2 Chapter 6 Inventories Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities. 2. Explain the accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods. 3. Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions. 4. Explain the lower-of-cost-or-net realizable value basis of accounting for inventories. 5. Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements. 6. Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio. 6-2
3 Preview of Chapter Financial Accounting IFRS Second Edition Weygandt Kimmel Kieso
4 Classifying Inventory Merchandising Company One Classification: Manufacturing Company Three Classifications: Inventory Raw Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Regardless of the classification, companies report all inventories under Current Assets on the Statement of Financial Position. 6-4
6 Determining Inventory Quantities Physical Inventory taken for two reasons: Perpetual System 1. Check accuracy of inventory records. 2. Determine amount of inventory lost (wasted raw materials, shoplifting, or employee theft). Periodic System 1. Determine the inventory on hand. 2. Determine the cost of goods sold for the period. 6-6 LO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
7 Determining Inventory Quantities Taking a Physical Inventory Involves counting, weighing, or measuring each kind of inventory on hand. Taken, when the business is closed or business is slow. at end of the accounting period. 6-7 LO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
9 Determining Inventory Quantities Determining Ownership of Goods Goods in Transit Purchased goods not yet received. Sold goods not yet delivered. Goods in transit should be included in the inventory of the company that has legal title to the goods. Legal title is determined by the terms of sale. 6-9 LO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
10 Determining Inventory Quantities Goods in Transit Illustration 6-1 Terms of sale Ownership of the goods passes to the buyer when the public carrier accepts the goods from the seller. Ownership of the goods remains with the seller until the goods reach the buyer LO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
11 Determining Inventory Quantities Question Goods in transit should be included in the inventory of the buyer when the: a. public carrier accepts the goods from the seller. b. goods reach the buyer. c. terms of sale are FOB destination. d. terms of sale are FOB shipping point LO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
12 Determining Inventory Quantities Determining Ownership of Goods Consigned Goods Goods held for sale by one party. Ownership of the goods is retained by another party LO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
14 Inventory Costing Unit costs can be applied to quantities on hand using the following costing methods: Specific Identification First-in, first-out (FIFO) Average-cost Cost Flow Assumptions 6-14 LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
15 Inventory Costing Illustration: Crivitz TV Company purchases three identical 50-inch TVs on different dates at costs of 700, 750, and 800. During the year Crivitz sold two sets at 1,200 each. These facts are summarized below. Illustration LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
16 Inventory Costing Specific Identification If Crivitz sold the TVs it purchased on February 3 and May 22, then its cost of goods sold is 1,500 ( ), and its ending inventory is 750. Illustration LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
17 Inventory Costing Specific Identification Actual physical flow costing method in which items still in inventory are specifically costed to arrive at the total cost of the ending inventory. Practice is relatively rare. Most companies make assumptions (Cost Flow Assumptions) about which units were sold LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
18 Inventory Costing There are two assumed cost flow methods: 1. First-in, first-out (FIFO) 2. Average-cost Cost flow does not need be consistent with the physical movement of the goods LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
19 Inventory Costing Illustration: Data for Lin Electronics Astro condensers. Illustration 6-4 (Beginning Inventory + Purchases) - Ending Inventory = Cost of Goods Sold 6-19 LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
20 Inventory Costing First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Earliest goods purchased are first to be sold. Often parallels actual physical flow of merchandise. Generally good business practice to sell oldest units first LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
21 Inventory Costing First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Illustration LO 2
22 Inventory Costing First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Illustration 6-5 Illustration 6-6 Proof of COGS 6-22 LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
23 Inventory Costing Average Cost Allocates cost of goods available for sale on the basis of weighted-average unit cost incurred. Assumes goods are similar in nature. Applies weighted-average unit cost to the units on hand to determine cost of the ending inventory LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
24 Inventory Costing Average Cost Illustration LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
25 Inventory Costing Average Cost Illustration LO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
26 Inventory Costing Financial Statement and Tax Effects Illustration LO 3 Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions.
27 Inventory Costing Question The cost flow method that often parallels the actual physical flow of merchandise is the: a. FIFO method. b. average cost method. c. gross profit method. d. none of the above 6-27 LO 3 Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions.
29 Inventory Costing Using Cost Flow Methods Consistently Method should be used consistently, enhances comparability. Although consistency is preferred, a company may change its inventory costing method LO 3 Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions.
