1 Disaster Management Plan CENTRE FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATIVE TRAINING INSTITUTE MYSORE
2 DDMP generated on 18 August :39:13 Copyright c Administrative Training Institute, Mysore, Karnataka All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced without written permission. For permission to copy, please contact ATI, Mysore. This Document is auto-generated through the TAMED System developed by Wizards Technologies.
3 Contents 1 Preface 3 2 Introduction Definition of Disaster Disasters in India Vulnerability Profile of India Hazard Profile of India Vulnerability Profile of Karnataka Disaster Types Profile Necessity for DDMP Objectives of DDMP Disaster Management Cycle Response Recovery Preparedness Mitigation or Risk Reduction Raichur Information Geographic information Taluk, GP, Village information & area Population Rainfall Disaster History of Raichur Villages affected by Krishna River Villages affected by Tungabhadra River Raichur Disaster History Occurrence of Disasters in the past Actions for various Types of Disasters Flood Mitigation Plan Response Plan Recovery and Reconstruction Plan Standard Operating Procedures and Checklists Drought
4 5.8.2 Earthquakes Biological disasters, epidemic, food poisoning Accidents Duties and Responsibilities of Officers District Disaster Manager (Deputy Commissioner) Disaster Manager (Assistant Commissioner) Site Controller (Tahsildar of affected Taluk) Law and Order Function (Superintendent of Police) SDPO of the concerned Sub Division Circle Inspector Police Inspector of nearest Police Station Traffic Police Factory Inspectorate (Dy. Chief Inspector of Factories) Fire Fighting Function (Divisional Fire Officer) Civil Defence Function - Home Guards (District Commandant) Public Works/highway Function (Superintendent Engineer) Transportation Function (RTO) Health Function (District Health Officer) Welfare Function (Dy. Director, Food and Civil Supply) Information Function (District Information Officer) Pollution Control Function (Dy. Environment Officer) Officer I/C Communication Officer I/C Information Collection Officer I/C Monitoring Officer I/C Co-Ordination Officer I/C Documentation/Record keeping Agencies Involved in Disaster Management 43 8 Do s and Don ts for Disasters Floods Landslide Cyclone Lightening Earthquake Tsunami Drought Fire Chemical, nuclear and biological warfare Do s Biological Weapons
5 9 Check list for line departments Checklist for Police Checklist for Public Health Department Checklist for Hospitals Checklist for Field Centres Casualty Treatment Post at camp sites and affected Villages Report and Checklist on Epidemics for each camp site and affected village Checklist for epidemic situations Checklist for District Office Checklist for Irrigation Department Checklist for Agriculture Checklist for Field Activities of Animal Husbandry Department Checklist for Public Works Department Checklist for Telecommunications Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Functions of Assistant Commissioner Functions of Revenue Authorities Functions of Tahsildars Functions of Police Services Functions of Circle Inspector (Law and Order) (For city limits) Functions of Industry Inspector Functions of Police Inspector Function of Inspector (Traffic) Functions of Fire Services Functions of Police Inspector/Sub Inspector Functions of Police (Traffic) Functions of Fire Station Officer Function of Health and Medical Services Functions of Veterinary Service Functions of RTO Functions of Karnataka State Pollution Control Board Function of Experts of District Crisis Group (DCG) HRVA - Hazard, Risk and Vulnerability Assessment What is HRVA? Hazard Vulnerability Risk Risk assessment / analysis Risk management Disaster risk reduction (disaster reduction) Prevention Mitigation Preparedness Early warning
6 11.12Vulnerability - various types Physical Vulnerability Social Vulnerability Economic Vulnerability Ecological Vulnerability Resource Personnel Directory District-level Personnel Directory Taluk/Village level Personnel Directory Taluk-wise Resource Summary Village-wise Resource Summary Maps 123 Appendices 125 I. Equipment in State Fire & Emergency Services 125 II. Abbreviations 127 III. List of Central Govt Bodies related to Disaster Management 129 IV. Glossary 133 V. Useful Websites & Other References 139 FAQ on Disaster Management 140
7 Dr. Amita Prasad, IAS Director General Administrative Training Institute Laitha Mahal Road MYSORE FOREWORD The National Disaster Management Act was brought in year 2005 to promote a proactive approach focussing on all phases of disaster management and to give more coherence to the institutional structure required to take forward the paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management in the country. Accordingly, the state of Karnataka has formed the State Disaster Management Authority and District Disaster Management Authorities at all the districts for effective management of disasters in the state through the implementation of District Disaster Management Plans. The Centre for Disaster Management, ATI Mysore played a major role in preparation and reformulation of District Disaster Management Plans (DDMP) of all 30 districts and Preparation of State Disaster Management Plan (SDMP) by conducting consultative workshops at each districts which would guide the state/district administration to take up preventive and mitigation measures against disasters in the state. The Centre has taken up the task of Automation of Disaster Management Plan along with the training and capacity building activities under the GoI-UNDP programmes. A pilot study on Automation of DDMP of Raichur district is a disaster management software technology with real-time wireless synchronization software to collect, store, analyze, communicate, co-ordinate and authentic information geo-stamped with GPS location and time, using a web based geo-information database/framework. The Centre could prepare an automated DDMP of Raichur first of its kind in the country based on collation and integration of data to generate DDMP which guides the district administration for timely actions on disaster response. I acknowledge the contributions of Sri. R. Manoj, IFS, Special Officer (Elections) for his technical expertise provided to complete this task. I thank the CDM team Dr. R. Dharmaraju, Dr. G. Vishwanath, Dr. Ashok Sanganal, and Dr. J.R. Paramsha for taking deep interest and involvement in preparing the automated DDMP of Raichur. And also I record appreciation to M/s Wizards Technologies, Bangalore for providing the technical consultancy services, and support extended by Raichur district administration for preparing the automated DDMP. I express thanks to the Department of Revenue (Disaster Management), Government of Karnataka for entrusting this work to CDM ATI Mysore. Mysore July 06, 2012 (AMITA PRASAD)
9 1. Preface Disaster means unforeseen and serious threat to public life with suddenness in terms of time. Declaration of disaster depends on gravity or magnitude of situation, number of victims involved, time factor i.e. suddenness of an event, nonavailability of medical care in terms of space, equipments medical and paramedical staff, medicines and other basic human needs like food, shelter and clothing, weather conditions in the locality of incident etc., thus enhancing human sufferings and create human needs that the victim can not alleviate without assistance. Disasters have been occurring ever since the existence of mankind. Raichur district has Geographical area of Hectares which has covered most of the dry / wet lands, and often faces drought, and occasionally cyclones and floods like and , While not all natural calamities can be predicted and prevented, a state of preparedness and ability to respond quickly to a natural calamity can considerably mitigate loss of life and property and human suffering and restore normalcy at the earliest. M.V.Savithri, IAS., Deputy Commissioner and District Magistrate. 3
11 2. Introduction 2.1 Definition of Disaster An occurrence of an event with severity and magnitude that normally results in deaths, injuries, and property damage, which cannot be managed through the routine procedures and resources of government. It usually develops suddenly and unexpectedly and requires immediate, coordinated, and effective response by multiple government, voluntary and private sector organizations to meet human needs and speedy recovery. Disaster Management is a collective term encompassing all aspects of planning for and responding to disasters, including both pre- and postdisaster activities. It may refer to the management of both risks and consequences of disasters. The following diagram shows global trends in disasters, From the above figure, it may be noticed that the disasters are on increase. The number of disasters/events which was 73 in have increased to 4494 during The rise between the decade of over the period of has been more than 67%. 2.2 Disasters in India India is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a large number of natural as well as manmade disasters per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) is prone to floods and river erosion; of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches. Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin also exists. Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks can be related to expanding 5
12 6 2. INTRODUCTION population, urbanization and industrialization, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation and climate change. 2.3 Vulnerability Profile of India A multi-hazard map of India may be seen in the following figure. Losses due to disasters have been shown in the following Figure. It shows that economic loss is accounted for 2% of the GDP due to disasters as per the study of the World Bank. 2.4 Hazard Profile of India India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and human induced, including adverse geo climatic conditions, topographic features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrialization, non scientific development
13 2.4. HAZARD PROFILE OF INDIA 7 practices etc. The factors either by themselves or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life supporting system in the country. The basic reason for the high vulnerability of the country to natural disasters is its unique geographical and geological situations. As far as the vulnerability to disaster is concerned, the five distinctive regions of the country i.e. Himalayan region, the alluvial plains, the hilly part of the peninsula, and the coastal zone have their own specific problems. While on one hand the Himalayan region is prone to disasters like earthquakes and landslides, the plain is affected by floodsalmosteveryyear. Thedesertpartofthecountryisaffectedbydroughts and famine while the coastal zone susceptible to cyclones and storms. The natural geological setting of the country is the primary basic reason for its increased vulnerability. The geo-tectonic features of the Himalayan region and adjacent alluvial plains make the region susceptible to earthquakes, landslides, water erosion etc. Though peninsular India is considered to be the most stable portions, but occasional earthquakes in the region shows that geo- tectonic movements are still going on within its depth. The tectonic features, characteristics of the Himalaya are prevalent in the alluvial plains of Indus, Ganga and Brahmputra too, as the rocks lying below the alluvial pains are just extension of the Himalayan ranges only. Thus this region is also quite prone to seismic activities. As a result of various major river systems flowing from Himalaya and huge quantity of sediment brought by them, the area is also suffering from river channel siltation, resulting into frequent floods, especially in the plains of Uttar Pardesh and Bihar. The western part of the country, including Rajasthan, Gujarat and some parts of Maharashtra are hit very frequently by drought situation. If Monsoon worsens the situation spreads in other parts of the country too. The disturbance in the pressure conditions over oceans, results into cyclones in coastal regions. The geo tectonic movements going on in the ocean floor make the coastal region prone to tsunami disaster too. The extreme weather conditions, huge quantity of ice and snow stored in the glaciers etc. are other natural factors which make the country prone to various forms of disasters. Along with the natural factors discussed in the preceding text, various human induced activities like increasing demographic pressure, deteriorating environmental conditions, deforestation, unscientific development, faulty agricultural practices and grazing, unplanned urbanisation, construction of large dams on river channels etc. are also responsible for accelerated impact and increase in frequency of disasters in the country.
14 8 2. INTRODUCTION 2.5 Vulnerability Profile of Karnataka Karnataka is vulnerable to various natural disasters mainly droughts, floods, cyclones, landslides, coastal erosion and earthquake etc. The state is being faced by the brunt of moderate to severe floods in most of the districts. Floods are associated with cloud bursts, cylones or depressions in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. The floods are quite common in the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkote, Raichur, Gulbarga, Shimaoga, Chikkamagalur, Udupi, Coorg, Bellary, Dakshina Kannada, Dharwad, Davanagere, Gadag, Hassan, Uttara Kannada, Koppal, Bidar, Bangalore (R), Bangalore (U), Kolar, Mandya, Mysore, Chamarajanagara. In the North Karnataka region covering the Krishna and Godavari Basins, even when the state was suffering under drought conditions, heavy discharges from Maharashtra caused floods. The floods in the Districts of Gulbarga, Belgaum, Bijapur, Bidar, Bagalkot, Raichur etc., as a result of outflow of excess water from the Krishna and Bheema Basins from Maharashtra are affecting lakhs of people. Cities face floods causing severe damages to infrastructure services and loss of life. The coastal districts namely Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada with a coastal line of 320 kms and coastal population of Lakhs are under the direct threat of cyclones and severe cyclones originating in Arabian Sea and indirect attack of cyclones originating along the Eastern coastline. The high density of population along the coastline of Karnataka has made the population highly vulnerable to the storm surge and high speed wind accompanied with cyclone. It is important to note that infrastructure such as rail and road networks which are adjacent to the sea coast are constantly threatened by the erosion caused by giant sea waves particularly during storm surges and cyclones The state is incurring huge expenditure almost every year on prevention of coastal erosion for the 320 Kms of coastal line. The State has been placed under Category (II) A - Low Vulnerability along with other states of Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Out of total geographical area of Lakh ha, about lakh ha area covering 15 districts and 50 taluks is affected by winds and cyclones which is falling under moderate risk zone (Vs=39m/s) and remaining area falls under low damage risk zone(33m/s). Apart from coastal erosion, the coastal areas are facing disasters such as boat capsizing and oil spillage due to extreme weather conditions in the sea. As per the revised Earthquake Hazard Mapping, 22.13% of the total geographical area is under Moderate earthquake damage risk zone & remaining area of the state is under low damage risk zone. The state of Karnataka has reported more than 500 earthquake tremors in the last three decades with most of them having low magnitude. It is found that the weak zones around the northern Karnataka bordering Maharashtra could cause heavy damages in future. The areas of southern part of Karnataka are also not free from frequent tremors. The Karnataka state is categorized as moderate to low seismic risk zone. The districts of Bidar, Gulbarga, Bijapur, Bagalkot, Belgaum, Dharwad, Uttar kannada, Shimoga, Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu are falling in Zone III (Moderate Damage Risk Zone (MSK VII) and all other Districts are falling under Zone II( Low Damage Risk zone MSK VI).
15 2.6. DISASTER TYPES 9 Hilly regions of Western Ghats spread in the districts of Kodagu, Chikmagalur, Hassan, Shimoga, D. Kannada and U. Kannada record a very high normal rainfall of 2000mm to 4000mm. Landslides are common in these districts. During the rainy periods these hilly regions regularly experience displacement of rocks and soils causing widespread damage to property, infrastructure such as rails, roads and loss of human life. Karnataka stands Second only to Rajasthan in terms of Drought Affected areas. The state is highly vulnerable to drought as compared to its neighbouring states. Every year, more than 50% of the talukas are declared as drought affected. About Lakhs ha (80%) out of Lakh ha is affected by drought in Karnataka. Groundwater levels are depleting due to successive droughts and quality of water is getting deteriorated in terms of Fluoride, Nitrate and Salinity. Although, drought maynotposegreatdangerimmediatelywithinafewminutesascouldhappenincase of a severe earthquake, it has huge impact on the occurrence of loss of livelihoods, exodus, poverty, unrest, terrorism, robbery etc. In addition to the above disasters, the state is facing many manmade disasters such as terrorist attacks, accidents, fire accidents, communal violence, festival related disasters etc. 2.6 Disaster Types Various types of disasters have been categorized under five sub groups, they are as follows; Water and climate related disasters Floods Cyclones Tornadoes & Hurricanes Hailstorm Cloud Burst Thunder & Lightening Snow Avalanches Heat Wave & Clod Wave Sea Erosion Droughts Geological related disasters Earthquakes Tsunami
16 10 2. INTRODUCTION Volcano s Landslides & Mudflows Dam Bursts Mine Fires Chemical, Industrial and Nuclear related disasters Chemical and Industrial Disasters Nuclear Disasters Accident related disasters Urban Fires Village Fires Forest Fires Serial Bomb Blast Oil Spill Stampedes Air, Road & Rail Accidents Boat Capsizing Building Collapses Biological related disasters Biological Disaster & epidemics Pest attacks Cattle epidemics Food poisoning
17 2.7. RAICHUR DISTRICT PROFILE Profile derives its name from its headquarters town. It is also called as Rayachooru in Kannada. It is bound by river Krishna on the northern side and in the south by the river Tungabhadra, a tributary of Krishna. The land between the two river is historically known as Do-Aab located between 15o 16 to 16o 34 North Latitude and 75o 40 to 77o 35 East Longitude at an altitude of 336 MSL. The general slope of the district is from the north-west towards the south-east, its average height above the Mean Sea-Level being just 1,311 feet. It is surrounded by Gulbarga District on the north, on the west by the District Koppal, Bellary, Bijapur and Bagalkot, on the east by Mahaboobnagar District of Andhra Pardesh. It has an eventful and rich history beginning from the days of the Mauryan King Ashoka. Lying between two important rivers, the Krishna and the Tungabhadra, this potentially rich tract had been a bone of contention between Kingdoms. Late during Vijayanagar rule, Raichur had become an object of constant dispute between the Vijayanagar Kings and the Bahmani Sultans of Gulbarga and Adil Shah of Bijapur. It was a part of the Hyderabad State till the reorganisation of the States on 1st November Previously, it was consisting of nine talukas. However in the year 1997 the District was bifurcated into two Districts namely Raichur and Koppal. was formed with 5 Taluks namely Raichur, Manvi, Deodurg, Lingasgur and Sindhanur with Raichur town as District Headquarters and the rest of the four talukas are identified as Koppal district. comprising five talukas divided into two Sub Division viz; Raichur, Deodurg and Manvi Taluks in Raichur Sub Division and Lingsugur and Sindhanur Taluks in Lingsugur Sub Division. It has 883 villages with 8 town areas dividing into 37 Revenue Hoblies with 164 Gram Panchayats. The district is spread in an area of sq. KMs having a mix of black cotton soil and red soil in the ratio of 70:30, The District has a net cultivable area of 5.67 lakh hectares, of which 2.99 lakh hectares is cultivated in kharif and 2.86 lakh hectares in rabi. The major crops in Rabi are jawar, Bengal gram and sunflower and the major crops in kharif is paddy, sunflower, bajra and groundnut. The annual rainfall of the district is mm. The population of district was 19,24,773 as per 2011 Census, of which males and females were 9,66,493 and 9,58,280 respectively. The sex ratio i.e., number of female per 1000 male was 992 in the district. The population living in rural area was 14,37,359 and remaining was urban population. The main official language is Kannada and other spoken languages are Urdu and Telugu. 2.8 Necessity for DDMP The preparations of DDMP is necessary, 1. To ascertain the status of existing resources and facilities available with the various agencies involved in the management of disaster in the district. 2. Assess their adequacies and short falls if any in providing a multi disaster response.
