2 Chapter 3 Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes Key Concepts 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
3 Chapter 3 Opening Question How does an understanding of proteins and enzymes help to explain how aspirin works?
4 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Nucleic acids are polymers that store, transmit, and express hereditary (genetic) information. DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid RNA = ribonucleic acid The monomers are nucleotides.
5 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Nucleotide: pentose sugar + N-containing base + phosphate group Nucleosides: pentose sugar + N-containing base
6 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Bases: Pyrimidines single rings Purines double rings Sugars: DNA contains deoxyribose RNA contains ribose
7 Figure 3.1 Nucleotides Have Three Components
8 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Nucleotides bond in condensation reactions to form phosphodiester bonds. The linkage is between the #5 carbon of one ribose and the #3 carbon of the next ribose. Nucleic acids grow in the 5 to 3 direction.
9 Figure 3.2 Linking Nucleotides Together
10 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Oligonucleotides have up to 20 monomers. Example: small RNA molecules important for DNA replication and gene expression. DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, the longest polymers in the living world.
11 Table 3.1
12 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Complementary base pairing:
13 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Base pairs are linked by hydrogen bonds, favored by the arrangement of polar bonds in the bases. There are so many hydrogen bonds in DNA and RNA that they form a fairly strong attraction, but not as strong as covalent bonds. Thus, base pairs can be separated with only a small amount of energy.
14 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules In RNA, the base pairs are A U and C G. RNA is usually single-stranded, but may be folded into 3-D structures by hydrogen bonding. Folding occurs by complementary base pairing, so structure is determined by the order of bases.
15 Figure 3.3 RNA
16 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules DNA is usually double stranded. Two polynucleotide strands form a ladder that twists into a double helix. Sugar-phosphate groups form the sides of the ladder, the hydrogen-bonded bases form the rungs.
17 Figure 3.4 DNA
18 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules The two strands are antiparallel (running in opposite directions), and the double helix is right-handed.
19 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules DNA s information is encoded in the sequence of bases. DNA has two functions: Replication Information is copied to RNA and used to specify amino acid sequences in proteins.
20 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules DNA replication and transcription depend on base pairing: 5 -TCAGCA-3 3 -AGTCGT-5 transcribes to RNA with the sequence 5 -UCAGCA-3.
21 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules DNA replication: the entire molecule must be replicated completely so that each new cell receives a complete set of DNA. Genome complete set of DNA in a living organism Genes DNA sequences that encode specific proteins and are transcribed into RNA
22 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules Gene expression: transcription and translation of a specific gene. Not all genes are transcribed in all cells of an organism.
23 Figure 3.5 DNA Replication and Transcription
24 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules DNA base sequences reveal evolutionary relationships. Closely related living species should have more similar base sequences than species that are more distantly related. Scientists are now able to determine and compare entire genomes of organisms to study evolutionary relationships.
25 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Major functions of proteins: Enzymes catalytic molecules Defensive proteins (e.g., antibodies) Hormonal and regulatory proteins control physiological processes Receptor proteins receive and respond to molecular signals Storage proteins store amino acids
26 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Structural proteins physical stability and movement Transport proteins carry substances (e.g., hemoglobin) Genetic regulatory proteins regulate when, how, and to what extent a gene is expressed
27 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Protein monomers are amino acids. Amino and carboxyl functional groups allow them to act as both acid and base.
28 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles The R group (side chain) differs in each amino acid. Only 20 amino acids occur extensively in the proteins of all organisms. They are grouped according to properties conferred by the R groups.
29 Table 3.2 (Part 1)
30 Table 3.2 (Part 2)
31 Table 3.2 (Part 3)
32 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles The glycine side chain is a single hydrogen atom small enough to fit into tight corners in the interior of a protein molecule. Proline has a ring structure that limits its hydrogen-bonding ability and its ability to rotate. It often functions to stabilize bends or loops in proteins.
33 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Cysteine side chains can form covalent bonds called disulfide bridges.
34 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Oligopeptides or peptides short polymers of 20 or fewer amino acids (some hormones and signaling molecules) Polypeptides are larger polymers. Functional proteins are made up of one or more polypeptides. Proteins range in size from insulin, with 51 amino acids, to huge molecules such as the muscle protein titin, with 34,350 amino acids.
