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8 IARI : AN INTRODUCTION Originally established in 1905 at Pusa (Bihar) with the financial assistance of an American Philanthropist, Mr. Henry Phipps, the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) started functioning from New Delhi since 1936 when it was shifted to its present site after a major earthquake damaged the Institute s building at Pusa (Bihar). The Institute s popular name Pusa Institute traces its origin to the establishment of the Institute at Pusa. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute is the country s premier national Institute for agricultural research, education and extension. It has the status of a Deemed-to-be-University under the UGC Act of 1956, and awards M.Sc., M.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees in various agricultural disciplines. The growth of India s agriculture during the past more than 100 years, is closely linked with the researches done and technologies generated by the Institute. The Green Revolution stemmed from the fields of IARI. Development of high yielding varieties of all major crops which occupy vast areas throughout the country, generation and standardization of their production techniques, integrated pest management and integrated soil-water-nutrient management have been the hallmarks of the Institute s research. The Institute has researched and developed a large number of agrochemicals which have been patented and licensed and are being widely used in the country. Over the years, IARI has excelled as a centre of higher education and training in agricultural sciences at national and international levels. The mandates of the Institute are as follows: To conduct basic and strategic research with a view to understanding the processes, in all their complexity, and to undertake need based research, that lead to crop improvement and sustained agricultural productivity in harmony with the environment To serve as a centre for academic excellence in the area of post-graduate and human resources development in agricultural sciences To provide national leadership in agricultural research, extension, and technology assessment and transfer by developing new concepts and approaches, and serving as a national referral point for quality and standards To develop information systems, add value to information, share the information nationally and internationally, and serve as a national agricultural library and database The present campus of the Institute is a self-contained sylvan complex spread over an area of about 500 hectares. It is located about 8 km west of New Delhi Railway Station, about 7 km west of Krishi Bhavan, which houses the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), and about 16 km east of Indira Gandhi International Airport at Palam. The location stands at o N and o E, the height above mean sea level being m. The climate is subtemperate and semi-arid. The mean maximum daily temperature during the hot weather (May-October) ranges from 32.2 to 40 o C and the mean minimum temperature from 12.2 to 27.5 o C. June to September are rainy months during which about 500 mm of rainfall is received. Winter sets in from mid-november and is delightful. The mean maximum temperature during winter (November-March) ranges from 20.1 to 29.1 o C and the mean minimum temperature from 5.6 to 12.7 o C. During winter, a small amount of rainfall (about 63 mm) is received. The Institute has 19 divisions, 2 multi-disciplinary centres situated in Delhi, 8 regional stations, 2 off-season nurseries, one krishi vigyan kendra at Shikohpur, 2 all India coordinated research projects with headquarters at IARI, and 16 national centres functioning under the all India coordinated research projects. It has a sanctioned staff strength of 3,041 comprising scientific, technical, administrative and supporting personnel. The revised budget estimates of the Institute constituted a total amount of ` 31, lakh (Plan & Non-Plan) for the year

9 Registrar & Jt. Director (Admn.) Comptroller Priortisation, Monitoring & Evaluation Cell ITMU ZTM & BPDU Publication Unit Agronomy Agricultural Physics Soil Science & Agril. Chemistry Microbiology CESCRA Post Harvest Technology Agricultural Engineering Water Technology Centre Unit of Simulation and Informatics 2

10 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) continues to maintain the status of a premier agriculture institute of the country. By using cutting-edge technologies such as genomics and bioinformatics, IARI has accelerated its crop improvement programmes, and developed several crop varieties with improved yield, quality and adaptability. The Institute has developed resource management technologies, and pest and disease management methods, farm machineries, protected cultivation methods and food processing techniques for enhancing the input use efficiency, farm profit and environmental sustainability. The Institute s basic and strategic research programmes towards development of climate smart crops have made significant progress in deciphering genetic and molecular bases of abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and yield. Extension and training programs focused on enabling youth and empowering rural women. The salient achievements of IARI in research, extension and education during are summarized below: The School of Crop Improvement has developed several varieties and hybrids with enhanced productivity, quality, adaptability to different agroecosystems, and inbuilt resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. An early maturing bread wheat variety HD 3059, possessing resistance to all the three rusts, superior bread and chappati making qualities, and an average yield of 4.25 t/ha was released for commercial cultivation under late sown irrigated conditions of North Western Plains Zone(NWPZ). In addition, a bread wheat variety HW 5216 and a semi-dwarf dicoccum variety HW 1098 have been released for Southern Hills Zone, while a durum variety HI 8713 with a yield potential of 5.23 t / ha was identified for release in the irrigated timely-sown conditions of Central Zone. In rice, elite Basmati genotype Pusa (IET 21960) was identified for release in the Basmati growing regions in the states of Delhi and western U.P., while Pusa (IET 22290), a NIL of Pusa Sugandh 5 with Piz5 and Pi54 genes conferring resistance to blast disease, was identified to replace Pusa Sugandh 5. Additionally, two elite rice lines in the background of PRR78, namely, Pusa (IET 22777) possessing BB resistance genes xa13 and Xa21, and Pusa (IET 22778) possessing blast resistance genes Piz5 and Pi54 were promoted to AVT 2-Basmati. Improvement of maize for nutritional quality traits through MAS for the development of QPM, altered starch content and rich in pro-vitamin A content is in advance stage of development. In chickpea, Pusa Bheema, the first extra large seeded desi variety, and Pusa Shaktiman, an extra large seeded Kabuli variety were released for cultivation in Delhi and NCR Region. In addition, two more chickpea varieties, namely, Pusa 2085, a large seeded Kabuli variety, and Pusa Green 112, a high yielding desi green seeded chickpea, have been identified for release in Delhi and NCR. In mustard, Pusa Mustard 29 (LET 36), a low erucic acid bold seeded variety with 143 days maturity and an average seed yield of 2.17 t/ha was found promising in NWPZ. In soybean, a medium-bold seeded variety Pusa 14 (DS 2614) with resistance to YMV, Rhizoctonia aerial blight and bacterial pustule was identified for release in Delhi and NCR region. In vegetable crops, one hybrid was released, and one hybrid & six varieties identified for cultivation in North Indian plains. Pusa Cabbage Hybrid 1 having yield potential of t/ha and early maturity (55-60 days) was released for agro-climatic zone-i and IV. A cucumber variety, Pusa Barkha, tolerant to downy mildew disease and having an average fruit yield of 18.8 t/ha was identified for cultivation in kharif season. Pusa Vasuda, a CMS based tropical carrot hybrid was identified for release for commercial cultivation. Two varieties of radish, namely, Pusa Jamuni, a purple fleshed variety having better root size, shape and consumer preference with high anthocyanins and 3

11 ascorbic acid and Pusa Gulabi, a pink fleshed variety having medium root size, cylindrical shape with high carotenoids and anthocyanins were identified. An onion variety, Pusa Riddhi with compact, flat globe and dark red coloured bulb with a yield potential of 31.6 t/ha and suitable for export purpose was identified for cultivation in both kharif and rabi seasons. Pusa Soumya, the first bunching onion variety with enhanced tolerance to pests and diseases with an average yield potential of t/ha was identified. A dual purpose broad bean variety, Pusa Udit, possessing extra-long, flat and light green pods with good taste and a yield potential of t/ha was identified. Two gladiolus hybrids, namely, Pusa Unnati and Pusa Srijana were identified for release. Pusa Unnati has spike length of 141 cm and rachis length of 71 cm, whereas Pusa Srijana has spike length of cm and rachis length of cm. In chrysanthemum, two mutants, namely, TQP 061 with pink colour flower and Pusa Kesari having saffron colour flower suitable for both cut flower and pot culture purposes were identified. In addition, three open pollinated varieties, Pusa Aditya (semi double, gazania type), Pusa Chitraksha (spray type) and Pusa Sona (spray type) suitable for cut flower, potted plant and pot mum, respectively, were also identified. Several genetic stocks possessing unique economically important traits were identified, developed and characterized in different crops, microbes and insects. In field crops, a total of five germplasm lines including three in rice (INGR12002, INGR12003 and INGR12052) and two in chickpea (IC , IC 59416) were registered with NBPGR, New Delhi. In vegetable crops, a sponge gourd line DSG 6 (INGR 12013) resistant to Tomato Leaf curl New Delhi Virus and a predominately gynoecious line of bitter gourd, PreGy 1 (INGR 12014) were also registered. Three fungal species, namely, Collectrichum gloeosporoides, C. capsici and C. musae were characterized for inter-species differentiation by using markers based on ITS, glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate and -tubulin regions. A new insect species, Trogaspidia karnatakaensis sp. nov, closely related to species pilosella was described. A new leafhopper species, Sophonia chandrai sp. nov., was described from Tupul, Manipur and Chudania axona has been recorded from Umkiang, Meghalaya for the first time. The School of Crop and Resource Management and Environment developed several agrotechniques for improving resource use efficiency, profitability and environmental health. Cropping system analysis showed that cotton-wheat system is superior to pigeonpea-wheat and maize-wheat systems in terms of maize equivalent yield, system productivity and net returns. All the three crops performed better when grown on zero-till with residue as compared with conventional-till flat bed system. Zero-till broad-bed with residues resulted in significantly higher soil organic carbon (SOC), particularly at the surface (0-5 cm) layers in soil. Summer mungbean (SMB) followed by incorporation of its residue in direct seeded rice (DSR), and then rice residue retained on the surface in zero-till wheat (ZTW) resulted in rice yield similar to transplanted rice (TPR), and wheat yield significantly higher than the conventional tilled wheat (CTW). The SMB-DSR-ZTW system resulted in significantly higher system crop productivity, water productivity, energy productivity, net returns and B:C ratio than TPR-CTW or ZTW. The system productivity analysis of soybeanbased cropping systems revealed that soybeanchickpea-fodder sorghum is the best with highest soybean equivalent yield (7.9 t/ha/year) followed by soybean-wheat-mungbean system. In terms of maize grain equivalent yield, maize/soybean-garden pea sunflower system was found to be more productive and profitable, followed by maize/soybean-potato sunflower system. Conservation agriculture practices, namely, zero tillage - bed planting and zero tillage conventional flat planting increased the SOC by 13 and 11%, respectively, as compared to conventional tillage with bed planting in top 0-5 cm soil layer. Precision irrigation and fertilizer application methods were developed in order to enhance the water and nutrient use efficiency, and reduce the input cost in different crops. Fertigation at every alternate day increased the yield of kharif onion by about 15 % as compared with fertigation once in a week. Fertigation with drip irrigation enhanced the yield of pigeonpea by 39.3 % as compared with conventional fertilizer application with drip irrigation. Nitrogen fertilizer 4