30 Inventory Costing Lower-of-Cost-or-Net Realizable Value When the value of inventory is lower than its cost Companies must write down the inventory to its net realizable value in the period in which the price decline occurs. Net realizable value refers to the net amount that a company expects to realize (receive) from the sale of inventory (estimated selling price in the normal course of business, less estimated costs to complete and sell) LO 4 Explain the lower-of-cost-or-net realizable value basis of accounting for inventories.
31 Inventory Costing Lower-of-Cost-or-Net Realizable Value Illustration: Assume that Gao TV has the following lines of merchandise with costs and net realizable values as indicated. Illustration LO 4 Explain the lower-of-cost-or-net realizable value basis of accounting for inventories.
32 Inventory Errors Common Cause: Failure to count or price inventory correctly. Not properly recognizing the transfer of legal title to goods in transit. Errors affect both the income statement and statement of financial position LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
33 Inventory Costing Income Statement Effects Inventory errors affect the computation of cost of goods sold and net income. Illustration 6-11 Illustration LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
34 Inventory Costing Income Statement Effects Inventory errors affect the computation of cost of goods sold and net income in two periods. An error in ending inventory of the current period will have a reverse effect on net income of the next accounting period. Over the two years, the total net income is correct because the errors offset each other. Ending inventory depends entirely on the accuracy of taking and costing the inventory LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
35 Inventory Costing Illustration Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct Sales 80,000 80,000 90,000 90,000 Beginning inventory Cost of goods purchased Cost of goods available Ending inventory Cost of good sold Gross profit Operating expenses Net income 22,000 25,000 13,000 10,000 Combined income for 2- year period is correct. ( 3,000) Net Income understated 3,000 Net Income overstated 6-35 LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
36 Inventory Costing Question Understating ending inventory will overstate: a. assets. b. cost of goods sold. c. net income. d. equity LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
37 Inventory Costing Statement of Financial Position Effects Effect of inventory errors on the statement of financial position is determined by using the basic accounting equation: Illustration 6-11 Illustration LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
38 LCNRV Basis; Inventory Errors (a) Tracy Company sells three different types of home heating stoves (wood, gas, and pellet). The cost and net realizable value value of its inventory of stoves are as follows. Solution The total inventory value is the sum of these amounts, NT$430, LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
39 LCNRV Basis; Inventory Errors (b) Visual Company overstated its 2013 ending inventory by NT$22,000. Determine the impact this error has on ending inventory, cost of goods sold, and equity in 2013 and LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
40 Statement Presentation and Analysis Presentation Net realizable value - Inventory classified as current asset. Income Statement - Cost of goods sold subtracted from sales. There also should be disclosure of 1) major inventory classifications, 2) basis of accounting (cost or LCNRV), and 3) costing method (specific identification, FIFO, or average) LO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
41 Statement Presentation and Analysis Analysis Inventory management is a double-edged sword 1. High Inventory Levels - may incur high carrying costs (e.g., investment, storage, insurance, obsolescence, and damage). 2. Low Inventory Levels may lead to stockouts and lost sales LO 6 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.
42 Statement Presentation and Analysis Inventory turnover measures the number of times on average the inventory is sold during the period. Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory Days in inventory measures the average number of days inventory is held. Days in Inventory = Days in Year (365) Inventory Turnover 6-42 LO 6 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.
43 Statement Presentation and Analysis Illustration: Esprit Holdings (HKG) reported in a recent annual report a beginning inventory of HK$3,170 million, an ending inventory of HK$2,997 million, and cost of goods sold for the year ended of HK$16,523 million. The inventory turnover formula and computation for Esprit Holdings are shown below. Illustration 6-16 Days in Inventory: Inventory turnover of 5.4 times divided into 365 is approximately 68 days. This is the approximate time that it takes a company to sell the inventory LO 6 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.
45 APPENDIX 6A PERPETUAL INVENTORY SYSTEMS Illustration 6A-1 Assuming the Perpetual Inventory System, compute Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory under FIFO and average-cost LO 7 Apply the inventory cost flow methods to perpetual inventory records.
46 APPENDIX 6A PERPETUAL INVENTORY SYSTEMS First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Illustration 6A Cost of Goods Sold Ending Inventory LO 7
47 APPENDIX 6A PERPETUAL INVENTORY SYSTEMS Average Cost Illustration 6A-3 Cost of Goods Sold Ending Inventory 6-47 LO 7 Apply the inventory cost flow methods to perpetual inventory records.
48 APPENDIX 6B ESTIMATING INVENTORIES Gross Profit Method Estimates the cost of ending inventory by applying a gross profit rate to net sales. Illustration 6B LO 8 Describe the two methods of estimating inventories.