18 12 2. INTRODUCTION 3. Suggest institutional strengthening, technology support, up gradation of information system and data management for improving the quality of administrative responses to disaster at the district level and finally. 4. To evolve DDMP as an effective managerial tool. 2.9 Objectives of DDMP In the absence of a defined plan, response to a disaster would be arbitrary leading to over emphasis of some actions or other actions, which would be critical. Moreover, due to absence of a defined response structure and responsibilities allocations there would be mismanagement of resources and overlap of actions among various agencies, which may exacerbate the situation thereby compounding the disaster effect. A formal planning for managing disaster is therefore necessary to ensure minimize of hardship. This can be achieved only through, 1. Preplanning of proper sequence of response actions. 2. Allocation of responsibilities to the participating agencies. 3. Effective management of resources, 4. Developing codes and standard operating procedures for smooth coordination between various departments and relief agencies involved. TheobjectivesofanyDDMPshouldbetolocalizeadisasterandtothemaximum extent possible contain it so as to minimize the impact on life, the environment and property.
19 3. Disaster Management Cycle The disaster management cycle has four phases - Response, Recovery, Mitigation, Prepardness. Although described as separate phases, each phase is tied to the others. It is helpful to think of the disaster cycle as a simple equation. Every risk or vulnerability we mitigate today reduces our overall exposure whereby decreasing the pressure on the response side of the disaster cycle and lowering our recovery costs from future events. This section defines the four phases and describes plans and activities associated with them. 3.1 Response Response begins as soon as a disaster event occurs. Response is the provision of search and rescue, medical services, and access control as well as repairing and restoring communication and data systems during a crisis. A coordinated response plan can help reduce casualties, damage, and decrease recovery time. Examples include emergency operations plans and business continuity plans and established networks of first responders. 3.2 Recovery Recovery operations provide for basic needs and restore the community. There are two components in the recovery phase. During the first phase, infrastructure is examined, and repairs are conducted to restore water, power, communication and other utilities. The second phase includes returning to normal functions and addressing future disasters. The process of recovery can take months or possibility years to accomplish depending upon the event. An example would be the development of a post-disaster recovery plan. 13
20 14 3. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE 3.3 Preparedness Preparedness refers to activities, programs, and systems developed in advance of a disaster designed to build and enhance capabilities at an individual, business, community, state and federal level to support the response to and recovery from disasters. Example strategies might include developing awareness and outreach campaigns and training targeted to individuals and businesses on personal and professional responsibility to be self sufficient for at least 72 hours post-disaster. 3.4 Mitigation or Risk Reduction Mitigation is the act of reducing or eliminating future loss of life and/or property, and/or injuries resulting from hazards through short and long-term activities. Mitigation strategies may range in scope and size; however, no matter the size, effective mitigation activities have the potential to reduce the vulnerability and/or exposure to risk and impact of disasters. Example mitigation activities for flooding include acquiring, elevating, or relocating structures; for seismic include building code, retrofitting buildings or infrastructure and non-structurally retrofitting labs and offices; and for wind or winter storms include under grounding power lines and tree replacement programs.
21 4. Raichur Information 4.1 Geographic information This section describes the general statistics about the. Location, Karnataka, India Latitude to N Longitude to E Height Mtrs. Altitude above M.S.L Area sq Kms Rainfall mm Road Length Kms Dams Tungabhadra and Narayanpur Tanks 2,763 ULBs 07 Rivers KRISHNA, TUNGABHADRA Temperature 28 C Min 45 C Max AGRICULTURE Kharif HECT Rabbi HECT HORTICULTURE 4467 HECT Table 4.2: Geographical Information, Raichur 4.2 Taluk, GP, Village information & area Taluk GP Villages Area Sq.KM Raichur Manvi Devadurga Sindhnoor Lingasgur Total Table 4.4: Taluks in Raichur and their geographical sizes 15
22 16 4. RAICHUR INFORMATION 4.3 Population Taluk Households Total Males Females Lingsugur Devadurga Raichur Manvi Sindhnur Total Table 4.6: Taluk-wise Population of Raichur (2001 census) 4.4 Rainfall Taluka Status Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov May Jun Raichur A Raichur N Manvi A Manvi N Devadurga A Devadurga N Sindhnoor A Sindhnoor N Lingasgur A Lingasgur N Table 4.7: Taluk-wise Rainfall Data of Raichur
23 5. Disaster History of Raichur 5.1 Villages affected by Krishna River The following villages are prone to disasters due to floods from the nearby rivers. Villages affected by Krishna River Raichur Taluk Agrahar Arshangi Atkur Burdipad D.Rampur Devasugur Ganjalli Gurjapur Kadloor Karekal Korvihal Kurthkunda Kurvakala Kurvakhurd Mamadadoddi Mangigadda Ramgadde Lingsugur Taluk Gaddigi Gonwatla 1km Guntagole Hanchinal Jaldurga Kadaragaddi Sheelhalli 2 km Thanmankal Yalagundi Yarigodi Deodurg Taluk Anchesugur Anjal Appral Bagoor Basvantpur Benakal Bumkaldoddi Chikraikumpi Chinchodi Dondambli Gagal Gopalpur Gugal Heroor Herundi Hireraikumpi Huvinhadagi Itagi Joladahadgi Karkihalli Konachapli Koppar Kurkihalli Lingadhalli Madargole Madarkal Medinapur Mudgote Neelvanji Paratpur Veergot Venglapur Wagadambli Yargudda Yatgal Table 5.1: Villages affected by Krishna River 5.2 Villages affected by Tungabhadra River Manvi Taluk Aranhalli Cheekalparvi Daddal Jagirpannur Jukoor Katarki Madlapur Rajalbanda Umblipannur Yadvihal Sindhnur Taluk Ayanoor Chincharki Chintmandoddi Chitral Dhadesugur Hediganal Kengal Mukunda Pulmeswardinni Salgunda Singapur Uppal 17
24 18 5. DISASTER HISTORY OF RAICHUR Walabellary Raichur Taluk Bichali Bullapur Chikmanchali Gangavar Gudrubeli Kataknoor Kothigudda N.Malkapur Thalmari Tungabhadra Table 5.2: Villages affected by Tungabhadra River 5.3 Raichur Disaster History Raichur is prone to natural as well as man-made disasters. During rainy season, TungaBhadra and Krishna, rivers its tributaries in the district may pose threat of floods. Things get worse as the flood devastates the crops in the affected area and is also a source of epidemics. The photos below illustrate the flood scenes in the district,
25 5.3. RAICHUR DISASTER HISTORY 19 The district had never experienced any earthquake expect minor tremors from time to time. Since the district falls under seismic zone II and III, i.e., less risk to moderate risk zones, the possibility & can never be ruled out as it can happen any time.
26 20 5. DISASTER HISTORY OF RAICHUR Drought may occur due to want of rain at proper time. Or sometimes heavy rainfall may damage the crops. Cyclonic effect in the eastern coast and Bay of Bengal may cause excessive rainfall which would result in crop damage and other loss. Fire accidents and incidents such as strikes, burning of vehicles are frequently happening in the district particularly fire accident occurs during the summer season Occurrence of Disasters in the past Disasters Earthquake Floods Yes Yes Yes Yes Cyclones Droughts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Epidemics Industrial accidents Fire Yes Road/rail accidents Boat capsize Mine accidents Heat/cold wave Avalanches Building collapse Bomb blasts Pests River bank erosion Table 5.3: Disaster ocurrenance in the past 5.4 Actions for various Types of Disasters Flood Floods cause extensive damage to human, animal and plant life. Floods result in rendering many people homeless leading to devastation and total chaos to lack of communication and means of transportation. Certain advance measures are taken to prevent extensive damages caused by floods. Embankments Flood ways and diversions of rivers Protection of river banks Community-cum-shelter buildings It is imperative that rescue and evaluation operations are taken up by the district administration without any loss of time. People living in low-lying areas are forewarned to evacuate the place and are shifted to a safe environment. Relief centres are to be set up to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter and water to the persons shifted. For shifting people and animals rafts and boats are to be kept ready and services of ex-service men and sports persons who are good swimmers are employed for relief measures. Members of the flood relief committee will work in accordance with the action plan and press into service the NGOs and other youth who are trained to meet the exigency.
27 5.5. MITIGATION PLAN 21 At the village level, the panchayat members and the volunteers are requested to identify members of the families especially children and ensure that evacuation is done in-groups, which will make the task re-location easier. Adequate stock of food grains, rafts, boats and other equipment for shifting affected persons and animals. Alternate shelters for communities headed by coordinator to ensure that proper medical facilities are provided to the affected families. In case of deaths, proper documentation to be done after identifying the deceased and necessary steps taken to dispose the corpse to prevent health hazards. NGOs and other volunteers to set up kitchens in the shelters for providing food to the evacuees. Necessary food grains to be provided by the district administration. Adequate quantity of drinking water to be supplied by the local administration to the evacuees and where necessary transport facilities be provided for providing water. Each relief centre to be provided with adequate number of trained personnel from health department. Temporary health centres to be set up with sufficient quantity of medicines and beds. Local doctors from the nearby towns to be requisitioned to attend to emergencies. Core committee members to set up relief centres in each village and work round the clock to co-ordinate with the medical team and relief workers. Wireless communication is to be kept functioning round the clock all core committee members to be provided with wireless handsets for co-ordination. 5.5 Mitigation Plan All the Tahsildars have been inspired and instructed to form groups of Village Accountants, Revenue Inspectors, Deputy Tahsildars, wherever nodal officers are available and to identify the vulnerable areas and also to plan for the local publicity at the time of such incidents. The taluk level officers like Executive Officer, Asst. Executive Engineers, Block Educational Officers and all other departments are also asked to be in our team to provide necessary help to provide shelter, food, repairs of roads, culverts, etc., wherever required. Karnataka Electricity Board [ GESCOM] Staff, Medical Staff and Municipality or Panchayath Staff have been asked to extend their services, within their limits. Almost all the social workers, NGOs and the likeminded people have been asked to provide their services in times of need. All the officers are being kept in touch with the DDMA Heads, both in taluk and district level. Police, Home guards are being kept on high alert especially in project areas and on river banks. Police Officers, Home guards and Revenue Department officials were alerted to identify the vulnerable plans along the Thungbadra and Krishna river banks, flood hit areas especially in Sindhanur, Raichur, Manvi and Devdurg taluks. And also to identify the places where rehabilitation camps are to be opened, facilities to provide drinking water, food providing facility and areas available resources are to be identified. Medical facilities, NGO assistance, maintenance of cattle, open space for all their activities are also to be kept in mind in identifying the mitigation plan. The slum areas, the people living in low lying areas, backwater level areas were kept in mind, and high alert and wide publicity arrangements were also made.
28 22 5. DISASTER HISTORY OF RAICHUR 5.6 Response Plan Officers of all the departments should have weekly meeting to discuss with the inter departmental plans to share with each other and also to find suitable solutions to the difficulties that they are faced in the field level. Local engineers of PWD, PRED, should be asked to be in red alert to assess the damage and to immediately repair/ make alternate arrangements in their area without waiting for procedural aspects. Logistics arrangements for rescue operation should be discussed, including animal care, management / disposal of the deceased and salvaging should be discussed. 5.7 Recovery and Reconstruction Plan Municipal authorities, Gram Panchayath, Town Panchayath Officials should be instructed to identify and keep an eye view of buildings and alert the owners to take precaution/ care of such weak buildings, to repair damaged to drainage works and to identify the risk oriented infrastructure. All the PWD, PRED officers should be asked to be on high alert. 5.8 Standard Operating Procedures and Checklists Information team should be on high alert in Deputy Commissioners office to assist all around 24 hours. Search and rescue teams, Emergency Health Management Team, Relief Team (food, feed, fodder and civil supplies), transportation management Team, etc., should be formed and headed by the efficient officers as per the evaluation of situation. Nodal Officers should be authorized to release the funds to the victims at their level only, to save time, assess the needy and to overcome the situation. This process should give courage and leadership to the officers to face the situation at their work spot. Periodical meetings to be held to assess the situation and to keep on high alert. Media and information officers should be in touch with the DDMA to highlight the various information from public to DDMA and from national and international organizations. It is urged that Manvi and Raichur taluks require two boats to each of the taluks and machine drive launch for Sindnur taluk, which may save time, money and life at large. Skilled and well trained teams may be deployed to handle the operations Drought Identification of drought-prone villages and taluks should be done and contingent plans should be worked out to meet any unforeseen situation. The following steps should be taken on a regular basis by the District Administration and Panchayat Offices to combat the menace of drought. Digging of bore wells. Providing hand pumps and motor pumps wherever required.
29 5.8. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES AND CHECKLISTS 23 Repair of existing hand pumps and motor pumps. Digging of wells. De-silting of wells, tank beds. Providing pipelines for supply of water. Providing water to problems areas through water tankers and other means. Providing water storage facilities at all block levels. Since water contamination and water borne diseases can cause health hazards precautions should be taken to ensure that drinking water is properly purified before consumption. The District Health officials and the ZP Department should monitor supply of drinking water and ensure that there is no scope for water contamination. Since drought has a cyclic effect there is a drain on resources such as food, water, employment, etc. As there is inadequate soil moisture, there is shortage of food and fodder. The focus during drought would be on the following vital areas: Water conservation. Supply of essential commodities. Employment generation. Early warning systems. Health care. Water supply to remote areas by tankers etc. Emphasis on the poorer classes of society. Priority to drinking water over irrigation. Training to NGOs Volunteers and youth. The following Action Plan has been formulated by the District Administration to deal with the situation of drought. Contingency plan prepared in co-ordination with the Water Supply Department, ZP, TP, Municipal Corporations, Irrigation Department and Health Department to ensure availability of adequate quantity of drinking water. Food: Department of Food and Civil Supplies is in readiness to face any situation of drought and has maintained stock register of availability of food grains. Health: Department of Health has trained personnel on its rolls to deal with situation of drought and forms an important organ of the Core Committee. Fodder: An adequate step taken to ensure that fodder for cattle is stored in case of impending drought. Veterinary Facilities: Veterinary Department has been instructed to store adequate stock of medicines to save lives of cattle and live stock.
