Chapter 10: Classification of Microorganisms

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 10: Classification of Microorganisms"

Transcription

1 Chapter 10: Classification of Microorganisms 1. The Taxonomic Hierarchy 2. Methods of Identification

2 1. The Taxonomic Hierarchy

3 Phylogenetic Tree of the 3 Domains

4 Taxonomic Hierarchy 8 successive taxa are used to classify each species: Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus **species can also contain different strains** Species

5 Scientific Nomenclature To avoid confusion, every type of organism must be referred to in a consistent way. The current system of nomenclature (naming) has been in use since the 18 th century: every type of organism is referred by its genus name followed by its specific epithet (i.e., species name) Homo sapiens (H. sapiens) Escherichia coli (E. coli) name should be in italics and only the genus is capitalized which can also be abbreviated names are Latin (or Latinized Greek) with the genus being a noun and the specific epithet an adjective **strain info can be listed after the specific epithet (e.g., E. coli DH5α)**

6 2. Methods of Identification

7 Biochemical Testing In addition to morphological (i.e., appearance under the microscope) and differential staining characteristics, microorganisms can also be identified by their biochemical signatures : the nutrient requirements and metabolic by-products of of a particular microorganism different growth media can be used to test the physiological characteristics of a microorganism e.g., medium with lactose only as energy source e.g., medium that reveals H 2 S production **appearance on test medium reveals + or result!**

8 Commercial devices for rapid Identification Perform multiple tests simultaneously Enterotube II Such devices involve the simultaneous inoculation of various test media: ~24 hrs later the panel of results reveals ID of organism!

9 Use of Dichotomous Keys Series of yes/no biochemical tests to ID organism. tests done in a logical order, each test result indicates next test to be done collective results of multiple tests create a profile allowing ID of microorganism

10 Serology (i.e., antibodies) Specific antibodies can be used to ID bacteria: antibodies are produced by animals to anything foreign animals (rabbits, goats ) are routinely injected with biological material for which antibodies are needed antibodies present in the animal serum can then be used in various ID tests: e.g., the agglutination test differences in antibody reactivity can reveal different bacterial strains or serovars

11 Phage (virus) Typing Bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) have very specific hosts and can be use to ID bacteria: grow a lawn of bacteria to be tested on agar plate dot different test phage samples on surface after ~24 hr, clear zones appear where bacteria have been infected & killed profile of phage sensitivity can reveal ID of bacteria

12 DNA Base Composition Members of the same genera or species have nearly identical DNA sequences, and hence the same proportions of G/C base pairs & A/T base pairs: because they base pair, G = C and A = T G/C + A/T = 100% (e.g., if G/C = 40% then A/T = 60%) Determining the G/C content of the DNA from a test organism and comparing to known values is a quick way to eliminate possible identities: if %G/C is different, cannot be a match! if %G/C is same, might be a match but additional testing is necessary to confirm

13 The Use of DNA Hybridization With enough heat, DNA strands will separate. Cooling allows complementary strands to base pair. this technique is used in a variety of ways to see if DNA from two different sources are similar usually the DNA from one source is immobilized, the other is labeled to allow detection

14 FISH Fluorescent in situ hybridization: 1) label DNA probe (fr. species of interest) w/fluorescent tag 2) chemically treat cells to allow DNA to enter, hybridize 3) wash & view with fluorescence microscopy **cells w/dna complementary to probe will fluoresce!**

15 PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction selectively amplifies only desired DNA (if present) e.g., DNA from suspected pathogen

16 PCR is a technique that involves manipulating DNA replication in vitro

17 Overview of PCR Technique Every PCR reaction requires the following: DNA source to be tested (or amplified) artificial primers specific for DNA of interest heat-stable DNA polymerase free nucleotides (dntp s) Plus an automated thermocycler to facilitate repeated cycles of: 1) denaturation of DNA (separation of ~95 o C 2) hybridization of primers to ~50-60 o C 3) DNA ~72 o C

18 Ribosomal RNA (rrna) Comparison Prokaryotic ribosomes contain 3 different rrna mol.: large subunit contains 23S (2900 nt) & 5S (120 nt) rrna small subunit contains 16S (1500 nt) 16S rrna sequence is typically used for ribotyping: sequence is highly conserved (varies little) degree of difference reflects evolutionary distance **primary method for classifying prokaryotic species**

19 serology Key Terms for Chapter 10 dichotomous key phage typing hybridization FISH PCR, thermocycler ribotyping Relevant Chapter Questions rvw: 4-10, 13, 14 MC: 2-8

20 Chapter 3: Microscopy 1. Types of Microscopy 2. Staining

21 1. Types of Microscopya

22 Scale of Magnification Light microscopy limit of resolution* ~0.2 μm sufficient to see most organelles, bacteria Electron microscopy (TEM & SEM): limit of resolution ~ nm sufficient to see subcellular detail, large molecular complexes *resolution = ability to distinguish objects close to each other

23 Light Microscopy Most common type is the Compound Light Microscope: 3 1) condenser lens focuses light source on sample 2 2) objective lens magnifies the image 1 3) ocular lens further magnifies image

24 immersion oil has refraction index similar to glass, allows more light to enter the lens Oil Immersion & Light Refraction Different media (air, water, glass, oil ) bend light to different degrees. i.e., have different refractive indexes the oil immersion lens is too small to capture all light refracted by air

