1 The Nutrient Cycle Atmospheric pool Precipitation Canopy, wood, and root Litter fall SOIL 2 Soil and rock minerals cations Groundwater level Organic material 5 Soil solution storage 4 4 Channel BEDROCK 1 Cation exchange 4 Leaching 2 H + and exudates 5 Acids, chelates, nutrients 3 Nutrients
2 Nutrients Distribution in Soils Source: Jobbagy, EG, and RB Jackson The distribution of soil nutrients with depth: Global patterns and the inprint of plants. Biogeochemistry 53:
3 Litter Production Above ground production is easy to measure. Below ground production is very difficult to assess because of the: Short life and rapid root turnover (duration of root growth). Most roots live less than one year. Difficulty in quantifying rates of root exudation.
4 Nutrient Cycling in Soils and Vegetation Biome Total biomass Mineral elements in biomass Net primary production Net mineral uptake Total litter fall Minerals returned in litter (kg ha -1 ) (kg ha -1 y -1 ) Tropical rainforest 517,000 11,081 34,200 2,029 27,500 1,540 (76%) Forest (Central Europe) 370,000 4,196 13, , (71%) Northern taiga 260, , , (85%) Dry savanna 26, , , (98%) Artic tundra 5, , , (97%) Source: Chorley, RJ, SA Schumm, DE Sugden Geomorphology. Methuen
5 Vertical Distribution of Nutrients Source: Jobbagy, EG, and RB Jackson The distribution of soil nutrients with depth: Global patterns and the inprint of plants. Biogeochemistry 53:
6 Figure Distribution of organic carbon in four soil profiles, two well drained and two poorly drained. Poor drainage results in higher organic carbon content, particularly in the surface horizon.
7 Soil Organic Matter in Soil Amount in mineral soil (w/w) range in A horizon % for North Jersey % for South Jersey % subsoils have less: % Organic Soils > 20%
8 Classification of SOM Soil Organic Matter Living Organisms: BIOMASS Indentifiable dead tissue: DETRITUS Non-living, Non-tissue: HUMUS Humic Substances NonHumic substances
10 Humus Complex organic substances in soil not identifiable as organic tissue Amorphous, colloidal non-humic compounds identifiable biomolecules humic compounds product of decomposition + synthesis (polymerization) relatively stable, resistant to further breakdown
11 A Model of SOM Source: modified from
12 Functional Groups in SOM Carboxyl groups: -COOH Phenolic groups: -ArOH Proteinaceous material Alcoholic groups: -ROH Saccharides (sugars) Water Source: modified from
13 Humic Substances Random, complex polymers resistant to breakdown Resulting composition C 50-60% N 5% C:N ratio=10:1 P % S 0.5% Solubility classification Humin, Humic Acids, and Fulvic Acids
14 From Schlesinger, W.H Biogeochemistry. Academic Press.
15 Humin and Fulvic and Humic Acids Component Residence time, y C,% N, % Molecular mass Climate Fulvic Acid (FA) 1,800-4, low Cool, temperate Humic Acid (HA) 1,900 5, high warm Humin 2,900 3,500 > high The long residence time of FA and HA contributes to the memory of a soil. Fulvic acids are soluble in water and are transported to deeper horizons along plant roots. Humic acids form strong complexes with Al, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Chatsworth, NJ
16 Simplified Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis: Numbers represent Pg (10 15 g) of carbon stored in the respective pools. Plants + CO 2 = Organic Molecules + O 2 Respiration: Organic Molecules + O 2 = Humus + CO 2
17 Estimates of Active N Pools Medium Air Form Pg N N 2 N 2 O 3,900, Land Plant Animals SOM ,500 Sea Plant Animals Solution or suspension Dissolved N ,200 22,000
18 The Nitrogen Cycle Figure 12.1
19 Carbon and Nitrogen Balances Soil C and N storage (pools) are in general balanced. Exceptions to this are: Peat bogs (accumulation of carbon). Northern peatlands contain ~30% of the global storage of SOC. Extreme deserts (accumulation of nitrogen) The result is that the amounts change rapidly over limited spans of time and then stabilize (steady state) at levels characteristic of climate, topography, etc.
