What Business are we in? Dr. Ögmundur Knútsson, University of Akureyri

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1 What Business are we in? Dr. Ögmundur Knútsson, University of Akureyri

2 BUSINESS MODELS IN THE FISH INDUSTRY Two different approaches Harvesting/Production-Driven Harvesting/Production-led cost-driven business model (marine-based), producing bulk standardised commodity products Market-Driven - Market-responsive business model (landbased), driven by consumer wants and problems to produce high-value branded products Is the third approach is emerging? Research and value Driven Focus on value creation using research and innovation to create added value of byproducts. 2

3 INTRODUCTION The emphasis in this presentation is on different business models used in fish industries and their efficiency. Main focus is on ground fish species 3 Development in Iceland Comparison Iceland, Norway, New Zealand Research and value Summary In what business are we?

4 DEVELOPMENT IN THE ICELANDIC FISH INDUSTRY

5 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ICELANDIC FISH INDUSTRY No domestic markets Export or die High degree of vertical integrated companies (fishing, processing and marketing) Mainly small and medium size companies (SMEs) employees Two large international marketing companies with secondary processing abroad Few traditional fishing companies with operation in countries outside Iceland Today Icelandic fish industry high tech innovative industry and one off the most profitable fish industry in the world it has not always been this way...

6 NET PROFIT IN FISHING AND FISH PROCESSING, Fishing and fish process. demersal species Fishing of demersal species Processing of demersal species

7 Structure of the value chain/ Governance of the value chain Auctions markets for fish Fisheries managements system Innovation MAIN INFLUENCING FACTORS creating value from by-products cooling, flow lines, cutting machine, grating etc.. 7

8 STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY The sectors development has taken two main paths 1. Relatively large vertical intergraded firms covering harvesting - (high tech) processing - marketing 2. Small independent firms covering just one link in the VC of harvesting, (low tech) processing or marketing Companies have freedom to position themselves in different strategic positions in the value chain Not a standard position is found to be correct - it gives the company freedom to select its position and strategy 8

9 MAIN CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE 9 Consolidation in quota holdings and in processing More specialisation Better handling and grading of wet fish in harvesting Shorter fishing trips Improvements in logistics and transport technology Increased emphasis on high-tech production Increased productivity Higher efficiency in the industry especially in land processing Higher yield pr. volume of wet-fish Vertically integrated companies have moved into marketing with their own marketing divisions More direct marketing connections/cooperation

10 LARGEST QUOTA HOLDERS Largest quotaholder 5 largest 10 largest 25 largest 50 largest 10

11 NUMBER OF FISH PROCESSING COMPANIES Freezing FAS Salting Chilled

12 TOTAL NUMBERS OF JOBS IN FISH INDUSTRY 18,000 16,000 14,000 Fishing Processing Total fishing and processing 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,

13 PRODUCTIVITY COD TONNE EQUIVALENTS PR. JOB/YEAR Fishing Processing Total fishing and processing

14 FISH AUCTION MARKETS Supports specialisation in processing Relative low quantity of fish on the markets and high price has put a pressure on further value creation/innovation New small companies have entered the industry in processing of both by-catch and by-products Feeds market information and market signals to the fishermen Transparency in price formation Stability for producers to offer products to the markets Supports that the industry is flexible to adapt to different business models and situations 14

15 THE IMPACT OF THE FM SYSTEM The Fisheries management systems impact on the value chain directly affects The marketing function The governance of the VC The efficiency of the VC Value creation 15

16 LONG TERM PERSPECTIVES The Interlocutors put great emphasis on the role of a long term view, the marketing connections and the reliability of supply All three are prerequisite for being able to guaranty the customers the right products of the right quality at the right time 16

17 LONG TERM THINKING AND MARKETING The advantages of thinking long term are clear. It is very important to know how much is caught, where and when it is possible to catch it and through that knowledge create a reliable supply. The system makes it possible for us to control the chain starting from harvesting all to the market 17

18 THE USE OF MARKETING INFORMATION We, for example, very often see a price fall in the markets in the beginning of the year, for example when the Norwegians come in, they are a bit wild in their fishing. They have not managed to get a grip of evening out the fishing through the year as we have done. They are still a bit serving the harvesting whilst we have better acquired the notion of serving the market 18

19 FLEXIBILITY... then in autumn we drive full blast from the first of September. Then things go well. We then drive as fast as the dragster can to produce fresh loin cuts. Because the Norwegian are not on the market. Then its is X-mas and we have the 1 st and 2 nd week in January then we slow down as the Norwegians then enter the market and wreck it and they do that in the end of January until February/March and then they are out again. And then we come back and always keep our customers. By this you can see the [benefits of the] fisheries management system in a nutshell 19