25 Bright & Dark Field Microscopy Bright Field Microscopy standard or default type of light microscopy Dark Field Microscopy barrier in condenser eliminates all direct light only light reflected by specimen enters the objective lens

26 Phase Contrast & DIC Microscopy Phase-Contrast Microscopy provides internal detail, contrast, w/o staining useful for live specimens Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy variation on phase-contrast with a 2 nd light source greater detail, contrast

27 Fluorescence Microscopy Fluorescent dyes or antibodies with a fluorescent tag stick to specific targets. Under UV light, dye fluoresces, only labeled cells or structures are seen. standard confocal

28 Confocal Microscopy Only light from a given depth or plane is transmitted, out of focus light excluded

29 Electron Microscopy Electromagnetic lenses focus electron beam onto metal-stained specimen. electron beams have very short wavelengths allows far greater resolution than with light microscopy Transmission EM (TEM) thin sections of specimen, highest resolution Scanning EM (SEM) reveals surface features

30 2. Staining

31 Why the Need for Stains? Because, no matter how high the magnification or resolution, you need contrast to be able to see anything. If contrast is not sufficient in the sample or the microscopic method used, staining can provide the necessary contrast: stains used for viewing bacteria via light microscopy are typically positively charged chromophores (basic dyes) chromophore = color-bearing ion of a salt bacteria have a net negative charge (i.e., bind positive ions)

32 Simple stain General Types of Stains dye that non-specifically stains all organisms, features Differential stain dye that binds various structures or organisms differently Counter stain a 2 nd dye added that is a different color than original dye Negative stain dye that stains background, not specimen Special stain dye that specifically stains certain subcellular structures **a mordant is any chemical added to enhance a stain**

33 Gram Staining A very common stain to distinguish 2 bacterial types: 1 2 3* 4 Gram positive retain primary stain thick cell wall, NO outer membrane * key step Process: 1) primary stain 2) add mordant 3) decolorize* 4) counter stain Gram negative retain only the counter stain thin cell wall, have outer membrane

34 Acid-Fast Staining Most bacteria are not acid-fast (i.e., don t retain stain after acid wash). only stains species in the genera: Mycobacterium Nocardia acid fast non-acid fast non-acid-fast cells revealed by counter stain

35 Other Types of Staining Negative Staining e.g., capsule stain Spore Staining specific for endospores Flagella Staining

36 Key Terms for Chapter 3 resolution fluorescent, confocal microscopy transmission vs scanning EM refraction & oil immersion bright & dark field, phase contrast microscopy simple, differential, counter, negative stains gram & acid-fast stains, mordant, chromophore Relevant Chapter Questions rvw: 1-13 MC: 10

Methods of Culturing Microorganisms. Chapter 3. Five Basic Techniques of Culturing Bacteria. Topics

Methods of Culturing Microorganisms. Chapter 3. Five Basic Techniques of Culturing Bacteria. Topics Chapter 3 Topics Methods of Culturing Microorganisms Microscope (History, Types, Definitions) Staining (Gram s) Methods of Culturing Microorganisms Five basic techniques of culturing Media Microbial growth

More information

Chapter 03 - Tools of the Laboratory: Methods for the Culturing of Microscopic Analysis of microorganisms

Chapter 03 - Tools of the Laboratory: Methods for the Culturing of Microscopic Analysis of microorganisms Microbiology: A Systems Approach 4th Edition Cowan Test Bank Completed download: https://testbankreal.com/download/microbiology-systems-approach-4thedition-test-bank-cowan/ (Downloadable package TEST BANK

More information

CHAPTER 20 DNA TECHNOLOGY AND GENOMICS. Section A: DNA Cloning

CHAPTER 20 DNA TECHNOLOGY AND GENOMICS. Section A: DNA Cloning Section A: DNA Cloning 1. DNA technology makes it possible to clone genes for basic research and commercial applications: an overview 2. Restriction enzymes are used to make recombinant DNA 3. Genes can

More information

Microbial Diversity and Assessment (III) Spring, 2007 Guangyi Wang, Ph.D. POST103B

Microbial Diversity and Assessment (III) Spring, 2007 Guangyi Wang, Ph.D. POST103B Microbial Diversity and Assessment (III) Spring, 2007 Guangyi Wang, Ph.D. POST103B guangyi@hawaii.edu http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/marinefungi/ocn403webpage.htm Overview of Last Lecture Taxonomy (three

More information

FARM MICROBIOLOGY 2008 PART 2: BASIC STRUCTURE AND GENETICS OF BACTERIA. 1. Epulopiscium fishelsoni and Thiomargarita namibiensis.

FARM MICROBIOLOGY 2008 PART 2: BASIC STRUCTURE AND GENETICS OF BACTERIA. 1. Epulopiscium fishelsoni and Thiomargarita namibiensis. FARM MICROBIOLOGY 2008 PART 2: BASIC STRUCTURE AND GENETICS OF BACTERIA I. Basic Morphology (Shape) of Vegetative Cells. A. Microscopic. Example Escherichia coli (aka E. coli) is 1.3 µm (= 0.000052 inch)

More information

Recombinant DNA Technology. The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Biotechnology. yeast. Biotechnology. Recombinant DNA technology.

Recombinant DNA Technology. The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Biotechnology. yeast. Biotechnology. Recombinant DNA technology. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, North Carolina State University C H A P T E R 8 Recombinant DNA Technology The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Biotechnology Biotechnology?

