Genomic selection +Sexed semen +Precision farming = New deal for dairy farmers?

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1 Genomic selection +Sexed semen +Precision farming = New deal for dairy farmers? Laurent Journaux General secretary of France Génétique Elevage

2 SIA souvenir

3 Introduction After a long period of stability Many changes in dairy production including 3 majors innovations Genomic Selection Sexed semen Precision dairy farming What are the impacts of this technologies? How their combinations can change dairy farming?

4 Dairy cattle in France Normande 430,000 cows 56% recorded Milk: 6,176 kg Montbéliarde 670,000 cows, 61% recorded Milk: 6,158 kg Holstein 2,500,000 cows, 68% recorded Milk: 9,125 kg 72,000 dairy farmers, 3,686,000 dairy cows 10 local breeds 150,000 cows

5 Trend in France Increasing of herd size, Herd size (dairy cattle in performance recording) Divide by 2 of pick up points for the same volume (28 Ml) pick up points 1990 to in 2020

6 Genomic selection

7 What is genomic selection? Candidates Young animal with only genotypes GEBV = marker effects + polygenic effect Effect of each marker to estimate Reference population Bulls with Genotypes + Phenotypes (average daughter performances) Calibrate prediction equations

8 Steps toward Genomic Selection in France Marker Assisted Selection (MAS 2) 25 traits, QTL /traits Genomic selection 35 traits, QTL/traits From 2010 (males) Marker Assisted Selection (MAS 1) 8 traits, 5 QTL /traits R²:+0.05 QTL detection Pre-selection tool: full brothers selection before testing R²:+0.20, 0.30 Fine Mapping R²: +0.30,0.40 From 2011 (females) R²: affordable chip

9 Breeding programs in dairy cattle without Genomic Selection PROGENY TESTING PROGRAM: A long process: > 5 years A costly process: maintaining 10 bulls to only use 1 for AI birth X Mated to 400 cows daughters get proofs USE FOR AI 2 years 5 years SELECTION Estimation of breeding values Age of the bull

10 birth 3 months: Genomic Selection: a revolution Estimation of breeding values, from genomics X 2 years USE FOR AI 5 years Breeding values available for all traits routinely evaluated For males and females, with the same accuracy A shortened generation interval A better accuracy at the time of pre-selection (compared with Parent Average) Age of the bull An increased genetic gain!

11 European reference population From 2009, European breeding partners (breeding associations, computing centers, breeding companies) have decided to join their forces to share: - data (reference population, 54k, bulls) - and know-how (tight collaboration with research centers and universities)

12 A specific organization for research and operation Research Co-funding INRA ALLICE INRA ALLICE APIS-GENE (GIS AGENAE) Transfert and roll-out UMT 3G Valogène Operation SAS Capital by Breeding companies who invested in the research Exclusive licence of operation for 5 years

13 Large return on investment Inovative points Share cost of genetic evaluation with farmer organization (250 k /year) Royalties for intellectual property linked to research (350 à 400 k /year) to invest on the next steps Reduction of expenses for French farmers International cooperation buying Chips New tools (EuroG10k) 4ème génération Royalty paid in APIS-GENE cumul : K VALOGENE has a commercial activity

14 New chains, new calendars Sex control Parentage test Potential parents proposal GEBV Mutation tests Each week 6 times a year

15 The quick success of Young bulls in France % 19% 42% 58% 1st AI with young bulls 74% 26% 1st AI PT bulls 37% 63% 74% 26% 0.66 From S. Moureaux, Institut de l élevage

16 5,000 1,250 7,500 3, Number of females genotyped for herd management Impact on cows Genotyping for farmers 2,166 26,329 34, ,985 $ Interest of the female genotying: Herd management, heifers sells, mating, Accuracy of GEBV Increasing selection intensity More genetic progress

17 More genetic progress Holstein

18 In the vanguard for the others ruminants

19 Sexed semen

20 The technology Use of the difference of content of DNA between X an Y chromosome A sort of semen Low yield Good accuracy

21 Sexed semen - Purity of semen : 90 % - Fertility : -10 to 20% - Price : +30 /AI Jérôme CHABANNE

22 Use of sexed semen Total AI with sexed semen % 1st AI with sexed semen per breed in 2013

23 Use of sexed semen 67% of sexed semen is used on heifers 60% of sexed semen is used for 1st AI 99% of sexed semen is female sexed