35 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Amino acids are linked in condensation reactions to form peptide bonds. Polymerization takes place in the amino to carboxyl direction.
36 Figure 3.6 Formation of a Peptide Bond
37 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acids.
38 Figure 3.7 The Four Levels of Protein Structure (Part 1)
39 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Secondary structure regular, repeated spatial patterns in different regions, resulting from hydrogen bonding α (alpha) helix right-handed coil β (beta) pleated sheet two or more sequences are extended and aligned
40 Figure 3.7 The Four Levels of Protein Structure (Part 2)
41 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Tertiary structure polypeptide chain is bent and folded; results in the definitive 3-D shape
42 Figure 3.7 The Four Levels of Protein Structure (Part 3)
43 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Interactions between R groups determine tertiary structure: Disulfide bridges hold folded polypeptides together Hydrogen bonds stabilize folds Hydrophobic side chains can aggregate in the protein interior van der Waals interactions between hydrophobic side chains
44 Figure 3.8 Noncovalent Interactions between Proteins and Other Molecules
45 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Ionic interactions form salt bridges. They can also be deep within a protein, away from water.
46 Figure 3.9 The Structure of a Protein
47 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Secondary and tertiary protein structure derive from primary structure. Denaturing heat or chemicals disrupt weaker interactions in a protein, destroying secondary and tertiary structure. The protein can return to normal when cooled or the chemicals are removed all the information needed to specify the unique shape is contained in the primary structure.
50 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Quaternary structure two or more polypeptide chains (subunits) bind together by hydrophobic and ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds.
51 Figure 3.7 The Four Levels of Protein Structure (Part 3)
52 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Factors that can disrupt the interactions that determine protein structure (denaturing): Temperature Change in concentration of H + High concentrations of polar substances Nonpolar substances
53 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Proteins interact with other molecules. R groups on the surface may form weak interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonds) with groups on the surface of another molecule. This can change the tertiary structure and thus the shape of the protein. Protein structure can also be modified by covalent bonding of a chemical group to the side chain of one or more of its amino acids.
54 Figure 3.11 Protein Structure Can Change
55 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Living systems depend on reactions that occur spontaneously, but at very slow rates. Catalysts are substances that speed up the reactions without being permanently altered. No catalyst makes a reaction occur that cannot otherwise occur. Most biological catalysts are proteins (enzymes); a few are RNA molecules (ribozymes).
56 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions An exergonic reaction releases free energy (G), the amount of energy in a system that is available to do work. Without a catalyst, the reaction will be very slow because there is an energy barrier between reactants and products. An input of energy initiates the reaction (activation energy or E a ), which puts reactants into a transition state.
57 Figure 3.12 Activation Energy Initiates Reactions
58 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Activation energy can come from heat the molecules have more kinetic energy. This would not work in living systems because all reactions would be accelerated, including destructive ones.
59 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Enzymes lower the activation energy by enabling reactants to come together and react more easily. Example: A molecule of sucrose in solution may hydrolyze in about 15 days; with sucrase present, the same reaction occurs in 1 second!
60 Figure 3.13 Enzymes Lower the Energy Barrier
61 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Enzymes are highly specific each one catalyzes only one chemical reaction. Reactants are substrates: they bind to specific sites on the enzyme the active sites. Specificity results from the exact 3-D shape and chemical properties of the active site.
62 Figure 3.14 Enzyme Action
63 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions The enzyme substrate complex (ES) is held together by hydrogen bonding, electrical attraction, or temporary covalent bonding. E + S ES E + P The enzyme is not changed at the end of the reaction.
64 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Enzymes use one or more mechanisms to catalyze a reaction: Inducing strain bonds in the substrate are stretched, putting it in an unstable transition state.
65 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Substrate orientation substrates are brought together so that bonds can form. Adding chemical groups R groups may be directly involved in the reaction.
66 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Enzyme 3-D structures are so specific that they bind only one or a few related substrates. Many enzymes change shape when the substrate binds. The binding is like a baseball in a catcher s mitt. The enzyme changes shape to make the binding tight induced fit.
67 Figure 3.15 Some Enzymes Change Shape When Substrate Binds to Them
68 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Some enzymes require ions or other molecules (cofactors) in order to function: Metal ions Coenzymes add or remove chemical groups from the substrate. They can participate in reactions with many different enzymes. Prosthetic groups (nonamino acid groups) permanently bound to their enzymes.
