2 MARKET TYPES The four market types are Perfect competition Monopoly Monopolistic competition Oligopoly
3 MARKET TYPES Perfect Competition Perfect competition exists when Many firms sell an identical product to many buyers. There are no restrictions on entry into (or exit from) the market. Established firms have no advantage over new firms. Sellers and buyers are well informed about prices.
4 Other Market Types Monopoly is a market for a good or service that has no close substitutes and in which there is one supplier that is protected from competition by a barrier preventing the entry of new firms. (patent, natural resource like diamond) Oligopoly is a market in which a small number of firms compete. (media industry) Monopolistic competition is a market in which a large number of firms compete by making similar but slightly different products.(hamburger chains)
5 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Price Taker A price taker is a firm that cannot influence the price of the good or service that it produces. The firm in perfect competition is a price taker. So, even if it changes production level, it cannot expect to get a higher price.
6 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Revenue Concepts In perfect competition, market demand and market supply determine price. A firm s total revenue equals the market price multiplied by the quantity sold. A firm s marginal revenue is the change in total revenue that results from a one-unit increase in the quantity sold. Figure 14.1 on the next slide illustrates the revenue concepts.
7 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Part (a) shows the market for maple syrup. The market price is $8 a can.
8 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES In part (b), the market price determines the demand curve for the Dave s syrup, which is also his marginal revenue curve. So, no matter how much he sells, consumers will pay $8 for each unit.. price taking behavior
9 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES In part (c), if Dave sells 10 cans of syrup a day, his total revenue is $80 a day at point A.
10 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Dave s total revenue curve is TR. The table shows the calculations of TR and MR.
11 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Profit-Maximizing Output As output increases, total revenue increases. But total cost also increases. Because of decreasing marginal returns, total cost eventually increases faster than total revenue. Then we can find one output level that maximizes economic profit, and a perfectly competitive firm chooses this output level.
12 Finding the Profit Maximizing Output Level There are 2 approaches to do this: 1. Use total revenue and total cost curves 2. Use marginal analysis (compare MR and MC)
13 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES One way to find the profit-maximizing output is to use a firm s total revenue and total cost curves. Profit is maximized at the output level at which total revenue exceeds total cost by the largest amount.
14 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Total revenue increases as the quantity increases shown by the TR curve. Total cost increases as the quantity increases shown by the TC curve. As the quantity increases, economic profit (TR TC) increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases.
15 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES At low output levels, the firm incurs an economic loss. When total revenue exceeds total cost, the firm earns an economic profit. Profit is maximized when the gap between total revenue and total cost is the largest, at 10 cans per day.
16 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Marginal Analysis and the Supply Decision Marginal analysis compares marginal revenue, MR, with marginal cost, MC.
17 As output increases, marginal revenue remains constant (always at $8) but marginal cost increases. If marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (if MR > MC), the extra revenue from selling one more unit exceeds the extra cost incurred to produce it. Economic profit increases if output increases.
18 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES If marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (if MR < MC), the extra revenue from selling one more unit is less than the extra cost incurred to produce it. Then if you continue to produce, profits will decrease. Economic profit increases if output decreases.
19 If marginal revenue equals marginal cost (if MR = MC), the extra revenue from selling one more unit is equal to the extra cost incurred to produce it. Economic profit decreases if output increases or decreases, so economic profit is maximized.
20 Maximizing Profit MR>MC..Revenue from each additional unit is more than its cost, profit increases when production goes up MC>MR Cost of each unit is more than the revenue it creates..then decrease production. MR=MC You don t want to change your production anymore..this is max profit output level
21 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Marginal revenue is a constant $8 per can.
22 Marginal cost decreases at low outputs but then increases.
23 Profit is maximized when marginal revenue equals marginal cost at 10 cans a day.
24 If output increases from 9 to 10 cans a day, marginal cost is $7, which is less than the marginal revenue of $8 and profit increases.
25 If output increases from 10 to 11 cans a day, marginal cost is $9, which exceeds the marginal revenue of $8 and profit decreases.
26 Profit is $29 when output is 10 units..it gives the max profit
27 Temporary Shutdown Decisions If a firm is incurring an economic loss that it believes is temporary, it will remain in the market, and it might produce some output or temporarily shut down.
28 1. If the firm shuts down temporarily, it incurs an economic loss equal to total fixed cost. 2. If the firm produces some output, it incurs an economic loss equal to total fixed cost plus total variable cost (labor needed for production) minus total revenue (sell the production).
29 3. If total revenue exceeds total variable cost, the firm s economic loss is less than total fixed cost. So it pays the firm to produce and incur an economic loss. 4. If total revenue were less than total variable cost, the firm s economic loss would exceed total fixed cost. So the firm would shut down temporarily.
30 If it shuts down, total fixed cost is the largest economic loss that the firm will incur. No cost coming from labor.. The firm s economic loss equals total fixed cost when price equals average variable cost. (TVC=TR) So, if you are selling your production at price P and if the variable cost of each unit you produce (AVC=TVC/Q) is the same as this price, then the only cost of production is the FC. But this is the same as producing nothing..no need to produce..