30 24 5. DISASTER HISTORY OF RAICHUR Earthquakes Since, earthquakes strike without forewarning and generally any measurement on the Richter scale is usually a postoperative measure, prevention of calamities in respect of earthquakes is imperative. The main hurdles as regards planning are as follows: Structural planning of individual buildings. Communication lines. Electricity and water supply. Health hazards. Loss of life, property and employment. Preventive steps are required in the following areas, Public structures. Dams. Roads. Maintenance of health and prevention of epidemic diseases. Since earthquakes are natural calamities, dissemination of proper information, awareness, stocking of proper machinery and equipment are the prerequisites to tackle such a situation, Public to be educated to remain calm and not to panic. Not to enter or exit from buildings when tremors are felt. If indoors, take protection/shelter under a heavy object, which can sustain weight of heavy objects. Ex. A heavy desk, a study table, a strong cot etc. Protect the head with covering such as books, pillows, blankets etc. If outdoors to stay away from buildings, walls, trees, etc. as they are likely to collapse or get uprooted. Ifdriving, itissafetostayinsidethevehicle, asitislikelytoprovideprotection from falling objects. The following points summarize the action plan when an earthquake occurs, Inform the core committee members to swing into action. Summon the fire brigade. Inform Road Transport Authorities to stop movement of vehicle. Mobilize volunteers, youth, sportsmen, social service workers, Exservicemen, Medical personal.
31 5.8. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES AND CHECKLISTS Biological disasters, epidemic, food poisoning Disasters caused by living organisms such as bacteria, virus, fungus, etc. are termed as biological disasters. These organisms may cause epidemics. As shown in the above table, most of the outbreaks/epidemics reported in India are due to water-borne diseases, vector-borne diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. While National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme (NVBDCP) is the key programme for prevention/ control of outbreak of epidemics of malaria, dengue, chikungunya etc, vaccines administered under UIP/EPI reduce the morbidity and mortality due to diseases like measles, diphtheria, pertussis, poliomyelitis etc. Availability of safe water and adoption of personal and domestic hygienic practices are important measures to prevent/control epidemics of water-borne diseases like cholera, viral hepatitis etc. Since epidemics are major health hazards it is necessary to have trained persons to handle disasters of such nature. Proper training in first aid, hygiene and treatment is essential to deal with biological disasters. To effectively treat cases of epidemics public awareness and education, before and after the epidemic, is vital. Studies have related that the following are major problems faced before and during the outbreak of epidemics. Inadequate medical and health facilities. Inadequate supply of pure water. Lack of medical and health assistance. Absence of effective control of common diseases. Unsanitary conditions. Malnutrition. Steps for effectively tackling biological disasters, Setting up emergency health service. Preparing a contingency plan. Training of personnel to deal with such emergencies. Awareness camps for epidemic prone areas. Local health authorities have been instructed to be in preparedness with medicines and other infrastructure to deal effectively with outbreak of any epidemic in the district. Food poisoning is a phenomenon where a large number of people could get affected after consuming contaminated food. This happens mostly during religious and social functions during which food is prepared in make shift kitchen on mass scale. This calls for immediate action by the district administration to provide medical attention, identify the source of poisoning and take corrective actions.
32 26 5. DISASTER HISTORY OF RAICHUR Livestock population in largely comprises of cattle, Buffaloes, Sheep rearing being a traditional activity is taken up by shepherds, which is mostly migratory in nature. The health coverage and breeding programmer are being extended through 135 Veterinary Institutions located throughout the district. In the event of an outbreak of cattle diseases like foot and mouth disease, large population of cattle can get affected. Such emergencies will require help of veterinary doctors and possible disposal of large quantity of milk, milk products and meat Accidents Road Accident is a major killer and takes place without warning. Rate on road accidents indicate that 70% of road accidents are from drivers negligence. Some other reasons are poor road condition, heavy traffic and poor vehicle maintenance. Possible impacts of accident to individuals are loss of life, Trauma Care and burns. To mitigate the road accidents, the following guidelines should be followed, 1. The provisions of Motor Vehicles Act and other related legislations and regulations are to be strictly enforced. 2. Adequate Highway and traffic Aid post will be created. 3. Trauma Care Centers shall be established at every 100 kms. on the State Highway. 4. Speed monitoring equipments and computerization of movement of vehicles with adequate checkpoints on the National Highway will be introduced. 5. Fixation of timings to the passenger vehicles to avoid and traffic fan. Identify and designate routes and fixing the time for transportation of hazardous chemicals and other materials. 6. Prohibition of parking of vehicles on National Highway and State Highway. 7. Excavation on roads will be protected well particularly in the night with barricades fluorescent signs and red lights. 8. PWD and National Highway department should concentrate on removal of bottlenecks on National and State Highway. 9. Efforts should be made to provide road dividers on National and State Highway on priority basis. 10. Arrangements should be made adequate embankments/reflector/proper signs on curves. 11. Arrangements should be made information signs boards giving the local of the nearest village Police Station, Hospital, Ghat Traffic Position, Petrol pump, etc. at every traffic aid post. 12. All two-wheeler drivers including pillion riders must always wear the right kind of helmet.
33 5.8. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES AND CHECKLISTS Overtaking in vehicles is regulated. 14. Frequently accidents occurring spots should be identified and precautionary measures will be taken. 15. Lanes should be marked for pedestrians/cyclists. Since accidents general result in injuries, burns or loss of life providing emergency medical facilities is of utmost importance. Relief teams comprising medical personnel and transport authorities have to be rushed to the spot to provide first aid and to shift the injured to the nearest hospital. Upon arrival at the accident spot the team should immediately provide first aid to the victims and look for persons trapped inside the vehicle. Assistance of the local police should be sought to disperse any crowds that may hinder effective relief measures. If the magnitude of the accident is high, help of local NGOs and volunteers may be taken. In case of major building collapse the major role is to be played by the Fire Department with the assistance of the Police and Health Authorities. Shifting victims to the nearby hospital should be done after providing necessary first aid. Necessary equipment to remove debris should be kept readily available to save victims who may be buried inside. Volunteers and NGOs must be trained properly to handle such so that emergency relief is carried on smoothly. Fire disasters occur mainly due to carelessness or mischief by miscreants. Preventive measures such as avoiding storage of large quantities of combustible materials in one place, firefighting equipment in petrol filling stations, textile, plastic, paper and wood industries should be insisted upon during inspection by the concerned authorities. Personnel of the fire brigade are well equipped to handle any fire hazards and regular drills and training sessions are held.
35 6. Duties and Responsibilities of Officers The emergency responsibilities of key persons in the district are listed below. These duties and responsibilities are common to all types of major emergencies or disasters, (i.e., Natural or Manmade). The Emergency Organization Members will prepare, maintain and be guided by these during any major disaster in the district. Individuals assigned to these functions are expected to co-ordinate their actions with the Deputy Commissioner, who is the District Disaster Manager, will co-ordinate the overall action with all other agencies involved including the District Administration. It may be noted that depending on the type of emergency and also availability of staff and resources, functions of various agencies may vary. At times, each person may be required to assume additional responsibilities in addition to their normal duties. This would be the prerogative of Deputy Commissioner to assign the additional responsibilities to the members of the emergency organization. It may be necessary to develop agreements with neighboring districts or other organization if resources are not available within the district for some of these functions, Following are the duties and responsibilities of the members of the Emergency Organization. These are general in nature and applicable to all types of emergencies. 6.1 District Disaster Manager (Deputy Commissioner) Alternate: Additional Deputy Commissioner It is the responsibility of the Deputy Commissioner to prepare, maintain and keep current the District Disaster Management Plan for the prevention and minimization of injury and damage caused by a major emergency or disaster, prompt and effective response to a major emergency or disaster and emergency relief and recovery, in consonance with the District Disaster Management Plan. The responsibility also includes initiating and maintaining co-ordination and co-operation with various agencies involved and provide prompt information, decisions and infrastructure facilities as requested. He should also mobilize, direct, and co-ordinate the emergency management staffs during emergency. Following are the main functions in any emergency Declaration of emergency after confirming the magnitude of the disaster. Activate the Emergency Control Room at Deputy Commissioners office and make it functional. Co-ordinate and establish contact with all agency involved in the emergency actions. 29
36 30 6. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICERS Ensure setting up of Local Emergency Control Room close to the scene of accident or at Taluk Headquarters where the disaster has struck. Ensure actions have been initiated to contain the emergency. Have overall supervision of all the emergency relief operations. Initiate evacuation of people from affected area with the assistance of police, fire and other agencies. Depending on type of emergency, mobilize additional resources like heavy lifting gears line cranes, bulldozers for rescue and mitigation operation. Set-up safe shelters for evacuated people and ensure they are provided with food and medical attention as the need be. Monitor progress or disaster especially in case of natural disasters like cyclone or floods by getting information from various agencies involved and mobilize additional support to mitigate the effects of disaster. Keep the State Administration informed regarding the disaster and the steps taken to contain the same. Issue statement to the press(both print and electronic media) on the prevailing conditions and the steps being taken by the District Administration to mitigate effects of the disaster. Get mutual aid from neighboring districts, the major hazard industries or seek the assistance of voluntary organizations. If required, set-up mobile first aid centre or temporary health centres in the affected area or in the safe shelters. Visit the scene of the disaster to have first hand information about the rescue or mitigative operations that are being carried out. Incaseoffloods, carryoutaerialsurveyoftheaffectedareatohavepreliminary estimates of the extent of damage caused. To co-ordinate with the state government through Principal Secretary, Dept. of Labor, Govt. of Karnataka and mobilize the help of Army/Navy/Air force or other agencies as required. Call off emergency after confirming that all the actions have been taken to normalize the conditions and it is safe for people to re-enter the affected areas.
37 6.2. DISASTER MANAGER (ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER) Disaster Manager (Assistant Commissioner) Alternate: Tahsildar The concerned Assistant Commissioner is Disaster Manager and he would rush to the Local Emergency Control Room(LECR) which is set up at the taluk headquarter of the affected taluk. He would function as the link between the affected area and the District Disaster Manager based at the main ECR located in the Deputy Commissioner office at Raichur. Following are the main functions in any emergency, Set up the LECR at the concerned Taluk headquarters or at a safe place close to the scene of the disaster. Depending on the nature of emergency, co-ordinate with the various agencies at local level. Initiate the rescue operation with the help of local police, fire or other voluntary organisations and mutual aid members. Have close interaction with the Site Controller to ensure proper actions have been taken. Visit the affected area to gain first hand information of various steps being taken to mitigate the effects of the disaster. Keep the main Emergency Control Room at district head quarters informed about the developments on a regular basis and request for additional help by way of resources or specialized manpower or equipment. 6.3 Site Controller (Tahsildar of affected Taluk) Alternate: Deputy Tahsildar The Site Controller would be at the scene of the disaster or accident and would be reporting to the Disaster Manager located in the Local Emergency Control Room. He is the person who is dealing with the disaster directly in association with the various other emergency services. He would be in direct contact with the Disaster Manager based at the Local Emergency Control Room (LECR). His responsibilities vary widely depending on the type of emergency. It could be a natural disaster like flood the effects are wide spread where rescue work would be of main concern. It could be a road accident involving a tanker carrying hazardous chemical where quick action has to be taken to arrest the leakage, if any, followed by evacuation of people if required. Following are the main functions in any emergency, Take measures to mitigate the emergency in association with various emergency services like fire and police. Keep in constant touch with the Local Emergency Control Room at taluk headquarters with available means of communication and keep Disaster Manager informed about the developments on regular basis.
38 32 6. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICERS Request for additional help like specialized manpower or equipment to effectively handle the emergency. Rescue and evacuate the people from affected area and shift them to safe shelters. Ensure setting up of safe shelters with basic amenities for food sanitation. Mobilize medical professional with the help of ECR or LECR and ensure the affected persons are given medical attentions. Arrange to shift the injured or sick to specialized hospitals if need be. 6.4 Law and Order Function (Superintendent of Police) Alternate: Sub-divisional Police Officer (SDPO) The police are the first agency to reach the site during any emergency. The local police should initiate the emergency action even before the declaration of emergency and setting up of the ECR at Deputy Commissioner Office, Raichur. Even though the main function of the Police is to maintain law and order, it is observed that most of the rescue and relief operation is initiated by the police before arrival of full-fledged rescue teams. Following are the main functions of the Police (at various) levels in any emergency, After receiving instructions from Deputy Commissioner, the Superintendent of Police will rush to the ECR and establish contact with the local police station. He would then direct implementation of the action plan through the police station nearest to the scene of disaster. Depending on the type of disaster, ensure cordoning off the affected area by the local police. Mobilize additional police force from various sources depending on the requirement. Ensure co-ordination with various police and other agencies involved in handling the disaster. If necessary mobilize the home guards. 6.5 SDPO of the concerned Sub Division The SDPO of the sub-division where the disaster has struck would get in touch with the nearest police station and ensure the police team is rushed to the scene of the emergency. The SDPO s main function would be to act as link between scene of the accident and the Emergency Control Room at Raichur.
39 6.6. CIRCLE INSPECTOR 33 On receiving information from the Emergency Control Room, he would rush to the site, assess the situation, obtain first hand information, take control of the overall situation. Alert district administration to mobilize Reserve Police personnel for deployment for traffic regulations, supervision of evacuation and security duties. Alert area District Commandant of Home Guards to mobilize home guards, as necessary (and keep the SP informed). Arrange for necessary transportation vehicles for rescue operation in consultation with RTO. Arrange for necessary ambulances and other medical facilities for the affected persons in co-ordination with various government and non-governmental agencies. Arrange for removal of the dead bodies, identifications and proper preservation. Prepare list of missing persons and take immediate steps to trace them. Communicate the information to other agencies through police control room. Keep in constant touch with ECR to ascertain latest status and intimate police personnel with up to date information regarding response actions and further instructions. Arrange for relief to policemen handling the emergency situation. 6.6 Circle Inspector The Circle Inspector of the concerned area would also rush to the scene of the accident and direct the various operations like maintaining law and order, barricading and diversion of traffic away from the scene of accident. His main functions would include, Maintain direct contact with the local police station through the police mobile van. Keep monitoring the progress of various mitigative and rescue measures being undertaken. Ensure police personnel are given updated information for announcement during the emergency. Mobilize government and private buses through RTO for evacuation. Ensure that the bus/vehicle drivers are properly instructed regarding areas to be visited and routes to be taken during evacuation.
40 34 6. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICERS Ensure security duty personnel are at their posts and that only authorized personnel/vehicles are allowed to enter the emergency/affected area with proper identity cards. 6.7 Police Inspector of nearest Police Station The local police station plays an important role during any industrial disaster in the industrial area as well as during any road accident in the district involving a tanker carrying hazardous chemicals. Divert traffic away from the scene of accident on major roads. Set up barricades and regulate crowd in affected area. Warn and advice people about emergency using vehicle mounted with Public Address system in the affected area. Evacuate people and livestock in affected areas using rescue routes identified in advance (depending on wind direction in case of gas leak), Provide relief to victims till arrival of rescue team. Maintenance of law and order at the scene of emergency and prevention of anti social elements from taking advantage of the situation. Ensure law and order and maintain security in evacuated areas. Assist in rendering first aid medical help to those in need, Ensure police personnel on emergency duty receive proper briefing about possible hazardous effects and are provided with personal protective equipment. 6.8 Traffic Police Depending on the type of disaster, the traffic police would take control of the traffic movement in the district. During a natural disaster like cyclone or floods the roads may be cut off for a longer period and hence traffic police play a very important role in handling any such emergencies. Their duties would include Stop traffic approaching the affected area and advise the crew regarding the impending danger. Ensure tankers containing hazardous chemicals are parked in safe places. Check for alternate routes and divert the traffic in a controlled manner to prevent congestion in diversions. Keep close liaison with other police agencies and assist in crowd control around the affected area.