12 application based on a SPAD value of <42 resulted in significantly higher grain (5.24 t/ha) and straw (9.08 t/ha) yields in rice as compared with yields obtained by N application based soil testing or a SPAD value of <40. The SPAD value <42 based N applications also saved kg N/ha and increased the water productivity. The net returns from sweet pepper could be increased by `30,000 per ha (21%) by enhancing nitrogen dose by 25% as compared to the recommended dose of 320 kg/ha nitrogen. The additional cost involved is only `200. With this method, average yield of 62.2 t/ha was obtained in sweet pepper. Water saving techniques, namely, partial root zone deficit and regulated deficit irrigation with low pressure drip fertigation were developed for cultivation of tomato under naturally ventilated greenhouse. These techniques saved about 50% water and yielded good quality tomato of more than 10 kg per plant. Solar energy operated greenhouse with fan-pad cooling system and low pressure drip fertigation system was designed and developed. Method for growing parthenocarpic cucumber under naturally ventilated polyhouse during off-season was developed. Among the parthenocarpic varieties of cucumber, Kian was identified as the best as it was ready for first harvest within 33 days and produced fruit yield of 2.15 kg/plant (7.58 t/1000 m 2 ). Plastics mulching method was developed which enhanced fruit yield of cucumber by 40-50%. Silver mulch was found to be better for producing high quality flowers, bulbs and bulblets in tuberose under drip system. Similarly silver mulch enhanced plant growth and bloom quality in marigold for seed production. To utilize the large quantities of sewage water for agricultural purpose,water treatment methods were standardized. The pollutant mass reduction efficiency of the gravel based wetland systems were found to be associated with significantly higher (1.2 to 1.6 times) BOD, turbidity, nitrate, sulphate, K, RSC, phosphate, nickel and lead removal efficiencies. Lead followed by iron, nickel and manganese in treated sewage waters contributed maximum to the consumer health risk. Levels of these heavy metals were significantly reduced in the Acorus calamus and Phragmites karka treated sewage waters. Further, the overall metal health hazard due to the consumption of wheat grains produced with untreated waste water irrigation was about 1.6 times higher as compared with paddy produced with treated waste water irrigation. IARI developed new farm machineries required for mechanization and timely farm operations. A two bed and eight-row carrot planter was designed and developed for precise planting of carrot seeds on raised beds with a ridge height of 20 cm. A prototype of a two bed harvester was designed and developed for harvesting carrot grown on raised bed. The width of coverage of the carrot harvester is 2000 mm and it is adjustable as per harvesting width requirement. A 9-row tractor operated garlic planter was developed for planting garlic cloves. A 4-row tractor operated garlic harvester was designed and demonstrated to be efficient with crop harvesting percentage and bulb damage percentage of 96.12% and 5.94%, respectively, in sandy loam soils. The manually operated vegetable seed extractor was modified to use solar energy for operation. Food processing techniques have been developed to produce nutritionally rich ready-to-eat pearl pop, soy biscuits and aonla crackers. The pearl pop is rich in total antioxidants (15.47 mole Trolox /100g) and micro-nutrients, especially iron (50.2 ppm) and zinc (30.1 ppm). A technique for production of soy fibre enriched biscuits with 6.87 per cent protein and low fat content (17 %) was developed. Low fat crackers containing aonla and beet root powders with good protein content (>16.0%), antioxidants ( μmole/ g, ABTS assay) and flavonoids (389.1 mg/g) have also been prepared. Microorganisms have been explored for production of biofilms, pigments and biomass, composting and biofuels. Large scale biomass and pigment production by Nostoc commune, Anabaena variabilis and Anabaena oryzae were optimized using photobioreactor and open trays. Phycobilin production by Nostoc commune was highest followed by Anabaena variabilis and Anabaena oryzae. Effective microorganism (EM) consortium was developed for better degradation to produce a C:N ratio of 13:1 within 60 days during summer. Paddy straw supplemented with poultry dropping and treated with EM consortia registered higher microbial activity, and the compost produced by this method was free from 5

13 phytotoxicity. The inoculation with phytate mineralizing fungi improved the availability of bicarbonate P in cattle manure- straw compost by 20 % and FYM compost by 15 % compared to their respective controls. Biofilms developed using Trichoderma viride as a matrix and Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum as partners significantly improved the germination, growth, nutrient uptake, and yield attributes of cotton. Anabaena Trichoderma viride biofilm formulation proved most promising for soybean, recording 12-25% enhancement in yield. A new lignolytic micromycete fungus Myrothecium roridum LG7 was isolated and selected for biological delignification of paddy straw and herbaceous weed Parthenium sp. Bio-fuel production potential of rice straw was estimated to be in the range of 140 to 300 L/t of rice straw with an estimated cost of `43.0 to 48.3 /L ethanol production. Climate change and environment research was focused on development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, reduce carbon foot printing and train farmers to become climate smart. Estimation of contribution of Indian agriculture to the global warming and the trends in GHGs emission from 1970 to 2010 revealed that Indian agriculture has contributed 21% of total Indian GHG emissions. During 1970 to 2010, GHG emissions from Indian agriculture increased by about 10% mainly due to enhanced use of fertilizers and higher population of the livestock. Simulation studies projected that climate change may reduce mustard and soybean yield by 2 to 2.5 % in 2020 with no mitigation techniques. Improved varieties and better management of crop can increase the soybean production by about 14% in future climate scenarios. Burning of crop residues in the fields of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh in North West India was approximately 52.4 Mt per annum which contribute to emission of CO 2 (91.65 %) followed by 5.5% CO, 0.15% NOX, 0.95% non-methane volatile organic compounds and 0.42 % non-methane hydrocarbons. Burning of rice straw contributed maximum (51%) to these emissions followed by wheat (30.4%) and sugarcane (15.3%). Increase in pumping efficiency from 36.5 to 50 % may decrease the Carbon foot print (CFP) from 365 to 267 million tonnes. CFP would increase by million tonnes for one meter decline in water table under specified recharge and pumping conditions. Direct seeded rice (DSR) under conventional or drip irrigation was found to reduce methane emission significantly. Nitrous oxide emission was found to increase under both the water management practices in DSR and SRI as compared to the conventional transplanted rice. The global warming potential was reduced by 52% under DSR- Drip irrigation and 57% under SRI-conventional irrigation in comparison to the conventional flooded control. Farmers were imparted trainings on climate resilient technologies through demonstrations and training programmes, and were shown the benefits of zero-tillage based wheat cultivation, walk-in-tunnel and low-tunnel based vegetable cultivation, net house nursery system, IPM practices in vegetables, drip system of irrigation, mulching and use of hydrogel. The School of Crop Protection has developed diagnostic methods, identified novel molecules and validated technologies for integrated management of pests and diseases. Genetic diversity of wheat rust races, Fusarium spp. infecting chickpea and rice were assessed and DNA based diagnostic markers were developed. Virulence analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Ralstonia solanacearum and X. oryzae pv. oryzae have led to race profiling. Recombinant protein based diagnostics developed for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus, Garlic common latent virus, Large cardamom chirke virus and Potato virus S. Novel chemicals and resistance sources were identified for integrated pest management in various crops. Foliar spray of profenophos with cypermethrin was found to be an effective control measure for bitter gourd fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae. Novel strategies for management of root knot and reniform nematodes using metham sodium and biofumigation using Brassica juncea were developed. Entomopathogenic nematodes such as Steinernema spp. and Heterohabditis indica were found effective against homopteran insect pests and white grubs, respectively. Management of insect pests and nematodes based on gene silencing approaches using chitinases and oesophageal gland genes, respectively, were developed. Green chemistry approach was used to synthesize novel chalcone and thiadiazole based derivatives having antifungal activity. Hydrogel based combo 6