More information

Chapter 17: Immunization & Immune Testing. 1. Immunization 2. Diagnostic Immunology

Chapter 17: Immunization & Immune Testing. 1. Immunization 2. Diagnostic Immunology Chapter 17: Immunization & Immune Testing 1. Immunization 2. Diagnostic Immunology 1. Immunization Chapter Reading pp. 505-511 What is Immunization? A method of inducing artificial immunity by exposing

More information

Inoculate: Media. Physical State of Media: Liquid. The Five I s: Basic Techniques to Culture Microbes Tools of the Microbiology Laboratory

Inoculate: Media. Physical State of Media: Liquid. The Five I s: Basic Techniques to Culture Microbes Tools of the Microbiology Laboratory The Five I s: Basic Techniques to Culture Microbes Tools of the Microbiology Laboratory 1. Inoculate 2. Incubate 3. Isolate 4. Inspect 5. Identify The Five I s: Inoculate Inoculate: Media Classified according

More information

Visualizing Cells Molecular Biology of the Cell - Chapter 9

Visualizing Cells Molecular Biology of the Cell - Chapter 9 Visualizing Cells Molecular Biology of the Cell - Chapter 9 Resolution, Detection Magnification Interaction of Light with matter: Absorbtion, Refraction, Reflection, Fluorescence Light Microscopy Absorbtion

More information

Virginia Western Community College BIO 205 General Microbiology

Virginia Western Community College BIO 205 General Microbiology Prerequisites BIO 205 General Microbiology One year of college biology and one year of college chemistry or divisional approval; an ENG 111 placement recommendation, co-enrollment in ENF 3/ENG 111, or

More information

Genetics and Genomics in Medicine Chapter 3. Questions & Answers

Genetics and Genomics in Medicine Chapter 3. Questions & Answers Genetics and Genomics in Medicine Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Questions Questions & Answers Question 3.1 Which of the following statements, if any, is false? a) Amplifying DNA means making many identical

More information

Lecture Four. Molecular Approaches I: Nucleic Acids

Lecture Four. Molecular Approaches I: Nucleic Acids Lecture Four. Molecular Approaches I: Nucleic Acids I. Recombinant DNA and Gene Cloning Recombinant DNA is DNA that has been created artificially. DNA from two or more sources is incorporated into a single

More information

Sensitivity vs Specificity

Sensitivity vs Specificity Viral Detection Animal Inoculation Culturing the Virus Definitive Length of time Serology Detecting antibodies to the infectious agent Detecting Viral Proteins Western Blot ELISA Detecting the Viral Genome

More information

Chapter 02 Tools of the Laboratory: Methods for the Culturing and Microscopic Analysis

Chapter 02 Tools of the Laboratory: Methods for the Culturing and Microscopic Analysis Chapter 02 Tools of the Laboratory: Methods for the Culturing and Microscopic Analysis Multiple Choice Questions 1. The Five I's of studying microorganisms include all of the following except A. inoculation.

More information

Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 11: Recombinant DNA

Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 11: Recombinant DNA Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 11: Recombinant DNA Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which of the following statements about the sources of DNA used for molecular cloning is correct? Question #1 (A) cdna

More information

CHAPTER 2A HOW DO YOU BEGIN TO CLONE A GENE? CHAPTER 2A STUDENT GUIDE 2013 Amgen Foundation. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER 2A HOW DO YOU BEGIN TO CLONE A GENE? CHAPTER 2A STUDENT GUIDE 2013 Amgen Foundation. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 2A HOW DO YOU BEGIN TO CLONE A GENE? 35 INTRODUCTION In the Program Introduction, you learned that the increase in diabetes in the United States has resulted in a great demand for its treatment,

More information

BIO 315 Lab Exam I. Section #: Name:

BIO 315 Lab Exam I. Section #: Name: Section #: Name: Also provide this information on the computer grid sheet given to you. (Section # in special code box) BIO 315 Lab Exam I 1. In labeling the parts of a standard compound light microscope

More information

Technical Review. Real time PCR

Technical Review. Real time PCR Technical Review Real time PCR Normal PCR: Analyze with agarose gel Normal PCR vs Real time PCR Real-time PCR, also known as quantitative PCR (qpcr) or kinetic PCR Key feature: Used to amplify and simultaneously

More information

1. A brief overview of sequencing biochemistry

1. A brief overview of sequencing biochemistry Supplementary reading materials on Genome sequencing (optional) The materials are from Mark Blaxter s lecture notes on Sequencing strategies and Primary Analysis 1. A brief overview of sequencing biochemistry

More information

Baraa Ayed AL-Odat. Israa Ayed. Heba kalbouneh

Baraa Ayed AL-Odat. Israa Ayed. Heba kalbouneh 1 Baraa Ayed AL-Odat Israa Ayed Heba kalbouneh Introduction: "lecture #1" The name " histology " is derived from the Greek words: "histo" means a tissue and "logos" means the study of. So, Histology mean

More information

Total Test Questions: 66 Levels: Grades Units of Credit: 1.0 STANDARD 2. Demonstrate appropriate use of personal protective devices.