24 Precision dairy farming

25 An environment conducive to the development of Precision Dairy Farming Evolution of farms structure herd size and work productivity monitoring needs Change in the economic context Prices volatility and end of quotas need to improve efficiency New societal demands Consumers : welfare, environment, products quality Farmers : workload, constraints, income ICT tools availability

26 Definition Management of livestock farming by continuous automated real-time monitoring/controlling of production/ reproduction, health and welfare of livestock and environmental impact. Berckmans, 2012

27 What is Precision Dairy (Livestock) Farming? RFID Automated action (milking, feeding, ) Biological parameters (production, behaviour, ) Data transfer Animal Decision/Action Sensors Data storage and interpretation Observations Feedback Consultation Alerts and advice Automatisms Farmer Feedback Information display Control

28 The rise of sensors and automatisms in Dairy Farming Tail position Calving detection (accelerometer, gyrometer) Abdmominal contractions Calving detection (pressure sensor) Electronic Id Herd management (RFID tag) Vaginal t - Calving detection (thermometer) Feed quantity feeding (scale) Milk quantity and composition Health, feeding, (Milk meter, optical sensor) Hormone and enzyme analysis Reproduction, health (in line chemical analysis) Feeding behaviour - Health (microphone, accelerometer) Rumen t and ph Health (Thermo and ph meter) Gait Lameness detection (pressure sensor) Live weight Health and feeding (scale) Animal physical activity Heat detection (pedometer, accelerometer) And it is only the beginning!

29 Capabilities of smart, connected products Source, Porter 2014

30 From smart product Source, Porter 2014

31 to system of systems Source, Porter 2014

32 To help the farmer to take the right decision RFID Automated action (milking, feeding, ) Biological parameters (production, behaviour, ) Data transfer Animal Decision/Action Sensors Data storage and interpretation Observations Feedback Consultation Alerts and advice Automatisms Farmer Feedback Information display Decision help systems

33 Animal level Future technologies (3D imaging, drones,...) = new opportunities Improvement of alerts detection performances (sensitivity/specificity) Farm/Farmer level Precision Dairy Farming (future) possibilities Need to deliver advice and not only information or alerts Autonomous decision or action towards the farm without farmer? Animal population level Can sensors data be useful to detect emerging epizootic diseases (as Twitter) Genetic selection on new traits recorded by sensors Consumer/population/governmental level New demands like animal welfare : how to measure it is a challenge? Could sensors data be used by policy makers (subsidy, control, )?

34 To a system who take the decision in autonomy RFID Automated action (milking, feeding, ) Biological parameters (production, behaviour, ) Data transfer Animal Decision/Action Sensors Data storage and interpretation Observations Feedback Consultation Alerts and advice Automatisms Farmer Feedback Information display Decision help systems Control Control

35 Simultaneous use and impacts

36 Combine GEBV and sexed semen A reality for the farmers, an opportunity to optimize Culling, matting plan, genetic trend Genomic evaluation brings accurate genetic values for heifers a SELECTION tool for herd management (replacement) Amplified by combined use of sexed semen Combined Investment to build competitive herds that will be on production after 2015

37 Economic balance Same herd size Group of 10 heifers 14 straws of sexed semen genotypings heifers sold +900 Genetic progress o +7 ISU pts *5 *4 cows*2,5 lactations+490 Oct 2013 Total gain : +310 per group of 10 heifers

38 Combine Sexed semen and PDF Heat detection Fine management of heifers or cows for AI with sexed semen Increase tracability of straw with automatic identification of straw (bare code)

39 Combine GEBV and PDF Transfer of technologies from human to livestock production Individual management Including all the recorded information Including genotyping Including epigenetic information (expression of genetic information) New traits for selection Health, activity, fine composition of the products

40 Combine all of them Genetic Management Reproduction

41 Conclusion

42 New tools New farmers? Continuous adaptation to new technologies Technologies evolution are coming faster and more frequently If a farmer want to use these innovations He can integrate these new tools (all or some of them) He must imagine another way to work He has to think to the global coherence of his production system Economical side Technical side Management / labor side

43 Thank you for your attention Thanks to all contributors : S Barbier, P Le Mezec, M Benoit, D Boichard, C Allain

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