1 What could the pig sector learn from the cattle sector. Nordic breeding evaluation in dairy cattle Gert Pedersen Aamand Nordic Cattle Genetic Evaluation 25 February 2016 Seminar/Workshop on Genomic selection in pigs Copenhagen STØTTET AF mælkeafgiftsfonden
2 Cattle and pigs are different species What is equal in breeding structure and what is different? What is equal when using genomic selection prediction and what is differnet
3 Cattle and pigs are different species Major reason for the different breeding structure is number of offspring per female and male A sow get 20 piglets - A cow get one calf Majority of breeding goal traits expressed in both sexes in pigs but only in one sex in cattle
4 Pigs versus cattle Pigs Cattle 3 major pure breeds 3 major pure breeds Small purebred nucleus with intense phenotyping Large Cross bred production population with limited phenotypes Large purebred production population with relatively intense phenotyping Few cross bred cows with relatively intense phenotyping Production expressed in both sexes at an age of <1 year Closed breeding scheme No systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal Production expressed in one sex at age of 2+ years Open breeding scheme Systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal
5 Pigs versus cattle genetic evaluation 2016 Pigs Cattle 3 major pure breed 3 major pure breed Small purebred nucleus with intense phenotyping Large Cross bred production population with limited phenotypes Production expressed in both sexes at an age of <1 year Closed breeding scheme No systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal Large purebred production population with relatively intense phenotyping Few cross bred cows with relatively intense phenotyping Production expressed in one sex at age of 2+ years Open breeding scheme Systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal
6 Cattle breeding plan, % semen from different AI-bull categories years old AI bulls 30% (pedigree selected) 95% (genomic selected) 5+ years old AI bulls 70% (have milking daughters) 5%(have milking daughters) Genomic selection has created a revolution in cattle breeding
7 (G)EBV Genomic selection new opportunities Accurate selection of young animals 50 to 100 % increase in genetic progress 75 to 150 DKK extra per cow
8 Use of genomic prediction in dairy cattle Today tool in breeding plan for the whole population Future mamagement tool within herds used in combination with sexed semen and crossbreeding Price is key factor
9 NAV routine What are we doing today from DNA tissue to GEBV? Which steps have room for improvement in the short and longer run?
10 Outline NAV/national 1. Collection of DNA Tissue 2. Parentage verification 3. Exchange of genotypes 4. Imputation 5. DRP 6. Genomic prediction
11 D N A Geno typing at Lab SNP SNP data base SNP NAV PC-cluster Pheno types DK Swe Viking Genetics Farmers (females) Eurogenomics ref animals, Geno ref., US Jersey, foreign females GEBV/ EBV Fin
12 Tested females per country and birth year Year Holstein RDC Jersey DNK FIN SWE DNK FIN SWE DNK FIN SWE , ,848 1,257 2, ,637 1, ,605 1,783 4, ,408 1, ,304 3,731 1,930 4, ,746 2,575 1,602 1,630 3,427 2,226 3, ,985 2,693 2,154 1,762 3,475 2,651 3, ,080 1,820 1,360 1,408 2,697 2,140 2, Total 18,408 10,643 6,564 7,738 19,394 12,201 20, HOL total : 35,615 Last year: 13,978 RDC total : 39,333 13,645 Jersey total : 21,068 6,910
13 Level of genomic tested Holstein November 2015 AI -Bulls Culled bulls Females Born Number NTM Number NTM Number NTM , , , , , , , , , , , , Std 10
14 Level of genomic tested RDC November 2015 AI-bulls Culled bulls Females Born Number NTM Number NTM Number NTM , , , , , , , , , , , Std 10
15 Level of genomic tested Jersey November 2015 AI-Bulls Culled bulls Females Born Number NTM Number NTM Number NTM , , , , , , Std 10
16 Reference population January 2016 Bulls Reference population Cows Holstein 31,800 a) 14,900 RDC 7,600 b) 19,600 Jersey 2,500 c) 13,500 a) Includes proven bulls from NLD, FRA, DEU, ESP, POL b) Includes proven bulls from NOR c) Includes proven bulls from USA 16
17 Traits Holstein RDC Jersey Yield Growth Fertility Birth Calving Udder health Other disease Claw health Longevity Frame Feet & Legs Udder Milking speed Model based GEBV reliabilities, average young bulls born 2014 (validation r 2 IA are lower) Temperament
18 Extra reliability in addition to pedigree information for HOL Extra reliability based on validation reliabilities Yield 0,35 Growth 0,24 Fertility 0,32 Birth 0,31 Calving 0,22 Udder health 0,41 Other diseases 0,06 Frame 0,36 Feet&Legs - Udder 0,52 Milking speed 0.46 Temperament 0.14 Longevity 0.21 Claw health (0,00) 18
19 Collection of DNA
20 Collection of DNA so far Eartags Noose swap Blood Weak points An extra operation (in most cases) Correct link between tissue and animal id An increasing challenge when number genotypes increase
21 Future Sample with minimal effort and maximal reliability! Sampling - part of normal work flow Unique connection between tag and sample (also checked at lab) 21...