31 So the firm produces some output if price exceeds average variable cost and shuts down temporarily if average variable cost exceeds price. ***The firm s shutdown point is the output and price at which price equals minimum average variable cost.
32 14.1 A FIRM S PROFIT-MAXIMIZING CHOICES Marginal revenue curve is MR. The firm s cost curves are MC, ATC, and AVC.
33 With a market price (and MR) of $3 a can, the firm minimizes its loss by producing 7 cans a day at its shutdown point. (-15 is the min loss)
34 At the shutdown point, the firms incurs an economic loss equal to total fixed cost. (ATC-AVC=AFC and AFC*Q=TFC)
35 The Firm s Short-Run Supply Curve A perfectly competitive firm s short-run supply curve shows how the firm s profit-maximizing output varies as the price varies, other things remaining the same.
36 14.1 FIRM S CHOICES The firm s marginal cost curve is MC. Its average variable cost curve is AVC, and its marginal revenue curve is MR 0. With a market price (and MR 0 ) of $3 a can, the firm maximizes profit by producing 7 cans a day (MR=MC) at its shutdown point. Point T is one point on the firm s supply curve.
37 14.1 FIRM S CHOICES If the market price rises to $8 a can, the marginal revenue curve shifts upward to MR 1. Profit-maximizing output increases to 10 cans per day. (MR=MC at that point) The black dot in part (b) is another point of the firm s supply curve.
38 MR=MC=8.max profit $29
39 14.1 FIRM S CHOICES If the price rises to $12 a can, the marginal revenue curve shifts upward to MR 2. Profit-maximizing output increases to 11 cans per day. The new black dot in part (b) is another point of the firm s supply curve. The blue curve in part (b) is the firm s supply curve.
40 14.1 FIRM S CHOICES The blue curve is the firm s supply curve. At prices below $3 a can, the firm shuts down and output is zero. At prices above $3 a can, the firm produces along its MC curve. The supply curve is the same as the MC curve at prices above the minimum point of AVC.
41 Market Supply in the Short Run The market supply curve in the short run shows the quantity supplied at each price by a fixed number of firms. The quantity supplied at a given price is the sum of the quantities supplied by all firms at that price.
42 Figure 14.6 shows the market supply curve in a market with 10,000 identical firms. At the shutdown price of $3, each firm produces either 0 or 7 cans a day.
43 14.2 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE SHORT RUN At prices below the shutdown price, firms produce no output. At prices above the shutdown price, firms produce along their marginal cost curve.
44 14.2 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE SHORT RUN At prices below the shutdown price, the market supply curve runs along the y-axis.if every firm decides to produce max output is 70,000 at a price of $3 At the shutdown price, the market supply is perfectly elastic. Above the shutdown price, the market supply slopes upward.
45 When P=$3, we don t know how many firms will produce The Q can be anything between 0 and 70,000.
46 14.2 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE SHORT RUN Short-Run Equilibrium in Normal Times Market demand and market supply determine the market price and quantity bought and sold. Figure 14.7 on the next slide illustrates short-run equilibrium when the firm makes zero economic profit.
47 In part (a), with market supply curve, S, and market demand curve, D 1, the market price is $5 a can.
48 In part (b), marginal revenue is $5 a can. Dave produces 9 cans a day, where marginal cost equals marginal revenue.
49 At this quantity, price equals average total cost, so Dave makes zero economic profit. (When market is in equilibrium, each firm is making zero profit in normal times. This is the normal profit)
51 Do not confuse this with Shut down point: Price=$3=MR=MC=AVC
52 Short-Run Equilibrium in Good Times In the short-run equilibrium that we ve just examined, Dave made zero economic profit. Although such an outcome is normal, economic profit can be positive or negative in the short run. Figure 14.8 on the next slide illustrates short-run equilibrium when the firm makes a positive economic profit.
53 In part (a), with market demand curve D 2 and market supply curve S, the market price is $8 a can.
54 In part (b), Dave s marginal revenue is $8 a can. Dave produces 10 cans a day, where marginal cost equals marginal revenue.
55 At this quantity, price ($8 a can) exceeds average total cost ($5.10 a can). Dave makes an economic profit shown by the blue rectangle.
56 P> ATC positive profit
57 Short-Run Equilibrium in Bad Times In the short-run equilibrium that we ve just examined, Dave is enjoying an economic profit. But such an outcome is not inevitable. Figure 14.9 on the next slide illustrates short-run equilibrium when the firm incurs an economic loss.
58 In part (a), with the market supply curve, S, and the market market demand curve, D 3, the market price is $3 a can.
59 In part (b), Dave s marginal revenue is $3 a can. Dave produces 7 cans a day, where marginal cost equals marginal revenue and not less than average variable cost.
60 At this quantity, price ($3 a can) is less than average total cost ($5.14 a can). Dave incurs an economic loss shown by the red rectangle.