49 APPENDIX 6B ESTIMATING INVENTORIES Illustration: Kishwaukee Company s records for January show net sales of $200,000, beginning inventory $40,000, and cost of goods purchased $120,000. The company expects to earn a 30% gross profit rate. Compute the estimated cost of the ending inventory at January 31 under the gross profit method. Illustration 6B LO 8
50 APPENDIX 6B ESTIMATING INVENTORIES Retail Inventory Method Company applies the cost-to-retail percentage to ending inventory at retail prices to determine inventory at cost. Illustration 6B LO 8 Describe the two methods of estimating inventories.
51 APPENDIX 6B ESTIMATING INVENTORIES Illustration: Illustration 6B-4 Note that it is not necessary to take a physical inventory to estimate the cost of goods on hand at any given time LO 8 Describe the two methods of estimating inventories.
52 APPENDIX 6C LIFO INVENTORY METHOD Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) Under IFRS, LIFO is not permitted for financial reporting purposes. Latest goods purchased are first to be sold. Seldom coincides with actual physical flow of merchandise, except for goods stored in piles, such as coal or hay LO 9 Apply the LIFO inventory costing method.
54 APPENDIX 6C LIFO INVENTORY METHOD Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) Illustration 6C-2 Proof of COGS Illustration 6C LO 9 Apply the LIFO inventory costing method.
55 Another Perspective Key Points The requirements for accounting for and reporting inventories are more principles-based under IFRS. That is, GAAP provides more detailed guidelines in inventory accounting. The definitions for inventory are essentially similar under GAAP and IFRS. Both define inventory as assets held-for-sale in the ordinary course of business, in the process of production for sale (work in process), or to be consumed in the production of goods or services (e.g., raw materials). Who owns the goods goods in transit or consigned goods as well as the costs to include in inventory, are accounted for the same under GAAP and IFRS. 6-55
56 Another Perspective Key Points Both GAAP and IFRS permit specific identification where appropriate. IFRS actually requires that the specific identification method be used where the inventory items are not interchangeable (i.e., can be specifically identified). If the inventory items are not specifically identifiable, a cost flow assumption is used. GAAP does not specify situations in which specific identification must be used. A major difference between IFRS and GAAP relates to the LIFO cost flow assumption. GAAP permits the use of LIFO for inventory valuation. IFRS prohibits its use. FIFO and average-cost are the only two acceptable cost flow assumptions permitted under IFRS. 6-56
57 Another Perspective Key Points IFRS requires companies to use the same cost flow assumption for all goods of a similar nature. GAAP has no specific requirement in this area. When testing to see if the value of inventory has fallen below its cost, IFRS defines market as net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs to complete and sell. In other words, net realizable value is the best estimate of the net amounts that inventories are expected to realize. GAAP, on the other hand, defines market as essentially replacement cost. The GAAP method of inventory valuation is often referred to as the lower-of-cost-or-market (LCM). 6-57
58 Another Perspective Key Points Under GAAP, if inventory is written down under the lower-of-costor-market valuation, the new basis is now considered its cost. As a result, the inventory may not be written back up to its original cost in a subsequent period. Under IFRS, the write-down may be reversed in a subsequent period up to the amount of the previous write-down. Both the write-down and any subsequent reversal should be reported on the income statement. IFRS generally requires pre-harvest inventories of agricultural products (e.g., growing crops and farm animals) to be reported at fair value less cost of disposal. GAAP generally requires these items to be recorded at cost. 6-58
59 Another Perspective Looking to the Future One convergence issue that will be difficult to resolve relates to the use of the LIFO cost flow assumption. As indicated, IFRS specifically prohibits its use. Conversely, the LIFO cost flow assumption is widely used in the United States because of its favorable tax advantages. In addition, many argue that LIFO from a financial reporting point of view provides a better matching of current costs against revenue and, therefore, enables companies to compute a more realistic income. 6-59
60 Another Perspective GAAP Self-Test Questions Which of the following should not be included in the inventory of a company using GAAP? a) Goods held on consignment from another company. b) Goods shipped on consignment to another company. c) Goods in transit from another company shipped FOB shipping point. d) None of the above. 6-60
61 Another Perspective GAAP Self-Test Questions Which method of inventory costing is prohibited under IFRS? a) Specific identification. b) FIFO. c) LIFO. d) Average-cost. 6-61
62 Another Perspective GAAP Self-Test Questions Specific identification: a) must be used under IFRS if the inventory items are not interchangeable. b) cannot be used under IFRS. c) cannot be used under GAAP. d) must be used under IFRS if it would result in the most conservative net income. 6-62
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