Total Test Questions: 66 Levels: Grades Units of Credit: 1.0 STANDARD 2. Demonstrate appropriate use of personal protective devices. DESCRIPTION Biotechnology is designed to create an awareness of career possibilities in the field of biotechnology. Students are introduced to diagnostic and therapeutic laboratory procedures that support

More information

They are similar to one another but different from other species: They are capable of breeding: Artificial classification: Natural classification:

They are similar to one another but different from other species: They are capable of breeding: Artificial classification: Natural classification: Classification Scientists estimate that the numbers of species on Earth are from 10 million to 100 million. Classification is the organisation of living organisms into groups. This process is based on

More information

Microbial Biotechnology agustin krisna wardani

Microbial Biotechnology agustin krisna wardani Microbial Biotechnology agustin krisna wardani 1. The Structure of Microbes Microbes (microorganisms) are tiny organisms that are too small to be seen individually by the naked eye and must be viewed with

More information

Section A: Prokaryotes Types and Structure 1. What is microbiology?

Section A: Prokaryotes Types and Structure 1. What is microbiology? Section A: Prokaryotes Types and Structure 1. What is microbiology? 2. Compare and contrast characteristics of each bacterial type: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. Eubacteria Both Archaebacteria 3. Label

More information

Genetics Lecture 21 Recombinant DNA

Genetics Lecture 21 Recombinant DNA Genetics Lecture 21 Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA In 1971, a paper published by Kathleen Danna and Daniel Nathans marked the beginning of the recombinant DNA era. The paper described the isolation of

More information

Session 3 Cloning Overview & Polymerase Chain Reaction

Session 3 Cloning Overview & Polymerase Chain Reaction Session 3 Cloning Overview & Polymerase Chain Reaction Learning Objective: In this lab exercise, you will become familiar with the steps of a polymerase chain reaction, the required reagents for a successful

More information

Immune System. Viruses vs. Bacteria

Immune System. Viruses vs. Bacteria Immune System Viruses vs. Bacteria Concept Map Section 19-1 Bacteria are classified into the kingdoms of Eubacteria Archaebacteria include a variety of lifestyles such as live in harsh environments such

More information

Providing clear solutions to microbiological challenges TM. cgmp/iso CLIA. Polyphasic Microbial Identification & DNA Fingerprinting

Providing clear solutions to microbiological challenges TM. cgmp/iso CLIA. Polyphasic Microbial Identification & DNA Fingerprinting Providing clear solutions to microbiological challenges TM Cert. No. 2254.01 Polyphasic Microbial Identification & DNA Fingerprinting Microbial Contamination Tracking & Trending cgmp/iso-17025-2005 CLIA

More information

5. Structure and Replication of DNA

5. Structure and Replication of DNA BIO2310 General and Molecular Genetics 5. Structure and Replication of DNA Key questions: How was DNA shown to be the genetic material? How about RNA? How was the structure of DNA determined to be the

More information

STUDY GUIDE SECTION 10-1 Discovery of DNA

STUDY GUIDE SECTION 10-1 Discovery of DNA STUDY GUIDE SECTION 10-1 Discovery of DNA Name Period Date Multiple Choice-Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. The virulent strain of the bacterium S. pneumoniae causes disease because it a. has

More information

Test Prep Pretest. in the. the. whereas prokaryotic DNA contains only replication forks during replication. Skills Worksheet

Test Prep Pretest. in the. the. whereas prokaryotic DNA contains only replication forks during replication. Skills Worksheet Skills Worksheet Test Prep Pretest Complete each statement by writing the correct term or phrase in the space provided. 1. In 1928, Frederick Griffith found that the capsule that enclosed one strain of

More information

Total Test Questions: 71 Levels: Grades Units of Credit: 1.0 STANDARD 1 STUDENTS WILL INVESTIGATE THE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF

Total Test Questions: 71 Levels: Grades Units of Credit: 1.0 STANDARD 1 STUDENTS WILL INVESTIGATE THE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF DESCRIPTION Biotechnology is designed to create an awareness of career possibilities in the field of biotechnology. Students are introduced to diagnostic and therapeutic laboratory procedures that support

More information

CHAPTER 08: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY Pearson Education, Inc.

CHAPTER 08: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 08: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Biotechnology Biotechnology the use of microorganisms to make practical products Recombinant DNA technology Intentionally

More information

Genetic Engineering & Recombinant DNA

Genetic Engineering & Recombinant DNA Genetic Engineering & Recombinant DNA Chapter 10 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc) Permission required for reproduction or display. Applications of Genetic Engineering Basic science vs. Applied

More information

Gene Expression Technology

Gene Expression Technology Gene Expression Technology Bing Zhang Department of Biomedical Informatics Vanderbilt University bing.zhang@vanderbilt.edu Gene expression Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene

More information

HiPer Real-Time PCR Teaching Kit

HiPer Real-Time PCR Teaching Kit HiPer Real-Time PCR Teaching Kit Product Code: HTBM032 Number of experiments that can be performed: 10 Duration of Experiment Protocol: 1.5 hours Storage Instructions: The kit is stable for 12 months from

More information

Name 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene Test Date Study Guide You must know: The structure of DNA. The major steps to replication.

