Study on Farm Households Coping Strategies Against the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: A Study in Cuddalore District

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1 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, ECONOMICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Vol. 3, No. 1, January-June 2011: A Study on Farm Households Coping Strategies Against the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: A Study in Cuddalore District V. BHARATHI Research scholar, Department of Economics, Annamalai University. G. RAVI Professor of Economics, Annamalai University. This paper deals with farm households coping agriculture. It outlines the various coping strategies adopted by the farmers in the study area. This paper identified the important coping strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change on agriculture. 1. INTRODUCTION Indian climate is dominated by the south-west monsoon, which brings most of the region s precipitation. It is critical for the availability of drinking water and irrigation for agriculture. Agricultural productivity is sensitive to two broad classes of climateinduced effects: (1) direct effects from changes in temperature, precipitation, or carbon dioxide concentrations, and (2) indirect effects through changes in soil moisture and the distribution and frequency of infestation by pests and diseases. Rice and wheat yields could decline considerably with climatic changes (IPCC 1996; 2001). However, the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate change depends not only on the physiological response of the affected plant, but also on the ability of the affected socio-economic systems of production to cope with changes in yield, as well as with changes in the frequency of droughts or floods. The adaptability of farmers in India is severely restricted by the heavy reliance on natural factors and the lack of complementary inputs and institutional support systems. Kumar and Parikh (1998) show that economic impacts would be significant even after accounting for farm-level adaptation. The loss in net revenue at the farm level is estimated to range between 9% and 25% for a temperature rise of 2 C-3.5 C. Sanghi, Mendelsohn, and Dinar (1998) also attempt to incorporate adaptation options while estimating agricultural impacts. They calculate that a 2 C rise in mean temperature and a 7% increase in mean precipitation would reduce net revenues by 12.3% for the country as a whole. Agriculture in the coastal regions of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Karnataka is found to be the most negatively affected. Small losses are also indicated for the major food-grain producing regions of Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh. On the other hand, West Bengal, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh are predicted to benefit to a small extent from warming. Indian agriculture faces the dual challenge of feeding a billion people in a changing climatic and economic scenario. However, there is not much scope to increase the area under food grains. Switching to other crops is also difficult in regions like West Bengal, where three rice crops are grown in succession through the year. Agriculture is the predominant means of livelihood for a large number of peasant cultivators and agricultural labourers, for whom it is not easy to shift to other occupations. Due to their low financial and technological adaptability, such groups are potentially vulnerable to both climatic changes as well as economic change. Hence, it becomes important to examine the vulnerability to climate change not in isolation but in the context of ongoing economic changes. This translates into a dynamic interpretation of vulnerability and has important implications for developing adaptation strategies. These issues are part of an evolving stream of literature on the concept of double exposure (O Brien and Leichenko 2000). This concept recognizes the synergies between the impacts of two long-term global processes climate change and economic globalization that will have differential consequences across regions, sectors, and social groups. 2. METHODS AND MATERIALS This study deals with farm households coping strategies

2 152 / International Journal of Business Management, Economics and Information Technology Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. The researcher has collected data from the 300 farm households in Mangalore, Parangipettai, and Keerapalayam blocks with the help of interview schedule. The collected data are classified and tabulated with the help of computer programming. The results are interpreted with the help of average analysis. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Data presented in Table 1 indicate the farm size wise respondents coping strategies against the impact of Table 1 Farm Size Wise Respondents Views on Coping Strategies Against the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture Variables Marginal Small Medium Large Total Summer ploughing Cultivation of traditional crop varieties Introduction of native grasses for pasture land Delayed sowing Mixed cropping Stocking food during good cropping season Stocking fodder during good cropping season Seasonal migration Rainwater harvesting Watershed management Shift to organic farming Cultivation of drought resistance crops Prevention of run off rainwater Low input agriculture Over depletion of ground water Selling household assets Crop insurance Water rationing Tree plantation Water awareness campaign Indigenous knowledge in weather prediction Replanting failed farms Decreased food consumption Improved farm management Total climate change on agriculture. It can be assessed with the help of 24 factors on a 5 point rating scale. These include summer ploughing, cultivation of traditional crop varieties, introduction of native grasses for pasture land, delayed sowing, mixed cropping, stocking food during good cropping season, stocking fodder during good cropping season, seasonal migration, rainwater harvesting, watershed management, shift to organic farming, cultivation of drought resistance crops, prevention of run off rainwater, low input agriculture, over depletion of ground water, selling household assets, crop insurance, water rationing, tree plantation, water awareness campaign, indigenous knowledge in weather prediction, replanting failed farms, decreased food consumption and improved farm management. Out of the chosen 24 factors of coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture, the respondents rate first order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of cultivation of traditional crop varieties as per their secure mean score is 4.17 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate second order coping strategy terms of water awareness campaign. In this perception, they secure a mean score of 4.06 on a 5-point rating scale. The respondents rate third order coping strategy the form of introduction of native grasses for pasture land as they secure a mean score of 3.99 on a 5 point rating scale. In general, respondents rate fourth order on agriculture in the form of stocking fodder during good cropping season as they secure a mean score of 3.9 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate fifth order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in the form of shift to organic farming as it secures mean score 3.76 on a 5 point rating scale. Regarding, stocking food during good cropping season, the respondents secure a mean score of 3.75 on a 5 point rating scale. It occupies the sixth order on agriculture. The respondents rate the seventh order on agriculture in the form of cultivation of drought resistance crops as their secure mean score is 3.74 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents secure 3.69 as mean score on a 5-point rating scale with respect to their coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in the form of tree plantation. It is the eighth level coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture. The respondents rate the ninth order coping strategy against the impact of