41 6.9. FACTORY INSPECTORATE(DY. CHIEF INSPECTOR OF FACTORIES)35 Make way for emergency and relief vehicles on priority basis. Monitor the condition of the blocked road and resume normal traffic only when the affected area is declared safe. 6.9 Factory Inspectorate (Dy. Chief Inspector of Factories) Alternate: Senior Inspector of Factories Factory Inspectorate plays an important role during any industrial and transportation disaster in which there is large-scale release of hazardous chemicals. In case of such disaster, the Dy. Chief Inspector of Factories or Sr. Inspector of Factories would position themselves in the ECR and help the District Administration by providing expert advice for minimizing the effect of such a disaster. The main functions are, Ensure the on-site emergency management plan of the affected industry (in case of an industrial disaster) has been activated and the mitigative measures are taken to safeguard the people present in the premises. Visit the site of accident to ensure proper measures are taken to control the situation. Speed up help from mutual aid members, if required to contain the emergency. Mobilize the technical experts for advice if required. Inspect the area along with the tech. Co-coordinators and report to Deputy Commissioner for giving all clear signals Fire Fighting Function (Divisional Fire Officer) Alternate: Station Fire Officer The Divisional fire Officer/Station Officer will place himself in the main Emergency Control Centre and maintain continuous contact on VHF with the Station Officer at the site. Depending on the need, the Divisional Fire Officer will place himself at the site and maintain contact with the Deputy Commissioner in the Main Emergency Control Centre. The Station Officer/ Sub-Officer/Asst. Sub-Officer of the fire station closest to the scene of disaster will direct fire-fighting operations at the site and keep the Divisional fire officer/station officer informed of the developments at the site. The main fire fighting functions are, Initiate rescue and fire fighting operation with available means. Ensure that all fire fighters use proper personnel protective equipment while fighting a fire or controlling gas leak.
42 36 6. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICERS Help the District Administration in evacuation of people from affected zones using escape routes decided in advance depending on the wind direction. Continuously evaluate the situation and decide the necessity to call in additional Fire Engines from neighboring taluks/district. Mobilize the services of the home guards for firefighting through the police. He will advice the Deputy Commissioner on the extent of evacuation necessary. Preserve valuable evidences, which may be useful for investigation later on. Ensure availability of water and make arrangement for private water tanker carriers. When the emergency is over, carry out joint inspection of affected areas along with site controller and Technical experts to ensure the emergency is under control. Send the message of SAFE to DC/SP etc to enable him to officially call off the emergency Civil Defence Function - Home Guards (District Commandant) Alternate: Dy. District Commandant District Commandant/Dy. Commandant will position themselves in the Emergency Control Room and assist the District Administration in mitigating the emergency. They would be continuously in contact with the field officer/units. The main functions of home guards are, Assist the Police or Fire personnel in carrying out their duties. Carry out rescue and evacuation operation in close association with other emergency agencies. Evacuated areas would need to be guarded against looting Public Works/highway Function (Superintendent Engineer) Alternate: Executive Engineer Depending on type and location of the disaster, the in-charge of the PWD/Highway or Irrigation department representatives would make themselves available at the ECR and maintain close contact with their engineers who would be at the scene of the disaster. The main functions of SE are,
43 6.13. TRANSPORTATION FUNCTION (RTO) 37 Help the police to divert traffic away from the scene of accident along all the major roads. Ensure diversion routes are in good condition and traffic does not get jammed. Exhibit proper diversion signs conspicuously at suitable places. Provide the mobile crane/heavy earthmoving equipment for the purpose of salvage operation. Provide necessary assistance as required and directed by Deputy Commissioner/Superintendent of Police Transportation Function (RTO) Alternate: ARTO The transportation department plays an important role during any type of disaster as it would involve large-scale evacuation of people in the affected area. RTO/ARTO would be based at ECR and assist the District Administration in mitigating the emergency. The main functions of ARTO are, Deploy required number of buses with drivers to evacuate people to safe shelters. Mobilize various earth moving equipment and other heavy machinery from different sources required for rescue operation. Provide mobile workshop if required for urgent repairs/breakdown. Provide assistance as required and directed by Superintendent of Police/Deputy Commissioner Health Function (District Health Officer) Alternate: Assistant Health Officer The DHO/AHO would be based in the ECR and assist District Administration in ensuring prompt health care to all affected people through their network in affected areas. The main functions of DHO are, On receiving the information about the emergency DHO will mobilize all the available medical & paramedical Staff for handling emergency. Rush medical teams from the nearby hospitals to the scene of the disaster or safe shelters nearby. Set up first aid centre at the affected area and rescue shelters.
44 38 6. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICERS Mobilize all the available ambulances and assist in shifting the injured/affected persons requiring the additional attention to hospitals. Alert all government & private hospitals to meet any emergency and line of treatment to be followed. Alert blood banks to maximize their stock. Set up temporary emergency wards with medical facilities to receive the affected victims. Inform all the doctors/para-medicals regarding the nature of emergency as per themessagereceivedfromtheecrandalsoinformaboutthelineoftreatment to be followed. Ensure sufficient stock of drugs and other medical facilities are available. Keep in touch with the district Emergency Control Room and Deputy Commissioner and appraise him of the situation and advice him on additional help required from outside agencies Welfare Function (Dy. Director, Food and Civil Supply) Alternate: Assistant Director, Food and civil Supply The DFO/AFO would be based in the Emergency Control Room and assist the District Administration in running the safe shelters and relief centres set up during the disaster. The main functions of DFO/AFO are, Will be overall in-charge or Relief and Rehabilitation activities. Identify the rehabilitation centre in advance and establish them in shortest possible time. Arrange for orderly transportation of population from the emergency zone and adjacent villages in case evacuation has been ordered by Deputy Commissioner. Co-ordinate with the other departments connected with relief measures. Provide basic amenities such as food, drinking water and sanitation at the rehabilitation centres. Distribute food packets at the affected areas to the people, emergency services agencies such as police, fire fighting personnel and others. Exercise any other powers to seek any assistance from the local authorities in achieving this objective. Establish contact with the voluntary organization for assistance.
45 6.16. INFORMATION FUNCTION (DISTRICT INFORMATION OFFICER) 39 To ensure that necessary arrangements are made for the orderly return of all villagers to their respective places once the Deputy Commissioner informs about the termination of the emergency Information Function (District Information Officer) Alternate: Assistant Information Officer The District Information Officer would be based in the Emergency Control Room during any disaster and assist the district authorities in smooth operation. The main functions of DIO are, Upon receiving the information from District Administration, the information officer should co-ordinate with media for giving information regarding emergency. Co-ordinate with the affected victims families for giving information of their dear ones if missing/dead/injured Pollution Control Function (Dy. Environment Officer) Alternate: Assistant Dy. Environment Officer The representative of the Pollution Control Board would be based in the Emergency Control Room during any disaster and ensure the environmental damage is kept minimum. The main functions of PCB are, Mobilize all possible resources at his disposal and keep the laboratory functioning for analysis of pollutants and emissions. Rush the team to the affected area for collection of samples and analyze the same. Keep the Emergency Control Room informed about the possible effect on human life as well as environment and corrective actions taken to minimize the same Officer I/C Communication 1. Will report to the Control Room within 30 Minutes and get the complete briefing from the Deputy Commissioner, C.E.O. ZP., Superintendent of Police of the emergency and the situation.
46 40 6. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICERS 2. Will clearly understand and collect the instructions by NDMA, SDMA and the State Govt., the same to be communicated to the Dy. Commissioner without any delay and await instructions from the Deputy Commissioner/authorities and reciprocate. 3. Will pass all the needed/asked for information to the higher echelon without any delay. 4. If needed, will pass the information to the field/concerned Officers/Teams working at the affected area. Also the details be recorded properly through the Officer I/C of Documentation 5. Will brief the incoming Officer properly of the occurrence during the tenure of his duty before handing over the duties Officer I/C Information Collection 1. Will report to the Control Room within 30 Minutes and get the complete briefing from the Deputy Commissioner, C.E.O. ZP., Superintendent of Police of the emergency and the situation. 2. Be fully familiar with the area and the various agencies from where the needed data to be collected. 3. Dams, gauge readings, water released, water flow/current, the villages to be affected, the likely extent of damage to the buildings etc., to be assessed/analyzed and the Deputy Commissioner to be appraised at regular intervals including the operations normal information. 4. Keep the DC informed and suggest on emergency issues and needed arrangements in terms of evacuation etc. Also the details be recorded properly through the Officer I/C of Documentation 5. Will brief the incoming Officer properly of the occurrence during the tenure of his duty before Handing Over the duties Officer I/C Monitoring 1. Will report to the Control Room within 30 Minutes and get the complete briefing from the Deputy Commissioner, C.E.O. ZP, Superintendent of Police of the emergency and the situation. 2. Be familiar with the area and authorities to be contacted for various issues. 3. Understand/ analyze the demand and supply to the affected area.
47 6.21. OFFICER I/C CO-ORDINATION The flow of men and material from/to the affected area to be constantly monitored and the information to be appraised to the DC. Collect the info of received material/men, delivery and supply of men and material. Available stocks at various places/levels. Also the details be recorded properly through the Officer I/C Documentation 5. Will brief the incoming Officer properly of the occurrence/pending issues due actions during the tenure of his duty before handing over the duties Officer I/C Co-Ordination 1. Will report to the Control Room within 30 Minutes and get the complete briefing from the Deputy Commissioner, C.E.O. ZP, Superintendent of Police of the emergency and the situation 2. Familiarize quickly with the situation and keep the Dist Level/Taluk level Field staff, Officials, Volunteers, NGOs contact details like names, addresses, Contact numbers etc. 3. Take instructions from the DC SP CEO to and from the field, organize links to run the operations smoothly and peacefully. 4. Be resourceful and coordinate between the supplying agency and the disbursing teams for smooth and effective operations. 5. Will brief the incoming officer properly of the occurrence/pending issues due actions during the tenure of his duty before Handing Over the duties Officer I/C Documentation/Record keeping 1. Will report to the Control Room within 30 Minutes and get the complete briefing from the Deputy Commissioner, C.E.O. ZP, Superintendent of Police of the emergency and the situation 2. Be familiar with the procedures and methods for quickly logging and recording all the occurrences and relevant information accurately into soft / hard copies as needed. 3. Log/Record all the occurrences/instructions/flow of information/methods applied to effectively mitigate/time of actions taken etc in simple understandable language for future reference. 4. Check and recheck that the information saved/stored at the specified place, will brief the incoming Officer properly of the occurrence/pending issues due actions during the tenure of his duty before Handing Over the duties. Monitoring/Info Collection/Communication informed of the saved/stored location. 5. Will brief the incoming Officer properly of the occurrence/pending issues due actions during the tenure of his duty before handing over the duties.
49 7. Agencies Involved in Disaster Management The Deputy Commissioner has the over all responsibility in handling any disaster in the district and is assisted by his team as described above. However, during any disaster, many activities have to be carried out at a short notice. Hence, the Deputy Commissioner needs to be ably assisted by other departments in the District. Keeping this in view, a District Crisis Management Group has been formed under the provisions of Environment Protection Act 1986 & Chemical Accidents-Emergency Planning Preparedness and Response. The District Crisis Management Group for Raichur comprises of members from various government departments, major industries and institutions in the district. The members of District Crisis Management Group are as follows, Deputy Commissioner, Chairman Head Quarters Assistant to Deputy Commissioner, Emergency Officer Raichur Superintendent of Police, Raichur Member District Commandant, Home guards and Civil Defence, Member Raichur District Fire Officer, Raichur Member District Health Officer, Raichur Member Deputy Chief Controller of Explosives, Raichur Member Regional Environmental Officer, Raichur Member Commissioner, CMC, Raichur Member Regional transport Officer, Raichur Member Executive Engineer, Public Health Engg. Dept, Raichur Member Information and Publicity Officer, Raichur Member Joint Director of Agriculture, Raichur Member Trade Union Leader, Raichur Member Senior Inspector of Factories, Raichur Member Secretary Deputy Director, Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Services, Member Raichur In addition to the above the following authorities have been included as permanent invitees, 1. Assistant Commissioner, Raichur 2. District Surgeon, RIMS Hospital, Raichur. 3. Executive Engineer, State Highways, Raichur. 4. Superintendent Engineer, PWD, Raichur. 43
50 44 7. AGENCIES INVOLVED IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT 5. Superintendent Engineer, GESCOM, Raichur. 6. All the Tahsildars of the District. 7. All the Dy. SPs and CPIs in the District. 8. All the SI of Police Department During any disaster, apart from the above member agencies, help may need to be mobilized from a number of non-governmental agencies like voluntary organizations, social service organizations private hospitals and private transport operators. The departments and agencies, which will be involved in execution of the Disaster Management Plan are, 1. DC office/ac offices/taluk offices and Zilla Panchayat. 2. Police Department. 3. Inspectorate of Factories. 4. District Fire Services. 5. Home Guard (Civil Defence Services) 6. Health Department. 7. Public Works Department. 8. Irrigation Department. 9. Food Department. 10. Drug Controller. 11. Meteorological Department. 12. ZP Engineering Departments. 13. Transport Department. 14. Voluntary & Social organizations.
51 8. Do s and Don ts for Disasters 8.1 Floods Preparedness Find out if your home, school, workplace, or other frequently visited places are in flood prone areas. Prepare an evacuation plan: Identify safe places(high places inside and outside the house) and evacuation routes. Prepare an emergency kit. During a flood alert Keep watch on weather and listen to radio or TV. Remain awake during nights of heavy continuous rain and be ready to move to a safer location. Put some food and clean water as well as valuable items in the highest possible place. Put dangerous goods (e.g. chemicals) in a safe place. Keep alert about the community warning systems: loudspeakers, bells, sirens. During the Flood Be calm and listen to elders, experienced persons and authorities. Remind adults to turn off main water, electricity and gas. If your house is in danger move out to an identified safe shelter in the area. Take your emergency kit with you. Keep windows open once you evacuate from your house. Avoid wading even in shallow waters as it may be contaminated. If you must enter, wear appropriate shoes and use a stick to know the water level before moving ahead. Do not play or swim in flood waters. Do not eat food which has been in contact with the flood water or stale food. 45
52 46 8. DO S AND DON TS FOR DISASTERS Collect rain water until you get fresh water supplies. Boil all water before drinking it. Beware of poisonous reptiles such as snakes, spiders which may move into drier areas in your premises. Help to rescue the victims, if any. After the Flood Return home only once you are told that it is safe. Clean and disinfect your home and surrounding. Do not go sightseeing through flooded areas. Drink boiled water until the water wells/ supplies have been declared safe. Watch out for wild animals and poisonous snakes that may come with the water. 8.2 Landslide Listen to weather forecast on the radio, TV etc. about heavy rains. Observe unusual signs such as appearance of cracks and their rapid expansion over the slope. Move away and inform elders/responsible persons when such signs are recognized. Never go closer to observe cracks on the slope. Remain awake during nights of heavy continuous rain and be ready to move to a safer location. Listen for abnormal sounds of soil and rock movement or breaking of trees. They may be associated with landslide movements. Prepare safe water facilities (covered with a lid). Prepare first aid facilities. During In case you have to evacuate, do so immediately. Do not try to collect belongings. Landslides can occur suddenly. When you see falling rocks, seek cover behind trees and other solid objects. Landslides, as a result of ground shaking, can create a large volume of mud flow along the slope into the valley. Therefore, do not move in the direction of the valley if you are requested to evacuate, move to elevated areas.