22 Parentage verification
23 Routine evaluation For most candidates we have a genotype of the sire, but not the dam Check for mendel errors Mendel errors indicate a disagreement between official pedigree and genotype
24 Principle behind Mendel Error Check AC AA AA AC CC 24...
25 Imputation Why do we impute? Accuracy of GEBV: 54K > imputed LD > LD
26 Golden standard so far Illumina Bovine 54K - in which cases do we impute? Illumina Bovine 54K chip - different versions AI bulls are all tested with 54K Low density chip Females and candidate bulls genotyped with Other chips Some foreign animals Missing calls
27 Imputation When pedigree, sex, and ID is verified the genotype can be imputed Fimpute used today in all breeds Quick & accurate in homogeneous populations, but pedigree has to be correct Beagle used earlier in RDC and Jersey Slow but accurate and robust
28 How accurate can we impute? Genotype error rates (results from 2013) Parents genotyped Breed/method NONE DAM SIRE DAM and SIRE HOL FImp LD 3.4 (67) 1.7 (14) 3.2 (1213) 0.7 (432) RDC* Fimp LD 10.3 (9) 3.7 (3) 4.3 (1147) 0.7 (234) RDC* Beagle LD 2.3 (9) 1.0 (3) 1.3 (1147) 1.0 (234) JER FImp LD 3.0 (5) 2.0 (3) 1.5 (110) 0.5 (75)...
29 Routine model two step model 1. Traditional evaluation within breed EBVs based on phenotypic data 2. DRPs Backward transformation of EBVs for genotyped animals 3. GEBV estimated by SNP BLUP Input DRP and 54K imputed genotypes
30 DGV prediction GBLUP Same genetic parameters as in traditional model No polygenetic effect DGV s scaled according to validation results to get rid of inflation
31 Dependent variable All breeds Future NAV EBVs (genotyped animals) DRPs (genotyped animals) from NAV EBVs and MACE EBVs One step phenotypes and genotypes simultanously As long foreign reference bulls are important dependent variable has to be DRP or foreign information has to be blended in the one step model
32 Traits All breeds Future Combined NTM traits used as single traits Single traits combined across lactations Interbull traits Near future - follow Interbull Trait definitions have to follow Interbull traits e.g. combined across lactation - as long as foreign reference bulls are important.
33 Method All breeds Future Bayesian without polygenetic effect SNPBLUP without polygenetic effect Reconsider polygenetic effect One step Take SNPs carrying additional information into account
34 Validation All breeds Future Cross validation applied Validation based om last birth years Interbull standard Continue to apply international standards Interbull has set up standards for validation a requirement to fulfill the standard to have an international recognized evaluation system - Interbull standard check genetic trend
35 Validation reliabilities (increase in reliability next to pedigree) 2009 Exchange ref bulls Cows in ref Future HOL % +12% +2% +? RDC % +1-2% +3-7% +? Jer +0-10% +3-4% +5-10% +? Further increased reliabilities require more cows in reference and/or improved methods
36 Handling of inflation of DGVs Future All breeds Not handled DGVs standardised to fulfill validation Reconsider adding polygenetic effect General picture GEBVs are inflated without some kind of restandardisation animals in youngest birth year classes will be overevaluated no effect on within birth year selection, but cattle select across birth year and make across country comparisons
37 Ongoing development work Improve current 2 step model Include cows in reference more traits fertility, claw health, calving traits (require change from SM to AM - ongoing), Other diseases (require change SM to AM) Reconsider polygenetic effect Improve traditional models still relevant
38 Further improvement - GEBVs One step (Luke) Simultaneously use of phenotypes and genotypes in evaluation Handling more informative SNPs (AU) Give additional weight to SNPs carrying more information
39 Requirements/challenges for the next generation genomic breeding tool Scale to a huge number of individuals with genotypes and phenotypes Millions ungenotyped and hundereds of thousands genotyped individuals Use information from advanced models Bayesian mixture models, haplotypes, QTL etc. Information from WGS data across several breeds
40 Traditional genetic evaluation EBVs from traditional genetic evaluation based on pedigree and phenotypes only is the basis for genomic prediction and it is still important to: Improve models Include new phenotypes
41 Summary 1. Collection of DNA Tissue (ear tagging) 2. Parentage verification (assigning of parents) 3. Exchange of genotypes (less important more cows genotyped) 4. Imputation (limit gain in near future) 5. DRP 6. Genomic prediction One step, informative SNPs
42 What can pig and cattle learn from each other in relation to genomic prediction Crossbreed animals Model experiences One step Single informative SNPs Validation/reliabilities..
43 Pigs versus cattle Pigs Cattle 3 major pure breeds 3 major pure breeds Small purebred nucleus with intense phenotyping Large Cross bred production population with limited phenotypes Large purebred production population with relatively intense phenotyping Few cross bred cows with relatively intense phenotyping Production expressed in both sexes at an age of <1 year Closed breeding scheme No systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal Production expressed in one sex at age of 2+ years Open breeding scheme Systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal
44 Cattle and pigs are different species, but how different in 2030 Major reason for the different breeding structure is number of offspring per female and male, but will that remain maybe in vitro techniques be very common, cattle get more closed breeding companies, and crossbreeding be more common?
45 Pigs versus cattle Pigs Cattle 3 major pure breeds 3 major pure breeds Small purebred nucleus with intense phenotyping Large Cross bred production population with limited phenotypes Large purebred production population with relatively intense phenotyping Few cross bred cows with relatively intense phenotyping Production expressed in both sexes at an age of <1 year Closed breeding scheme No systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal Production expressed in one sex at age of 2+ years Open breeding scheme Systematic international comparison A balanced breeding goal
46 Cattle and pigs are different species, but how different in 2030? The aim is to breed for pigs and cattle producing efficient under future production circumstances use of lots of phenotypes from production herds is important to ensure we get the genetic progress we expect in practice
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