3 A Study on Farm Households Coping Strategies Against the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: / 153 climate change on agriculture in terms of watershed management as they secure a mean score of 3.68 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate tenth order on agriculture in the form of indigenous knowledge in weather prediction as they secure a mean score of 3.64 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate eleventh order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in the form of decreased food consumption as they secure a mean score of 3.33 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents secure a mean score of 3.27 on a 5 point rating scale with respect to their coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of improved farm management and it occupies the twelfth order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture. The respondents rate thirteenth order on agriculture in terms of summer ploughing as they secure mean a score of 3.24 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate fourteenth order coping strategy the form of mixed cropping as they secure a mean score of 3.18 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate the fifteenth order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in the form of replanting failed farms as their secure mean score is 3.16 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents secure 3.11 as mean score on a 5-point rating scale with respect to their coping strategy the form of over depletion of ground water. It is the sixteenth level coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture. The respondents rate the seventeenth order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of seasonal migration as they secure a mean score of 3.09 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate eighteenth order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in the form of rainwater harvesting as they secure a mean score of 2.99 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate the ninteenth order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in the form of prevention of run off rainwater as they secure a mean score of 2.88 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents secure a mean score of 2.85 on a 5 point rating scale with respect to their coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of delayed sowing and it occupies the twentieth order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture. The respondents rate the twenty first order coping strategy terms of low input agriculture as they secure mean a score of 2.47 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate the twenty second order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in the form of crop insurance as they secure a mean score of 2.38 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate the twenty third order coping strategy against the impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of water rationing as they secure mean a score of 2.16 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents rate last order on agriculture in terms of selling household assets as they secure mean a score of 2.1 on a 5 point rating scale. It is interesting to observe among the chosen farm size households that the large farm households occupy the first position with respect to their overall coping agriculture as they secure a mean score of 3.55 on a 5 point rating scale. The medium farm households take the second position with respect to their overall coping agriculture as they secure a mean score of 3.53 on a 5-point rating scale. The small farm households come to the third position in their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture as they secure a mean score of 3.26 on a 5-point rating scale. The marginal farm households are put at the last position with respect to their overall coping agriculture as they secure a mean score of 2.75 on a 5-point rating scale. Data presented in Table 2 indicate the caste wise respondents coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture. The forward caste respondents occupy the first position with respect to their overall coping strategies against the impact of score of 3.54 on a 5 point rating scale. The backward caste respondents take the second position with respect to their views on coping strategy against the impact of score of 3.46 on a 5-point rating scale. The most backward caste respondents come to the third position in their overall coping strategies against the impact of score of 3.17 on a 5-point rating scale. The scheduled caste respondents occupy the last position with respect to their overall coping strategies against the impact of score of 2.92 on a 5-point rating scale.

4 154 / International Journal of Business Management, Economics and Information Technology Table 2 Caste Wise Respondents Views on Coping Strategies Against the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture Most Impact Forward Backward backward Scheduled variables caste caste caste caste Total Summer ploughing Cultivation of traditional crop varieties Introduction of native grasses for pasture land Delayed sowing Mixed cropping Stocking food during good cropping season Stocking fodder during good cropping season Seasonal migration Rainwater harvesting Watershed management Shift to organic farming Cultivation of drought resistance crops Prevention of run off rainwater Low input agriculture Over depletion of ground water Selling household assets Crop insurance Water rationing Tree plantation Water awareness campaign Indigenous knowledge in weather prediction Replanting failed farms Degreased food consumption Improved farm management Total Data presented in Table 3 indicates the education wise respondents coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture. The post graduate respondents occupy the first position with respect to their overall coping strategies against the impact of score of 3.85 on a 5 point rating scale. The undergraduate respondents take the second position with respect to their views on coping strategy against secure a mean score of 3.32 on a 5-point rating scale. The secondary level educated respondents come to the third position in their overall coping strategies against secure a mean score of 3.24 on a 5-point rating scale. The primary level educated respondents occupy the fourth position in their overall coping strategies against secure a mean score of 3.07 on a 5-point rating scale. The illiterate respondents are kept at the last position with respect to their overall coping strategies against secure a mean score of 2.92 on a 5-point rating scale. Data presented in Table 4 indicates the age wise respondents coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture. The highest age group respondents occupy the first position with respect to their overall coping strategies against the impact of score of 3.80 on a 5 point rating scale. The respondents in the age group years take the second position with respect to their views on coping strategy against secure a mean score of 3.61 on a 5-point rating scale. The respondents in the age group years come to the third position in their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture as they secure a mean score of 3.43 on a 5-point rating scale. The respondents in the age group years occupy the fourth position in their overall coping agriculture as they secure a mean score of 3.15 on a 5- point rating scale. The lowest age group respondents occupy the last position with respect to their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture as they secure a mean score of 2.38 on a 5-point rating scale. 4. CONCLUSION It could be seen clearly from the above discussion that the respondents have high level coping strategies against the negative impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of cultivation of traditional crop varieties, water awareness campaign, introduction of

