1 Code Compliance Alternatives for Historic Buildings A Greater Understanding of Ohio Building Code Chapter Heritage Ohio Annual Preservation & Revitalization Conference Presenter: Robert Vilkas, AIA, CBO, LEED AP O+M Sandvick Architects, Inc.
2 Introductions Me? Robert Vilkas Sr. Architect/ Code Consultant Former Cleveland Building Commissioner and City Architect You?
3 Learning Objectives Become familiar with OBC Chapter 34 for Existing Buildings as it affects existing and in particular, Historic Buildings Become familiar with OBC Section 3411 for Accessiblity requirements in existing buildings Become familiar with OBC Section 3412 for Compliance Alternatives procedures and options Become familiar with plan review and inspection requirements when Section 3412 is being employed
4 Topics of Interest Challenges of Existing Buildings Grandfathering Certificate of Occupancy Zoning & Design Review Ohio Building Code Chapter 34 ADA & Alternative Compliance Working with the Building Dept.
5 Why do we have codes? Response to man-made tragedies Great Chicago Fire (1871), Beverly Hills Super Club Fire (1977), World Trade Center 1 (1993), World Trade Center 2 (9/11/2001), Rhode Island Nite Club (2012) Response to safety hazards Fire and Contamination Response to natural disasters Hurricanes, Wildfires, Tornadoes, Floods Response to insurance companies
6 Challenges of Existing Buildings Starting with a legacy The box is set location, entrances/exits, height, area, elevators, & stairs Maintenance & Modifications Probably varied over the years and poorly documented Boot-leged. Hidden Conditions No X-ray vision. Expect the unexpected. Antiquated uses Multi-storied Warehouses, industrial plants, offices,etc.
7 Challenges of Existing Buildings Typical Constraints Inappropriate layouts Inadequate mechanical and electrical systems Inaccessible to handicapped Inadequate floor loading Inadequate fire protection systems
8 Challenges of Existing Buildings Common Terms Adaptive re-use: New u$es from old Sustainability: Efficiency with least impact Accessibility: Access for all ROI (Return on Investment): Renovate vs. New Site constraints, i.e. parking, access, etc.
9 Grandfathering What is it? Why is it important? OBC Existing Structures The occupancy of any structure currently existing on the date of the adoption of this code shall be permitted to continue without change provided there are no orders of the Building Official pending, no evidence of fraud, or no serious safety or sanitation hazards.
10 Zoning (Local Requirements) Permitted Uses Setbacks Overlay Districts Not regulated by Ohio Building Code but still a necessary step in the approval process Can be a big hurdle depending on the new use Existing Non-Conforming Use issues
11 Design Review (Local Requirements) Must meet local design and landmarks commissions guidelines and procedures Historic Tax Credit Projects must meet NPS standards
12 Ohio Building Code Use Groups Change of Use Construction Type Floor Loads Exits, Stairs, Elevators Sprinklers, Alarms & Smoke Detectors Fire Separation
13 3 Levels of Existing Buildings Any building occupied yesterday Any building built before July 1, 1979 Any building designated or listed as historic
14 Certificate of Occupancy Establishes a Baseline Location, date, description, & conditions New Construction Partial Occupancy Time-limited Occupancy Alterations Unaltered spaces may continue to be occupied if approved by BO. Existing Buildings Sec Safe $$$ Saf e $$$ $ Saf e $$$$ Safe $$$$
15 Section Existing Buildings Upon written request from the Owner of an existing building or structure, the Building Official shall issue a certificate of occupancy, provided there are no violations of law or orders of the Building Official pending, and it is established after inspection and investigation that the alleged occupancy of the building or structure has previously existed
16 Section Existing Buildings This code shall not require the removal, alteration or abandonment of, or prevent the continuance of, the occupancy of a lawfully existing building or structure, unless such use is deemed to endanger public safety and welfare. Serious Hazard does not equal Noncode compliant.
17 Seismic Requirements (OBC ) Historic buildings are old buildings; Old building designs did not adequately consider seismic forces Adaptive reuse must review Sec for seismic evaluation by Design Professional
18 Seismic Requirements (OBC ) Ohio is not earthquake-free. North-east and Central-west portions of Ohio have elevated earthquake risks. New uses can trigger more stringent requirements.