20 STABILITY... stability has been one of our main advantages [... ] later people figured out that we had a fixed quota. When to catch the haddock, when to catch the Ocean red fish. Then we started thinking about this and planning to sell before [catching] and we have done it for many years now that previous to the fishing period we have sold and signed contracts for our products. By doing this the decision making shifted more or less to our home base and strengthened us 20

21 TRUST You just need to talk to the buyer at the retailers, he totally knows the quota system in Iceland and he knows exactly how it is in Norway. It s no coincidence that all these customers, just line them up, are buying in Iceland. Of course they buy fish from Norway as well.... I can 100% guaranty that they get a lower price for their products than we do 21

22 RELIABILITY OF SUPPLY But there are two things that we can offer that others can t. Both that we decide when we fish and that we can promise access to this fish in the coming years as we have until now. Then there is another thing that is underestimated in marketing, the integration of fishing and processing. I can state that we have the control from the decision to fish is taken until we deliver the fish. We can select place and time and we have the flexibility in producing it the way he wants. We are not dependent on auction markets or permits for when we can fish 22

23 SPECIALISATION The specialisation has fostered increased value creation and opened up new marketing opportunities Fish auction markets have supported the increased specialisation in production The ITQ system has also supported specialisation in the fishing sector 23 Fishing companies have specialised in species by selling and buying permanent quotas in order to better fit their business model Adjustments within each fishing year

24 SPECIALISATION It is apparent from the interviews with the interlocutors from the Icelandic fishing industry that they consider the ITQ system to be the key to increasing both the specialisation and efficiency of the industry The phrase being in everything is a past tense and specialisation has provided a much greater value creation through the emphasis of maximising the value creation from each kg wet fish 24

25 VALUE (FOB PRICE) ADDED FROM WET FISH PRICE 25 Cod Fresh whole fish 67% 45% 34% Fresh fillets 64% 94% 107% Land frozen 43% 40% 26% Frozen at sea 38% 47% 31% Salted 97% 83% 80%

26 LESS IS MORE Everything that calls for creating something for the end user, or something like that, doesn t need for adding something on to the fish. This is all natural. Then there is the packaging. All the innovation in the last 8 years comes from how more accurately we can cut the fish fillets, how we can offer everything that is called minimising waste; these are the key factors along with us extending the shelf life... 26

27 Value creation is highest in direct marketing connections Specialisation has increased value creation Governance of the Value chain by use of marketing information VALUE CREATION Less is more 27

28 THE IMPACT OF THE QUOTA SYSTEM ON PROFITABILITY The quota system improves the control of individual companies over their production systems Creates opportunities for serving the markets in a better way Lowers the cost of fishing Increases the value of the catch The attribute of the fish decides its value A requirement is that the fishing companies can respond to relevant marketing information 28 A. System that allows the companies to control their production B. The value system that communicates information about the wishes of the consumer

29 COMPARISON 29

30 COMPARISON WITH NORWAY Comparison with the demersal fisheries in Norway 30 Similar catch combination in demersal species Similar processing tradition Similar technical stage Similar export markets Norway has in many ways a similar fisheries management system to Iceland More limitation on transferability of quota but more consensus of the system stability

31 EBITDA/turnover PROFITABILITY IN THE DEMERSAL FISHERIES 30,0% 25,0% 20,0% 15,0% 10,0% Average since 1990 Iceland: 20,4% Norway:15,8% 5,0% 0,0% ,0% -10,0% Iceland Norway Differance 31

32 45% Frosinn heill 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% Ísland Noregur 15% 10% 5% 0% % 25% Frozen whole Fresh whole Ferskur heill EXPORT - COD 45% Frosin flök 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% % 12% Frozen fillets Fresh fillets Fersk flök 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% % 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Source: Icelandic Stastics, Eksportutvalget for fisk)

33 COD IN ICELAND AND IN NORWAY 2011 Export Iceland Norway Frozen H/G 7% 40% Fresh whole 13% 15% Frozen fillest 39% 8% Fresh fillets 13% 2% Exprt price /kg 2,3 1,7 Utilization 57% 41% 33

34 PROFITABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY IN FISHING HAS INCREASED AND IS NOW ONE OF THE HIGHEST IN THE WORLD Icelandic fishing industry is one very profitable in international context... Contribution margin EBITDA/income Contribution margin pr. employee thousand/. USD Iceland Norway og framleiðni greinarinnar er há Utilisation of fish % of weight 1 57% 2,3 41% +39% 1,7 Sale price of fish Euro/kg catch 1 +35% 1 Calculation is based on figures from 2009 Source: Project management of Icelandic Growth Projectum eland Growth Forum

35 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ICELAND AND NORWAY Iceland Vertical integrated companies Fish action markets Transferability in pricing of fish and marketing information Strong marketing connection Marketing information used to manage fishing and processing Norway Vertical integration banned Fish auction markets with guarantied price to fisherman Governmental body decides on fish price, no marketing information No or limited marketing connection Limited use of marketing information to manage fishing or processing 35

36 NEW ZEALAND World s 6th largest EEZ and 10th largest coastline NZ $1.53 billion of seafood exported in 2011; 1.2% of total global fisheries trade (MED, 2012) Industry captures very little final market value bulk commodity driven (MED, 2011) Many seafood businesses struggle to create, deliver and capture value. Many struggle to survive Wild capture - no major growth opportunities. Aquaculture - limited opportunities (MPI, 2013) Glen Simmons, 2014

37 FINFISH EXPORTS Average nominal export prices for hoki declined from the peak in 2000 of NZ $4.50 per kg to below NZ $3.30 per kg in 2010.