14 formulations of Trichoderma harzianum and ZnSO 4 were developed which improved rice productivity and managed Rhizoctonia solani. Controlled release nanoformulations of thiamethoxam were developed which gave significantly better control of white fly in soybean. Decontamination methods for removing pesticides from water using granular carbon and rice husk were standardized. In weed management studies, brown manuring technology was standardized for weed management in maize. Preemergence application of metribuzin followed by propaquizafop resulted in significantly higher weed control in soybean crop. The School of Basic and Strategic Research made significant progress in identification of donors, QTLs and genes for agronomically important traits, genetic transformation of crops, and GIS and remote sensing methods for crop management. Genome-wide association mapping was performed using 30K SNP data and phenotypic data on drought stress response of 240 inbreds of maize. Significant SNPs were identified for ASI, grain yield and yield component traits. SNPs identified for ASI on chromosome 1 and 7, were mapped within the known QTLs, and several mapped SNPs are in the stress-related transcription factors such as MYB, ERF and NAC, suggesting their potential role in drought tolerance in maize. Markerassisted backcross breeding (MABB) program to introgress root trait QTLs in chickpea (Pusa 362 and ICC 4958) resulted in development of 24 lines carrying root trait QTL and % recurrent parent genome recovery. Molecular marker OPZ linked to gynoecious trait in bitter gourd was identified. CAPS markers for UGPase and Invertase Inhibitor, and SSR marker for Apoplastic Invertase were used to analyze to identify the allelic variation in these genes and their relationship with cold induced sweetening (CIS) with reducing sugar accumulation in potato. Absence of absence of UGP B, StInh ap -a and apinv-255 alleles, and presence of apinv-221 allele were found to be associated with CIS tolerance. Six new QTLs for disease resistance in different crops have been mapped during Four QTLs were identified in pearl millet for resistance to downy mildew Rajasthan isolate (Sg 384). Two molecular markers tightly linked to black rot resistance locus in cauliflower were identified and validated. Two QTLs governing charcoal rot resistance were mapped in soybean. In chickpea, marker assisted gene pyramiding for resistance to wilt races (foc 2, 3 and 4) in Pusa 372, Pusa 362, Pusa 5023 and Pusa 1103 was achieved. Leaf rust resistance was transferred from wild relative of wheat T. militinae to bread wheat. Phenotyping of large number of wheat germplasm were carried out to identify donors for various traits of drought and heat tolerance, and nitrogen use efficiency. Screening for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) using 110 genotypes led to the identification of efficient wheat genotypes (EC , BT-Schomburgk, PBW 394, Arrino and Roller) which will be used for mapping QTLs genes for NUE in wheat. Wheat genotypes with stay green trait and drought tolerance were identified from screening of 70 wheat genotypes from India and CIMMYT. To identify novel proteins associated with heat tolerance of wheat, proteomics was employed. Proteomic analyses identified 68 differentially expressed proteins in wheat under heat stress. MALDI- TOF analysis of these proteins led to the identification of some important proteins, namely, Small Heat Shock Protein, Rubsico Small Subunit, Oxygen Evolving Enhancer Protein, ATP Synthase and Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase. Hyperspectral indices based method was developed for measurement of relative water content of rice plants under pot culture conditions. This method can be used as high throughput non-destructive measurement of plant water status in large scale phenotyping for drought tolerance of rice. The plant stress hormone abscisic acid receptor (ABAR) genes, SNF-related Kinase 2, transcription factor genes such as MYB and AP2, ion transporters and HSPs have been cloned from different crops. Genetic transformation of rice was carried out with the ABAR6 and AP2/ERF genes for improving abiotic stress tolerance of rice. To reduce seed phytate content, soybean was transformed with PHYTASE (PHY) gene under seed specific VICILIN promoter. The T 0 transgenics were confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis. qrt-pcr analysis showed the expression of PHY transgene in the developing seeds. Infocrop model was validated to predict grain yield of wheat grown with four levels of nitrogen and irrigation levels. The global warming potential, i.e., 7

15 the emission of green house gases (GHG, expressed in CO 2 equivalent) during wheat growth increased but the CO 2 equivalent GHG emitted per unit quantity of grain decreased with the increase in the irrigation and N levels. Therefore, the irrigation and fertilizer N dose should be optimized for obtaining higher water and nitrogen use efficiency, and minimum global warming potential without significant yield reduction in wheat. Time-series of remote sensing images were used to predict wheat yield for Dehradun district by using MODIS Terra-EVI time-series images from The study revealed that phenology parameter of amplitude derived from multi-date satellite data is much better in capturing variability in yield followed by filtered single date EVI. A multiple regression model with time and amplitude as independent variable was developed (R 2 = 0.83; p=0.002). Hyperspectral remote sensing method was attempted to distinguish wheat genotypes. Spectral reparability analysis using stepwise discriminant analysis and Jeffries-Matusita (J-M) distance showed that out of the JM distance matrix for 2415 pairs of genotypes, 378 pairs were not separable, rest of genotypes pairs were classified quantitatively to low, moderate and highly separable pairs. GIS based forewarning system for white rust of mustard was developed and validated. The old aphid prediction rule developed earlier by IARI was modified to enhance the accuracy. For aphid initiation, 100% flowering stage was found to be most congenial. T max and T min values greater than 20 o C and 8 o C, respectively, and 2-3 consecutive cloudy days provided the favourable weather. This was validated during rabi and The School of Social Sciences and Technology Transfer focused their research efforts on the nature and impact of growth and development initiatives in agriculture, the dissemination and assessment of the technologies generated by IARI, the promotion of agricultural value chains, domestic market and trade reforms, public and private investments in agriculture, energy demand in agriculture, innovative credit delivery systems for enhancing access to institutional credit and designing effective training programmes for empowering women and enabling rural youth with entrepreneurial skills. Three major growth trends were identified in the agricultural sector. The first trend relates to high growth rates of oilseeds, cotton and coarse cereals, particularly maize in recent period. The second major growth trend in some states like Gujarat is largely the result of institutional reforms leading to expansion in irrigation and transfer of technology to producers. The third major trend is the rapid growth in high-value commodities like fruits, vegetables, livestock and fisheries. Price incentives coupled with rising demand and strong market linkages, supported by factors like availability of improved seeds and planting materials have induced farmers to diversify towards these commodities. The energy demands of the country for the years 2016 and 2021, which mark the end of the 12 th and 13 th five year plans, respectively, were estimated. Direct energy demand was projected for two scenarios, viz., business as usual (BAU) with agriculture GDP growing at a rate of 3 % per annum as observed in the previous decade and an optimistic scenario of 4 % growth per annum. The demand of direct energy for the year 2016 was projected to be and million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) in the BAU and optimistic scenarios, respectively. The direct energy for the year 2021 was projected at 47.0 and MTOE under the BAU and optimistic scenarios, respectively. These represent an annual average growth rate of 7 9 per cent over the current energy consumption in the Indian agriculture. For effective communication of farm information and widespread dissemination of technology to the farmers, a cyber extension model was developed and executed. Information on various aspects of agriculture is regularly updated on the portal. SMS facility for communicating relevant information on cultivation practices, market intelligence and weather forecasting is being extended to project locations. The innovative measures taken by the Institute to collaborate with post offices in the country have paid rich dividends. The linkages with post offices for the distribution of IARI seeds to farmers were extended to four more locations in Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. Enhancing the entrepreneurial skills of rural youth is an important extension activity of the Institute. An Agri-preneurial Success Index based on profit levels, growth and diversification, yield improvements, quality 8

