RECOLAD. Introduction to the «atelier 1» Genetic approaches to improve adaptation to climate change in livestock

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1 RECOLAD. Introduction to the «atelier 1» Genetic approaches to improve adaptation to climate change in livestock Ahmed El Beltagy and D. Laloë

2 Introduction Increased heat Emerging diseases Weather extremes Cimate Change Food shortages Drought Water stress.02

3 Animal breeders want something clear and simple An example: Growth in beef cattle Breeding objective (increasing the economical productivity of an animal) Beef cattle : growth Selection criteria : weight related to the breeding objective easy (and cheap) to measure genetic determinism (heritability (0.30), QTL, ) Breeding value prediction BLUP, Genomic selection Independance between Genetics and Environment.03

4 Animal breeders want something clear and simple What about adaptation? Breeding objective (Balance between economical productivity of an animal (short term) and Adaptation (long term) to Climate change (Broad and Vague) Selection criteria : weight related to the breeding objective easy (and cheap) to measure genetic determinism (heritability (0.30), QTL, ) superior resilience traits general robustness traits Breeding value Estimation G x E interaction BLUP, Genomic selection Independance between Genetics and Environment.04

5 New genetic evaluation strategies a. One breed, different environments GWAS sensitivity of production to environmental parameters Hayes et al, 2009 Climate variates (Temperature humidity index; level of feeding) SNP genotypes Production traits(adjusted milk yield).05

6 New genetic evaluation strategies Locally adapted breeds (Hoffman, 2013) Selection footprints (; Gautier et al, 2009; Coop et al, 2010; Guillot et al, 2013; Galimed project ) Geography (Climate/Environment) Breeding systems SNP genotypes Local breeds.06

7 Questions to address 1. Knowledge about the environment A need of a fine characterization of the environment elements Production systems Socio-economic conditions Management of breeds Climate A need of translation into a few synthetic and relevant variables A need of improving information about local breeds.07

8 Questions to address 2 Genetic objectives for Adaptation New selection objectives including «robustness traits» Breeding hig productive breeds for superior resilience Breeding local breeds for increased productivity intra-breed selection Crossbreeding Breed substitution.08

9 Questions to address 3 Genetic and Genomic Strategies to be implemented for adaptation and production Locally adapted breeds -> unraveling the genetic basis of adaptation Novel candidate genes and pathways -> candidate adaptive variants that are biologically interpretable.09

10 Atelier 1 : Genetic- approaches to improve adaptation to climate change in livestock Questions : information needed for improving understanding of adaptation 1.1 Animal adaptation criteria Production traits Reproduction (birth interval and fertility traits, milk) Survival and longevity Health (veterinary intervention, immune response, parasite and disease resistance, sickness, proportion of infected animals, milk components) Heat tolerance (coat color, type of skin, hair shape, body fat, rectal temperature) Nutrition ( individual feed intake, body conditions, capacity to mobilize reserves (measure with evolution of body condition and weight) Traits : Body conditions, visual Water intake Characterization of environment Social impact Make a guideline or protocols by group of species.010

11 1.2 Environmental description : Starting with FAO Descriptor (considering difficulty/complexity of the process) Needs databases for zootechnical measures and environmental measures. Major Consideration: For local breeds with low production levels > necessity of a market niche with high quality products (providing an economic viability for farmers) Market demand Sustainability System Purpose Time-Frame: Terms concerned (short/med/long) No single strategy Knowledge of all stakeholders (farmer, policy maker, etc).011

12 Question 2. What are/should be the genetic Objectives for adaptation Two(or multiple) levels but one strategy Mix Short and long term 1 long term : Pure level (nucleus herds at at a governmental level, public policy) And 2 Short term : Cross-breeding level (for farmers more productive and adaptive way).012

13 3-Genomic Strategy should be implemented (opportunity/risk analysis) With available data : Compare results from signature of selection region and results from QTLs selection, full genome sequencing and then verification of results Data are to be public Two level analysis : pooled date/ Individual sequence General analysis : with highly contrasting environment : need to study a few samples or even pools For specific environment : study of more animals (need of good phenotypic data)> MAS : marker assisted selection Marker Assisted Introgression (after determining the the nature of the traits) Major point : Mix an overall general biodiversity (maintain it) and targeting specific region of genome.013

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