19 Flood Plain Requirements (OBC ) Existing structures and uses are usually grandfathered New uses may trigger floodproofing requirements Check most current FEMA maps
20 OBC 3409 Historic Buildings The provisions of this code relating to the construction, repair, alteration, addition, restoration and movement of structures, and change of occupancy shall not be mandatory for historic buildings where such buildings are judged by the Building Official to not constitute a distinct life safety hazard.
21 OBC 3411 Accessibility for Existing Buildings Don t refer to Chapter 11 unless specifically directed there. Follow the guidelines to the extent TECHNICALLY FEASIBLE.
22 Accessibility Priorities OBC 3411 At least one accessible building entrance At least one accessible route from entry to primary function Complying signage
23 Accessibility Priorities Accessible Parking At least one accessible passenger loading zone Accessible route from parking to entry Comply unless Technically Infeasible.
24 3412 Compliance Alternatives Compliance Alternatives Approach What is it? Pros Cons Trade-offs, What-if s Flexibility & Costeffective Overcomes the impossible! Tedious, Timeconsuming analysis
25 Compliance Alternatives: How to s Initial Tasks Determine when building was built July 1, 1979 or earlier Determine if more than one Building Determine likely Fire Areas Determine Height and Areas, Use Groups and Construction Types of Fire Areas Review Scoring needed for compliance
26 Compliance Alternatives: How to s Evaluate existing facilities Prioritize easy points, harder points Prepare on spreadsheet to maximize What if process Engage cost estimator to assist on economic impact Engage mechanical and fire protection engineers
27 Compliance Alternatives: How to s To make decisionmaking easier provide Owner with options for consideration with: Cost impacts Timing impacts Disruption impacts
28 Compliance Alternatives: How to s Final Decisions Based on final decisions: Incorporate the specific items in the Construction Documents Prepare a Summary Sheet on Construction Documents Invite Building Official and Plans Examiner to meet to review the analysis.
29 Compliance Alternatives: OBC 3412 Overview Limited Applicability July 1, 1979 or earlier Investigation Structural analysis Evaluation Topics Fire Safety Means of Egress General Safety
30 Compliance Alternatives: Specific Issues Building Height Building Area Compartmentation Vertical Openings HVAC Systems Automatic Smoke Detection Fire Alarm Systems Smoke Control
31 Compliance Alternatives: Specific Issues Means of Egress Capacity and Number Dead End Corridors Elevator Controls Means of Egress Lighting
32 Compliance Alternatives: Specific Issues Mixed Occupancies Automatic Sprinklers Incidental Use
33 Compliance Alternatives: Scoring Building Safety Scores Fire Safety Means of Egress General Safety MUST PASS ALL 3 IF NOT MAKE ADJUSTMENTS
34 Suggestions for Approval Compartmentation Provide passive protection of occupants by dividing the building into compartments protected by fire barriers.
35 Suggestions for Approval Tenant Separation Try to achieve one-hour rating If not, at least smoke barriers
37 Suggestions for Approval HVAC Systems Limit system connecting multiple floors At least limit air movement in egress elements
38 Suggestions for Approval Fire Detection Smoke detectors on all floors other than individual sleeping units or tenant spaces Good Throughout - Better
39 Suggestions for Approval Fire Alarm System None Very Bad Manual system Good Automatic with notification and command center - Best
40 Suggestions for Approval Smoke Control If required and none provided Very Bad Providing sprinklers and mechanical smoke control system - Best
41 Suggestions for Approval Means of Egress and Dead End Corridors Comply with minimum number Limit dead end corridors to 35 in unsprinkler buildings and 70 in sprinklered buildings
42 Suggestions for Approval Elevator Controls No elevator Bad Elevator with recall Better Elevator with recall and meets new elevator code - Best
43 Suggestions for Approval Means of Egress Emergency Lighting None is NOT PERMITTED Sufficient lights with emergency power - Best
44 Suggestions for Approval Mixed Occupancies No separation the worst 1-hour separation better 2-hour separation best
45 Suggestions for Approval Sprinklers and Standpipes If required and not provided Bad If required and provided Good If not required and provided - Best
46 Suggestions for Approval Incidental Uses Furnace and Boiler Rooms Storage Rooms Fire Pump Room Laundry and Trash Rooms 0-hour to 2-hour with/without sprinklers
47 Conclusions Compliance Alternatives is not a save-all but certainly an alternative worth investigating. Work with Design Professional, Contractor, and Building Official to develop a Compliance Team!
48 Questions? Robert Vilkas Sandvick Architects, Inc 1265 West 6 th Street, Suite 200 Cleveland, OH x119
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