Microbial Biotechnology agustin krisna wardani

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1 Microbial Biotechnology agustin krisna wardani

2 1. The Structure of Microbes Microbes (microorganisms) are tiny organisms that are too small to be seen individually by the naked eye and must be viewed with the help of a microscope Bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa

3 The Structure of Microbes Structural Features of Bacteria Small (1 5 µm) No nucleus; DNA is contained in a single, circular chromosome May contain plasmids Cell wall that surrounds plasma membrane contains peptidoglycan; provides rigidity for protection Some bacteria contain an outer layer of carbohydrates in a structure called a capsule

4 The Structure of Microbes Bacteria are classified by the Gram stain Gram + bacteria stain purple Have simple cell walls rich in peptidoglycan Gram bacteria stain pink Have complex cell wall structures with less peptidoglycan

5 The Structure of Microbes Bacteria vary in size and shape Most common shapes Cocci spherical cells Bacilli rod-shaped cells Spiral corkscrew-shaped cells

6 The Structure of Microbes Single, circular chromosome is relatively small 2 4 million base pairs Some bacteria contain plasmids as well Plasmids often contain genes for antibiotic resistance and genes encoding proteins that form connecting tubes called pili Plasmids are an essential tool for biotechnology

7 The Structure of Microbes Bacteria grow and divide rapidly Divide every 20 minutes or so Millions of cells can be grown on small dishes of agar or in liquid culture media Easy-to-make mutant strains to be used for molecular and genetic studies

8 The Structure of Microbes Yeast single-celled eukaryotic microbes; fungi Sources of antibiotics and drugs that lower cholesterol Mechanisms of gene expression resemble those in human cells Can grow in the presence of oxygen (aerobic) or in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic)

9 2. Microorganisms as Tools Microbial Enzymes Used in applications from food production to molecular biology research Taq DNA polymerase Isolated from a thermophile Cellulase Makes animal food more easily digestible Stone-washed jeans Subtilisin Laundry detergents

10 2 Microorganisms as Tools Transformation the ability of bacteria to take in DNA from their surrounding environment Essential step in the recombinant DNA cloning process Competent cells are cells that have been treated so they are ready to take up DNA easily Treat cells with ice-cold solution of calcium chloride

11 Pulser Equipment

12 Principle of Electroporation Technique Introduction of integration vector Pulser Curren t - Plasmid DNA Recipient cells +

13 2 Microorganisms as Tools Bacteria can be used to mass-produce proteins Bacterial fusion proteins Gene for protein of interest is inserted into a plasmid containing a gene for a well-known protein that serves as a tag The tag protein allows for the isolation and purification of the recombinant protein as a fusion protein Plasmid vectors used are often called expression vectors Incorporate prokaryotic promoter sequences

14 2 Microorganisms as Tools

15 2 Microorganisms as Tools Microbial Proteins as Reporters Bioluminescence method of producing light used by marine organisms Created by bacteria such a Vibrio fisheri that use marine organism as a host Create light through action of lux genes

16 2 Microorganisms as Tools Microbial Proteins as Reporters Lux genes have been cloned and used to study gene expression Clone lux genes into plasmid If inserted into animal or plant cells, will produce luciferase and will fluoresce, providing a visual indicator of gene expression

17 3 Using Microbes for a Variety of Everyday Applications Food Products Breads, yogurts, cheeses, sauerkraut Beer, wines, champagnes, liquors Fermentation process of deriving energy from sugars in the absence of oxygen Lactic acid fermentation Alcohol fermentation

18 3 Using Microbes for a Variety of Everyday Applications

19 3 Using Microbes for a Variety of Everyday Applications Therapeutic Proteins Bacteria are used to produce medically important proteins For example, insulin

20 3 Using Microbes for a Variety of Everyday Applications

21 3 Using Microbes for a Variety of Everyday Applications Antibiotics Produced by microbes that inhibit the growth of other microbes 1928 discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming Majority are produced by bacteria, and inhibit the growth of other bacteria

22 3 Using Microbes for a Variety of Everyday Applications Field Applications Degradation of waste products Bioremediation of polluted environments Genetically altered strain of bacteria that would protect plants against root-eating insects on cotton and corn

23 4 Vaccines First vaccine developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner Used live cowpox virus to vaccinate against smallpox

24 4 Vaccines Immune System and Antibodies Antigens are foreign substances that stimulate an immune response Whole bacteria, fungi, and viruses Proteins, lipids, or carbohydrates Immune system responds to antigens by producing antibodies Called antibody-mediated immunity B cells, with the help of T cells, recognize and bind to the antigen B cells then develop to form plasma cells that produce antibodies

25 4 Vaccines Immune System and Antibodies Antibodies are very specific Bind to the antigen Macrophage can then recognize the antigens coated with antibodies and eat them Sometimes our natural production of antibodies is not enough to protect us from pathogens

26 4 Vaccines

27 4 Vaccines Vaccines parts of a pathogen or whole organisms that can be given to humans or animals by mouth or by injection to stimulate the immune system against infection by those pathogens

28 4 Vaccines Three Major Strategies to Make Vaccines Subunit vaccines are made by injecting portions of viral or bacterial structures Attenuated vaccines use live bacteria or viruses that have been weakened through aging or by altering their growth conditions to prevent replication Inactivated (killed) vaccines are made by killing the pathogen and using the dead or inactivated microorganism for the vaccine

29 4 Vaccines Targets Influenza Tuberculosis Malaria HIV

30 5 Microbial Genomes 1994 Microbial Genome Program (MGP) To sequence the entire genomes of microorganisms that have potential applications in environmental biology, research, industry, and health as well as genomes of protozoan pathogens 2008 NIH announced plans for the Human Microbiome Project 5-year project to sequence 600 genomes of microorganisms that live on and inside humans

31 5 Microbial Genomes Why sequence microbial genomes? Streptococcus pneumoniae, which causes ear and lung infections, kills 3 million children worldwide each year Many of the vaccines are ineffective in children In 2001 the genome was sequenced and many genes encoding proteins on the surface of the bacteria were discovered Could lead to new treatments, including gene therapy

32 5.5 Microbial Genomes Why sequence microbial genomes? Identify genes involved in bacterial cell metabolism, cell division, and genes that cause human and animal illnesses

33 5 Microbial Genomes Why sequence microbial genomes?

34 6 Microbial Diagnostics Microbial Diagnostics techniques used to detect and track microbes Bacterial Detection Strategies Databases are available for comparison of clinical samples Used to detect and track bacterial contamination of food

35 6 Microbial Diagnostics

36 6 Microbial Diagnostics

37 7 Combating Bioterrorism Bioterrorism the use of biological materials as weapons to harm humans or the animals and plants we depend on for food Only 12 or so organisms could feasibly be cultured, refined, and used in bioterrorism Delivered by aerosols, crop duster planes, or water supplies

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