21 Soil Carbon vs. Climate Soil C increases with Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) and decreases with Mean Annual Temperature (MAT). Pattern is due to balance of inputs and losses as influenced by climate. Source: Amundson, R The Carbon Budget of Soils. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci :535 62
23 US Carbon Budget: Land Use Change Annual net sources and sinks of carbon resulting from different types of land use in the United States. Source: Houghton, RA, JL Hackler, and KT Lawrence The U.S. Carbon Budget: Contributions from Land-Use change. Science 285:
24 In the News: April 2008
25 Carbon Losses Carbon was lost from soils across England and Wales over the period at a mean rate of 0.6% yr -1 (relative to the existing soil carbon content), reaching 2% yr -1 in soils with a carbon content greater than 10%. Source: Bellamy, P. H., P. J. Loveland, R. I. Bradley, R. M. Lark, and G. J. D. Kirk Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales Nature 437: doi: /nature04038.
26 Carbon Content of Different Soil Groups Soil Group Temperate Forest Temperate Grassland Tropical Forest Tropical Grassland Shallow/saline/arid Wetlands/paddy Histosols Andosols TOTAL C mass virgin (Pg C) C mass cultivated (Pg C) Historic loss ( ) Pg C
27 Anthropogenic Alteration to the N Cycle The main source of alteration to the N cycle derives from the application of fertilizers, which shows the most dramatic rate of increase over the last 40 years. Source: Vitousek, PM et al Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Sources and consequences. Ecological Applications 7:
28 Trends in Fertilizer Use Source: Tilman et al., Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292:
29 Consequences of N Cycle Alteration According to Vitousek et al. (1996) human alteration of the N cycle resulted in: Approximately doubled the rate of input to the terrestrial N cycle, Increased the concentration of N x O gases in the atmosphere, Contributed to the acidification of soils, stream and lakes Increased the quantity of organic C.
30 What is the Effect of Increased N in the Ecosystems? Terrestrial ecosystems: Accumulation in degraded soils. Influences the accumulation (storage) of carbon. Loss in biodiversity In N-saturated systems, N is lost to groundwater (problem in southern NJ), streams, estuaries (eutrophication) and to the atmosphere.
31 Nitrogen Input/Output Relationship in Large Watersheds
32 Organic Carbon in Urban Soils B A A. In the presence of non-native earthworms and higher temperatures, the layer of litter (O horizon) is thinner in urban forest soils, but the amount of C in the soil is greater than in suburban/rural forest soils. Without earthworms the O horizon in urban forest soil is thicker than in suburban/rural soils (lower quality litter in urban stands). B. Well maintained laws (low density residential and institutional land) contained SOC densities similar to forest soils. In the city of Baltimore, Organic matter content in urban soils was negatively correlated with bulk density. Caution: these observations should not be generalized before other similar studies in cities located in different climates. Source: Pouyat, R, P Groffman, I Yesilonisc, and L Hernandez Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems. Environmental Pollution: S107-S118.
33 Decomposition Decomposition and mineralization reactions are microbial enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Enzymes are catalyst that aid decomposition or building of organic material. During decomposition the material is broken down into their organic constituents and finally into CO 2 and H 2 O. Decomposition processes can take place in aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
34 Rate of Decomposition of Organic Materials Organic compound Sugar, starches and single proteins Hemicellulose Rate of decomposition Rapid Cellulose Fats, waxes Lignins and phenolic compounds Slow
35 An Example A mixture of residues from Pinus nigra, P. sylvestry, and Quercus robur % of total %age lost by decomposition by Original litter 1 st year 2 nd year 5 th year 10 th year Sugars Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignins Waxes Phenols
36 Decomposition in Aerobic Soils In the presence of oxygen, the general reaction is: Organic C + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy First, the cell constituents (aminoacids, proteins, lipids, etc) are released. Then decomposition of the most resistant material occurs in stages. Final products: NH 4+, SO 2-4, NO 3-, and H 2 0.