Name 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene Test Date Study Guide You must know: The structure of DNA. The major steps to replication. Name 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene Test Date Study Guide You must know: The structure of DNA. The major steps to replication. The difference between replication, transcription, and translation. How

More information

Overview: Life s Operating Instructions Concept 16.1: DNA is the genetic material The Search for the Genetic Material: Scientific Inquiry

Overview: Life s Operating Instructions Concept 16.1: DNA is the genetic material The Search for the Genetic Material: Scientific Inquiry Overview: Life s Operating Instructions In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick introduced an elegant double-helical model for the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA DNA, the substance of inheritance,

More information

Chapter 13 DNA The Genetic Material Replication

Chapter 13 DNA The Genetic Material Replication Chapter 13 DNA The Genetic Material Replication Scientific History The march to understanding that DNA is the genetic material T.H. Morgan (1908) Frederick Griffith (1928) Avery, McCarty & MacLeod (1944)

More information

Multiplex PCR. Bruce Applegate, Michael Kane and Sergei Savikhin. Analysis of multiplex PCR reactions. Detect multiple target DNA sequences

Multiplex PCR. Bruce Applegate, Michael Kane and Sergei Savikhin. Analysis of multiplex PCR reactions. Detect multiple target DNA sequences Improved Detection Techniques for Food Borne Pathogens Use of Multi-Plex Detection Platforms Bruce Applegate, Michael Kane and Sergei Savikhin Multiplex PCR Detect multiple target DNA sequences Multiple

More information

Methods of Biomaterials Testing Lesson 3-5. Biochemical Methods - Molecular Biology -

Methods of Biomaterials Testing Lesson 3-5. Biochemical Methods - Molecular Biology - Methods of Biomaterials Testing Lesson 3-5 Biochemical Methods - Molecular Biology - Chromosomes in the Cell Nucleus DNA in the Chromosome Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) DNA has double-helix structure The

More information

2054, Chap. 14, page 1

2054, Chap. 14, page 1 2054, Chap. 14, page 1 I. Recombinant DNA technology (Chapter 14) A. recombinant DNA technology = collection of methods used to perform genetic engineering 1. genetic engineering = deliberate modification

More information

CHAPTER 16 MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE

CHAPTER 16 MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE CHAPTER 16 MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE DNA as genetic material? Deducted that DNA is the genetic material Initially worked by studying bacteria & the viruses that infected them 1928 Frederick Griffiths

More information

What are prokaryotes?

What are prokaryotes? What are prokaryotes? ALWAYS unicellular organisms NO nucleus NO membrane-bound organelles Two types: Archaea and Bacteria Prokaryotic Size Very tiny compared to eukaryotic cells Comparing Eubacteria and

More information

INTRODUCTION TO REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION PCR (RT-PCR) ABCF 2016 BecA-ILRI Hub, Nairobi 21 st September 2016 Roger Pelle Principal Scientist

INTRODUCTION TO REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION PCR (RT-PCR) ABCF 2016 BecA-ILRI Hub, Nairobi 21 st September 2016 Roger Pelle Principal Scientist INTRODUCTION TO REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION PCR (RT-PCR) ABCF 2016 BecA-ILRI Hub, Nairobi 21 st September 2016 Roger Pelle Principal Scientist Objective of PCR To provide a solution to one of the most pressing

More information

Multiple choice questions (numbers in brackets indicate the number of correct answers)

Multiple choice questions (numbers in brackets indicate the number of correct answers) 1 Multiple choice questions (numbers in brackets indicate the number of correct answers) February 1, 2013 1. Ribose is found in Nucleic acids Proteins Lipids RNA DNA (2) 2. Most RNA in cells is transfer

More information

HiPer Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Teaching Kit

HiPer Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Teaching Kit HiPer Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Teaching Kit Product Code: HTBM031 Number of experiments that can be performed: 5 Duration of Experiment: Protocol: 3.5 hours Agarose Gel Electrophoresis:

More information

BACTERIA. NO or membrane bound WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF PROKARYOTES? TYPES EUBACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA. bilayer embedded with

BACTERIA. NO or membrane bound WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF PROKARYOTES? TYPES EUBACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA. bilayer embedded with Bacteria and Virus Notes WHAT ARE PROKARYOTES? ALWAYS organisms BACTERIA NO or membrane bound Very compared to cells WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF PROKARYOTES? TYPES EUBACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA MAJOR DIFFERENCES

More information

Introduction, by Tortora, Funke and Case, 11th Ed. TENTATIVE LECTURE OUTLINE DATE TOPIC CHAPTER

Introduction, by Tortora, Funke and Case, 11th Ed. TENTATIVE LECTURE OUTLINE DATE TOPIC CHAPTER MICROBIOLOGY 220 Spring 2014 TTh Section Professor: Scott Rose Text: Microbiology; An Introduction, by Tortora, Funke and Case, 11th Ed. TENTATIVE LECTURE OUTLINE DATE TOPIC CHAPTER Jan. 23 Introduction

More information

cgmp/iso CLIA Experience Unsurpassed Quality

cgmp/iso CLIA Experience Unsurpassed Quality Cert. No. 2254.01 cgmp/iso-17025-2005 CLIA Experience Unsurpassed Quality Polyphasic Microbial Identification & DNA Fingerprinting Microbial Contamination Tracking & Trending Microbial Identification

More information

Ch. 10 Notes DNA: Transcription and Translation

Ch. 10 Notes DNA: Transcription and Translation Ch. 10 Notes DNA: Transcription and Translation GOALS Compare the structure of RNA with that of DNA Summarize the process of transcription Relate the role of codons to the sequence of amino acids that

More information

Recombination, Genetic Technology and Bacterial Diagnosis 8.4, 8.6 and 15

Recombination, Genetic Technology and Bacterial Diagnosis 8.4, 8.6 and 15 Recombination, Genetic Technology and Bacterial Diagnosis 8.4, 8.6 and 15 Genetic Recombination During meiosis of human gametes In bacteria, occurs when DNA is transferred between bacteria. Increases diversity

More information

Validation of qpcr Rapid Bacterial Quantification through Viable E. coli cell count in the Saginaw Bay Watershed

Validation of qpcr Rapid Bacterial Quantification through Viable E. coli cell count in the Saginaw Bay Watershed Validation of qpcr Rapid Bacterial Quantification through Viable E. coli cell count in the Saginaw Bay Watershed TYLER LEFEVRE ADVISOR: DR. TAMI SIVY 1 Overview Introduction to fecal coliforms Current

More information

Bio Rad PCR Song Lyrics

Bio Rad PCR Song Lyrics Bio Rad PCR Song Lyrics There was a time when to amplify DNA, You had to grow tons and tons of tiny cells. (Oooh) Then along came a guy named Dr. Kary Mullis, Said you can amplify in vitro just as well.

