Solar Energy Technologies

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1 1 Solar Energy Technologies ME 430 Queen s University The Solar Energy Resource Varies over day and year, (i.e., intermittent) Generally non-dispatchable Ottawa average for year ~4 kwh/m 2 per day e.g., for a 60 m 2 roof we have 240 kwh/day or 7200 kwh/month

2 2 The Solar Energy Resource The Solar Energy Spectrum Sun angles and the position of the sun relative to a receiving surface

3 H (kwh/m 2 day) 3 Solar Radiation in Miami and Toronto The Solar Energy Resource Effect of tilt angle Average Solar Radiation Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

4 4 Solar Energy Capture Passive solar: Direct gain high performance fenestration Daylighting Good architecture and energy conservation Photovoltaics: the production of electricity Grid connected or stand alone Building integrated PV Solar Thermal: space and water heating and cooling SDHW and Combi-systems Hybrid Systems, e.g., PVT, combined space and hot water heating, cooling and heating systems Passive Systems

5 5 Passive solar Direct gain of solar energy through windows or in attached sun-spaces for space heating high performance fenestration and/or transparent insulation application of thermal mass for storage and to reduce overheating can include natural ventilation design for maximization of natural Daylighting Apply design principles to increase heat gain and reduce cooling loads Good architecture and energy conservation! Passive Solar Heating Good architecture? The judicious use of south glazing coupled with appropriate shading and thermal mass. Summer Winter

6 6 Passive Solar Heating Mass walls and transparent Insulation Mass Wall Passive Solar Heating on Residence, France Attached Sunspaces Photo Credit: Pamm McFadden (NREL Pix) Attached Sun Space

7 7 Passive Solar Heating/Cooling Fenestration The location and operation of shading Exterior Shade Interior Shade Passive Solar Heating Advanced fenestration

8 8 Daylighting Passive Solar Examples

9 9 Involves the direct use of sunlight for daylighting and space heating Passive solar design at York University

10 10 Photovoltaic Energy Systems Photovoltaics Future: Grid Connected Stand alone PV systems Hybrid systems Building Integrated PV

11 11 Roof Systems Photovoltaics Energy Systems

12 12 ATRIUM, SUNSPACE, BUFFER ZONE AND HYBRID VENTILATION Mont-Cenis Academy, Germany 1000 kw semitransparent system; superstructure creates microclimate; natural ventilation. Small Scale Applications

13 13 Photovoltaics Stand-alone vs grid connected Grid Connected

14 14 Grid connected PV Stand Alone PV Systems or grid-connected with with Battery Backup

15 15 Other PV Systems Hybrid Systems (Combined PV and Wind Systems)

16 16 Solar Thermal Systems Residential Solar Heating Applications

17 17 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Residential sector = 1/5 of total energy use in Canada; ~ 17 per cent to heat water SDHW can reduce energy consumption utility peak loads reduce emissions Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Solar Collector Array Expansion tank Preheat Storage Auxiliary Storage To Load Anti-freeze Circulation Loop Heat Exchanger Pumps Mains

18 kwh $/kwh 18 Solar Water Heating Modern SDHW system Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Solar Energy Demand Cost/kWh Sales/kWh hour day

19 Kwh 19 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Usually only a fraction of the total hot water heating load is supplied by sunshine --the balance is met by an auxiliary heater Solar Electricity 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Emission Reductions for a residential solar hot water heater Solar Thermal & Natural Gas Approximately 1.25 TONS C02 Per Installed System per year. Solar Thermal & Electricity Approximately 1.0 TONS C02 Per Installed System per year. Based on 50% Solar Fraction Emissions reductions will increase with higher Solar Fraction. Assumes 55% fossil fuel in generation mix, 240L of hot water at 55 degrees Celsius per day Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

20 20 Solar Heating Applications (roof integrated solar thermal collectors) Solar Heating Applications (combi-system space heating and hot water)