37 Decomposition in Anaerobic Soils Without oxygen, decomposition proceeds very slowly. Under anaerobic conditions organic matter tends to accumulate. The final products are a variety of partially oxidized compounds: organic acids, alcohol, and methane gas.
38 Sequence of Redox Reactions
39 Factors Controlling Decomposition and Mineralization Environmental conditions promoting mineralization and decompositions are: Temperature: 25-35º C is optimum. Water content: extreme (dry and waterlogged) conditions reduce plant growth and microbial activity (~60% of porosity filled with water is optimum). Soil texture: other conditions being equal, clay tend to retain more humus. Near-neutral ph.
40 The Priming Effect Fresh residue addition fuels microbial activity. Microbial population and metabolic capacity increases Native, stable soil humus is attacked. Slow pool of SOM is depleted, while total SOM has increased.
41 Figure 11.3 Diagram of the general changes that take place when fresh plant residues are added to a soil. The arrows indicate transfers of carbon among compartments. The time required for the process will depend on the nature of the residues and the soil. Most of the carbon released during the initial rapid breakdown of the residues is converted to carbon dioxide, but the smaller amounts of carbon converted into microbially synthesized compounds (biomass) and, eventually, into soil humus should not be overlooked. Although the peak of microbial activity appears to accelerate the decay of the original humus, a phenomenon known as the priming effect, the humus level is increased by the end of the process. Where vegetation, environment, and management remain stable for a long time, the soil humus content will reach an equilibrium level in which, the carbon added to the humus pool through the decomposition of plant residues each year is balanced by carbon lost through the decomposition of existing soil humus.
42 Typical C/N Ratios for Soil-Related Organic Material Young legumes 12-20:1 Young grasses 20-40:1 Manure 20-50:1 Corn stalks 60:1 Oat/wheat straw 80-90:1 Tree leaves :1 Pine needles :1 Woody material :1 A C/N ratio depends on the biochemical composition of a tissue, i.e. relative amounts of protein, cellulose, lignin, etc.
43 Figure 11.4 Changes in microbial activity, in soluble nitrogen level, and in residual C/N ratio following the addition of either high (a) or low (b) C/N ratio organic materials. Where the C/N ratio of added residues is above 25, microbes digesting the residues must supplement the nitrogen contained in the residues with soluble nitrogen from the soil. During the resulting nitrate depression period, competition between higher plants and microbes would be severe enough to cause nitrogen deficiency in the plants. Note that in both cases soluble N in the soil ultimately increases from its original level once the decomposition process has run its course. The trends shown are for soils without growing plants, which, if present, would continually remove a portion of the soluble nitrogen as soon as it is released.
44 Estimates of P Pools Medium Air Land Top 0.5 m Sea Animals Form NOT APPLICABLE Plant SOIL-inorganic P SOIL-organic P Surface (top 300m) Deep Plant (sea and land) Pg P Source: Smil, V Phosphorous in the environment: Natural flows and human interferences. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25:
45 Distinctive Features of the P Cycle Much less attention than the C or N cycles: Between 1979 and 1990 >1,000 papers on the N cycle and <100 on the P cycle. P is not present in the atmosphere: Land- and water-based P cycles are disconnected. It takes longer to notice human interference. There no biotic mechanism to fix the element: Plants rely only on P present in the soil. Litter returns to the soil a large share of the assimilated nutrient.
46 Figure 13.6 The phosphorus cycle in soils. The boxes represent pools of the various forms of phosphorus in the cycle, while the arrows represent translocations and transformations among these pools. The three largest white boxes indicate the principal groups of phosphorus-containing compounds found in soils. Within each of these groups, the less soluble, less available forms tend to dominate.