More information

320 MBIO Microbial Diagnosis. Aljawharah F. Alabbad Noorah A. Alkubaisi 2017

320 MBIO Microbial Diagnosis. Aljawharah F. Alabbad Noorah A. Alkubaisi 2017 320 MBIO Microbial Diagnosis Aljawharah F. Alabbad Noorah A. Alkubaisi 2017 Primary Media for Isolation of Microorganisms As we know, many clinical specimens contain a mixed flora of microorganisms. Thus

More information

Viruses and Prokaryotes

Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses Are they living things? Viruses can reproduce, however, they cannot reproduce without a host cell. They also do not contain cytoplasmic materials and they do not have a

More information

Answers to Module 1. An obligate aerobe is an organism that has an absolute requirement of oxygen for growth.

Answers to Module 1. An obligate aerobe is an organism that has an absolute requirement of oxygen for growth. Answers to Module 1 Short Answers 1) What is an obligate aerobe? An obligate aerobe is an organism that has an absolute requirement of oxygen for growth. What about facultative anaerobe? 2) Distinguish

More information

BIOTECHNOLOGY OLD BIOTECHNOLOGY (TRADITIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY) MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY.

BIOTECHNOLOGY OLD BIOTECHNOLOGY (TRADITIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY) MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY. BIOTECHNOLOGY Biotechnology can be defined as the use of micro-organisms, plant or animal cells or their components or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes (services) useful to human

More information

DNA and Its Role in Heredity. DNA and Its Role in Heredity. A. DNA: The Genetic Material. A. DNA: The Genetic Material.

DNA and Its Role in Heredity. DNA and Its Role in Heredity. A. DNA: The Genetic Material. A. DNA: The Genetic Material. DNA and Its Role in Heredity A. DNA: The Genetic Material Lecture Series 8 DNA and Its Role in Heredity B. The Structure of DNA C. DNA E. DNA Proofreading and Repair F. Practical Applications of DNA A.

More information

Chapter 17. PCR the polymerase chain reaction and its many uses. Prepared by Woojoo Choi

Chapter 17. PCR the polymerase chain reaction and its many uses. Prepared by Woojoo Choi Chapter 17. PCR the polymerase chain reaction and its many uses Prepared by Woojoo Choi Polymerase chain reaction 1) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): artificial amplification of a DNA sequence by repeated

More information

MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE

MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE C H A P T E R 1 6 as genetic material? Deducted that is the genetic material Initially worked by studying bacteria & the viruses that infected them 1928 Frederick Griffiths

More information

Contents. 1 Basic Molecular Microbiology of Bacteria... 1 Exp. 1.1 Isolation of Genomic DNA Introduction Principle...

Contents. 1 Basic Molecular Microbiology of Bacteria... 1 Exp. 1.1 Isolation of Genomic DNA Introduction Principle... Contents 1 Basic Molecular Microbiology of Bacteria... 1 Exp. 1.1 Isolation of Genomic DNA... 1 Introduction... 1 Principle... 1 Reagents Required and Their Role... 2 Procedure... 3 Observation... 4 Result

More information

Learning Objectives :

Learning Objectives : Learning Objectives : Understand the basic differences between genomic and cdna libraries Understand how genomic libraries are constructed Understand the purpose for having overlapping DNA fragments in

More information

Resolution of Microscopes Visible light is nm Dry lens(0.5na), green(530nm light)=0.65µm=650nm for oil lens (1.4NA) UV light (300nm) = 0.13µm f

Resolution of Microscopes Visible light is nm Dry lens(0.5na), green(530nm light)=0.65µm=650nm for oil lens (1.4NA) UV light (300nm) = 0.13µm f Microscopes and Microscopy MCB 380 Good information sources: Alberts-Molecular Biology of the Cell http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/ http://www.microscopyu.com/ Approaches to Problems in Cell Biology

More information

Dr: RAWIA BADR Associate Professor of Microbiology&Immunology

Dr: RAWIA BADR Associate Professor of Microbiology&Immunology Dr: RAWIA BADR Associate Professor of Microbiology&Immunology Cell culture Commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, while the more specific term plant tissue.culture is used only for

More information

HiPer RT-PCR Teaching Kit

HiPer RT-PCR Teaching Kit HiPer RT-PCR Teaching Kit Product Code: HTBM024 Number of experiments that can be performed: 5 Duration of Experiment: Protocol: 4 hours Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: 45 minutes Storage Instructions: The

More information

Bacterial Viruses. Week of 2/28-3/4/05. Hour 1: Watch Lambda bacteriophage video.