53 8.3. CYCLONE 47 If its not possible to escape, seek shelter, curl into a tight ball and protect your head. After Remember: One slide can follow another. Be careful and stay in a safe place. Help people who need help. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Do not go through the loose and new deposits of debris. You might sink in or cause more sliding. Do not enter the area or damaged buildings without permission from the authorities. 8.3 Cyclone Before Keep watch on weather and listen to radio or TV. Keep alert about the community warning systems - loudspeakers, bells, sirens Prepare an emergency kit Trim dry tree branches, cut off the dead trees, and clear away anything outside that may start flying and cause injury or damage during extreme wind Put tape across large windows to prevent them from shattering Store enough food for 4-5 days. Preferably bread and biscuits as no preparation is required Store enough water for about 2-3 days in clean containers. The minimum requirement for a person per day is half a gallon During Close all the windows and keep one window open on the side of the house away from the wind. It will reduce the pressure on the roof Stay inside the house or shelter Stay away from doors or windows Stay away from metal or electrical fixtures Disconnect all electrical appliances
54 48 8. DO S AND DON TS FOR DISASTERS After Do not go outside until officially advised it is safe Listen to the radio for official warnings and advise Beware of fallen power lines, damaged bridges, buildings and trees Pay attention to all warnings and do not go sightseeing Assist others 8.4 Lightening During Seek shelter immediately: in a house or in a car. If you are inside Disconnect electrical instruments from the main power supply. Disconnect television antennas from the television sets. Do not use telephones or other electric appliances while a thunderstorm is overhead. If you are outside Avoid isolated tall trees or poles and high grounds. Avoid touching water surfaces and metal structures. Do not ride bicycles or travel by any open vehicle such as a tractor. If you are in open ground, squat low to the ground and minimise the contact by resting on the balls of your feet and putting your feet close to each other; place your hands over your ears and put your head between your knees. If you are in a forest take shelter under the shorter trees. If in an open boat keep a low profile. If you are swimming get to land and find shelter immediately. Staying inside a car is the best option.
55 8.5. EARTHQUAKE Earthquake Before Identify safe places in your house. Practice your earthquake drill: drop, cover and hold. Help your parents, elders and family members to bolt or tie cupboards and bookcases to the walls and keep heavy objects on the lower shelves so they dont fall on people. During If you are indoors, stay there and Immediately drop to the floor and take cover under a strong table or an elevated bed. Cover your head and neck with a pillow or your arm. Hold on the table or bed until the shaking stops, so that you do not go sliding. If theres no table or desk nearby, get under the doorway, hold on to the door frame and protect your head with your arm. Stay away from windows, bookcases, almairahs, heavy mirrors, hanging plants, fans and other heavy objects that are not properly strapped to the building. If you are outside Go to an open area while keeping away from falling debris, sign boards, buildings, electrical wires and poles and trees. Take up the safe position Drop, Cover, Hold. After After the shaking stops, exit your home or school building and move to open areas to be prepared for aftershocks. Check yourself for injuries and get first aid if necessary. Remain calm and self assured and help others. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Do not go sightseeing. Damaged infrastructure and trees may continue to collapse.
56 50 8. DO S AND DON TS FOR DISASTERS 8.6 Tsunami Preparedness Find out if your home, school or workplace are in tsunami prone areas Identify safe routes to leave from such areas using a hazard map If you are in tsunami prone area you have to keep an emergency kit which includes all the necessities such as ID cards, certificates, medicines and other important items After Tsunami warning given Listen to the radio for more information Pay attention to the warning signs, siren sound, etc. If you are at home and hear there is a tsunami warning, alert your family Before a tsunami hits, you may feel the earth shake, or notice sudden rise or drop in the sea level Immediately go to higher ground and stay there. Move uphill, away from the beach and away from any rivers or streams During Tsunami If you cant reach high ground, then go to the top floor of a tall concrete building or climb a tall tree Do not go back to the shore after the first wave, there might be another one following If you are swept away by a tsunami, look for some help to stay float and to protect you from other dangerous floating objects If you are in a boat, stay out at sea. Do not try to come back to the shore After Tsunami Check yourself for injuries and get first aid if necessary. Help people who need help. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. When re-entering home or buildings, examine walls, floors, stair cases and windows to make sure that the building is not damaged and in danger of breaking up. Watch out for snakes and other reptiles in the flood water.
57 8.7. DROUGHT Drought Before As drought is a slow onset disaster, it gives us more time to prepare unlike in sudden disasters. Though we cannot prevent drought, we can certainly reduce its intensity and impact through individual and collective actions. What can we do? Conserve water and use it efficiently in your household, e.g. have broken pipes repaired quickly Harvest rain water at home and in school and encourage reuse of water, e.g. for watering the garden, flushing toilets Use water efficiently in your garden, e.g. mixed-crop planting, watering in the evening hours to avoid evaporation, drip irrigation Plant trees and care for them Inform family members on drought-related hazards What not to do? Do not waste water, e.g. do not leave the water tap running Do not cut trees During Minimize your water use Purify drinking water Eat fruit and vegetables, they also contain water 8.8 Fire Before Remember: Even a small match stick can create a large fire. Handle matchsticks with care. Rules for playing with fire crackers Only in open grounds and open places, never close to thatched houses and hay stacks Wear tight cotton clothes while playing fire crackers Light fireworks at arms length, turning your face away Always keep a bucket of water and sand ready
58 52 8. DO S AND DON TS FOR DISASTERS Always immerse the used fireworks like sparkles, lighted matches into a bucket of water or dry loose sand During If you are in the house Stay calm. Dont panic and dont run If the fire is small, put it out immediately: Cover it with a wet towel/ blanket/ gunny bag or pour sand on it If it seems to be a big fire, sound an alarm and alert everyone in your premises Escape first and then call for help If you have to evacuate Close all doors and windows Cover your mouth with a wet cloth Do not stop to collect belongings Crawl low and fast to escape smoke. Get Down, Get Low, Get out. Use the nearest available exit route but change towards your second option if you feel heat and smoke increasing Use staircases if you are in a high building. Dont use lifts If there is a small fire between you and the exit, then you should run quickly through Once out, stay out never go back inside If you are outside Move to an area with low fuel, such as a clearing, lake or previously burnt ground Move downhill away from the fire the most intense fire will be at the top of hills Stay low and cover your mouth and nose with a wet cloth Don t try to outrun the fire move across the front of the fire to the sides If your clothing is on fire STOP- Never run, running will make the fire worse DROP- To the floor. Cover your face with your hands
59 8.9. CHEMICAL, NUCLEAR AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE 53 ROLL- Back and forth covering your face. This will make the fire go out After Check yourself for injuries and get first aid if necessary Help people who need help. If someone was caught by fire, cool the burn with water as long as possible Donotgosightseeing. Bewareofhotspotsastheycanflareupagain. Damaged infrastructure may continue to collapse If the house is too badly damaged to live in, board up openings to discourage trespassers and arrange security patrols to protect it from burglary 8.9 Chemical, nuclear and biological warfare Chemical Weapons: - Citizens can identify such attacks by observing people who start coughing, vomiting or seizing Do s Evacuate the area immediately and dial disaster management control room for help If indoors, exit the building rapidly as possible Once outside, if you believe that you may have been exposed to toxic substance, discard you inhibition to remove your clothes, remove your clothes immediately, which may save your life Taking out your clothes can remove 80 percent of the contamination hazards Look for a nearby water tap or fountain, pool or other source of water so that you can quickly and thoroughly rinse any skin part that may have been exposed Fire brigades on arrival in area may spray water on every one affected and decontaminate Remain calm Medical attention shall be needed and first aid to be given to seriously affected people Evacuate most seriously exposed individuals
60 54 8. DO S AND DON TS FOR DISASTERS If you happen to be in open and outdoor, you may observe birds and small animals falling to the ground due to poisonous gas. You must immediately move indoors and create a physical barrier between you and toxic cloud. A building protection is preferred; however, getting inside your car will also help you Shut all doors and windows of the house and put off fans and air conditioners Try to plug flow of air or wind to you rooms Stay indoors Listen to Radio, TV News and Announcements Authority will notify you when it is safe to come out Have a bath immediately on entry to the house and keep your cloth in a plastic bag, it will help remove any contamination that might have occurred before you were able to get indoors. It may be done in period of less than a minute or one minute You may like to keep gas, mask handy 8.10 Biological Weapons Biological Weapons have been described as the poor mans atom bomb. These viruses could be spread through water and food. Some of the suggested points for use of common people are. Do s On hearing report of that, biological agents have been released, stay indoors Shuts all windows and doors and turn off fans and air conditioners A gas mask can provide an excellent respiratory protection Put a physical barrier between you and agent dissemination Reach for medical help Boil your drinking water Ascertain and check your vegetable and food items
61 9. Check list for line departments 9.1 Checklist for Police (to be filled in by Officer-in-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Radio communications established with Emergency operations centre District Deputy Commissioner District control room Other police headquarters within the division provide assistance in organising emergency transport of seriously injured to medical treatment centres. Assistance in inroad-clearing operations. Overall traffic management and patrolling on all highways and other access roads to disaster site being carried out. The following roads have been identified To be made one-way To be blocked Alternative routes Transport carrying transit passengers (that is, passengers travelling through trains or buses and passing through the district), are diverted away from the disaster area. Security is being provided in, Transit camps Feeding centres Relief camps Cattle camps Affected areas Hospital and medical centres Areas to be cordoned off identified Y/N Details /Remarks 55
62 56 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS Action Taken Guards provided for supply depots such as cooperative food, stores and distribution centres Security arrangements provided for visiting VVIPs and VIPs District authorities assisted for taking necessary action against, black marketers and those found manipulating relief material. A public information centre activated Officers made available to inquire into and record of deaths, Coordination with military service personnel in the area being carried out Y/N Table 9.1: Checklist for Police Details /Remarks
63 9.2. CHECKLIST FOR PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT Checklist for Public Health Department Checklist for Hospitals (to be filled in by the Officer-In-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Radio communications established with Emergency operations centre Divisional commissioner / Magistrate District control room Hospitals Private hospitals The Civil surgeon designated as Officer-In- Charge - Heath Services. The following emergency medical equipment are stocked, Drugs used in treatment of cuts and fractures, such as tetanus toxoid, analgesics and antibiotics Drugs used for the treatment of diarrhoea, water-borne diseases and flu (including oral rehydrating supplies) Drugs required to treat burns and fight infections Drugs needed for detoxication induding breathing equipments Discharge of all ambulatory patients whose release does not pose a health risk to them. Non-ambulatory patients relocated within the hospital to safest areas Equipment supplies such as candles, matches, lanterns and extra clothing provided for the comfort of the patients Adequate supplies of anesthetic gases for surgery cases available The hospital water storage tanks were filled Y/N Details /Remarks
64 58 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS Action Taken An area of the hospital designated for receiving large number of casualties. Emergency admission Procedures developed Records maintained Work schedules to ensure availability of adequate staff Y/N Details /Remarks In-house emergency medical team to ensure that adequate staff available at all times to handle emergency casualities Emergency accommodation provided for medical personnel from outside the area Public information center established at the hospital The local police, rescue groups, and ambulance teams were made aware of the resources of each hospital Table 9.2: Checklist for Hospitals
65 9.2. CHECKLIST FOR PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT Checklist for Field Centres (to be filled in by the Officer-In-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Surgical packs assembled and sterilised Field staff aware of tagging procedures Emergency admissions Procedures developed Records maintained Work schedules to ensure that adequate staff is available Teams of doctors, nurses and dressers for visiting disaster sites set-up Transport for the transfer of seriously injured patients from villages and peripheral hospitals to general hospitals available. Health facility and treatment centres established at disaster sites. Water quality monitoring done at Transit camps Relief camps Feeding centres Sources of water Affected areas Epidemic surveillance is being done at Transit camps Relief camps Affected areas Feeding centres Y/N Details /Remarks Table 9.3: Checklist for Field Centres
66 60 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS Casualty Treatment Post at camp sites and affected Villages (to be filled In by Officer-In-Charge) Action Taken Liaise with SEC for suitable location Finalize suitable location Near water supply Clear access / egress routes Communication link with sec Close to disaster site Suitably protected against weather conditions Sufficient privacy Separate area for relatives and visitors Adequate sanitation facilities for patients Adequate sanitation facilities for staff Adequate sanitation facilities for relatives and visitors. Coordinating hospital notified First Aid facilities available Inform Police of location Whether Police personnel posted at treatment post Request for additional medical assistance sent Base hospital District control room Stocks of triage tags are available on hand Records kept on Names and addresses of casualties (As far as possible) Type of injuries (As far as possible) Whether transferred for further treatment Records communicated to Police SOC Information about intentions to close Casualty Y/N Details /Remarks
67 9.2. CHECKLIST FOR PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT 61 Action Taken Treatment Post communicated to SOC Police Y/N Details /Remarks Table 9.4: Checklist for Camp Sites Report and Checklist on Epidemics for each camp site and affected village (to be filled in by Officer-In-Charge-Health Services and submitted to district control room and the department head) Time: Name of the village: Name of the camp: An epidemic exists at the location: An active threat of epidemics does not exist at the location: Brief description of assessment of risk of epidemics in affected area/ location: Brief description of assessment of risk of epidemics in affected area/ location and reasons thereof. Services desciplines mobilised: Discipline/ Organisation Notified Time Whether mobilised Stand by Alert (Y/N) (Y/N) (Y/N) (Y/N) Contact Person Address & Tel. No. Table 9.5: Services mobilised for epidemics
68 62 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS 9.3 Checklist for epidemic situations (to be filled in by Officer-In-Charge-Health Services and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Warning and instructions to public issued Cordoning off of affected areas recommended Logistical support required Cordoning off to roads required Alternate routes to and from affected areas required Alternative communication Waste disposal system adequate Sterilisation system adequate Life saving drugs adequate Facilities for inoculation and vaccination exist Supply of inoculation and vaccination exists Accommodation for required number exists Facilities for special diet exist Risk of spread exists Isolation of affected persons done Facilities for testing water/ wastewater for contamination exist Facilities for treatment of contaminated water/ wastewater exist Suitable protection of workers ensured Y/N Table 9.6: Checklist for Epidemic Situations Details /Remarks
69 9.4. CHECKLIST FOR DISTRICT OFFICE Checklist for District Office (to be filled in by the Officer-in-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Radio communications established with Emergency Operations Centre District Deputy Commissioners District control room and Departmental offices within the division An officer appointed as Officer-in-Charge, Power Supply, Standby arrangements for temporary electric supply or generators made for Hospitals Water department DS office Police stations Telecommunications buildings Meteorological stations Transit camps SOC Feeding centres Relief camps Cattle camps Warehouses for storing relief materials Access roads Y/N Details /Remarks Each depot provided with disaster management tool kit. Inspection and repairs if needed, carried out for High tension lines Towers Substations Transformers Insulators Poles Clearing of damaged poles carried out. Salvage of conductors and insulators done. Emergency accommodations undertaken for staff from outside the area An itemized damage assessment carried out Table 9.7: Checklists for district office
70 64 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS 9.5 Checklist for Irrigation Department (to be filled in by the Officer-In-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Radio communications established with Emergency operations centre Divisional commissioner District Control room and Departmental offices within the division An officer appointed as.officer-in-charge- Irrigation Emergency tool kits for all technical assistants prepared. Water level gauges on minor tank structures not having level gauges marked. Repairs/under construction activities are well secured. Round the clock inspection and repair being carried out of Bunds of dams Irrigation channels Bridges Culverts Control gates Overflow channels as may be necessary Y/N Details /Remarks Round the clock inspection and repair being carried out of Pumps Generators Motor equipment and Station buildings Level of impounding in the tanks reduced. Coordination of this action with other districts is done. Inlet and outlet to tanks are cleared. Table 9.8: Checklist for Irrigation Department
71 9.6. CHECKLIST FOR AGRICULTURE Checklist for Agriculture (to be filled in by the Officer-In-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Communication link within the division established with District Magistrate District control room Agricultural colleges Seed banks Nurseries (private and public). The district agriculture officer designated as OFFICER-IN CHARGE - Agriculture Agricultural equipments which may be required stocked Contact established with soil and water testing laboratories. Extent of damage assessed for Soil Crop Plantation Micro-irrigation systems and Storage facilities Requirements for salvage or re-plantation assessed. Information provided to all concerned about the disasters Actions coordinated with Irrigation Department RDA Organised transport, storage and distribution of, Seeds Fertilisers Pesticides and Labour Cleaning operations carried out to avoid waterlogging and salinity. Y/N Details /Remarks