21 21 Commercial Systems DURHAM NURSING HOME SOLAR PROJECT Solcan Ltd, London, ON System Schematic

22 22

23 Howard Johnson Hotel in Kingston 23

24 24 In August 2005, the Howard Johnson Kingston hotel installed a 20 panel solar hot water system. The system was installed for shower use and heated swimming pool. This system reduces GHG emissions by approximately 19 tonnes per year. In addition, Howard Johnson Kingston saves roughly $4650 each year in water heating costs. Solar System for Indoor Swimming Pool Solar system installed on roof of Okotoks community centre

25 25 Solar System for Indoor Swimming Pool Source: Solar System for Indoor Swimming Pool Source:

26 26 Solar System for Outdoor Swimming Pool Solar System for Outdoor Swimming Pool

27 27 Different Designs of Absorbers From Planning and Installing Solar Thermal Systems, James & James/Earthscan, London, UK Swimming pool absorbers are usually black plastic mats or tubes. Unlike a flat plate collector or an evacuated tube collector, heat insulation and transparent covers are not necessary. Solar System for Outdoor Swimming Pool Different methods of connecting the absorber to the collecting / distributing pipes End cap of a collector pipe fixed with clamps From Planning and Installing Solar Thermal Systems, James & James/Earthscan, London, UK

28 28 Canada s Drakes Landing Solar Community Highlights the largest subdivision of R-2000 single family homes in Canada, each 30% more efficient than conventionally built homes a first in the world, >90% of residential space heating needs will be met by solar thermal energy. a reduction of approximately 5 tonnes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per home per year Internationally Acclaimed Drake Landing Solar Community Sterling Homes 2 panel solar domestic hot water on each of 52 homes

29 29 Drake Landing Solar Community Sterling Homes Solar District Heating Systems Source:

30 30 Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Artist s rendering showing solar collectors mounted on detached garage How it Works Source:

31 31 Solar Collection the solar thermal collection system consists of 800 flat plate solar panels organized into four rows mounted on the detached garages behind the homes (used for space heating commercial system) two flat plate solar collectors are also placed on the roof of the house for domestic hot water Source: Air-Handler Unit raising the temperature on the thermostat opens an automatic valve that allows hot water to flow from the district heating loop through the heat exchanger in the air-handler unit a fan blows air across the hot coil, heating the air and distributing it throughout the home in high volume, low velocity ductwork the heat recovery ventilator exhausts warm, moist, stale air from within the home's wet rooms to the outside, and preheats cool, fresh incoming air Source:

32 32 District Heating System there are four individual home-run loops off a manifold in the Energy Centre plastic, insulated, underground pipe is used to distribute heated water from the community s Energy Centre back to the homes Source: The Energy Center the energy center houses the short-term heat storage tanks and most of the mechanical equipment such as pumps, heat exchangers, and controls the solar collector loop, the district heating loop, and the borehole thermal energy storage loop pass through the Energy Centre Source:

33 33 Borehole Thermal Energy Storage the pipes run through a collection of 144 holes that stretch 37 m below the ground and cover an area 35 m in diameter. a plastic pipe with a U bend at the bottom is inserted down the borehole Source: Energy Consumption Comparison Source:

34 34 February 2006 Homes in first phase of construction Energy Centre Mechanical room Source: May to Sept 2006 Installing flat plate collectors on homes and garages

35 35 May to Sept 2006 Installing flat plate collectors on homes and garages Source: Air Preheating Systems Solarwall

36 36 Air Preheating Systems Air Preheating Systems

37 37 Significant advances in development of open loop air based BIPV/T systems: prototype prefabricated BIPV/T roof module design; numerical models and convective heat transfer correlation; full scale demo of transpired collector with PV in a fully integrated system. 76 Power Generation Systems Usually use high temperature concentrating collectors to produce steam to turn a turbine/generator unit.. Suitable for locations with clear sunny days

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