Bacterial Viruses. Week of 2/28-3/4/05. Hour 1: Watch Lambda bacteriophage video. Module 2 Lab 2 Bacterial Viruses Week of 2/28-3/4/05 Learning objectives Objectives Explain how bacteriophage infect their hosts and multiply Recognize the bacteriophage infection of bacteria Use PCR to

More information

INTRODUCTION water-soluble Figure 1.

INTRODUCTION water-soluble Figure 1. INTRODUCTION Natural waters contain bacteria. The aerobic gram negative bacillus of the genera Psedomonas, Alcalignes, and Flavobacterium are common in natural waters. Many of these bacteria are able to

More information

Fatchiyah

Fatchiyah Fatchiyah Email: fatchiya@yahoo.co.id RNAs: mrna trna rrna RNAi DNAs: Protein: genome DNA cdna mikro-makro mono-poly single-multi Analysis: Identification human and animal disease Finger printing Sexing

More information

Procedures for Identifying Pathogens and Diagnosing Infection

Procedures for Identifying Pathogens and Diagnosing Infection Chapter 17 Procedures for Identifying Pathogens and Diagnosing Infection 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17.1 An Overview of Clinical Microbiology

More information

Biology Test Review Microorganisms

Biology Test Review Microorganisms Name: Period: Biology Test Review Microorganisms Use your booklet, notes, & quizzes to complete this review. 1. Define the following terms using a few key words: a. Host cell - victim of the virus b. Retrovirus

More information

Introduction to BioMEMS & Medical Microdevices DNA Microarrays and Lab-on-a-Chip Methods

Introduction to BioMEMS & Medical Microdevices DNA Microarrays and Lab-on-a-Chip Methods Introduction to BioMEMS & Medical Microdevices DNA Microarrays and Lab-on-a-Chip Methods Companion lecture to the textbook: Fundamentals of BioMEMS and Medical Microdevices, by Prof., http://saliterman.umn.edu/

More information

Synthetic Biology for

Synthetic Biology for Synthetic Biology for Plasmids and DNA Digestion Plasmids Plasmids are small DNA molecules that are separate from chromosomal DNA They are most commonly found as double stranded, circular DNA Typical plasmids

More information

Brief History. Many people contributed to our understanding of DNA

Brief History. Many people contributed to our understanding of DNA DNA (Ch. 12) Brief History Many people contributed to our understanding of DNA T.H. Morgan (1908) Frederick Griffith (1928) Avery, McCarty & MacLeod (1944) Erwin Chargaff (1947) Hershey & Chase (1952)

More information

Chapter 13 - Concept Mapping

Chapter 13 - Concept Mapping Chapter 13 - Concept Mapping Using the terms and phrases provided below, complete the concept map showing the discovery of DNA structure. amount of base pairs five-carbon sugar purine DNA polymerases Franklin

More information

CHAPTER 4, Part 1: LECTURE TOPICS: DNA and RNA - MOLECULES OF HEREDITY

CHAPTER 4, Part 1: LECTURE TOPICS: DNA and RNA - MOLECULES OF HEREDITY Chapter 4 Notes: Part 1 Biochemistry 461 Fall 2010 CHAPTER 4, Part 1: LECTURE TOPICS: DNA and RNA - MOLECULES OF HEREDITY 1) DNA/RNA structures, nomenclature, shorthand conventions 2) DNA and RNA as genetic

More information

Adapted from Biology 15 Laboratory Manual Supplement: Wrightsman, Ininns and Cannon-Moloznic, Saddleback College, CA 92692

Adapted from Biology 15 Laboratory Manual Supplement: Wrightsman, Ininns and Cannon-Moloznic, Saddleback College, CA 92692 Biology 4B Laboratory Bacteriological Examination of Water Adapted from Biology 15 Laboratory Manual Supplement: Wrightsman, Ininns and Cannon-Moloznic, Saddleback College, CA 92692 Objectives Carry out

More information

Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization

Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization Presented for: Presented by: Date: 2 Definition In situ hybridization is the method of localizing/ detecting specific nucleotide sequences in morphologically preserved

More information

Activity 5.1.4: Gram Staining

Activity 5.1.4: Gram Staining Activity 5.1.4: Gram Staining Introduction In the last activity, you isolated the bacteria that was responsible for Anna s illness and performed a gross examination of the resultant colonies. While gross

More information

Molecular methods for detection of Antibiotic Resistance in environmental matrices: limits, prospects and challenges.

Molecular methods for detection of Antibiotic Resistance in environmental matrices: limits, prospects and challenges. Dr. Angela Cicatelli acicatelli@unisa.it Molecular methods for detection of Antibiotic Resistance in environmental matrices: limits, prospects and challenges. 1st Workshop on "Risk prognosis of environmental

More information

PowerPoint Notes on Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic Material

PowerPoint Notes on Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic Material PowerPoint Notes on Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic Material Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Objectives Relate Griffith s conclusions to the observations he made during the transformation experiments.