38 Production-oriented Wild capture Aquaculture Aquaculture Wild capture Price taker disconnected from markets Lacks marketing capabilities and market information Commodity markets Sets price engaged in High-value consumer markets Market-oriented Sets price - engaged in Premium consumer markets Creating, delivering, and capturing value Fisheries value chain Market-responsive business models driven by consumer needs and problems Farming, harvesting, final processing, and marketing operations and possibly, involved in running restaurants and speciality retail outlets (Land-based activities) Market-responsive business models driven by consumer needs and problems Quota owner/ farmer Fishing/ harvesting Value is providing high-quality products that originate from a sustainable resource Primary processing Quota owner, harvesting, primary processing, and limited marketing (Marine-based activities) Production-led cost-driven business models Farming, harvesting, primary processing, and some marketing (Marine-based activities) Production-led cost-driven business models Value is providing a consistent supply of the highest quality products from a renewable resource Value is minimising costs, maximising catches and utilising harvesting methods to efficiently target particular species Value is minimising costs and maximising production Production of low-medium volume premiumvalue branded consumer products for upmarket retailers, hotels and restaurants Production of low-medium volume high-value branded consumer products for upmarket hotels, restaurants and retail shops Primary processing, final market processing, and marketing (Land-based activities) Final market processing Marketing/ distribution Production of medium-high volume low-value, unprocessed or semi-processed products, to processors, distributors or marketing companies Production of high volume low-value unprocessed or semi processed standardised products to processors, distributors or marketing companies

39 CREATING, DELIVERING, AND CAPTURING VALUE Production-oriented Organisation structure Simple or hierarchal bureaucratic structures designed for efficiency rather than flexibility. Top down decision making. Market-oriented Organisation structure Flat structures, facilitated learning and agile collaborative problem solving that fostered a consultative approach to decision making. Culture Slow-to-change commodity cultures. Values cost reductions. Norms undertaking tasks routinely and efficiently. Risk avoiding. Culture Entrepreneurial cultures. Values diversity, independence and innovation. Norms showing initiative and acting entrepreneurially. Innovation Production-focused ad-hoc problem solving. Used traditional technology and did not invest in R&D. Relied on own knowledge. Innovation Innovatively solved customer problems. Used advanced technology. Undertook R&D and collaborated with universities and research institutions

40 RESEARCH AND VALUE CREATION 40

41 The European Cod! Filet USD 15 Liver High volume of discards

42 THE ICELANDIC COD Export of dried head and bones The Euro Cod! 15 USD Better cut, treatment, cooling etc. USD 20 More utilisation of liver etc. Sensible management leads to stronger fish stock and lower volume of discards

43 Advanced derivates: aim to create new industries using 100% of the fish Fish leather used by shoe & fashion industry Canned fish liver products Enzymes used for natural fish flavourings Fish liver oil Roe, caviar and spreads Dried products Pharmaceutical tissue and nerve-regeneration products Enzymes from the gut used for cosmetics, hygiene & pharmaceutical products Beauty collagens (anti-aging products) Gelatin pharmaceutical capsules Hand & foot creams for preventing and treating diabetic ulchers

44

45 Creating new industries from marine by-products By-products in 1992 were 1,667 tonnes, increasing to 47,782 tons by 2010

46 RESEARCH AND VALUE CREATION No waste strategy The demersal industry in Iceland is aiming to create more value from by-products than the fillets In 5 years time? Cooperation between companies in the fish industry, support services and research institutions Education of managers and specialist in the fish industry is getting more advanced Collaboration is the key to success 46

47 PART 4 DISCUSSION 47

48 DISCUSSION - POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS It is important for the industry to have the flexibility to adapt to the business environment choosing their own strategy and strategic position instead through political interference There is no one right way or strategy. Some companies are independent and other vertically integrated. Some choose cooperation while others use go it alone strategy Policy makers need through clear guidelines to create a flexible environment for the industry and not dictate what the best strategy for the industry or strategic position for companies in the industry is Inspection and advisory bodies have to be independent from the industry 48

49 CONCLUSION What business are we in? We are competing in very competitive food market Marketing Attributes of the product Delivery Quality Stability We are not competing in fishing We will compete more and more on research, innovation and value creation 49

50 THANK YOU!

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