72 66 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS Action Taken Surveillance for pests and diseases being carried out. Public information center established. NGOs and other relief organisations informed of the resources of the department. Farmers assisted to reestablish their contacts with agriculture produce market. Adequate facilities provided to field teams. Y/N Table 9.9: Checklist for Agriculture Details /Remarks
73 9.7. CHECKLIST FOR FIELD ACTIVITIES OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT Checklist for Field Activities of Animal Husbandry Department (to be filled in by the Officer-In-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Radio communications established with Emergency Operations Centre District Magistrate District control room Veterinary aid centres and Hospitals(including private practitioners) within the division The District Animal Husbandry Officer designated as Officer-In-Charge-Veterinary Services. Emergency medical equipments required are stocked. All veterinary hospitals and centres staff informed about the disasters, likely damages and effects, and ways to protect life, equipment and property. Emergency electrical generator arranged. Emergency supplies of anesthetic drugs arranged. Hospital water storage tanks filled An area of the hospital prepared for receiving large number of livestock Emergency admission procedures developed (with adequate record keeping). Transfer of seriously injured livestock from villages to veterinary aid centres and hospitals organised. Established at disaster sites Cattle camps Additional veterinary aid centres. Organised for cattle camps Water Fodder and Animal feed. Adequate sanitary conditions maintained Cleaning operations being carried out Epidemiological surveillance is being undertaken Y/N Details /Remarks
74 68 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS Action Taken Emergency accommodations available for veterinary staff from outside the area. Public information center established. The local police, and rescue groups informed of the resources of each veterinary aid centres and hospital. Y/N Table 9.10: Checklist for Animal Husbandry Details /Remarks
75 9.8. CHECKLIST FOR PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT Checklist for Public Works Department (to be filled in by Officer-In-Charge and submitted to district control room and the department head) Action Taken Radio Communication established with Emergency Operations Centre District Magistrate District control room and Departmental officers within the division An officer appointed as Officer-In-Charge - PWD Extra transport vehicles dispatched from headquarters Work under construction secured Heavy equipment such as front-end loaders, have been secured All work teams issued two-way communication link Inspection and emergency repairs, if necessary, carried out for all buildings and structures of the central government (including hospital buildings) Roads Road bridges Underwater inspection of foundations and piers. Concrete and steel works. Inspection and emergency repairs, if necessary, carried out for all buildings and structures of the central government (including hospital buildings) Emergency inspection by mechanical engineer of all plant and equipment in the District workshops carried out. Emergency tool kits assembled for each division Routes strategic to evacuation and relief marked Adequate road signs installed to guide and assist the Earth moving equipments Cranes etc made available. Begin clearing roads. Y/N Details /Remarks
76 70 9. CHECK LIST FOR LINE DEPARTMENTS Action Taken Community assistance mobilised for road clearing The following activities were undertaken Cleaning of ditches Grass cutting Burning or removal of debris and Cutting of dangerous trees along the roadside in the affected area. Y/N Details /Remarks The following repair works were undertaken for All paved and unpaved road surfaces Pothole patching and Any failure of surface foundations in the affected areas. Construction work undertaken for temporary roads to serve as access to Temporary transit camps Relief camps Medical centres Construction work undertaken for temporary structures required for organising relief work such as Relief camps Feeding centres Medical facilities Cattle camps and SOC/s An up-to-date report of all damage and repairs kept in the district office report book. Table 9.11: Checklist for PWD
77 9.9. CHECKLIST FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS Checklist for Telecommunications (to be filled in by the department head and submitted to the district Deputy Commissioners before May every year) Action Taken Preparedness Measures Taken The department is familiar with disaster response plan and disaster response procedures are clearly defined. Orientation and training for disaster response plan and procedures undertaken. Special skills required during emergency operations imparted to the officials and the staff. Reviewed and updated Precautionary measures and procedures Precautions to be taken to protect equipments Post-disaster procedures to be followed. All staff are aware of recommended precautions to protect life and personal property. An officer has been designated as Nodal Officer for Disaster Management. Sources of materials required for response operations have been identified. Y/N Table 9.12: Checklist for Telecommunications Details /Remarks
79 10. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) In order to effectively respond to a disaster, it is imperative to have a clear definition of roles & responsibilities as well as well defined operating procedures for all the organizations & officers involved. Such Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) should be well understood and promptly followed to ensure effective execution of disaster management activities Functions of Assistant Commissioner 1. The Assistanct Commissioner (AC) will be the overall in charge of Rescue shelter/rallying post and parking yards. 2. The AC will ensure adequate food and clothing in co-ordination with Dy. Director, Food and Civil Supplies, Voluntary Organizations, Individual Persons as deemed necessary in his option. 3. The AC will also ensure proper medical aid (first aid as well as shifting of affected persons to hospitals, etc) in co-ordination with District Health Officer and District Drug Controller. 4. The AC will ensure adequate security and safety in co-ordination with SP (Law & Order), Raichur and Dy. SP, Raichur as the case may be. In addition to these responsibilities, the AC will assist the CEC in all other matters as the case may be Functions of Revenue Authorities 1. Activating of various NGOs/Voluntary Organizations for necessary materials. 2. Providing adequate compensation to loss of life and property. 3. Declaration of all clear signals Functions of Tahsildars 1. He will look after all the facilities required at rescue shelter/rallying post like food, clothing, medical aid, water, electricity, sanitation and other basic necessities in co-ordination with respective Government Agencies, as well as voluntary organizations. 73
80 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPS) 2. He will manage and arrange for any other requirements on need basic at that point of time in co-ordination with respective government authorities. 3. He will alert all his sub ordinates and utilize their services to manage the rescue shelter/rallying post. 4. His actions will be in concurrence from AC/DC Functions of Police Services The main function of police authorities are, To maintain law and order Regular patrolling of affected areas Establishes rescue/safe routes in advance for timely response Cordoning off the area Control of traffic Shifting of all vehicles to the parking yards To render assistance in controlling and fighting disasters, salvage operations, rendering first aid and medical help shifting of the affected to rallying posts/rescue shelters Another important function would be identification of the deceased, informing their relative, removal and disposal of dead bodies Finally, preparing the list of missing persons and take steps to trace them The police authorities will also work with NGOs and other service organizations when needed Functions of Circle Inspector (Law and Order) (For city limits) 1. The office will be overall in charge of the functions of Police Department in case of offsite emergency. He will receive the communication and instructions from CEC from time to time. 2. On receiving the information about the emergency from CEC, the officer will rush to the incident spot and oversee law and order, organize for additional requirement of men and Home Guards if required. 3. Receive information from the site in charge and divisional fire officer or his deputy available at site for appropriate and necessary rescue operation.
81 10.6. FUNCTIONS OF INDUSTRY INSPECTOR Arrange for necessary transportation of vehicles in co-ordination with RTO and in charge of parking yard for evacuation of people as well as critical cases. 5. Ensure that adequate numbers of vehicle are provided, fitted with public address system and wireless to the convoy team. 6. Arrange for necessary ambulance/medical facilities in co-ordination with District Health Officer/Deputy Director, Animal Husbandry for evacuation of people and livestock respectively. 7. In confirmation with CEC, arrange for removal of dead bodies (if any) and will pass on the information to the relatives of the decease and will ensure disposal of dead bodies after conducting postmortem in co-ordination with DHO. 8. Arrange for maintaining law and order at the site of emergency, rescue shelter parking yards, main roads leading to emergency site, etc., pass on the information to the CEC about actions on various fields Functions of Industry Inspector 1. The officer will receive information from the SP or in charge of factory and immediately rush to the site along with maximum possible personnel. He shall help fire-fighting personnel in rescue operations. 2. In view of close proximity of police station to the industrial area, take immediate control of the site and rescue operation in co-ordination with site in charge. 3. Alert all the subordinate officers coming under his jurisdiction and ensure their availability at the site of emergency to maintain Law & Order, traffic, rescue, salvaging etc., till such time the full emergency operation comes into action. 4. Ensure that the information is passed on to the superior officers and necessary instructions are received and adhered to. 5. Ensure that all the anti social elements are identified and rounded off if required Functions of Police Inspector 1. The officer will receive information from SP, Raichur. 2. He will immediately rush to the site of incident and conduct on the spot inspection. Obtain first hand information. 3. Ensure that information is passed on to the superior officers and necessary instruction are received and adhered to.
82 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPS) 4. Convey the message on the extent of leakage, extent of area affected, the ground situation, the scenario prevailing in and around the water works. 5. Ensure that, he himself and his personnel are equipped with necessary personal protective equipment. The recommended PPE are cartridge type respirators for short team exposure and the pressurized airline respirators for long term exposure. 6. Take immediate steps to inform the traffic police. 7. Alert all the sub ordinate officers and ensure their availability at the site of emergency to maintain law and order, traffic, rescue, salvaging, etc. Till such time, the full emergency operation comes into action. 8. Ensure that all the anti-social elements are identified and rounded up, if required 10.8 Function of Inspector (Traffic) 1. The SP, Traffic will be the overall in charge of traffic management who is assisted by Dy. SP, Traffic in case of offsite emergency. 2. Receive the communication of offsite emergency from CEC and disseminate the information to all the functionaries and mobilize required force and put them into action for managing various traffic points, routes, etc. 3. For each industry, separate routes are identified as normal route and emergency route. 4. Mobilize necessary police personnel/vehicles to man and control traffic on various roads identified as safe routes and also take measures to divert normal traffic away from the emergency routes identified. 5. Ensure available of adequate number of vehicles fitted with public address system/wireless etc. and directly supervise manning of routes and parking yards. 6. Initiate action to ensure adequate number of skilled drivers in consultation with RTO, KSRTC, Home guards and Truckers Association etc. 7. The SP will initiate action on his own only under exceptional circumstances; However, his action shall be communicated to his superiors and should be confirmed with CEC. 8. Any other action as deemed necessary base on the circumstances.
83 10.9. FUNCTIONS OF FIRE SERVICES Functions of Fire Services 1. The Regional Fire Office is located at Raichur. 2. The Regional Fire Officer and the Divisional Fire Officer are responsible to fight and control the fire, leakage, spillage, etc., with proper instructions and guidance. 3. Rush to the site of emergency immediate after the receipt of information from the site Controller or on emergency call. 4. Establish safe routes in advance for rushing to site and ensure best response time to minimize damage. 5. Workout advance plan for requirement of resources like fire tenders, trained personnel, protective equipment and the ways to meet extra requirements if any. 6. Assist the onsite emergency personnel in fighting emergency, rescuing injured/affected people trapped in dangerous zones and participate in salvage operation. 7. Assist medical/police personnel in imparting first aid. 8. Ensure availability of adequate water supply through KIADB authorities. 9. Maintain constant contact and communicate the message to the CEC with regard to the control measures undertaken, salvage operation, rescue methods, etc. And any other information required by the CEC on continuous basic. 10. ) Take any other appropriate actions as deemed necessary in control of emergency Functions of Police Inspector/Sub Inspector They will receive orders from the DSP and act accordingly the Police Inspector will assumethechargeofdspintheabsenceofthedsptillsuchtimethesuperiorofficer arrives at the place of accident and takes control then onwards, he will continue to receive the orders from the superior officers and act accordingly Functions of Police (Traffic) 1. The officer will be overall in charge of parking yard and for managing, controlling and arranging sufficient number of vehicles. 2. Ensure that adequate number of trucks, buses and other mode of transport vehicles are arranged for rescue operation in co-ordination with RTO.
84 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPS) 3. Ensure that adequate communication vehicles are arranged in coordination with various police authorities. 4. Motor Vehicle Inspector from RTO department will be assisting Inspector of Police (Traffic) in managing parking yards. 5. Assist the DSP, Police Inspector - Traffic in mobilizing adequate number of skilled drivers in consultation with RTO, KSRTC, Truckers Associations and Home guards etc., as the case may be Functions of Fire Station Officer The Fire Station can cater to the immediate need of the plant, but certainly not adequate to manage the emergency assumed in this document. Therefore, 1. On receipt of fire call, rush to the site of incident with all crewmembers and equipment and start fighting the fire. 2. Immediately send distress call to all other fire stations for additional reinforcement. Contacts the Divisional Fire Officer and informs him about the severity of the fire, the kind of assistance required, etc. 3. Continue to receive the necessary information from his superior officers and the DSP and adhere to the instructions. 4. Assist the police, Home guards and other Rescue Team the rescue evacuation of persons, salvage, etc. 5. Continue to be in action till such times the divisional fire officer or his deputy arrives at the place of incident and takes charge. From there onwards, he will continue to assist the officials Function of Health and Medical Services 1. District Health Officer (DHO) will be overall in charge of health and medical services to be rendered at the site of emergency or at various rescue shelters, affected places, hospitals, pathology laboratories, etc. 2. On receiving the information from CED, he will contact all Hospital Superintendents, Drug Controller, Blood Banks for mobilization of required ambulances, Doctors, Nurses, Medicines, life saving drugs, blood,* etc. 3. Rush to the site, assess the extent of severity and establish adequate (Temporary Medical Centre). Ensure hygienic conditions at the rescue shelters cum rallying posts, temporary medical centers. Take appropriate action in shifting affected persons to proper hospitals in Raichur and provide appropriate treatment.
85 FUNCTIONS OF VETERINARY SERVICE Arrange for removal of dead bodies, if any, after post-mortem and disposal of the same, in consultation with CEC and DCP. 5. Render advice to CEC on precautionary measures to be taken by public in affected sites/villages, rescue shelter cum rallying posts to prevent the outbreak of epidemic diseases. 6. If necessary, he should undergo training to handle the wireless apparatus for effective communications Functions of Veterinary Service 1. Deputy Director of Animal Husbandry will be the overall in charge for treatment of affected animals at site/hospital in co-ordination with police/voluntary organizations and revenue authorities. 2. On receiving information from CEC, he will rush to the site and activate the Temporary Medical Centre (TMC) at appropriate places in consultation with CEC. 3. Dy. Director will also co-ordinate with Assistant Commissioner, RTO, DCP, Inspector of Police (Traffic), for arranging necessary vehicles for shifting of animals, if required. 4. The officer will be provided with one Police Officer with adequate number of Police Personnel and Home guards to ensure the orderly treatment and management of the Temporary Medical Center. 5. The officer will identify the drug stores and ensure the supply of adequate and necessary drugs through the Drug Control Authorities Functions of RTO 1. The RTO will be the overall in charge for providing number of rescue vehicles like trucks, buses, cars or any other type of transportation vehicles to emergency site, rescue shelter cum rallying post etc., for transportation of human beings as well as animals. 2. Receive information from CEC and act accordingly. 3. Mobilize all possible resources is arranging transportation vehicles in coordination with KSRTC, Truckers Association, Travel Agencies, etc, also ensure availability of adequate number of skilled drivers and advise the Inspector (Traffic). 4. Workout the requirement of heavy earth moving equipment like cranes etc., and mobilizes the same in co-ordination with such agencies/parties.
86 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPS) 5. Depute adequate numbers of Motor Vehicle Inspectors for assisting Inspector of Police, Traffic (in charge of parking yard), and Rescue Shelter cum rallying post, at the site of emergency Functions of Karnataka State Pollution Control Board 1. On receiving information from CEC, the Environmental Officer will mobilize all possible resources at his disposal and keep the laboratory functioning for analysis of pollutants, emissions, etc. 2. Rush to the site, collect the samples, analyze the pollutants and the likely effect on human life/environment and inform the CEC about the same and the corrective actions to be taken to prevent further damage. 3. Act as an expert and advice the CEC about the kind of message to be disseminated to the public and press, etc, on pollution matters Function of Experts of District Crisis Group (DCG) 1. All the member of the DCG will be communicated about the emergency. 2. On receipt of emergency communication, they will immediately inform the control room about the place of their availability and simultaneously report to the CEC. 3. They will receive necessary instructions from the CEC and act accordingly. 4. They will render adequate and timely technical guidance and assist CEC and other agencies involved in the control of emergency. 5. They will also advise CEC on the message to be given to Public/Press on technical matters.