More information

RNA Isolation and Technology Applications. Nadine Nassif Senior Research Scientist Promega Corporation

RNA Isolation and Technology Applications. Nadine Nassif Senior Research Scientist Promega Corporation RNA Isolation and Technology Applications Nadine Nassif Senior Research Scientist Promega Corporation verview Brief overview of basic RNA/DNA chemistry. verview of total and poly(a+) RNA isolation. Discuss

More information

Module 3- Microscopic Techniques

Module 3- Microscopic Techniques Module 3- Microscopic Techniques Lecture 1 Microscopes I Microorganisms are too small to be seen with the naked eye, so they must be observed with a microscope. Microorganisms and their structural components

More information

2012 GENERAL [5 points]

2012 GENERAL [5 points] GENERAL [5 points] 2012 Mark all processes that are part of the 'standard dogma of molecular' [ ] DNA replication [ ] transcription [ ] translation [ ] reverse transposition [ ] DNA restriction [ ] DNA

More information

Introduction to Bioinformatics

Introduction to Bioinformatics Introduction to Bioinformatics Contents Cell biology Organisms and cells Building blocks of cells How genes encode proteins? Bioinformatics What is bioinformatics? Practical applications Tools and databases

More information

INTRODUCTION Sanitization sterilization Antibiotics Bactericidal Bacteriostatic Antiseptics disinfectants

INTRODUCTION Sanitization sterilization Antibiotics Bactericidal Bacteriostatic Antiseptics disinfectants INTRODUCTION Infectious agents on environmental surfaces, given the correct circumstances, may potentially find their way into an unsuspecting victim. Thus, it is important to keep the surfaces we regularly

More information

Bodies Cells DNA. Bodies are made up of cells All cells run on a set of instructions spelled out in DNA

Bodies Cells DNA. Bodies are made up of cells All cells run on a set of instructions spelled out in DNA What is DNA? Although the environment influences how an organism develops, the genetic information that is held in the molecules of DNA ultimately determines an organism s traits. DNA achieves its control

More information

MODULE 2D ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGICAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM (EMLAP) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

MODULE 2D ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGICAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM (EMLAP) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS MODULE 2D ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGICAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM (EMLAP) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 2D.1 SCOPE The AIHA- Laboratory Accreditation Programs (AIHA-LAP), LLC s Environmental Microbiological

More information

Suggest a technique that could be used to provide molecular evidence that all English Elm trees form a clone. ... [1]

Suggest a technique that could be used to provide molecular evidence that all English Elm trees form a clone. ... [1] 1 Molecular evidence E Ulmus procera, form a genetically isolated clone. English Elms developed from a variety of elm brought to Britain from Rome in the first century A.D. Although English Elm trees make

More information

Manipulating DNA. Nucleic acids are chemically different from other macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates.

Manipulating DNA. Nucleic acids are chemically different from other macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates. Lesson Overview 14.3 Studying the Human Genome Nucleic acids are chemically different from other macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates. Nucleic acids are chemically different from other macromolecules

More information

Bacteriophage MS2. genesig Standard Kit. Phage MS2 genome. 150 tests. Primerdesign Ltd. For general laboratory and research use only

Bacteriophage MS2. genesig Standard Kit. Phage MS2 genome. 150 tests. Primerdesign Ltd. For general laboratory and research use only TM Primerdesign Ltd Bacteriophage MS2 Phage MS2 genome genesig Standard Kit 150 tests For general laboratory and research use only 1 Introduction to Bacteriophage MS2 Bacteriophage MS2 is a non-enveloped,

More information

in-situ PCR Presented for: Presented by: Date:

in-situ PCR Presented for: Presented by: Date: in-situ PCR Presented for: Presented by: Date: 2 in situ Hybridization - Definition in situ PCR is a method in which the polymerase chain reaction actually takes place in the cell on a slide, and the product

More information

Lab Exercise: Examining Water Quality: Most Probable Number & Colilert Test Kit Lab

Lab Exercise: Examining Water Quality: Most Probable Number & Colilert Test Kit Lab Lab Exercise: Examining Water Quality: Most Probable Number & Colilert Test Kit Lab OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the use of MPN to determine likely fecal water contamination. 2. Understand the use of MUG,

More information

Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology History of recombinant DNA technology Recombinant DNA Technology (DNA cloning) Majid Mojarrad Recombinant DNA technology is one of the recent advances in biotechnology, which was developed by two scientists

More information

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Its Applications

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Its Applications Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Its Applications What is PCR? PCR is an exponentially progressing synthesis of the defined target DNA sequences in vitro. It was invented in 1983 by Dr. Kary Mullis,

More information

Chapter 9 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment. 10/1/ MDufilho

Chapter 9 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment. 10/1/ MDufilho Chapter 9 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment 10/1/2017 1 MDufilho Table 91 Terminology of Microbial Control 10/1/2017 MDufilho 2 Number of living microbes Figure 91 A plot of microbial death

More information

DNA & Protein Synthesis UNIT D & E

DNA & Protein Synthesis UNIT D & E DNA & Protein Synthesis UNIT D & E How this Unit is broken down Chapter 10.1 10.3 The structure of the genetic material Chapter 10.4 & 10.5 DNA replication Chapter 10.6 10.15 The flow of genetic information

More information

Unit 6: Molecular Genetics & DNA Technology Guided Reading Questions (100 pts total)

Unit 6: Molecular Genetics & DNA Technology Guided Reading Questions (100 pts total) Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Unit 6: Molecular Genetics

More information

MMG 301, Lec. 25 Mutations and Bacteriophage

MMG 301, Lec. 25 Mutations and Bacteriophage MMG 301, Lec. 25 Mutations and Bacteriophage Questions for today: 1. What are mutations and how do they form? 2. How are mutant bacteria used in research? 3. What are the general properties of bacteriophage

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Hamed Al Zoubi

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Hamed Al Zoubi number 3 Done by Neda a Baniata Corrected by Waseem Abu Obeida Doctor Hamed Al Zoubi Note: it is important to refer to slides. Bacterial genetics *The main concepts we will talk about in this lecture:

More information