Unit 7 Overview of Solar Thermal Applications

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1 ELTR 1223 Survey of Renewable Energy Technology Unit 7 Overview of Solar Thermal Applications REEC 120 Sustainability and Renewable Energy Source:

2 Use Policy This material was developed by Timothy J. Wilhelm, P.E., Kankakee Community College, with funding from the National Science Foundation as part of ATE Grant No Additional changes were incorporated for REED 120 with funding from the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) SGA/DFA PY All materials in this presentation are designed and intended for educational use, only. They may not be used for any publication or commercial purposes. Source:

3 Author, Editors/Reviewers Author: Timothy J. Wilhelm, P.E., Kankakee Community College Editors/Modifier: Chris Miller Heartland Community College Source:

4 Objectives Students will be able to describe, in very simple terms, black body absorption and radiation and their relationship to solar thermal applications. Students will be able to list the basic residential applications for solar thermal technology. Source:

5 Objectives Students will be able to discuss the basic requirements for passive solar architectural design. Students will be able to discuss and describe how active solar thermal technology works. Source:

6 Thermal Applications = Using Heat Typical Thermal Applications in Daily Human Living Residential Dwelling Applications: Space Heating Water Heating Cooking

7 Contemporary Thermal Sources The Heat Energy Necessary for Space Heating, Water Heating, and Cooking is typically Converted from: Electricity Natural Gas LPG Fuel Oil Coal Wood Other Combustible Fuels

8 Challenges Regarding our Conventional Sources of Thermal Energy Limited, Finite Supply All (except nuclear-fission sourced electricity) pump CO 2 back into the atmosphere All result in one or more additional, environmental pollutants The cost of all is continually increasing Most are not locally available and must be transported in

9 Moving Heat Energy to Where We Need it Heat is directed and moved via IR Radiation Conduction Convection

10 Conduction, and Radiation

11 Convection Source:

12 Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Source:

13 The Sun as a Source of Thermal Energy Black Body radiation and absorption! We see only reflected light When we see white light, the white surface is reflecting all frequencies of visible light When we see red light, the red surface is only reflecting the red frequency of visible light, and is absorbing all the other frequencies of visible light When a surface appears black it is absorbing all the frequencies of visible light and reflecting none

14 Black Body Radiation and Absorption Black Bodies absorb ALL frequencies At temps below 200 o C, Black Bodies (all bodies) radiate InfraRed frequencies InfraRed radiation is HEAT! Source:

15 Solar Thermal Technologies The basic ideas behind solar thermal energy are: Convert solar radiation into heat energy via Black Body absorption Trap the captured heat energy Limit IR radiation losses Limit Convective losses Limit Conductive losses Direct the captured heat energy into the desired zone or material via IR radiation, and/or convection, and/or conduction

16 Solar Thermal Technologies Solar Space Heating vs. Solar Domestic Hot Water Heating vs. Solar Cooking Passive vs. Active Solar Thermal Applications Flat Plate Solar Collectors vs. Concentrating Solar Collectors

17 Passive Solar Principles: Solar Space Heating Insulate, insulate, insulate (especially the North wall) Orient long axis of building E-W Lots of South facing glazing Thermal storage Nocturnal insulation on South wall Summer shading to avoid seasonal over heating

18 Passive Solar Principles Source:

19 Passive Solar Principles Source:

20 Passive Solar Principles

21 Passive Solar Principles

22 Passive Solar Principles Thermal Storage Media Solid Thermal Mass Trombe Wall Water Columns, jugs, and barrels Eutectic Salts

23 Passive Solar Principles

24 Passive Solar Principles Source:

25 Passive Solar Principles Source:

26 Active Solar Space Heating Principles Same as Passive principles, but Add on external solar collectors Add on fans or pumps to move fluid Air or water or other FLUID Different configurations of heat storage May incorporate heat pumps May be flat-plate or concentrating

27 Active-Solar Air-Heating Principles

28 Active-Solar Air-Heating Principles Source:

29 Active-Solar Air-Heating Principles

30 Active-Solar Space Heating with Liquid Working Fluids Source:

31 Solar Domestic Hot Water Heating Can be active or passive (thermo-siphon) Can be open loop Open loop can be drain-down configured for freeze protection Can be closed loop Closed loop can be drain-back configured for freeze protection Closed loop can be freeze protected by using antifreeze as the working fluid

32 Passive Solar DHW Heating Batch Tank Heating Thermo-siphon

33 Batch heaters Passive Solar Water Heating

34 Batch heaters Passive Solar Water Heating

35 Batch heaters Passive Solar Water Heating Source:

36 Passive Solar Water Heating Thermo-siphon heaters Source:

37 Schematic diagram of a thermosyphon solar water heater Storage tank Auxiliary Hot water outlet Cold water inlet TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

38 Laboratory model TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

39 Typical thermosyphon solar water heater TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

40 Active Solar DHW Heating System Design Governed by Need for System Efficiency and Freeze Protection

41 Active Solar Water Heating Source:

42 What type of system would I use in my area? Warm climates systems similar to those shown previously systems will differ in design Cold climates freeze protection becomes critical Indirect systems with heat exchangers Drainback and draindown systems

43 Warm climates Fluid in tank is heated in collector Most common system in temperate climates

44 Warm climates This system is called a thermosiphon system. It does not have pumps, controllers, or any moving parts. Water is heated and the density of the hot versus cold water takes over from there. Works off natural thermosiphon actions in moving the water heated in the collector back to the tank and the cold water in the tank to the collector.