16 maintenance, recognition received and innovations implemented is being developed. Two entrepreneurial technical information packages on protected cultivation and baby corn production were prepared. A major thrust in entrepreneurship development was placed on vegetable seed production. Under the National Extension Programme, IARI varieties and technologies were disseminated through 773 demonstrations in collaboration with ICAR Institutes and SAUs at 16 locations during rabi and kharif Most of the IARI varieties showed significantly higher yield in comparison to local varieties. In an innovative model involving 25 voluntary organisations, 1415 demonstrations were successfully conducted for 27 varieties of 11 crops during kharif 2012 and 808 demonstrations were conducted during rabi to transfer IARI technologies. The Agricultural Technology Information Centre of the Institute played a pivotal role in communicating relevant information to farmers and handling their specific problems related queries. These queries were received from farmers who came in person as well as through telephone on the Pusa Helpline. Advice was also provided through letters and . A regular feature of the Institute is the annual Krishi Vigyan Mela which showcases the progress made by the Institute in various areas of agriculture. The 2013 Mela focused on Agricultural Technologies for Farmers Prosperity. Besides IARI and its Divisions and KVK Shikhopur, a large number of ICAR Institutes, SAUs, KVKs, and private organisations participated in the Mela. A unique feature this year was the participation of six CGIAR Centres. More than 1,00,000 visitors from different parts of the country including farmers, farm women, extension workers, entrepreneurs and students visited the Mela. Farmers from 19 states across India including distant states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Orissa and Assam visited the Mela. For women empowerment in rural areas, several special activities were undertaken and interventions planned. An analysis of the training needs of rural women led to the development of six capacity building modules focusing on motivation, leadership, financial management and use of ICT. The Institute, through its KVK in Shikohpur, Gurgaon, is taking a lead in empowering rural women by providing need based training for self-employment and for income generating activities. Besides entrepreneurship training, other extension activities aimed at creating awareness about scientific farming and dissemination of technologies were also undertaken. In all, 52 programmes were organized for rural women during the year which benefitted 969 rural women of different social classes. IARI also provides integrated agromet advisory services to the farmers. During , 104 agro-advisory bulletins were prepared. Majority of farmers rated the utilities of agro-advisories high in relation to sowing and plant protection under aberrant weather conditions. Farmers who followed the agromet advisories were able to reduce the input cost and increase their profit. The 51 st Convocation of the Post Graduate School of IARI was held on February 15, Hon ble Lt. Governor, NCT of Delhi, Shri Tejendra Khanna was the chief guest and delivered the convocation address. A total of 100 M.Sc., 8 M.Tech., and 100 Ph.D. students were awarded degrees. In addition, the Institute also conducted several regular and short-term training courses.the institute also contributed towards strengthening research and higher education in agricultural sciences in Myanmar and Afghanistan. Agri-information and bioinformatics continued to receive the Institute s attention. The IARI Library continued to provide services to the students and the scientific community. The Institute brought out several quality publications in the form of scientific peer reviewed research papers, symposia papers, books/ chapters in books, popular articles, technical bulletins, regular and other technical publications, both in English and Hindi, to disseminate information on the Institute s mandated activities. With reference to protection of intellectual property, the Institute filed six new patents, renewed nine patents, protected eight varieties of different crops with PPV& FRA and signed 15 MOUs for commercialization of IARI technologies. Linkages and Collaborations continued to exist with several national and international institutions. Many scientists, students and faculty of the Institute received several prestigious awards and recognitions and brought laurels to the Institute. 9

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18 1. CROP IMPROVEMENT The crop improvement programme of the Institute is aimed at enhancing productivity and improving nutritional quality in different field crops through precision breeding, combining molecular markers assisted selection with conventional breeding. A number of improved varieties both in field and horticultural crops suiting to different environments and possessing resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses with desirable traits were developed. In addition to this, a large number of entries were promoted to advanced varietal trials of different All India Coordinated trials during the reporting period. Significant progress was also made in seed production and other aspects of seed quality to support the crop improvement programme. 1.1 CEREALS Wheat Varieties released HD An early maturing (121 days), semidwarf (93 cm) wheat variety, HD 3059 with an average yield of 4.25 t/ha and genetic potential of 5.94 t/ha under late sown, irrigated conditions was released for NWPZ by the Central Variety Release Committee. This variety possesses high degree of resistance to all the three rusts including stem rust race Ug99 and its variants. HD 3059 has a superior bread and chapatti making qualities. Wheat variety HD 3059 HW A wheat variety, HW 5216 developed at the Regional Station, Wellington was released for Southern Hills Zone with an average yield of 4.56 t/ha. It possesses high degree of resistance to leaf rust both under field and artificial conditions in addition to stem rust. It also exhibited high degree of seedling resistance to stem, leaf and yellow rusts. HW A semi-dwarf dicoccum (khapli) wheat variety, HW 1098 developed using irradiation technique at Regional Station, Wellington with an average yield of 4.55 t/ha was released for commercial cultivation. The variety HW 1098 has high level of seedling resistance to stem, leaf and yellow rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions Variety identified for release Pusa Mangal (HI 8713). A durum wheat variety HI 8713 developed at the Regional Station, Indore was identified for release for irrigated and timely-sown conditions of Central Zone. HI 8713 produced an average grain yield of 5.23 t/ha which was about 6% higher over the currently cultivated durum wheat varieties HI 8498 (Malavshakti) and MPO 1215; and around 10% higher over the most popular bread wheat variety Lok 1. It has high levels of resistance to stem and leaf rusts. It is rich in -carotene and micronutrients like iron and zinc Entries in coordinated trials A large number of wheat genotypes were evaluated in all India coordinated trials under various production conditions across the country Promising genotypes identified The wheat genotype HW 5224 which has diverse genetic resistance for leaf, stem and yellow rusts 11

19 Wheat genotypes evaluated in all India coordinated trials Trial consistently yielded better than the check. The high yielding disease resistant genotypes, viz., HW 5224, HW 4013, HW 4042, HW 5235, HW 5237, HW 1900 were promoted to AVT while HW , HW 4015, HW 5239, HW 5242, HW 5243, HW 5244 and HW 5555 were promoted to IVT for the southern zone. A semidwarf elite line HW 1099 was entered for testing in NIVT special trial on dicoccum. In addition, 18 lines were also included for testing in common varietal trials of IARI and 25 for disease screening nursery Breeding for cropping system under conservation agriculture practices Nineteen new high yielding lines from CSW 37 to CSW 55 were identified suitable to conservation agriculture practices and entered into common varietal trials for testing. A significant genotype x early seed sowing interaction was observed and CSW 18 was found to outperform checks like PBW 550, HD 2851, HD 2894 and DBW 17. Entries viz., HD 2532, 2535, 2536 and 2538 were found to perform well under rice-wheat cropping system. Two new entries consistently performed well in maize-wheat cropping system and one under both maize-wheat and pearl millet-wheat cropping systems Rice Entry Name (Zone) Advanced Varietal AVT II: HD 3076 (NEPZ), HD 3086 Trial (AVT) (NWPZ), HD 3090, HD 3093 (PZ) AVT I: HS 536, HS 542 (NHZ), HI 1588 (CZ) Durum: HI 8724, HI 8725, HI 8727, HI 8737, HI 8742 (CZ), HI 8728 (NWPZ), HI 8735 (CZ, NWPZ & PZ), HI 8736 (CZ, NWPZ), HI 8738, HI 8739 (NWPZ) National Initial HI 8746, HI 8747, HI 8748, HI 8749, HI Varietal Trial 8750, HI 8751, HI 8752, HI 8753, HI 8754, (NIVT) HI 8755, HI 1591, HI 1592, HI 1593, HI 1594, HI 1595, HI 1596, HI 1597, HI 1598, HW 5224, HW 4013, HW 4042, HW 5235, HW 5237, HW Varieties identified for release Pusa (IET 21960). An elite early maturing Basmati rice variety, Pusa (IET 21960) with seed to seed maturity ranging from 110 to 123 days and an average yield of 3.94 t/ ha was Pusa Pusa Basmati 1121 identified for release in the Basmati growing regions of the Uttar Pradesh and the National Capital Region of Delhi. Its performance was on a par in terms of yield and quality traits with Pusa Basmati It recorded an average yield advantage of 29.1 % over Taraori Basmati in the AICRIP trials during three consecutive years. It is the first early maturing Basmati rice variety with higher per day productivity (32.1 kg/ha) compared to the checks, Pusa Basmati 1 (29.6 kg/ ha) and Taraori Basmati (21.1 kg/ ha). It has moderate resistance to leaf blast and brown spot diseases. It possesses extra long slender grains (8.19 mm) with very occasional grain chalkiness, longer kernel length after cooking (18.2 mm), desirable ASV (7.0), intermediate amylose content (21.24%) and strong aroma. In the panel tests, Pusa was ranked as an excellent culture and was in the top two rated cultures among the Basmati varieties and other cultures tested for three consecutive years. Pusa is an early maturing variety and has a semi-dwarf stature with non-lodging and nonshattering habit and, thus, overcomes the major weaknesses of the most popular Basmati rice variety Pusa Basmati Being an early maturing variety, it can help saving upto 4 irrigations (33 % saving of water) compared to Pusa Basmati 1121, thus, economizing the cost of agri-inputs and permitting higher cropping intensity resulting in better economic gains to the farmers. Due to its semi-dwarf stature it produces 12