69 Table 3.3
70 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Rates of catalyzed reactions: There is usually less enzyme than substrate present, so reaction rate levels off when all enzyme molecules are bound to substrate molecules. The enzyme is said to be saturated.
71 Figure 3.16 Catalyzed Reactions Reach a Maximum Rate
72 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Maximum reaction rate is used to calculate enzyme efficiency molecules of substrate converted to product per unit time (turnover). Turnover ranges from 1 to 40 million molecules per second!
73 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Enzyme-catalyzed reactions operate in metabolic pathways. The product of one reaction is a substrate for the next reaction. Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Cell have hundreds of enzymes that participate in interconnecting metabolic pathways, forming a metabolic system.
74 Figure 3.17 A Biochemical System
75 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Systems biology is a new field that describes the components of metabolic pathways mathematically. Computer algorithms are used to make predictions about what would happen if a component were altered.
76 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Cells can regulate metabolism by controlling the amount of an enzyme. Cells often have the ability to turn synthesis of enzymes off or on. Activity of enzymes can also be regulated, which is often faster.
77 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Chemical inhibitors can bind to enzymes and slow reaction rates. Natural inhibitors regulate metabolism. Artificial inhibitors are used to treat diseases, kill pests, and study enzyme function.
78 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Irreversible inhibition: Inhibitor covalently binds to a side chain in the active site. The enzyme is permanently inactivated. Some insecticides act in this way.
79 Figure 3.18 Irreversible Inhibition
80 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Reversible inhibition: A competitive inhibitor binds at the active site but no reaction occurs. It competes with the natural substrate.
81 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Reversible inhibition: A noncompetitive inhibitor binds at a site distinct from the active site, causing change in enzyme shape and function. It prevents substrate binding or slows the reaction rate.
82 Figure 3.19 Reversible Inhibition
83 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Allosteric regulation non-substrate molecule binds a site other than the active site (the allosteric site) The enzyme changes shape, which alters the chemical attraction (affinity) of the active site for the substrate. Allosteric regulation can activate or inactivate enzymes.
84 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Allosteric sites can be modified by: Noncovalent binding (reversible) Covalent binding of a molecule or chemical group, such as phosphorylation (reversible)
85 Figure 3.20 Allosteric Regulation of Enzyme Activity
86 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Phosphorylation by protein kinases is an important regulatory mechanism. Phosphorylation can change a hydrophobic region to hydrophilic. The enzyme twists and exposes the active site. Protein phosphatases reverse the process by removing phosphate groups.
87 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Metabolic pathways: The first reaction is the commitment step the other reactions then happen in sequence. Feedback inhibition (end-product inhibition) the final product acts as an inhibitor of the first enzyme, which shuts down the pathway.
88 Figure 3.21 Feedback Inhibition of Metabolic Pathways
89 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes ph affects protein structure and enzyme activity: Acidic side chains generate H + and become anions. Basic side chains attract H + and become cations.
90 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Example: glutamic acid COOH glutamic acid COO + H + The law of mass action: the higher the H + concentration, the more the reaction is driven to the left, to the less hydrophilic form. This can affect enzyme shape and function.
91 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Protein tertiary structure (and thus function) is very sensitive to the concentration of H + (ph) in the environment. All enzymes have an optimal ph for activity.
92 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Temperature affects protein structure and enzyme activity: Warming increases rates of chemical reactions, but if temperature is too high, noncovalent bonds can break, inactivating enzymes. All enzymes have an optimal temperature for activity.
93 Figure 3.22 Enzyme Activity Is Affected by the Environment
94 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes Isozymes catalyze the same reaction but have different composition and physical properties. Isozymes may have different optimal temperatures or ph, allowing an organism to adapt to changes in its environment.
95 Answer to Opening Question Aspirin binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Cyclooxygenase catalyzes the commitment step for metabolic pathways that produce: Prostaglandins involved in inflammation and pain Thromboxanes stimulate blood clotting and constriction of blood vessels
96 Figure 3.23 Aspirin: An Enzyme Inhibitor
97 Answer to Opening Question Aspirin binds at the active site of cyclooxygenase and transfers an acetyl group to a serine residue. Serine becomes more hydrophobic, which changes the shape of the active site and makes it inaccessible to the substrate.
98 Figure 3.24 Inhibition by Covalent Modification
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