45 Direct circulation system TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

46 Cold climates Freeze protection Reduce Scale Non-potable fluids

47 Cold climates Indirect system with heat exchanger that contains fluids in collector that do not freeze. Heat exchanger is in the water heater.

48 Drain-down system When a freezing condition or a power failure occurs, the system drains automatically by isolating the collector array and exterior piping from the make-up water supply and draining it using the two normally open (NO) valves TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

49 Indirect water heating system TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

50 Drain-back system Circulation continues as long as usable energy is available. When the circulation pump stops the collector fluid drains by gravity to a drain-back tank. TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

51 Cold climates Indirect system with heat exchanger that contains fluids in collector that do not freeze. Heat exchanger is external to the water heater.

52 In this system all the water in the collector drains back into a reservoir. Cold climates Drainback system T M P C PT T Drain Back Tank Solar Tank Cold Supply

53 Cold climates In this system, all the water in the collectors drains out of the collector. Draindown system.

54 Cold climate Another thermosiphon system similar to the one used in warm climates, but this one has a heat exchanger incorporated in the system to protect the collector during freezes. Source:

55 Stationary Collectors for DHW Flat Plate Collectors Paint or Selective Surface Evacuated Tube Collectors

56 Flat-plate collector TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

57 Flat-plate Collectors TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

58 Types of flat-plate collectors Water systems A Glazing Riser Absorbing plate C Glazing Riser Absorbing plate Insulation Insulation B Glazing Riser Absorbing plate D Glazing Riser Absorbing plate Insulation Insulation TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

59 Schematic diagram of an evacuated tube collector TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

60 Evacuated tube collectors Source: rmomax3.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

61 Swimming pool heating -- Another water heating application Source: TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

62 Concentrating Collectors Non-Imaging Concentrators Tracked, Imaging Concentrators Refractive vs. Reflective

63 Refractive Concentrators

64 Lenses! Refractive, Imaging Concentrators Source:

65 Lenses! Refractive, Imaging Concentrators Source:

66 Lenses! Refractive, Imaging Concentrators Source:

67 Lenses! Refractive, Imaging Concentrators

68 Reflective Concentrators Non-Imaging Tracking not needed.

69 Flat plate collector with flat reflectors Sun rays Flat plate collector Flat reflector TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

70 Schematic diagram of a CPC collector θc TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

71 Reflective Concentrators Imaging Tracking Required!

72 Parabolic Solar Concentrators Reflective Imaging Concentrators Specially-shaped, highly polished surfaces that reflects light rays, focusing them to a very sharp point on the light-source-side of the reflector MANY more W/m 2 into a VERY small mass or space = MUCH higher temperatures. These are all based on the geometry of the parabola. Line focused = HOT single-axis tracking required Point focused = HOTTER dual-axis tracking required

73 Line-Focus Reflectors Source: erimages/parabolictrough2.jpg Source: ssets/resources/2007/ 11/suncollector.jpg Source:

74 Parabolic trough collectors TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

75 Parabolic Trough System Source: nson2/abb2.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

76 Parabolic trough collectors Source: ages/nrel-solar-troughs- 02.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

77 Parabola detail TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

78 Receiver detail Source: plant-thumb.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

79 Schematic of a parabolic dish collector Sun rays Receiver Parabola Two-axes tracking mechanism TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

80 Source: Point-Focus Reflectors

81

82 Solar-Thermal Process-Heat Applications Solar cooking High temperature boilers for steam engines Low temperature boilers for ORC engines Stirling-cycle external combustion heat engines The Minto Wheel and, MORE

83 Solar Cooking Non-imaging Source:

84 Solar Cooking -- Imaging Source:

85 Solar Cooking, Single Hot Dog Scale Source:

86 Village- Scale Solar Cooking

87 Very High Temp Power Tower! Source: ctors/images/solar_3.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

88 Schematic of central receiver system TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

89 Tower detail Source: s.com/2009/07/solarthermalge nericnrel.jpg?w=250&h=159 TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

90 Heliostat detail TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

91 Mini-Boiler TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

92 Mini-Boiler Source: ained/images/stock/solarth.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

93 Central receiver-3 Source: ages/gallery/25years /album_photo96-2_rdax_253x202.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

94 Central receiver-4 TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

95 Central receiver-5 Source: afics/10kw.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

96 Mini-Boiler Source: mspartei.de/images/ flugzeug_sbp.jpg TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

97 Mini-Boiler TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

98 Mini-Boiler TEI Patra: 3-18 July 2006 Intensive program: ICT tools in PV-systems Engineering

99 Organic Rankine Cycle Engine

100 Stirling Cycle Engine

101 The Minto Wheel

102 Design Problem Commercial-size Solar Greenhouse Challenges: Maximum sunlight means minimum structure They typically melt off the snow load! Nocturnal insulation in a 2,000 square foot building? Thermal storage? What would you do?

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