61 P<ATC..economic loss (negative profit)
62 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Neither good times nor bad times last forever in perfect competition. In the long run, a firm in perfect competition makes zero profit. Figure on the next slide illustrates equilibrium in the long run.
63 Part (a) illustrates the firm in long-run equilibrium. The market price is $5 a can and Dave produces 9 cans a day.
64 In part (a), minimum ATC is $5 a can. In the long run, Dave produces at minimum average total cost.
65 If the price rises above or falls below $5 a can, market forces (entry and exit) move the price back to $5 a can.
66 In the long-run, the price is pulled to $5 a can and Dave makes zero economic profit.
67 In part (b), with this demand curve, price equals minimum average total cost only if the market supply curve is S.
68 If supply were less than S, the price would exceed $5 a can; if supply were greater than S, the price would be below $5 a can. Market forces (entry and exit) would change supply.(if profit is positive, entry)
69 In long run equilibrium, the market price equals minimum average total cost and the firm makes zero economic profit.
70 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Entry and Exit In the long run, firms respond to economic profit and economic loss by either entering or exiting a market. New firms enter a market in which the existing firms are making positive economic profits. Existing firms exit the market in which firms are incurring economic losses. Entry and exit influence price, the quantity produced, and economic profit.
71 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN The immediate effect of the decision to enter or exit is to shift the market supply curve. If more firms enter a market, supply increases and the market supply curve shifts rightward. If firms exit a market, supply decreases and the market supply curve shifts leftward.
72 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN The Effects of Entry Economic profit is an incentive for new firms to enter a market, but as they do so, the price falls and the economic profit of each existing firm decreases. Profit=Total Revenue- Total Cost= P*Q-TC
73 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Figure shows the effects of entry. Starting in long-run equilibrium, 1. If demand increases from D 0 to D 1, the price rises from $5 to $8 a can. Firms now make economic profit.
74 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Economic profit brings entry. 2. As firms enter the market, the supply curve shifts rightward, from S 0 to S 1. The equilibrium price falls from $8 to $5 a can, and the quantity produced increases from 100,000 to 140,000 cans a day.
75 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN The Effects of Exit Economic loss is an incentive for firms to exit a market, but as they do so, the price rises and the economic loss of each remaining firm decreases.
76 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Figure shows The effects of exit. Starting in long-run equilibrium, 1. If demand decreases from D 0 to D 2, the price falls from $5 to $3 a can. (which is the shutdown point) Firms now make economic losses. (P higher than ATC)
77 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Economic loss brings exit. 2. As firms exit the market, the supply curve shifts leftward, from S 0 to S 2. The equilibrium price rises from $3 to $5 a can, and the quantity produced decreases from 70,000 to 50,000 cans a day.
78 A Change in Demand The only difference between the initial long-run equilibrium and the final long-run equilibrium is the number of firms in the market.( cause price will be the same eventually). An increase in demand increases the number of firms. Each firm produces the same output in the new long-run equilibrium as initially and makes zero economic profit. In the process of moving from the initial equilibrium to the new one, firms make positive economic profits.
79 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN A decrease in demand triggers a similar response, except in the opposite direction. The decrease in demand brings a lower price, economic loss, and some firms exit. Exit decreases market supply and eventually raises the price to its original level.
80 Technological Change New technology allows firms to produce at a lower cost. As a result, as firms adopt a new technology, their cost curves shift downward. Market supply increases, and the market supply curve shifts rightward. With a given demand, the quantity produced increases and the price falls.
81 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Two forces are at work in a market undergoing technological change. 1. Firms that adopt the new technology make an economic profit. So new-technology firms have an incentive to enter. 2. Firms that stick with the old technology incur economic losses. These firms either exit the market or switch to the new technology.
82 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Is Perfect Competition Efficient? Resources are used efficiently when it is not possible to get more of one good without giving up something that is valued more highly. To achieve this outcome, marginal benefit must equal marginal cost. That is what perfect competition achieves. The market supply curve is the marginal cost curve. It is the sum of the firms marginal cost curves at all points above the minimum of average variable cost (the shutdown price).
83 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN The market supply curve is the marginal cost curve. The market demand curve is the marginal benefit curve. Because the market supply and market demand curves intersect at the equilibrium price, that price equals both marginal cost and marginal benefit. Figure on the next slide shows the efficiency of perfect competition.
84 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN 1. Market equilibrium occurs at a price of $5 a can and a quantity of 90 cans a day. 2. Supply curve is also the marginal cost curve. 3. Demand curve is also the marginal benefit curve.
85 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Because marginal benefit equals marginal cost 4. Efficient quantity is produced. 5. Total surplus (sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus) is maximized.
87 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN Is Perfect Competition Fair? Perfect competition places no restrictions on anyone s actions everyone is free to try to make an economic profit. The process of competition eliminates economic profit and brings maximum attainable benefit to consumers. Fairness as equality of opportunity and fairness as equality of outcomes are achieved in long-run equilibrium.
88 14.3 OUTPUT, PRICE, PROFIT IN THE LONG RUN But in the short run, economic profit and economic loss can arise. These unequal outcomes might seem unfair.
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