47 Anthropogenic Alteration of the P Cycle (Smil, 2000) Fluxes Wind Erosion Water Erosion River Transport (particulate) River Transport (dissolved) Biomass combustion Crop Uptake Animal Waste Human Waste Organic Recycling Inorganic Fertilizers 1 Tg: Tera (10 12 ) grams Natural Preindustrial (1800) Recent (2000) Tg 1 P/y <2 <3 >3 >8 >12 >27 >6 >8 >20 >1 <2 >2 <0.1 <0.2 < >1 > <0.5 >6 15
48 Soil P Dynamics The chemical forms of P in soils: organic (20-80%): turned over rapidly (from few days to one year). inorganic: calcium-bound, and iron- or aluminum-bound compounds. The amount of P in solution is very low: Available P 0.01% soil P tot Soil P is immobile: Diffusion to plant root Root extension/mycorrhizae
49 Figure Inorganic fixation of added phosphates at various soil ph values. Average conditions are postulated, and it is not to be inferred that any particular soil would have exactly this distribution. The actual proportion of the phosphorus remaining in an available form will depend upon contact with the soil, time for reaction, and other factors. It should be kept in mind that some of the added phosphorus may be changed to an organic form in which it would be temporarily unavailable.
The Nutrient Cycle Atmospheric pool Precipitation Canopy, wood, and root Litter fall SOIL 2 Soil and rock minerals cations 1 2 3 Groundwater level Organic material 5 Soil solution storage 4 4 Channel BEDROCK
Ecosystems: Nutrient Cycles Greeks, Native Peoples, Buddhism, Hinduism use(d) Earth, Air, Fire, and Water as the main elements of their faith/culture Cycling in Ecosystems the Hydrologic Cycle What are
Guide 34 Ecosystem Ecology: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles p://www.mordantorange.com/blog/archives/comics_by_mike_bannon/mordant_singles/0511/ Overview: Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists
Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology Reversing Deforestation in Haiti Answers the following: Why is deforestation in Haiti so common? What the negative impacts of deforestation? Name three actions intended counteract
Nutrient Cycles Energy flows through ecosystems (one way trip). Unlike energy, however, nutrients (P, N, C, K, S ) cycle within ecosystems. Nutrients are important in controlling NPP in ecosystems. Bottom-up
Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P and S OCN 401 - Biogeochemical Systems Reading: Schlesinger, Chapter 6 1. Nitrogen cycle Soil nitrogen cycle Nitrification Emissions of N gases from soils
Ch. 5 - Nutrient Cycles and Soils What are Nutrient (biogeochemical) Cycles? a process by which nutrients are recycled between living organisms and nonliving environment. The three general types of nutrient
ECOSYSTEMS Follow along in chapter 54 *Means less important How do ecosystems function? What is an ecosystem? All living things in an area and their abiotic environment Ecosystem function can be easily
Chapter 4 Ecosystems Chapter 4 Section 1: What Is an Ecosystem Key Vocabulary Terms 7 Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Community A group of various species that live in the same habitat and interact with
Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P, S, and K OCN 401 - Biogeochemical Systems 20 September 2016 Reading: Schlesinger & Bernhardt, Chapter 6 2016 Frank Sansone 1. Nitrogen cycle Soil nitrogen
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 3 4 5 2 5 1B 6B 1A 6A 7 6C LABEL AND EXPLAIN THE PROCESSES AT EACH NUMBER IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE 1A. Evaporation of water from oceans 1B. Evaporation of water from land sources (water and
Nutrient Recycling with Manure and Cover Crops James J. Hoorman and Dr. Rafiq Islam OSU Extension Center at Lima and OSU Piketon Center Ohio State University Extension Introduction Converting from conventional
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: The RECYCLING of MATERIALS through living organisms and the physical environment. BIOCHEMIST: Scientists who study how LIFE WORKS at a CHEMICAL level. The work of biochemists has
FACT SHEET Agriculture and Natural Resources Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling James J. Hoorman Cover Crops and Water Quality Extension Educator Ohio State University Extension Rafiq Islam
CHAPTER 14 ECOSYSTEM POINTS TO REMEMBER Startification : Vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels in an ecosystem. Primary Production : Amount of biomas or organic matter produced
OPEN Wetland Ecology Lectures 14-15-16 Wetland Biogeochemistry What is biogeochemical cycling? Transport & Transformation of chemicals in an ecosystem, involving numerous interrelated physical, chemical,
BIOLOGY OF HUMANS Concepts, Applications, and Issues Fifth Edition Judith Goodenough Betty McGuire 23 Ecology, the Environment, and Us Lecture Presentation Anne Gasc Hawaii Pacific University and University
Soils and Global Warming Reading: Lecture Notes Objectives: Introduce climate change Describe measured and expected effects on soil systems Describe prediction of climate change effect on food production.
Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1 Life Depends on the Sun Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when plants use sunlight to make sugar molecules. This happens through
Slide 1 / 40 1 ll of Earth's water, land, and atmosphere within which life exists is known as a Population ommunity iome iosphere Slide 2 / 40 2 ll the plants, animals, fungi living in a pond make up a
E Stuart Chapin III Pamela A. Matson Harold A. Mooney Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology Illustrated by Melissa C. Chapin With 199 Illustrations Teehnische Un.fversitSt Darmstadt FACHBEREIGH 10
Energy Flow Food web Diagram that shows how food chains are linked together in a complex feeding relationship The food web has a number of advantages over a food chains including: More than one producer
Nitrogen Cycle 2.2 WHY DO WE NEED NITROGEN?? Nitrogen is needed to make up DNA and protein! In animals, proteins are vital for muscle function. In plants, nitrogen is important for growth. NITROGEN Nitrogen
Name Period Ecosystems Section 1 What Is an Ecosystem? Objectives Distinguish an ecosystem from a community. Describe the diversity of a representative ecosystem. Sequence the process of succession. Interactions
Chapter Two: Cycles of Matter (pages 32-65) 2.2 Biogeochemical Cycles (pages 42 52) In order to survive and grow, organisms must obtain nutrients that serve as sources of energy or chemical building blocks,
Ecosystems & Energy Chapter 5 Energy Exchange in Ecosystems Cells Cells - minute compartments in a living organism which carry out processes of life Surrounded by lipid membrane controlling flow of materials
NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) Why? We have learned the importance of recycling our trash. It allows us to use something again for another purpose and prevents the loss
Streamside Management Zones and Water Quality How the area around your pond effects the water. Stream(pond)side Management Zone A streamside management zone (SMZ) is a strip of land immediately adjacent
Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1 Life Depends on the Sun Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when plants use sunlight to make sugar molecules. This happens through
Life Depends on the Sun Chapter 5: How Ecosystems Work Section 1, Energy Flow in Ecosystems Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when plants use sunlight to make sugar molecules. This happens through
EOC Review A freshwater plant is placed in a salt marsh. Predict the direction in which water will move across the plant s cell wall, and the effect of that movement on the plant. a. Water would move out
Unit 3: Ecology II Section 1: Environmental Systems and Nutrient Cycling Systems in the Environment are not Independent of one Another Central Case Study: The Vanishing Oysters of the Chesapeake Bay Chesapeake
Ecology Part 2: How Ecosystems Work Name: Unit 2 1 In this second part of Unit 2, our big idea questions are: SECTION 1 How is energy transferred from the Sun to producers and then to consumers? Why do
Chapter 18 What is Ecology? The study of the interactions between organisms and the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of their environment. What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is the sum
Arctic ecosystems as key biomes in climate-carbon feedback Hanna Lee Climate and Global Dynamics Division National Center for Atmospheric Research Outline Permafrost carbon Permafrost carbon-climate feedback
BIOMES Living World Biomes Biomes are large regions of the world with distinctive climate, wildlife and vegetation. They are divided by terrestrial (land) or aquatic biomes. Terrestrial Biomes Terrestrial
Section 2 Objectives Describe the short-term and long-term process of the carbon cycle. Identify one way that humans are affecting the carbon cycle. List the three stages of the nitrogen cycle. Describe
The Biosphere and Biogeochemical Cycles The Earth consists of 4 overlapping layers: Lithosphere Hydrosphere (and cryosphere) Atmosphere Biosphere The Biosphere The biosphere is the layer of life around
NOTEBOOK Table of Contents: 9. Properties of Water 9/20/16 10. Water & Carbon Cycles 9/20/16 NOTEBOOK Assignment Page(s): Agenda: Tuesday, September 20, 2016 Properties of Water Water & Carbon Cycles 1.