20 reduced crop residue (almost half of Pusa Basmati 1121 and CSR 30). Cultivation of the proposed variety will thus lead to significant reduction in pollution due to straw burning. This variety has also been recommended separately for release by the State Varietal Release Committee of Punjab as Pusa Punjab Basmati Pusa (IET 22290): Pusa (IET 22290), is a MAS derived blast resistant near isogenic line (NIL) of rice variety Pusa Sugandh 5, which was identified for release in the regions for which Pusa Sugandh 5 was released. Pusa was developed through marker assisted backcross breeding wherein two genes for blast resistance, namely, Pi54 and Piz5 which are very effective against the Magnoporthe oryzae strains prevailing in the Basmati growing region of the country. The variety has an extralong slender translucent grain with 53% mean head rice recovery and is strongly aromatic with high kernel length after cooking (15 mm) Entries in all India coordinated trials A total of six elite nominations in AICRIP Basmati trials were tested in AVT-BT trials, and in addition to Pusa (IET 21960), two other genotypes, the NILs in the background of Pusa Sugandh 5, namely, Pusa (IET 22289) possessing two Bacterial Blight (BB) resistance genes (Xa21 and xa13) and Pusa (IET 22290) possessing two blast resistance genes (Piz5 and Pi54) were also found to be superior. Additionally, two elite lines with BB and blast resistance in the background of PRR78, namely, Pusa (IET 22777) possessing xa13 and Xa21, and Pusa (IET 22778) possessing Piz5 and Pi54 were tested in Advanced Varietal Trial-1 of basmati varieties during 2012 and exhibited significant yield superiority over Pusa Basmati 1, Taroari Basmati and Pusa Basmati Based on yield, physico-chemical quality and panel acceptability scores these two cultures were promoted to Advanced Varietal Trial -2 of basmati varieties. A total of nine entries including three Basmati genotypes, two aromatic short grain genotypes, two medium slender grain genotypes and two hybrids were nominated in the IVT of the AICRIP trials based on their overall performance in the station trials at New Delhi Evaluation of newly identified potential hybrids A station trial of 21 hybrids was conducted during Kharif 2012, out of which five hybrids were identified to be superior to the popular hybrid Pusa RH 10. One of the hybrids was found to have significantly superior grain yield (9.27 t/ha) and nominated in the IHT trials during kharif Evaluation of Pusa Basmati 1 NILs with seven genes for blast resistance In order to develop isogenic lines of Pusa Basmati 1 carrying seven different genes (Pi54, Piz5, Pita, Pi1, Pib, Pi5 and Pi9) for blast resistance, advanced backcross derived lines were developed. A replicated trial of 40 homozygous advanced backcross derived lines carrying seven genes (Pi54, Pi1, Pita, Pi9, Pi5, Pib, Piz5), 80 homozygous lines carrying three genes (Pi54, Pi1, Pita) in Augmented Block Design and promising lines with different gene combinations were identified Maize Development of QPM inbreds In order to diversify QPM germplasm, a set of five released single cross normal hybrids (HM4, HM8, HM9, HM10 and HM11) with wide adaptability were targeted for marker aided introgression of opaque2 allele. HKI323, HKI1105 and HKI1128 were crossed with QPM donor parent (HKI161, CML161 and HKI193-1) for the conversion programme. Foreground selection was successfully carried out in BC 1 F 1, BC 2 F 1 and BC 2 F 2 Ear characteristics, silk colour, tassel type and plant characteristics of MAS derived QPM 13

21 generation. Homozygotes (o2o2) were selected in BC 2 F 2 generation and advanced further Maize improvement for high -carotene and specialty traits Marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) was undertaken to enhance -carotene concentration in seven elite inbreds (VQL1, VQL2, V335, V345, HKI1105, HKI323 and HKI161). The favourable allele of crtrb1 gene, capable of enhancing -carotene concentration in the maize kernel, was introgressed in the elite genetic background using gene-specific DNA marker. The concentration of -carotene among the backcross progenies ranged from 5.48 to μg/g across seven different populations. These improved inbreds hold significant promise in the biofortification programme. A wide array of corn hybrids developed from diverse sources of inbreds was tested and potential hybrids were identified in sweet corn (L8 xt1, L1 x T2, P10 x P1 and P4 x P11). These hybrid combinations possess >20% sugar (brix value) in the kernels at 20 days after pollination. In case of baby corn, BCG 5417 x 2256, BCG 5417 x 2271, BCG 5417 x 1887 and BCG 5414 x 3081 were found to be promising. The unfertilized baby ears conformed to the desirable traits such as cream colour, softness of the ear, sweetness and taste. Promising hybrid entry of pearl millet Pusa 1201 Development of Restorers. Elite restorers with good combining ability were used in hybridization programme to develop new ones with early days to flowering, good combining ability and spike traits. Six F 1 s were selected and three of them advanced to generate F 2, and three for developing three way crosses. New cytoplasmic male sterile lines. Twenty one designated CMS lines indented from ICRISAT were evaluated for their suitability to early maturity, disease resistance, spike thickness, compactness and overall agronomic score as well as their overall suitability in hybrid breeding programme with elite restorers of IARI Entries in Coordinated Trials Advanced hybrid & population entries of pearl millet tested under all India coordinated trials Trial Entry (Zone) IHT (Medium) Pusa 1304, Pusa 1309 (A & B) AHT -I (M) Pusa 1201 (A) Initial Population Trial Pusa Composite 706 (A & B) Advanced Population Trial Pusa Composite 701 (A & B) Maize improvement for high -carotene 1.2 PEARL MILLET Hybridization and Pre-breeding A total of 200 new hybrids possessing desirable traits like high grain and fodder yield were developed. 1.3 GRAIN LEGUMES Chickpea Varieties released Pusa Shaktiman (Pusa 5023). An extra large seeded Kabuli type chickpea variety, Pusa Shaktiman 14

22 (Pusa 5023) was released in 2012 for cultivation in rainfed and irrigated areas of Delhi and adjoining states in northern India. It is the first extra-large seeded Kabuli variety released in India with 100-seed weight 40g with an average yield of 2 t/ha and moderately resistant to soil borne diseases. Pusa Green 112. Green seeded chickpeas are in great demand in urban areas for culinary and table purposes. Pusa Green 112, a high yielding desi green seeded chickpea was identified for release having high resistance to Fusarium wilt and drought with an average yield of 2.3 t/ha and has a yield potential of 2.7 t/ha. Chickpea cv. Pusa Shaktiman Pusa Bheema (Pusa 5028). Pusa 5028 is the first desi extra-large seeded variety in India released in 2012 for Delhi and NCR region. It has a 100-seed weight more than 40 g and is suitable for cultivation in rainfed as well as irrigated conditions. It is moderatly resistant to soil borne diseases. Seeds of Pusa 5028 are attractive and light brown in colour. Chickpea var. Pusa Green 112 Pusa Bheema Varieties identified Pusa A large seeded Kabuli chickpea variety, Pusa 2085 was identified for release with a 100 seed weight of 36 g. The variety has an average yield of 2 t/ ha with a genetic yield potential of over 3 t/ha. It has a multiple disease resistance against dry root rot & stunt and moderate resistance to wilt & botrytis gray mold and is tolerant to collar rot Development of high yielding desi and Kabuli genotypes resistant to Fusarium wilt A set of 12 new entries were promoted to coordinated trials during Two medium seeded Kabuli entries (BG 3025 and BG 3026) and 2 extra-large seeded Kabuli varieties (BG 3022 and BG 3028) were promoted to AVT I trials. A set of 183 wilt resistant single plants (<10% wilt at maturity) were selected from F 4 (163), F 5 (537) and F 6 (103) progenies through screening in wilt sick plot. Crosses were attempted for developing high yielding early maturing lines with improved heat and drought tolerance and resistance to Fusarium wilt. Multiple Advance Generation Intercross (MAGIC) population (F 4 generation) were evaluated under normal and late sown conditions Entries in coordinated trials Two desi chickpea entries BG 3032 and BGD 1071 were promoted to AVT 1 (late sown trial). Three entries BG 3037, BG 3038 and BGD 1075 in late sown trials, 15

