African Gas Infrastructure: Project Development and Financing

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1 23 May 2017 African Gas Infrastructure: Project Development and Financing 1

2 Gas Midstream in SSA What is Gas Infrastructure? Context What is in scope for midstream gas infrastructure? State of play Project Development MGA approach Gas and Power contracts Financing Critical factors Risk Conclusion 2

3 Gas Midstream in SSA What is Gas Infrastructure? Pipeline Systems: Transporting gas from the wellhead to the customer involves several physical transfers of custody and multiple processing steps. A pipeline system begins at the natural gas producing well or field, where gas is moved through a pipeline gathering system either to a natural gas processing plant to produce pipeline quality gas, or directly to the main grid if the source gas is of pipeline quality. The gas is further transported by pipeline to downstream markets or is put into storage for peak usage requirements. Pipelines are looped (laid parallel to another) to increase capacity. Virtual Pipelines: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), which has a compression ratio of 1:600, is more economic over long distances relative to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), with a compression ratio of 1:200. Virtual Pipelines replicate the flow of energy by transporting LNG or CNG using trucks or ships. Liquefaction and Regasification LNG is created onshore through a liquefaction plant or offshore on a Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) unit for transport by LNG tankers. When LNG reaches its final market it is regasified at an onshore plant or on a Floating Storage Regasification Unit (FSRU) in a designated port from which it is transferred for usage. Gas to Power: To produce electricity, natural gas is burned in gas turbines, which are driven directly by gases produced by combustion. 3

4 State of Gas Infrastructure in Africa Only 8-10% of Africa s Reserves are monetized 1.2 Tcf flared annually in Nigeria Gas Reserves Offshore Gas Fields Shale Gas Potential South Africa ~30-40 Tcf of Shale Gas Reserves Potential Source: PASA Only 2 cross-border pipelines operational in Africa Pipeline 4

5 Why Natural Gas in Sub-Saharan Africa? Natural gas is a growing part of the global energy mix Africa is following the global trend of integration in gas markets MGA links gas markets by investing in infrastructure: Global gas to Africa and African gas to global markets African gas to African markets African gas is abundant: P1 reserves of >600 TCF, 22 African countries (of 55) have gas reserves; exploration continues Less than 10% of reserves are monetized, much is wasted by flaring LNG is moving toward a spot market, replicating oil market development Africa is a key new growth area Demand for gas in Africa has shown consistent growth and has more than doubled since 2000 Demand for Gas Globally Demand for Gas in Africa Source: Enerdata Source: Enerdata 5

6 Technical & Financial Confidence What is a Gas Infrastructure Project? Entity Technical / Financial Confidence IDEA PROJECT OPERATION Entity Risk A move from Idea to Project to Operation Concept Feasibility Engineering /Construction Production Level of Study 6

7 Project conception Engineering Financing Construction Startup Project Development Typical investment time frames for African infrastructure 3-5 Year frequent delay Government Approvals The typical lead time for infrastructure projects in Africa can be 3-8 years. 7

8 Gas Supply & Power Projects Gas Supply Gas cost for volumes of gas delivered (ZAR/Gj, ZARmmBTU) Take-or-pay calculated annually as % of Annual Contract Quantity Power Generation Capacity charges for available capacity (ZAR/MW) Energy charge for output (ZAR/MWh) Gas Project Co GSA Supply Agreement GSA Supply Agreement Power Project Co Other Users PPA GSA Offtaker Offtaker Source: Gas to Power Masterclass, Gas Options Cape Town,

9 Financing What do Funders Look For? Experienced management team Operational Technical Financial Country Location Legislation Risk Project Returns Execution risk 9

10 Risk Management Key focus areas for funders Governance & Corruption Country & Political Risk Environment, Health, Safety & Sustainability Security 10

11 Financing Equity & Debt Duration Equity PE, 3-5 years Debt 5-7 years Equity first, then debt Cash Flows Equity IRR G&A costs to be covered Capacity to service debt Stress tests Downside risk sales price Delays 11

12 Conclusion Where we are Where we re headed Optimistic case Pessimistic case Our bet Thank you 12

13 Corporate Headquarters: Washington DC, USA Africa Operations Office: Cape Town, South Africa Monetizing Monetizing Gas Africa Gas Africa Inc. Inc. 13

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