2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems Review How energy flows What is the difference between a food chain, food web, and food pyramid? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xhr1iebeops https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alusi_6ol8m
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES INTRODUCTION THE CYCLING PROCESS TWO CYCLES: CARBON CYCLE NITROGEN CYCLE HUMAN IMPACTS GLOBAL WARMING AQUATIC EUTROPHICATION BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: The RECYCLING of MATERIALS through
How Ecosystems Work Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs Autotrophs make their own food so they are called PRODUCERS Heterotrophs get their food from another source so they are called CONSUMERS Two Main forms of
Ecology Ecosystem Characteristics Ecosystem Characteristics, Nutrient Cycling and Energy Flow Let us consider ecosystems We have looked at the biosphere, and the biomes within the biosphere, the populations
Phosphorus Dynamics and Mitigation in Soils Umass Extension - Managing Phosphorus in Organic Residuals Applied to Soils: Composts, Biosolids, Manures and Others November 2, 2016 - Marlborough, MA Jennifer
OCN 401-Biogeochemical Systems Lecture #10 (9.22.11) Lakes, Primary Production, Budgets and Cycling (Schlesinger: Chapter 7) 1. Primary Production and Nutrient Cycling in Lakes Physical aspects and nomenclature
Assignment #10 Energy Pyramids LO: I can define trophic levels and explain the energy flow. I can apply those ideas to food webs EQ: Where does all the energy from the sun go? (4-5 sentences) LEVEL ZERO
Cycles in Nature Standard 1 Objective 2: Explain relationships between matter cycles and Energy a) use diagrams to trace the movement of matter through a cycle b) Explain how water is a limiting factor
Wetland Treatment of Wastewater This monograph, one in a series of single issue documents that deal with our local environment, has been prepared by the Sarnia-Lambton Environmental Association in co-operation
SOM management: have your cake and eat it too Michelle M. Wander email@example.com Natural Resouces and Environmetnal Sciences UIUC Organic Fertility Soil and soil management is the foundation of organic
Unit 2: Ecology Chapters 2: Principles of Ecology Ecology Probe: Answer the questions and turn it in! This is a standard aquarium with a population of fish. There is no filter in this aquarium and no one
Nitrogen & Bacteria A biological journey through the environment Sources of Nitrogen to the Environment Agricultural Natural Industrial Transportation Nitrogen as a pollutant Too much Nitrogen can cause
Name: REVIEW 7: ECOLOGY Ecology: POPULATIONS: Individuals of the same living in the same area. a. Dispersion: Organisms are sometimes found in groups and others times as lone individuals. The pattern of
Leaf Leaching Experiment Monday PM David A. Reckhow University of Massachusetts Introduction Water treatment engineers and public health officials need to pay careful attention to the presence of dissolved
2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems Name: Date: (Reference: BC Science 10 pp. 68 to 91) Block: NUTRIENT CYCLING IN THE BIOSPHERE nutrients: stores: aka Nutrients are accumulated for short or long periods
Unit III Nutrients & Biomes Nutrient Cycles Carbon Cycle Based on CO 2 cycling from animals to plants during respiration and photosynthesis. Heavy deposits are stored in wetland soils, oceans, sedimentary
Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Cycles of Matter 2.1 The Role of Water in Cycles of Matter 2.2 Biogeochemical Cycles 2.3 the Balance of the Matter and Energy Exchange 2.1 The Role of Water in Cycles of Matter In this
SNC1D BIOLOGY SUSTAINABLE ECOSYSTEMS L Biomes (P.16-17) Biomes Areas of the world that have a similar climate and similar organisms are known as biomes. Desert, coral reef, tundra, and tropical rainforest
Soil respiration is a measure of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) released from soil. It is released as a result of decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and plant litter by soil microbes and through plant
30 May 2017 The Management of Soil Nutrients: Chemical Fertilisers or Not? Christopher Johns Research Manager Northern Australia and Landcare Research Programme Key Points There are 17 chemical elements
Bio 112 Ecology: Final Study Guide Below is an outline of the topics and concepts covered on the final exam. This packet also includes a practice test, along with answers to questions 1-44. You may submit