23 and two entries BG 3035 and BG 3036 in rainfed trials were entered in coordinated trials (IVT) Mungbean Hybridization and breeding Sixty five crosses were made to combine various traits,viz., MYMV resistance, earliness, seed boldness and drought & salinity tolerance in mungbean. Over 500 single plants were selected from various populations based on different attributes Screening for abiotic stress tolerance In mungbean two station trials were conducted during spring and kharif season. Among the evaluated entries two genotypes, KM and KM yielded better than the check. For abiotic stress tolerance, genotype MH-318 showed higher level of salinity and alkalinity tolerance based on growth reduction parameters, seedling survivability, relative water content and proline accumulation under saline soil conditions. Two genotypes Pusa-0672 (mungbean), and Mash-218 (urdbean) showed higher levels of aluminum tolerance based on growth reduction parameters and seedling survivability under soil conditions Lentil Hybridization and breeding Ninety crosses were made to combine traits like earliness, seed size, rust resistance, wilt resistance, abiotic stress resistance, and high Fe and Zn concentrations in seed. A set of 774 single plants were selected from different generations for further evaluation Pigeonpea Entries in coordinated trials Based on consistent superior performance in station trial over two years, two varieties,viz., Pusa and Pusa were found promising Hybridization and breeding A massive hybridization programme was undertaken during kharif 2011 to develop genotypes with short duration and bold seed size, and 33 F 2 generations were evaluated. Some of the cross combinations such as Pusa 33 x HDM04-1, Pusa 33 x AK N-82, Pusa 855 x HDM 04-1, UPAS-120 x HDM04-1, UPAS-120 x ICPL87091, AL201 x ICPL87091, x ICPL87091, Pusa 992 x AL201, S953 x H2001-4, PS956 x AL201, Pusa 2002 x Kudrat, Kudrat x AL201 and Kudrat x were found highly promising Hybrid breeding Search for new restorer: More than 500 advanced inter-specific (C. scarabaeoides x Pusa 33) lines of pigeonpea were raised during kharif Some of these lines showed profused bearing of flowers and good pollen load. Such male fertile (MF) genotypes from inter-specific cross and selfed progenies of MF genotypes were identified and test crosses were made with various A lines (male sterile line). Search for new A lines: Advanced inter-specific (C. scarabaeoides x Pusa 33) derivatives were also evaluated for male sterility along with compact and erect plant type. Some of the outstanding male sterile lines were identified with very good plant type with longer pods. Incorporation of male sterile cytoplasm: Backcrosses were made to transfer A 2 and A 4 cytoplasm into different genetic background which showed good combining ability. Male sterility was incorporated into Pusa Dwarf, a popular pigeonpea variety. 1.4 OILSEED CROPS Brassicas Variety proposed for identification Pusa Mustard 29 (LET-36): Mustard variety, Pusa Mustard 29 is a low erucic acid bold seeded variety of Indian mustard proposed for North Western Plains Mustard var. Pusa Mustard 29 16

24 Zone (north and north-western Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, plains of Jammu Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh) under irrigated conditions with an average seed yield of 2,169 kg/ha and potential seed yield of 3,005 kg/ha. This variety possesses 37.2% oil content. It matures in 143 days and has a moderate tolerance to high temperature at seedling and grain filling stage Entries in coordinated trials Entries tested in different All India Coordinated trials in Brassicas Trial Entry designation IVT- Early mustard (Irrigated) NPJ 172, NPJ 173 AVT-I Toria Early mustard (Irrigated) NPJ 162 IVT-Timely sown mustard (Irrigated) NPJ 174, NPJ 175 IVT-Timely sown mustard (Rainfed) NPJ 168, NPJ 169 AVT-I (Rainfed ) NPJ 156 IVT-Late Sown Mustard AVT-I Late Sown Irrigated NPJ 161 IVT- Quality Mustard AVT-I Quality Mustard LES 45 AVT-II Quality Mustard LES 43 NPJ 170, NPJ-171 LET 46, LET Hybridization and pre-breeding A total of 309 crosses involving popular varieties and advanced lines of mustard including 18 backcrosses were attempted, which included 120 crosses for improvement in yield, seed weight, siliqua size, branching and earliness etc. Various crosses were also made for quality breeding 0 (< 2% erucic acid) and 00 (< 2% erucic acid & < 30 ppm glucosinolate) between advance single zero genotypes, viz., LES 1-27, LES 43, LES 45, LES 46, LES 47, Heera, EC and other improved/ advanced lines. Fifteen crosses were attempted between different donors for white rust resistance for allelic studies. Likewise, to study the genetics of seed size in NPJ 161, NPJ 159 and Pusa Bold, eight backcrosses were made. Further to understand the genetics of purple pigmentation in a purple mutant, four backcrosses were generated. In addition 31 crosses for heat tolerance and 38 interspecific and other crosses between different Brassica species were also attempted Hybrid breeding Development of CMS lines: To develop CMS lines, 83 backcrosses were attempted in paired fashion to transfer the nuclear genome of 19 genotypes to the sterile cytoplasm viz., Moricandia arvensis (mori), Diplotaxis erucoides (eru) and Diplotaxis berthautii (ber). Development of Restorers: To transfer the fertility restorer genes, restoring fertility in mori, eru and ber cytoplasms, in 9 genetic backgrounds viz., NPJ 93, NPJ 112, LES 1-27, LES 39, Pusa Jagannath, Pusa Agarni, SEJ 8 and LET 17, 72 BC 2 crosses were attempted in paired fashion with heterozygous BC 1 F 1 plants. Identified as good combiners, conversion of 18 new genotypes viz., NPJ 161, NPJ 159, NPJ 113, BPR 543-2, VSL 11, TN 3, EJ 17, EJ 20, YSG, LES 43, LES 47, and Heera into mori/eru/bar restorers was initiated by making F 1 crosses with heterozygous Rf gene in BC 1 F 1 generation. 167 BC 1 F 1 / BC 2 F 1 / BC 3 F 1 / BC 2 F 2 progenies were raised to develop restorers for mori/eru/ber cytoplasms Breeding material evaluated and advanced A set of 1,330 progenies/ populations for early, timely and late sown conditions; and quality oil (low erucic acid and/or low glucosinolate) traits were raised for advancement. Another set of 369 single plants and 23 bulk populations were selected from early sown breeding material Advance generation short duration genotypes Five genotypes viz., MSTE-12-9 (2,465 kg/ha in 107 days), MSTE-12-4 (2,202 kg/ha in 105 days), MSTE (2,171 kg/ha in 106 days), MSTE-12-6 (2,168 kg/ha in 104 days) and MSTE-12-7 (2,160 kg/ha in 99 days) out of 24 tested in station trial out yielded the latest released check variety Pusa Mustard 28 (2,099 kg/ha in 107 days). Out of these, two best genotypes will be contributed for testing in the national trials for short duration B. juncea Soybean Varieties identified for release Pusa 14 (DS 2614): A soybean variety DS 2614 identified for release in Delhi NCR region by the IARI 17

25 variety identification committee. The variety has demonstrated a significantly higher yield over the best check SL 525 (8.9%). DS 2614 has resistance against yellow mosaic virus (YMV), Rhizoctonia Aerial Blight and Bacterial Pustule. It is moderately resistant to stem fly, and defoliators. DS 2614 is a medium-bold seeded variety having 100-seed weight of 9.93 grams. It has fairly good seed longevity and high oil content (20.26%). DS Varieties in pipeline DS 2706 and DS 2708 were promoted to AVT II in NWPZ Development of early maturing genotypes In order to develop genotypes maturing within days, crosses were attempted involving genotypes maturing in 68 (Sipani148) and 120 days (DS 9712). The F 2 plants were found segregating for days to maturity ranging from days. Further, backcrossing was attempted to recover the genome of DS 9712 with earliness. 1.5 FIBRE CROP Cotton Evaluation of promising material Cotton genotype P 2151 was promoted to advanced trial Br 04 (b) in central zone under rainfed conditions in AICCIP. The genotype P 5760 was promoted to Br 03(a) in north zone under irrigated conditions and P 2151 was retained in Br 03 (b) in south zone under rainfed conditions. Genotypes P 5430 and P 131 were sponsored for evaluation in national trial Br 02 (a) under irrigated conditions. Forty five genotypes were evaluated at 3 station trials and P 5618 showed the highest seed cotton yield of 2,641 kg/ha. P 2151 also recorded a very high yield (2640 kg/ha). Evaluation of another set of 68 genotypes showed P 51-P4, P11-1 and P Sel 2 as promising with seed cotton yield of 3,078 Kg/ha, 2,865 kg/ha and 2,497 kg/ha, respectively Multiplication of promising strains Seeds of varieties P 8-6, PSS 2 and P 31, and promising genotypes, P 5760, P 131, P 5630, P 2150, P 2151, P Sel. 2, P 23-1, P13-2, P were multiplied in large plots. 1.6 VEGETABLE CROPS Cole Crops Cauliflower Ninety five SI hybrids of early group cauliflower were evaluated. Hybrid 351 aa Hyb 85 recorded highest marketable curd (1140 g) as well as net curd (880 g) weight. Out of 14 CMS hybrids, 8498 Pusa Deepali recorded highest marketable curd and net curd ( and 950 g, respectively) weights. In mid- group, out of 36 SI hybrids CC 32 FC 278 recorded highest marketable curd (1850 g) and net curd (1510 g) weights. Out of 136 CMS hybrids evaluated, Hybrid recorded highest marketable curd and net curd (1972 and 1567 g) weights, followed by DB (1950 and 1660 g), respectively. In snowball group, out of 18 F 1 hybrids evaluated, highest marketable yield was recorded in KTH 122 (75.55 t/ha). Under resistance breeding programme, a total of 263 RILs of various generations (F 2:3, F 2:4, F 2:5, F 2:6 ) were evaluated for downy mildew resistance. Seven and 10 plants with highly resistant category (0 score) were obtained in F 2:6 generation of Pusa Himjyoti BR 2 combination and F 2:5 generation of BR-36 (Layna 522), respectively. A total of 152 NILs of various generations (F 2:3, F 2:4 ) were phenotyped for resistance to downy mildew disease. Twenty six and 20 plants with highly resistance category (0 score) were obtained in F 2:4 generation of 309 BR and F 2:3 of