87 11. HRVA - Hazard, Risk and Vulnerability Assessment A disaster risk reduction strategy essentially includes a proper hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. It also requires resources, institutional & operational capacities and infrastructural facilities like GIS tools& software to execute them. The essential features of such a strategy would require hazard mapping, assessment of hazard risks, and determination of probability of hazard event, vulnerability & capacity assessment on various environmental, social, economic and physical aspects followed by proper risk analysis What is HRVA? The objective of undertaking a HRVA is primarily to anticipate the potential problems and possible solutions to help to save lives, protect property, assets, reduce damage and facilitate a speedy recovery. It is worthwhile to mention that HRVA is a means towards becoming disaster resilient and is not an end in itself. HRVA is a critical part of the disaster risk reduction program and it has the potential to help the necessary authorities to prepare for emergencies. Use of HRVA helps the policy makers, administrators and the community to make risk based choices to address vulnerabilities, mitigate hazards, and prepare for response to and recovery from hazard events. Apart from the central government, the state governments, district authorities, even the local level governance institutions (like municipalities and village panchayats) can undertake hazard risk and vulnerability analysis based on their respective locations vis-a-vis hazards. In order to have a common understanding of HRVA methodology, it is important to define what we mean by Hazard, Risk and Vulnerability Hazard A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards can include latent conditions that my represent future threats and can have different origins: natural (geological, hydro- meteorological and biological) and / or induced by human process (environmental degradation and technological hazards). Hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Each hazard is characterized by its location, intensity and probability. 81
88 HRVA - HAZARD, RISK AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT 11.3 Vulnerability A set of conditions and processes resulting from physical, social, economical and environmental factors, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards Positive factors, that increase the ability of people and the society they live in, to cope effectively with hazards, that increase their resilience, or that otherwise reduce their susceptibility, are considered as capacities Risk The probability of harmful consequences, or expected loss (of lives, people injured, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environmental damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human induced hazards, and vulnerable / capable conditions. Conventionally risk is expressed by the equation Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability / capacity Beyond expressing a probability of physical harm, it is crucial to appreciate that risks are always created or exist within social systems. It is important to consider the social contexts in which risks occur and that people therefore do not necessarily share the same perceptions of risk and their underlying causes Risk assessment / analysis A process to determine the nature and extent of risk by analyzing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability / capacity that could pose a potential threat or harm to people, property, livelihoods and the environment on which they depend. Theprocessofconductingariskassessmentisbasedonareviewofbothtechnical features of hazards such as their location, intensity and probability, and also the analysis of the physical, social and economic dimensions of vulnerability, while taking particular account of the coping capabilities pertinent to the risk scenarios Risk management The systematic management of administrative decisions, organization, operational skills and responsibilities to apply policies, strategies and practices for disaster risk reduction Disaster risk reduction (disaster reduction) The systematic development and application of policies, strategies and practices to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) adverse impact of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.
89 11.8. PREVENTION Prevention Activities to provide outright avoidance of the adverse impact of hazards and related environmental, technological and biological disasters. Depending on social and technical feasibility and cost/ benefit considerations, investing in preventive measures is justified in areas frequently affected by disaster. In the context of public awareness raising and education, prevention refers to attitude and behaviour leading towards a culture of prevention Mitigation Structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards, environmental degradation and technological hazards Preparedness Activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective response to the impact of disaster, including the issuance of timely and effective early warnings and the temporary removal of people and property from a threatened location Early warning The provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allow individuals at risk of a disaster, to take action to avoid or reduce their risk and prepare for effective response. Early warning systems consist of three elements (i)forecasting and prediction of impending events, (ii) processing and dissemination of warnings to political authorities and population, and (iii) undertaking appropriate reaction to warnings Vulnerability - various types Vulnerability is generally referred to as the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts of multiple stresses to which they are exposed. It isbased on the premisethat though differentgroups withinasocietymay have the same level of exposure to a natural hazard, it may have a varying consequences for each of these groups, since they have diverging capacities and abilities to handle the impacts of such a hazard. Over the years several models of vulnerability analysis has emerged. Risk-Hazard (RH) model (diagram after Turner et al., 2003), considers the impact of a hazard as a function of exposure and sensitivity. To assess vulnerability, there is a need to understand the conditions that make exposure of an individual/ community/ region unsafe, leading to vulnerability and the causes leading to creation of these conditions. Thus vulnerability assessments would require systematic examinations of population groups, building elements, facilities, or components of the economy to identify features that are susceptible to
90 HRVA - HAZARD, RISK AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT damage from the effects of natural hazards. Keeping these in mind there are four broad areas in which different types of vulnerabilities have been grouped. Physical Vulnerability Social Vulnerability Economical Vulnerability Ecological Vulnerability Physical Vulnerability Physical factors to be considered for vulnerability assessment include the variables directly or indirectly related to the location and nature of the built environment. In case of natural hazards physical factors have direct impact on the structures and further define the vulnerability of the physical structures. Physical vulnerability is determined by the aspects such as population density levels, remoteness of a settlement, the site, design and materials used for critical infrastructure and for housing. Physical features in a community, such as insufficient basic infrastructure, especially water supply and sanitation, as well as inadequate health care facilities and supplies, are also expressions of increased vulnerability. Physical factors as adopted by the BMPTC for Vulnerability Atlas of India. Type of Roof Pitched or sloping including tiles, slate; corrugated iron, zinc or other metal sheets; asbestos cement sheets; plastic polythene, thatch, grass, leaves, bamboo, etc. Flat including brick, stone and lime; reinforced brick concrete/reinforced cement concrete. Type of Wall Mud, unburnt bricks, stone laid in mud or lime mortar Burnt bricks laid in cement, lime or mud mortar Cement concrete Wood or Ekra wall Corrugated iron, zinc or other metal sheets Grass, leaves, reeds/bamboo/thatch, plastic polythene & others Type of Flooring Various types like mud, stone, concrete, wood or bamboo, mosaic floor tiles, etc. A combination of local hazard intensity and vulnerability of existing house types is used for carrying out risk analysis of the village, block and district. This index would help the village communities and house holders to develop village and district hazard maps and village &district risk tables.
91 VULNERABILITY - VARIOUS TYPES Social Vulnerability Social Vulnerability is defined as the exposure of groups of individuals to stress as a result of the impacts of hazards and related extremes. Social vulnerability is linked to the level of development in terms of human development indicators and well being of individuals, communities and society. It includes variables measuring levels of literacy, the existence of peace and security, access to basic human rights, governance, social equity, gender issues, public health, population density, livelihood activities, traditional values, legal system, traditional knowledge, social networking of relatives and friends, political system, customs and ideological beliefs and overall collective organizational systems Economic Vulnerability Economic status of households or individuals is directly related to the level of vulnerability due to natural hazards. Levels of vulnerability are highly dependent upon the economic status of individuals, communities and nations. The socially deprived groups female, children, SC, ST and minorities, are generally far more vulnerable than economically better off segments of the society. This would reduce the capacity of this group in case of natural hazards and therefore it will increase the vulnerability and risk. Economic vulnerability is function of financial accessibility of individuals and communities, debt and the degree of access to credit, loans and insurance. The vulnerable groups are having inadequate access to critical and basic socioeconomic infrastructure, including communication networks, utilities and supplies, transportation, water, sewage and health care facilities, increase peoples exposure to risk. Economic Vulnerability Index is a composition of the following indicators: population size, remoteness, merchandise export concentration, share of agriculture, forestry and fisheries in gross domestic product, homelessness owing to natural disasters, instability of agricultural production, and instability of exports of goods and services The Economic Vulnerability is linked to the following parameters, Small size, which inhibits countries from taking advantage of the economics of scale Economic openness, which means lack of control of issues managed at a global level
92 HRVA - HAZARD, RISK AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT Export concentration narrowed to a few, selected products Dependence on strategic imports, particularly energy and raw materials Insularity and remoteness, leading to high transport costs Fragility of their ecosystems, which is exacerbated by natural phenomena Ecological Vulnerability The discussion of ecological aspects of vulnerability covers a wide portfolio of issues in the inter-acting social, physical, economic and ecological aspects of sustainable development as it relates to disaster risk reduction. The key aspects of ecological vulnerability could be the extent of natural resource depletion, the state of resource degradation, loss of resilience of the ecological systems, loss of biodiversity, exposure to toxic and hazardous pollutants. The social, economic/population, physical/infrastructure and environmental/ ecological vulnerabilities are based on the development of different vulnerability indices. The variables of vulnerability analysis are divided into four major categories. These are, Environmental/Ecological Vulnerability Index Population Vulnerability Index Social Vulnerability Index Infrastructure Vulnerability Index The overall vulnerability index is a function of these vulnerability indices. This also involves prioritization by assigning weights to various indices depending upon scale and context of implementation.
93 12. Resource Personnel Directory 12.1 District-level Personnel Directory Sl. No. Designation Office Tel. No. Res. Tel. No. Fax No. 1 Deputy Commissioner, Raichur 2 C.E.O., Z.P H.Q.A Superindentent of Police A.C., Raichur A.C. Lingsugur Tahsildar, Raichur Tahsildar, Devadurga Tahsildar, Lingsugur Tahsildar, Manvi Tahsildar, Sindhnoor Commissioner, City Municial Council, Raichur 13 D.F.O J.D., Agriculture Deputy Registrar of Coop. Dept. 16 DDPI District Information Officer E.E., GESCOM E.E., PWD E.E., Z.P District Statistical Officer 22 District Youth Officer, NYK 23 D.D., Animal Husbandry R.T.O District Health Officer Minor Irrigation
94 RESOURCE PERSONNEL DIRECTORY Sl. Designation Office Tel. No. Res. Tel. No. No. 27 District Sports and Youth Service 28 District Treasury D.O., B.C.M D.S.W.O Commandant, Home Guards 32 Police Control Room Fire Brigade Ambulance 102, RIMS Hospital Red Cross 37 Railway Enquiry Bus Enquiry Table 12.1: District-level Resource Personnel Fax No Taluk/Village level Personnel Directory Location Designation Name Mobile (sorted department-wise) Agriculture Joint Director Of Agriculture Raichur Districrector, Deputy Di- Food Civil Supplies, Raichur Asst Director of Agriculture Devadurga Asst Director Taluk of Agriculture Lingsugur Asst Director Taluk of Agriculture Manvi Taluk Asst Director of Agriculture Raichur Taluk Asst Director of Agriculture Raichur Taluk Field Inspection Officer Sindhnur Asst Director Taluk of Agriculture Res., Office Phones K.Hanamanta Reddy K D Gururaj Sandeep.R.G Sri Mahadevappa Sri. Nagaraju S.M Jayaprakash T.C Sandeep R G Ramakrishnan Selvaraj Maribasanagouda.S
95 12.2. TALUK/VILLAGE LEVEL PERSONNEL DIRECTORY 89 Location Designation Name Mobile Civil Defense Commandant Home Guards Civil Defence Commandant or Home Guards Vijayananda Commandant Vijayananda Commandant Vijayanand Commercial Tax Department DDPI Devadurga Taluk Lingsugur Taluk Deputy Commissioner H.Hanumantha DC CT M Hanumanth BLOCK EDU- CATION OF- FICER BLOCK EDU- CATION OF- FICER Manvi Taluk BLOCK EDU- CATION OF- FICER Raichur Taluk Deputy Director of Public Instructions Raichur Taluk BLOCK ED- UCATION OFFICER RAICHUR Sindhnur Taluk DDPU BLOCK EDU- CATION OF- FICER M.Mdoddamani S.N.Police Patil Chandrashekar Bandari Res., Office Phones Amruth Bettad Mallikarjun Vrashabendrayya Swamy DDPU J Basangouda Disaster Managament Centre
96 RESOURCE PERSONNEL DIRECTORY Location Designation Name Mobile Devadurga Taluk Lingsugur Taluk Deputy Commissioner District Magistrater, Raichur Chief Executive Officer Assistant Commissioner Addl. Dy. Commissioner M.V.Savithri Manojkumar Jain Ujjwal K Ghosh Radhakrishna Madankar Rao Tahsildar Mallikarjun Y.S Tahsildar Shekarappa Res., Office Phones Manvi Taluk Tahsildar M Gangappa Raichur Taluk Tahsildar Dr.Madukeshwar Sindhnur Tahsildar K Narasiha Taluk Education Department Raichur Districrector Managing Di- Mr.Dharmaraju Excise Department DC Excise Department Mr.G.Venkataramanayya Devadurga Taluk Superintendent F H Chalwadi Lingsugur Inspector Mr.Gurupadappa Taluk Manvi Taluk Inspector Mr.Dimbanna Raichur Taluk Inspector Mr.Sidramappa Sindhnur Inspector Mr.Nagaraj Taluk Fire A.F.S.T.O K.Eranna AFSTO G.Rangaswamy D.M-557 Amarayya
101 12.2. TALUK/VILLAGE LEVEL PERSONNEL DIRECTORY 95 Location Designation Name Mobile Res., Office Phones Devadurga, Range Forest T.G. Hanumanthappa Devadurga Officer (TP) Deodurga Devadurga, Range Forest A.M. Beelagi Devadurga Officer, Social (TP) Forestry Range Raichur Lingsugur, Range Forest H. Devaputra Lingsugur Officer, Social (TP) Forestry Range Lingasugur Lingsugur, Section Mahesh Gurgunta Forester Lingsugur, Section Khaja Hussain Mudgal (TP) Forester Lingsugur, Section Hussainsab Lingsugur (TP) Forester Manvi, Manvi (TMC) Forest Guard Ramanna Manvi, Kowtal Forest Guard Rajashekhar Manvi, Manvi Range Forest M. Shivabassanna (TMC) Officer Manvi, Manvi Range Forest S.K. Kamble (TMC) Officer, Social Forestry Range Manvi Manvi, Manvi (TMC) Section Forester S.A. Shukur Siddiqui Manvi, Kowtal Section Forester Sharanappa A. Tarival Raichur, Asst. Conservator Manjunath K Raichur of (CMC) Forests, Social Forestry Division Panchalinge Gowda P Raichur, Raichur (CMC) Raichur, Raichur (CMC) Deputy Conservator of Forests Deputy Conservator of Forests, Social Forestry Division K. Shivakumar
102 RESOURCE PERSONNEL DIRECTORY Raichur, Raichur (CMC) Raichur, Raichur (CMC) Raichur, Raichur (CMC) Sindhnur, Sindhnur (TMC) Sindhnur, Sindhnur (TMC) Health Devadurga Taluk Lingsugur Taluk Manvi Taluk Range Forest Officer Location Designation Name Mobile Res., Office Phones Raichur, Maliabad Forest Guard Mohd. Salar Hussain Raichur, Chandrabanda Forest Guard Gogarayya Range Forest Officer, Social Forestry Range Raichur Section Forester Range Forest Officer, Social Forestry Range Sindhanoor Section Forester District Leprosy Officer Incharge Medical Superindentent taluka health officer Deodurga (Incharge) Taluka health officer Manvi T.M. Sagave Neelakanta Babu M.L. Bhavikatti Pampanna Surendra Babu Dr.Mandolkar Dr.Bandesh Dr.Vijay Kumar Dr. Sharanappa taluka health officer Lingasugur Raichur Taluk taluka health Dr. Rajasheker officer Raichur Sindhnur Taluk THO Dr. Farooqu Horticulture
103 12.2. TALUK/VILLAGE LEVEL PERSONNEL DIRECTORY 97 Res., Office Phones Mrs Hema H.N Location Designation Name Mobile Deputy Director Of Horticulture Information Department Chief Reporter (Raichur Vani) Communication Director (Akash Vani. Radio) District Reoprter ( Enadu Telgu News Paper) District Reoprter ( Indian Express) District Reoprter ( Kannada Prabha) District Reoprter ( Prajavani) District Reoprter ( Samyukta Karnataka) District Reoprter ( Sanje Vani) District Reoprter ( The Hindu) District Reporter Press Reporte(Eshanya Daily Nerws Paper) Press Reporter (Suddimula Daily News Paper) Aravind Kulkarni Communication Director Ranganath Ramakrishna Jaganath Desai Ramareddy A Sureendrachar K K Sathyanarayana D.K.Kishanroa Mruntunjaya Kapagal Nagaraj Basavaraj Swamy
104 RESOURCE PERSONNEL DIRECTORY Res., Office Phones B.Venkatsingh Location Designation Name Mobile Reporter (Duradharshana TV channel) Reporter TV-9 Channel Reporter- Amoga Local TV Channel Reporter- E-TV Channel Reporter- In Cabel Local TV Channel Reporter- Janashree TV Channel Reporter- Kannada Kasturi TV Channel Reporter- Samaya News Channel Reporter- Suvarna News Channel Reporter- Udaya TV Channel ant Direcotr Senieor Asis- Irrigation Minor Executive Assistant Engineer Lingsugur Taluk Sindhnur Taluk KPTCL Assistant Executive Engineer Assistant Executive Engineer Executive Director Siddu Biradar Daddu Sarkil Channabasanna Venkatesh Marideva Basavaraj Bhimanna Heera Gururaj Hogar Mahantesh Heremat Mr. T Kanumappa H Balaji Prakash Mv Prakash Mv H N Narayan Prasad
105 12.2. TALUK/VILLAGE LEVEL PERSONNEL DIRECTORY 99 Location Designation Name Mobile Res., Office Phones Raichur, Shaktinagar (CT) Engineer [M] Superintending S Suresha Babu Karnataka State Pollution Control Environmental S.Dinesh Officer Mines and Geology Senior Geologist, Geologists Sikandarbasha K And Sm Krishna, Arun De, Jairam PWD Raichur Taluk Assistant Bhima Reddy.M Executive Engineer Raichur Taluk Assistant M. Bheemareddy Executive Engineer Panchayat CEO Mr. Mukkanna Karigar Police AHC-45 Sri Hasan Mohinidhin AHC-51 Sri Muskak Hussen APC-108 Sri Veerupakshi APC-124 Sri Pakrudhin APC-155 Sri Mallikarjun APC-181 Sri Rajendra Kumar APC-188 Sri Murali APC-41 Sri Yankappa APC-73 Sri Goopal Reddy APC-91 Sri Thimma Reddy ARSI Sri Ishwara Sing Devadurga Taluk ASSISTANT SUB- INSPECTOR Khatal Sab