5 A Study on Farm Households Coping Strategies Against the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: / 155 Table 3 Education Wise Respondents Views on Coping Strategies Against the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture Impact variables Illiterate Primary Secondary Under graduate Post graduate Total Summer ploughing Cultivation of traditional crop varieties Introduction of native grasses for pasture land Delayed sowing Mixed cropping Stocking food during good cropping season Stocking fodder during good cropping season Seasonal migration Rainwater harvesting Watershed management Shift to organic farming Cultivation of drought resistance crops Prevention of run off rainwater Low input agriculture Over depletion of ground water Selling household assets Crop insurance Water rationing Tree plantation Water awareness campaign Indigenous knowledge in weather prediction Replanting failed farms Degreased food consumption Improved farm management Total Table 4 Age Wise Respondents Views on Impact of Climate Change on Farm Households Impact variables years years years years Above 60 years Total Summer ploughing Cultivation of traditional crop varieties Introduction of native grasses for pasture land Delayed sowing Mixed cropping Stocking food during good cropping season Stocking fodder during good cropping season Seasonal migration Rainwater harvesting Watershed management Shift to organic farming Cultivation of drought resistance crops Prevention of run off rainwater Low input agriculture Over depletion of ground water Selling household assets Crop insurance Water rationing Tree plantation Water awareness campaign Indigenous knowledge in weather prediction Replanting failed farms Degreased food consumption Improved farm management Total

6 156 / International Journal of Business Management, Economics and Information Technology native grasses for pasture land, stocking fodder during good cropping season, shift to organic farming, stocking food during good cropping season, cultivation of drought resistance crops, tree plantation, watershed management and indigenous knowledge in weather prediction. The respondents have moderate level coping strategies against the negative impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of decreased food consumption, improved farm management, summer ploughing, mixed cropping, replanting failed farms, over depletion of ground water and seasonal migration. The respondents have low level coping strategies against negative impact of climate change on agriculture in terms of rainwater harvesting, prevention of run off rainwater, delayed sowing, low input agriculture, crop insurance, water rationing and selling household assets. It is concluded that there is a correspondence between caste status of the respondents and their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture on farm households. It could be noted that higher the caste status, higher their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture and the vice versa. It is observed that there is a correspondence between education status of the respondents and their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture on farm households. It could be noted that higher the education status, higher their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture and the vice versa. It is concluded that there is a correspondence between age status of the respondents and their overall coping strategies against the impact of climate change on agriculture on farm households. References Tracks of Storms and Depressions in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, : An Addendum to the Storm Track Atlas ( ). New Delhi, (1996), IMD IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Climate Change, (1995), Impacts, Adaptations, And Mitigation of Climate. Change Scientific-Technical Analyses Cambridge: Cambridge University Press IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), (2001). The Climate Sensitivity of Indian Agriculture In Measuring the Impact of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture, Edited by A. Dinar, R. Mendelsohn, R. Evenson, J. Parikh, A. Sanghi, K. Kumar, J. Mckinsey, and S. Lonergan. Washington DC, (2003), World Bank TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute). Tenth Five-Year Plan: , Volume II: Sectoral Policies and Programmes New Delhi: Planning Commission, Government of India Sanghi A., Mendelsohn R., and Dinar A., (1998). Double Exposure: Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change within the Context of Economic Globalization Global Environmental Change, 10(3), O Brien K. L., and Leichenko R. M., (2003), Ahluwalia I. J. and Little I. M. D. (Eds), 1998 India s Economic Reforms and Development: Essays for Manmohan Singh New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Chadha R., Pohit S., Deardorff A. V., Stern R. M., (1998), The Impact of Trade and Domestic Policy Reforms in India: A CGE Modelling Approach Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. CMIE (Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy), 2000 Profiles of Districts Mumbai: CMIE GoI (Government of India), (1991). Census of India, (1991), Available Online at last accessed on 25 November 2003 Goldin I., Knudsen O., and van der Mensbrugghe D., (1993), Trade Liberalization: Global Economic Implications Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Gulati A., (1998), Indian Agriculture in an Open Economy. In India s Economic Reforms and Development: Essays for Manmohan Singh, Edited by I. J. Ahluwalia and IMD Little New Delhi: Oxford University Press. IMD (India Meteorological Department), (1979).

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