26 , respectively. Twenty one inbred lines were assessed for resistance to black rot and downy mildew diseases. Genotypes BR 202-2, BR 161, BR 207, AL 3 and AL 15 were found to be resistant against downy mildew and AL 15, BR 161 and BR 1 against black rot disease Cabbage Variety released. At IARI Regional Station, Katrain one self-incompatibility system based F 1 hybrid, KGMR 1 was released as Pusa Cabbage Hybrid 1 by the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties for Horticultural Crops for Agroclimatic Zone-I & IV. This is an early maturing (55-60 days) hybrid with round and compact head and yielding t/ha. The hybrid has shown tolerance to black rot with better field staying capacity after maturity. red cabbage, out of 6 hybrids developed by using 3 CMS lines, hybrids 931 KR and 931 RCGA were found promising with 29.2 and 22.2 t/ha yields, respectively Cucurbitaceous Crops Bitter gourd Genotype registered. One predominately gynoecious line PreGy 1 which showed high female: male ratio (5:1 to 7:1) with a yield of 27.5 t/ha as against 17.8 t/ha in Pusa Do Mausami (check) was registered at NBPGR as INGR PreGy 1 Pusa CabbageHybrid-1 Promising genotypes. Two SI based cabbage hybrids KTCBH 51 and KTCBH 81 were evaluated in the AVT-II under the AICRP (VC) trials. One CMS based cabbage hybrid evaluated in IET gave superior performance with a yield of 65.2 t/ha at IARI Regional Station, Katrain. A flat head hybrid H (62.8 t/ ha) was found promising followed by H (55.8 t/ha) and H (52.7 t/ha). It was observed that hybrid S 645 S 691 had maximum heterosis for yield (46.7%) followed by S 645 S 696 (45.5%) and S 624 S 645 (37.2%). Out of 20 CMS based hybrids, Hybrid was found promising with 69.8 t/ha yield followed by hybrids (67.1 t/ha) and (65.5 t/ha).in Promising genotypes. Two entries (DBGS 37 and DBGS 57) were promoted to AVT-II under AICRP-VC trial. One variety DBGS 102 and two hybrids DBGH 12 (gyn mon) and DBGH 263 (mon mon) were promoted to AVT I under coordinated trials. One sequential fruited line DBGS 201 (Sel 1) produced 30.6 t/ha fruits as compared to 17.5 t/ha in Pusa Do Mausami (check).ten gynoecious based and one monoecious based hybrid were evaluated and compared with hybrids of private seed companies. Among these hybrids, DBGy 201 S 2 (Gy Mon) gave maximum yield (23.8 t/ha) followed by hybrid S 2 S 63 (Mon Mon) (21.3 t/ha). Four varieties were evaluated under insect proof net house in kharif season (July to November), the variety DBGS 54 yielded 474 kg fruits in 100 square 19

27 meter area. Among the hybrids evaluated under low cost polyhouse during winter season (December-April) the hybrid DBGy 201 DBGS 54 produced kg fruits in 100 square meter area Cucumber DBGS 54 Variety identified. First extra early improved variety of cucumber Pusa Barkha was identified for kharif season cultivation in North Indian plains. It has field tolerance to high humidity, high temperature and downy mildew disease with an average fruit yield of 18.8 t/ha. Promising genotypes. Cucumber selections DC 54 and DC 78 and F 1 hybrid DCH 6 were advanced to AVT-II of AICRP (VC). During spring summer season selections DC 54 and DC 78 yielded 18.5 and 17.9 t/ha, Pusa Barkha respectively. Tropical gynoecious lines DGC 3, DGC 10 and DGC 102 showed stable performance at higher temperature under net house. Out of 30 F 1 hybrids evaluated, DCH 6 and DCH 9 yielded 21.1 and 20.5 t/ ha, showed an increase of 20.6% and 17.1% higher yield than the check Pant Sankar Khira 1 (17.5 t/ha), respectively. Under kharif trial, selections DC 70 (PDI=7.2%) and DC 77 (PDI= 8.6%) showed high resistance to downy mildew disease. The F 1 hybrids DCH 16 (21.6 t/ha) and DCH 19 (21.2 t/ha) also showed high yield and resistance to downy mildew disease. The parthenocarpic lines Sel. DPaC 6, DPaC 9 and DPaC 10, predominantly gynoecious line DC 128 and gherkin lines DG 5, DG 8 and DG 11 were observed highly promising for yield and resistance to downy mildew under polyhouse during winter Luffa Genotype registered. Luffa (sponge gourd) genotype DSG 6 (IC ; INGR 12013), resistant to Tomato Leaf curl New Delhi Virus was registered at NBPGR. Promising genotypes. Selections DSG 43 (15.4 t/ ha) and DSG 48 (14.7 t/ha) and F 1 hybrids DSGH 3 (16.8 t/ha) and DSGH 9 (16.2 t/ha) were found to be highly promising for yield. DSG 48, DSG 104 and F 1 hybrids DSGH 3 and DSGH 9 are advanced to AVT-II of AICRP (VC). In ridge gourd, DRG 74 and F 1 hybrid DRGH 4 were found promising with an average yield of 17.5 t/ ha and 18.9 t/ha, respectively. A gynoecious genetic stock was developed which segregates into gynoecious and hermaphrodite (Satputia) in the ratio of 1:1 and maintained by utilizing Satputia as pollen parent. Ridge gourd Sel. DRG 7 was advanced to AVT-II of AICRP (VC) Pumpkin Selections DPU 48, DPU 12 and DPU 37 yielded 35.33, and t/ha and showed an increase of 35.88%, 27.46% and % over the check PusaVishwas (26.00 t/ha), respectively Muskmelon and watermelon The muskmelon genotype DM 148 was found to be highest yielder (22.7 t/ha) with a yield advantage of 18% over Pusa Madhuras along with good quality (TSS 20

28 11.6). The other superior lines with respect to yield were DM 151(21.6 t/ha) and DM 154 (20.8t/ha) with desirable fruit quality attributes. Among F 1 hybrid combination, DMH 3, DMH 5 and DMH 12 were found promising for fruit yield, early maturity and quality traits. The F 1 s between muskmelon lines (Hara Madhu and Pusa Madhuras) and snap melon lines (DSM 11 and DSM 12) were found to have moderate resistance to Fusarium wilt suggesting dominant nature of inheritance. Icebox type watermelon lines, PWMH (7.8 mg/100 g) and IPWM (7.2 mg/100 g), containing high lycopene were selected Minor cucurbits In summer squash, selection DS 8 (15.14 t/ha) was found to be the most promising and the yield advantage was % higher than that of the local check (11.52 t/ha). In long melon, selections DLM 27 and DLM 34 yielded and t/ha, respectively. In round melon, selections DRM 26 and DRM 44 yielded 6.73 and 6.59 t/ha, respectively Solanaceous Crops Brinjal The selections DBR 190 (green round fruited) and DBSR 195 were found promising with a yield of 43.8 and 36.2 t/ha, respectively. Among 72 F 1 hybrids evaluated, DBHR 9 (purple round), DBHR 38 (purple round) and DBHL 155 (white oblong) were found promising with a yield of 54.4, 52.8 and 51.7 t/ha, respectively. Lines DBR 569 and BL 1 were found tolerant to phomopsis blight Tomato DT 7 (determinate type) was promoted to AVT-II of AICRP (VC). During kharif season, selections SPS 2, SPS 3, SPS 5, BAR 13, H 88-2, TH , H and hybrid combinations TH 348 H 88, H 86 H-88 and H 86 H 24 were found resistant to ToLCV. Out of 96 genotypes, F 1 crosses PSH PS, 120 PS and 3900 PS recorded fruit setting at high day and night temperature and yielded 21, 20, and19.5 t/ha, respectively. Selection Lp 2 and Pusa Sadabahar were found tolerant to low temperature. In cherry tomato three red fruited and one orange fruited lines were found promising Chilli Out of 74 genotypes DCH and DCH were found promising with a yield of t/ha and t/ha, respectively. Two genotypes, DCS-LCV-P1 and KA-LCV-P2, for leaf curl tolerance and one,vnr- 314-F4-P3, for high temperature tolerance were identified Capsicum At IARI Regional Station, Katrain, thirteen germplasm lines were found promising and genotypes KT 5 (29.1 t/ha), Banglore 42 (28.0 t/ha) and Banglore 38 (25.9 t/ha) were found promising having medium sized green fruits. In paprika, genotype DP 2 ranked first in fruit yield/ha. Out of twenty five F 1 cross combinations evaluated, three, namely, Sel-12-2 Palam Bell (45.0 t/ha), Yolo Wonder SolanBharpoor (39.3 t/ha) and Yellow Capsicum Yolo Wonder (37.8t/ ha) were found to surpass the standard checks Nishat and PusaDeepti for marketable fruit yield and other traits Root and Bulbous Crops Tropical carrot Variety identified. PusaVasuda is the first public sector tropical carrot hybrid developed using CMS system. Its roots are smooth, attractive, vigorous, selfcoloured, red, sweet, juicy, rich in total carotenoids, lycopene, TSS and minerals. It is suitable for salad, juice extraction, cooking and carotenoid extraction industry and gives an average yield of 40 t/ha. Pusa Vasuda 21

