# There would be a lot more. (600 times as much)

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2 21. If we were able to convert all of the sun s energy that reaches the surface of the US into electricity, would this be more, less or about the same amount of electricity as we currently generate? There would be a lot more. (600 times as much) 22. The solar constant is approximately 1367 W/m 2 and yet the power density averaged over the surface of the earth during the course of a day is only about 170W/m 2, a factor of 8 smaller. What causes the difference in the two numbers. (Hint there are three separate effects that each reduce the average by a factor of 2.) ½ is lost because half of the earth is night ½ is lost because surface of the earth is curved ½ is lost due to reflection/absorption in the atmosphere 23. What region of the United States (e.g. Northeast, Southeast, etc.) is most suitable for using solar energy, i.e. what region has the highest solar insolation? Southwest 24. Briefly describe how an active solar heating system operates A fluid is pumped through a solar panel where it is heated up. It is then brought back to a heat exchanger in the building where it either heats water or provides space heating. 25. As a rule, electricity generated using photovoltaic cells is a lot more expensive on a per watt basis than electricity generated using conventional generation techniques. Describe a situation where it is economically favorable to use photovoltaics. It is economically favorable to use photovoltaic cells in regions where it is too costly to bring in power lines and where it is not possible to use generators. 26. Approximately what fraction of the sun s energy that reaches the surface of the earth is converted into wind? 2%

3 27. What State has the highest potential for wind energy when factoring in such things as environmental and land use restrictions? North Dakota 28. Approximately what percentage of the total US electricity production would it be desirable to have come from wind power? 15-20% 29. Briefly describe how an OTEC (Ocean ThermoElectric Converter ) is supposed to work. (2 points) An OTEC is basically just a heat engine that runs between the relatively small temperature difference between the warm waters at the surface of the ocean and the cold deep waters. 30. What general region of the United States has the highest concentration of ethanol plants. Midwest and Great Plains 31. Burning garbage is one potential source of electricity that has been developed in some communities. How does the energy content in garbage compare to the energy content is good coal? Energy content of garbage is approximately 1/3 that of good coal. 32. What is the biggest problem in expanding the use of burning garbage as a biomass fuel? The biggest problem in expanding the use of garbage as a biomass fuel is the pollution control necessary when you don t know exactly what you are burning.

4 33. Ethanol is a biomass fuel that is of particular interest in Illinois. In the list below, place an E on the line if it describes Ethanol or a G on the line if it describes Gasoline. E Higher Octane Rating E Lower energy content per gallon. E Less expensive per gallon. E Cleaner burning E More corrosive E No visible flame 34. What are the only two non-solar renewable energy sources that have sufficient potential to warrant serious consideration? Tidal and Geothermal Energy 35. What are the two functions of the water in a US nuclear reactor? Moderator and heat transfer fluid. 36. What are the two functions of the Uranium in a US nuclear reactor? Fuel and neutron source. 37. How do the control rods in a nuclear reactor control the rate of power production? Control rods control the power production by sucking up excess neutrons. Without the neutrons, the chain reaction is quenched.

5 38. What is the method that the United States plans to use for dealing with high level radioactive waste? We plan to bury it in a stable geological formation in Yucca Mountain. 39. Why is it impossible for a nuclear reactor to explode like a nuclear bomb? A nuclear bomb requires very highly enriched Uranium 235 while the fuel in a reactor, while enriched, uses fuel with a much lower percentage of Uranium What are the two general approaches for generating electricity using tidal power? Method 1: dam a large estuary: similar to low head hydroelectric Method 2: underwater turbines: similar to windmills 41. For light elements, i.e. those with Z<20, what is generally true about the number of neutrons as compared to the number of protons in the nucleus? For light elements, the number of neutrons and the number of electrons are approximately equal What is the isotope that results when 88 Ra undergoes an alpha decay. Be sure to give the atomic mass, atomic number and symbol Ra 86Rn+ 2 α

6 What is the isotope that results when 54 Xe undergoes a beta minus decay. Be sure to give the atomic mass, atomic number and symbol. Xe Cs β What is the isotope that results when 55 Cs undergoes a gamma decay. Be sure to give the atomic mass, atomic number and symbol Cs 55Cs+ 0 γ 45. An advertisement for a large home wind turbine rates it at 7500W when the wind is blowing 30 mph. a) What would be the expected power output of this turbine if the wind is blowing only 15 mph? X 7500W X = 15 = 30 3 ( 1/ 2) 7500W = 938W 3 b) Assuming that we are located in a region where the wind blows 15 mph all of the time. How many kilowatt-hours of energy will we get from this wind turbine per year? 365day 24hr ( 0.938kW )(1 yr) 1yr 1day = 8217kW hr c) The list price on the wind turbine is \$20,000. How long will it take to recoup our investment if the cost of electricity from the electric company in \$0.1 per kilowatt-hour? \$0.1 kwhr Saving on electricity per year 8217kwhr = \$ 822 \$20,000/\$822=24.3years

7 46. The world s highest dam is located in Tajikistan and has a head of approximately 330m. a )How much potential energy is converted into kinetic energy when 1liter of water falls through the dam? (Hint: 1 liter of water has a mass of 1 kg.) PE=mgh =(1kg)(9.8m/s 2 )(330m)=3234J b) If the turbines convert the kinetic energy of the water into electricity with an efficiency of 85%, how much water must flow through the dam per second if it has a rated power of 3,600,000,000W? With a flow of 1liter per second we would get (0.85)(3234J/s)=2749 W Since we want 3,600,000,000 W, this would take a flow of 3,600,000,000/2749 = liters per second. 47. The total electrical energy generated by the United States in a given year is approximately J. If all of this energy were generated using nuclear power, how much mass would be turned into energy? E = mc E m = 2 c J = 8 (3 10 m / s) 2 = 333kg 48. The average thermal gradient below the surface of the earth is approximately 30 C/km of depth. a) If we can dig a hole 5km meters deep, what would we expect the temperature to be at that depth? Δ T o o = ( 30 C / km)(5km) = 150 C = 150K b) If we operate a heat engine between the surface (with an ambient temperature of 300K) and the temperature at the bottom of the hole, what is the maximum efficiency we could obtain? Tc ΔT 150K e = 1 = = = 0.33 T T 150K + 300K h h

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