THE INTRODUCTION The earth is surrounded by atmosphere composed of many gases. The sun s rays penetrate through the atmosphere to the earth s surface. Gases in the atmosphere trap heat that would otherwise
NREM 301 Forest Ecology & Soils C Nutrient Cycling Begin Climate Discussion Day 29 December 2, 2008 Take-Home Test Due Dec 11 5 pm No Final Exam Our discussions for the semester have centered on Clipsrot
Vocabulary Pond Treatment Aerobic Bacteria Bacteria which will live and reproduce only in an environment containing oxygen which is available for their respiration (breathing), namely atmospheric oxygen
NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLAN FIELD MONITORING 1 Bradford D. Brown ABSTRACT Nutrient Management Plan Field Monitoring enables producers to evaluate the effectiveness of their Nutrient Management Plan implementation
Ocean Production and CO 2 uptake Fig. 6.6 Recall: Current ocean is gaining Carbon.. OCEAN Reservoir size: 38000 Flux in: 90 Flux out: 88+0.2=88.2 90-88.2 = 1.8 Pg/yr OCEAN is gaining 1.8 Pg/yr Sum of the
AGRO/ EMS 2051 Soil Science 3 Lab 2 Credits 4 Course Description Prerequisite: CHEM 1002, 1212 or equivalent. Principles of soil science; properties of soils related to plant growth and the environment.
Energy, Greenhouse Gases and the Carbon Cycle David Allen Gertz Regents Professor in Chemical Engineering, and Director, Center for Energy and Environmental Resources Concepts for today Greenhouse Effect
Name: Date: Biogeochemical Cycles Webquest In this webquest you will search for information that will answer questions about the water, carbon/oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorous cycles using the listed websites.
Ecosystem element cycling Introduction An ecosystem consists of all the biological organisms and the physical environments they occupy together within a defined area . The actual boundaries of an ecosystem
3.4 Cycles of Matter Lesson Objectives Describe how matter cycles among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. Describe how water cycles through the biosphere. Explain why nutrients are important
Ecology: Part 2 Biology Mrs. Bradbury Model 1: Food Chains Food Chain simple model showing the movement of matter and energy through ecosystems. Autotrophs Heterotrophs Decomposers Arrows show energy transfer
Particulate Soil Phosphorus and Eutrophication in Lakes and Streams Paul R. Bloom Soil, Water, & Climate Department University of Minnesota With contributions by John Moncrief, Carl Rosen and David Mulla
Biological Transformations of Refuse Aerobic decomposition Organic matter + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + NH 3 + Heat NH 3 + O 2 NO 3 This is composting - air is supplied to refuse Anaerobic decomposition Organic
HYDRIC SOILS By Neal Svendsen Resource Soil Scientist Natural Resources Conservation Service Sept 2006 Wetlands and Hydric Soils The term hydric soils proposed by Cowardin in 1979 Classification of Wetlands
COMMUNITY ECOLOGY Ecosystems unit Today s Big Ideas: An organism s biotic environment includes Other individuals in its own population Populations of other species living in the same area An assemblage
Ecosystems Studying Organisms In Their Environment organism population community ecosystem biosphere 1 Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do nutrients move in the ecosystem?
CHAPTER 20 LESSON 2 Key Concept How does matter move in ecosystems? Matter and Energy in the Environment Cycles of Matter What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or
WARM UP What can make up a population? 1 ECOSYSTEMS: Cycles www.swpc.noaa.gov/ 2 Biochemical Cycling Cycling of nutrients called biogeochemical cycling Move nutrients from nonliving world to living organisms
Q. In compost heaps, dead plants are broken down by microbes. This breakdown is much slower: when the weather is cold when the weather is dry when the heap is squashed down so that no air can circulate.
The Carbon Cycle Carbon is an element. It is part of oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living things. Carbon doesn t stay in one place. It is always on the move! Carbon moves from the atmosphere to plants.
Water Vapor: A GHG Lesson 3 page 1 of 2 Water Vapor: A GHG Water vapor in our atmosphere is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). On a cloudy day we can see evidence of the amount of water vapor in our atmosphere.