113 13. Taluk-wise Resource Summary This chapter provides the no. of resources registered in each taluk. Clicking on the number in this table will open up the list of resources in the browser. Resource Devadurga Lingsugur Manvi Raichur Sindhnur Total Schools Hospitals Private Hospitals Veterinary Hospitals Ambulances Private Ambulances Food Resources Milk Water Tanks Water Body Helipads Drug Stores Private Drug Stores Buildings, Shelters Private Buildings, Shelters Vehicles Private Vehicles Fuel Stations NGOs Table 13.1: Taluk-wise resource counts 107
131 I. Equipment in State Fire & Emergency Services Details of equipments available in KARNATAKA state Fire and Emergency Service, Raichur Dist. Sl No Item Name Raichur Manvi Sindhanur Lingasugur Deodurga 1 Sharpex Steel Cutter Sharpex Chain Saw Bullet Jack with 5 ton lift Sledge Hammer Large Axe Screw Drivers Electric Generator (Portable) Breathing Apparatus (Self containing) Pump (Portable) Extension Ladder CO2 Type Fire Extinguishers DCP Type Fire Extinguishers wheeler TVS (Byke) -NO UHF Sets Static Wireless System UHF Sets Mobile Wireless System Walkie Takie Sets Wireless System Fire Fighting Equipments Hand Control Branch Short Branch with Nozzle Fog nozzle branch Universal Branch Revolving Head Branch Foam making Branch No.2 with pickup tube Foam making Branch No.5x with pickup tube 21.8 Collecting Head 3 way Collecting Breaching Dividing breaching (Control type) Delivery Hose (Rubber Made) 2 1/ Suction Hose (Rubber made) Suction Hose (Plastic made) 3 No Suction Hose (Rubber made) Suction Hose (Plastic made)4 No Pick Axe Mumty Crow Bar Hand Saw Fire Hook Bolt Cutter Spike Iron No Door Breaker
132 126 I. EQUIPMENT IN STATE FIRE & EMERGENCY SERVICES Sl No Item Name Raichur Manvi Sindhanur Lingasugur Deodurga 24 Adjustable Spanner Double End Spanner Cutting Pliers Electric Siren First Aid Box Jack With Handle Hooter Mike Grapnel River Raft 1No (With Pedals) No Life Jacket 4Nos No No. of persons available at present Dist Fire Officer Fire Station Officer No Asst. Fire Station Officer Leading Fire man Driver Mechanic No Fireman Driver Fireman Vacancy Total Nos Table 1: Equipment in Fire & Emergency Services Dept
133 II. Abbreviations AAI AC ADM ASP ATC BPCL CPI DC DMP ECC ECR HPCL HQA HSD IDLH IGP IMC IMD IOCL KEB KSRTC LPG MAH MS MSDS POL PPE PS PSV RTO SCBA SDPO SKO SP TSV Airport Authority of India Assistant Commissioner Additional District Magistrate Additional Superintendent of Police Air Traffic Controller Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Circle Police Inspector Deputy Commissioner Disaster Management Plan Emergency Control Centre Emergency Control Room Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Head Quarter Assistant High Speed Diesel Immediate Danger to Life and Health Inspector General of Police Indian Molasses Company Indian meteorological Department Indian Oil Corporation Limited Karnataka Electricity Board (GESCOM) Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation Liquefied Petroleum Gas Major Accident Hazard (industries) Motor Spirit (Petrol) Material Safety Data Sheet Petroleum Oil Lube Personal Protective Equipment Police Station Pressure Safety Valve Regional Transport Officer Self Contained Breathing Apparatus Sub Divisional Police Officer Superior Kerosene Oil Superintendent of Police Temperature Safety Valve 127
135 III. List of Central Govt Bodies related to Disaster Management 1. Secretary, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi.Tele: , Fax: Secretary, Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, North Block, New Delhi. Tele: , Fax: Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance North Block, New Delhi Tele : , Fax : Secretary, Planning Commission, Yojana Bhavan, Sansad Road, New Delhi. Tel: , Fax: Director General, India Meteorological Department, Mausam Bhavan, Lodi Road, New Delhi. Tele: Fax : Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources, Shram Shakti Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: / , Fax: Chairman, Central Water Commission, Sewa Bhavan, R.K.Puram, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Secretary, Department of Health, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: , Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Defence, South Block, New Delhi. Tele: / , Fax: Chairman, Railway Board, Rail Bhavan, New Delhi.Tele: / Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Civil Aviation, Rajiv Gandhi Bhavan, B Block, Safdarjung Airport, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, A Wing, 2nd Floor, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: / Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Power, Shram Shakti Bhavan,New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Foreign Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs, South Block, New Delhi. Tele: / Fax:
136 130III. LIST OF CENTRAL GOVT BODIES RELATED TO DISASTER MANAGEMENT 15. Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Paryavaran Bhavan, CG0 Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi Tele: : Fax: Secretary, Department of Food & Public Distribution, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi Tele: : Fax: Secretary, Department of Telecommunication, Sanchar Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Road, Transport & Highway, Parivahan Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water Supply & Sanitation, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: / Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Prithvi Bhawan, IMD Campus, Opp. India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi , (Ph / 72, Fax: ) 23. Secretary, Department of Science & Technology, Technology Bhavan, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: / Secretary, Department of Women and Child Development, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi. Tele: Fax: Secretary, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi. 26. Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development, Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi. 27. Secretary, Ministry of Textiles, Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi. 28. Secretary, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Shastri Bhawan, New Delhi. 29. Director General, Geological Survey of India,27, Jawaharl Lal Nehru Road, Kolkata Tele: / Fax: / Secretary, National Disaster Management Authority(NDMA), NDMA Bhawan, Opp. AIIMS Trauma Centre, A-I Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi Tele: Fax : Shri Shatrughna Singh, Joint Secretary, Prime Ministers Office, South Block, New Delhi. Tele: Fax:
137 Shri S.C. Garg, Joint Secretary, Cabinet Secretariat, Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi. Telefax: , Mr. V. Bhanu Murthy, Project Director (NDEM) Head, National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Department of Space, Govt. of India, Balanagar, Hyderabad Tele: Fax Comptroller & Auditor General of India, 10, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 35. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), Department of Science & Technology, A-50, Institutional Area, Phase II, Sector 62, NOIDA , Uttar Pradesh Tele: / Fax: / / Director General, National Informatics Centre (NIC), Ministry of Communication & Information Technology, A Block, CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi Tele: Fax: / (control room) 37. Director General, NDRF & CD, East Block- 7, Level VII, R.K. Puram, New Delhi Tele: Fax: Director General, Border Security Force (BSF), CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi Tele: / Fax: Director General, Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi Tele: Fax: Director General, Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi Tele: Fax : Director General, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi Tele: / Fax : Director General, Sashtra Seema Bal (SSB), East Block-V, R K Puram, New Delhi Tele: Fax : Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, Integrated Defence Staff, South Block, New Delhi. Tele : Fax : Director, Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment Research & Development Centre (SASE), Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Himparisar, Sector 37 A, Chandigarh Tele: Fax: Executive Director, National Institute of Disaster Management, IIPA Campus, 5-B, IP Estate, MG Road Campus, New Delhi (Fax: , ).
139 IV. Glossary Acceptable Risk The level of potential losses that a society or community considers acceptable given existing social, economic, political, cultural, technical and environmental conditions. Adaptation The adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Biological Hazard Process or phenomenon of organic origin or conveyed by biological vectors, including exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms, toxins and bioactive substances that may cause loss of life, injury, illness or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Building Code A set of ordinances or regulations and associated standards intended to control aspects of the design, construction, materials, alteration and occupancy of structures that are necessary to ensure human safety and welfare, including resistance to collapse and damage. Capacity The combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources available within a community, society or organization that can be used to achieve agreed goals. Capacity Development The process by which people, organizations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capacities over time to achieve social and economic goals, including through improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions. Climate Change (a) The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate change as: a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. (b) The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines climate change as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. 133
140 134 IV. GLOSSARY Contingency Planning A management process that analyses specific potential events or emerging situations that might threaten society or the environment and establishes arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate responses to such events and situations. Coping Capacity The ability of people, organizations and systems, using available skills and resources, to face and manage adverse conditions, emergencies or disasters. Corrective Disaster Risk Management Management activities that address and seek to correct or reduce disaster risks which are already present. Critical Facilities The primary physical structures, technical facilities and systems which are socially, economically or operationally essential to the functioning of a society or community, both in routine circumstances and in the extreme circumstances of an emergency. Disaster A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Disaster Risk The potential disaster losses, in lives, health status, livelihoods, assets and services, which could occur to a particular community or a society over some specified future time period. Disaster Risk Management The systematic process of using administrative directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster. Disaster Risk Reduction The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events. Disaster Risk Reduction Plan A document prepared by an authority, sector, organization or enterprise that sets out goals and specific objectives for reducing disaster risks together with related actions to accomplish these objectives.
141 135 Early Warning System The set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. Ecosystem Services The benefits that people and communities obtain from ecosystems. ecosystems can provide include regulating services such as regulation of floods, drought, land degradation and disease, along with provisioning services such as food and water, supporting services such as soil formation and nutrient cycling, and cultural services such as recreational, spiritual, religious and other nonmaterial benefits. Integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use provide the basis for maintaining ecosystem services, including those that contribute to reduced disaster risks. El Nio-Southern Oscillation Phenomenon A complex interaction of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the global atmosphere that results in irregularly occurring episodes of changed ocean and weather patterns in many parts of the world, often with significant impacts over many months, such as altered marine habitats, rainfall changes, floods, droughts, and changes in storm patterns. Emergency Management The organization and management of resources and responsibilities for addressing all aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and initial recovery steps. Emergency Services The set of specialized agencies that have specific responsibilities and objectives in serving and protecting people and property in emergency situations. Environmental Degradation The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives and needs. Environmental Impact Assessment Process by which the environmental consequences of a proposed project or programme are evaluated, undertaken as an integral part of planning and decision-making processes with a view to limiting or reducing the adverse impacts of the project or programme. Exposure People, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Extensive Risk The widespread risk associated with the exposure of dispersed populations to
142 136 IV. GLOSSARY repeated or persistent hazard conditions of low or moderate intensity, often of a highly localized nature, which can lead to debilitating cumulative disaster impacts. Forecast Definite statement or statistical estimate of the likely occurrence of a future event or conditions for a specific area. Geological Hazard Geological process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Greenhouse Gases Gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and emit radiation of thermal infrared radiation emitted by the Earths surface, the atmosphere itself, and by clouds. Hazard A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Hydrometeorological Hazard Process or phenomenon of atmospheric, hydrological or oceanographic nature that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Intensive Risk The risk associated with the exposure of large concentrations of people and economic activities to intense hazard events, which can lead to potentially catastrophic disaster impacts involving high mortality and asset loss. Land-use Planning The process undertaken by public authorities to identify, evaluate and decide on different options for the use of land, including consideration of long term economic, social and environmental objectives and the implications for different communities and interest groups, and the subsequent formulation and promulgation of plans that describe the permitted or acceptable uses. Mitigation The lessening or limitation of the adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters. Preparedness The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions.
143 137 Prevention The outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters. Prospective Disaster Risk Management Management activities that address and seek to avoid the development of new or increased disaster risks. Public Awareness The extent of common knowledge about disaster risks, the factors that lead to disasters and the actions that can be taken individually and collectively to reduce exposure and vulnerability to hazards. Recovery The restoration, and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors. Residual Risk The risk that remains in unmanaged form, even when effective disaster risk reduction measures are in place, and for which emergency response and recovery capacities must be maintained. Resilience The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. Response The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. Retrofitting Reinforcement or upgrading of existing structures to become more resistant and resilient to the damaging effects of hazards. Risk The combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences. Risk Assessment A methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by analysing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that together could potentially harm exposed people, property, services, livelihoods and the environment on which they depend. Risk Management The systematic approach and practice of managing uncertainty to minimize potential harm and loss.
144 138 IV. GLOSSARY Risk Transfer The process of formally or informally shifting the financial consequences of particular risks from one party to another whereby a household, community, enterprise or state authority will obtain resources from the other party after a disaster occurs, in exchange for ongoing or compensatory social or financial benefits provided to that other party. Socio-natural Hazard The phenomenon of increased occurrence of certain geophysical and hydro meteorological hazard events, such as landslides, flooding, land subsidence and drought, that arise from the interaction of natural hazards with overexploited or degraded land and environmental resources.
145 V. Useful Websites & Other References ias.html Disaster Management in India, Report from Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India - Develop a baseline document to capture and analyse existing approaches and methodologies for Hazard Risk & Vulnerability Assessment, Final Report, Winrock International, India Drought related online resources Center for Science and Environment ( Center for Water Efficient Landscaping, Utah ( Central Arid Zone Research Institute ( Central ground water authority ( Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA) ( Crop Weather Outlook: Department of agriculture and cooperation (DOAC), Ministry of Agriculture (MOA): DOAC, MOA, Weather Watch ( Down to Earth, CSE ( Drought Monitoring Cell of Karnataka ( Drought Watch of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada ( Global vegetation health image map resources of NOAA ( nesdis.noaa.gov/crad/sat/surf/vci/) IIT, Mumbai ( Indian Council of Agricultural Research Drought Monitoring and Advisory ( 139
146 140 V. USEFUL WEBSITES & OTHER REFERENCES Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute ( International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) ( International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ( International Water Management Institutes (IWMI, National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting ( National Climatic Data Center, NOAA ( National Drought Mitigation Center ( National Informatics Center s (NIC) Weather Resource System for India ( National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s (NOAA) ( Rain water harvesting, CSE ( Rainwater club ( Rainwater harvesting ( Texas University ( United Stated Department of Agriculture ( jump.htm) Use it wisely ( Water harvesting (waterharvesting.org) Watershed management (
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Foundation Course Semester 3 THREATS TO THE ENVIRONMENT INTRODUCTION Atmosphere, water and soil are the most important components of environment in which we live. Atmospheric factors like rainfall, humidity,