29 Promising lines and hybrids. Under hot and humid condition, 27 genotypes were evaluated by sowing in the first week August. Five genotypes were found promising having normal desirable roots with least forking and an average root weight ranging from g (IPC 10) to 180 g (IPC 31 P-1). Nine hybrids were of high quality for root shape, surface, external and internal colour and external appearance, and root weight varied from 86.7 to g. Under October sowing conditions, maximum root length was observed in IPC 104 orange (27.87 cm) followed by IPC 100 (27.33 cm), root diameter was highest in IPC 55 Red (4.88 cm) followed by IPC 104 orange (4.79 cm), and root weight was maximum in IPC 104 orange (253.3 g) followed by PM Dark orange (220 g). Among 87 CMS lines, highest root length was noted in IPC 126 P-8 (31 cm) followed by IPC P-2 (29.6 cm), root diameter was maximum in IPC P-1 (5.70 cm) followed by IPC P-2 (5.54 cm), and root weight was highest in IPC P-1 and IPC 98a BP P-5 (300 g) Temperate carrot CMS based hybrids, KTCH 1020 (49.5 t/ha), KTCH 1022 (44.1 t/ha) and KTCH (43.7 t/ha) superseded the check hybrid Pusa Nayanjyoti (42.5 t/ ha) with 16.5%, 3.8% and 2.8% increase in yield, respectively Radish Pusa Jamuni. It is a purple fleshed nutritionally rich radish variety. It has distinct advantage in root size, shape, yield and consumer preference over the existing varieties. It contains high anthocyanins and ascorbic acid with an average yield 50 t/ha. Pusa Gulabi. It is a pink fleshed nutritionally rich radish variety having medium root size, cylindrical shape, optimal yield and consumer preference over the existing varieties. It contains high carotenoids, anthocyanins and optimal ascorbic acid and gives an average yield of 60 t/ha Onion Pusa Gulabi Pusa Riddhi. Bulbs of this variety are compact in nature, flat globe in shape, and dark red in colour. The equatorial diameter of bulbs ranges from 4.5 to 6.0 cm, polar diameter ranges from 4.8 to 6.3 cm and single bulb weight ranges from 70 to 100 g. It is pungent and rich in antioxidant (quercetin mg/100 g). The variety is suitable for kharif and rabi seasons. The variety is also suitable for storage and export with an average yield of t/ha, an average increase of 28.60% over the check (28.53 t/ha). Pusa Jamuni Pusa Riddhi 22

30 Pusa Soumya. This is the first bunching onion variety proposed for commercial cultivation in India. This multi-cut variety is suitable for green onion production round the year. It produces bluish green leaves and clumps can be separated for further multiplication. The variety is least affected by pests and diseases and has an average yield potential of t/ ha from single harvest. Pusa Soumya Promising genotypes. During rabi season trial, Sel. 121 (Pink) (33.7 t/ha), Sel. 397 (dark red) (31.5 t/ ha) and Sel. 131 (White) (30.2 t/ha) were found promising compared to Pusa Red (20.8 t/ha). Hybrids developed using tropical short day male sterile line 121(A), namely, Sel. 121(A) EG (39.7t/ha), Sel..121(A) I-33 (37.5 t/ha) and Sel. 121 (A) Sel. 131(35.6 t/ha) were found superior for bulb yield to the best commercial hybrid Flare (32.8 t/ha). Sel. 121(A) Sel. 383 was found superior for anthocyanin, CUPRAC, K and Fe content.in kharif season white coloured selection, Sel. 106 (yield: t/ha and water productivity 8.5 kg/m 3 ) was found most promising next to Agrifound Dark Red. (28.94 t/ha and 9.8 kg/m 3 ). Sel. 383 was found promising for FRAP and CUPRAC (1.21ìmol trolox/g and 2.78 ìmoltrolox/g, respectively), Sel. 157 ( mg GAE/ 100g) for total phenol content and Sel for TSS ( Brix) Leguminous Crops Garden pea Out of nine early maturing varieties, GP 17 was found promising and recorded highest pod yield ( t/ha) under high temperature. At IARI, Regional Station, Karnal, GP 17 also recorded highest pod yield (8.38 t/ha) against Arkel (7.14 t/ha) under November sowing. However, GP 473, a medium maturing and highly resistant to powdery mildew variety, recorded 9.85 t/ha pod yield at IARI, Karnal during Among new early maturing lines, GP 901 and GP 902 were found completely resistant to powdery mildew having long curved green pods with 8-9 seeds/pod. Among edible podded peas, GPE 1 (6.54 t/ha) and GPE 4 (7.33 t/ha) were found highly resistant to powdery mildew disease Broad bean Pusa Udit. Pods of Pusa Udit are extra-long, flattish and light green. Fresh seeds have attractive green colour and good in taste. This is a dual purpose broad bean variety. Both tender pods and dried seeds are edible. The variety is suitable for packaging and transport. It has an average yield potential of t/ ha, which is 88.52% higher than that of earlier released variety Pusa Sumeet. Pusa Udit Minor legumes Dolichos bean. DB 7 (dark green with purple sutures), DB 10 (long white straight pod), DB 14 (pink medium) and DB 15 (pink long), and medium 23

31 maturing lines DB 3 (long green pod with purple suture), DB 5 (purple-red pod), DB 12 (light green) and DB 9 (long green straight pod) were found promising. Cowpea. The lines CP 5, CP11, CP 19, CP 21, CP 24, CP 26, CP 55, CP 56 and Pusa Sukomal were found resistant to Cowpea Golden Mosaic Virus Malvaceous Crop Okra Out of 164 genotypes of okra evaluated for yield, fruit quality traits and YVMV resistance, DOV 66, DOV 64 and DOV 62 were found resistant to YVMV up to 90 days of sowing. Out of 82 F 1 cross combinations, DOH 1 and DOH 2 were earliest (50 % flowering in 43 days), had dark green fruits with heavy fruiting and yielded 21.5 and 22.7 t/ha, respectively Leafy Vegetables Palak Among six genotypes of palak, Selection GS recorded 28 % higher vitamin C than Pusa Bharati. In spinach, Selection VS type was found high yielding and late in bolting with higher vitamin C and carotenoid content 24.3% and 8.5%, respectively, than Virginia Sivoy Fenugreek Out of 19 methi genotypes, BJF 8 gave maximum yield (14. 4 t/ha) followed by Selection MPB (13.9 t/ ha), and vitamin C content ranged from 7.56 to mg/100 g whereas total carotenoid from 15.8 to 60 mg/ 100 g Lettuce Progambo was observed to have the highest leaf yield of 1.75 kg/ plant followed by Gallega (1.00 kg). Stem Lettuce Angustana had the highest CUPRAC (1.984 μmoltrolox/g) and FRAP content (4.696 μmoltrolox/g), Reina De Mai Pleine Terre had the highest lycopene content (18.72 mg/100g) while Wonder Von Stuttgart had the highest total carotenoid of mg/100g. The lowest phenolic content (41.94) was present in Arctic Kwig. 1.7 FRUIT CROPS Mango Promising genotypes Forty five mango hybrids which came into fruiting were evaluated for different physico-chemical parameters. Fruit weight ranged from g in H 1-9 to g in H 1-5. Pulp weight was found to be maximum in H 11-2 and minimum in H 1-9 and pulp per cent ranged from in H 1-10 to in H Pulp TSS was maximum in H (26.8%) and minimum (11.88%) in H The Peel thickness was the maximum in H 8-11(1.63 mm) and minimum in H 2-13 (0.89 mm). An open-pollinated Selection 1 of Amrapali having large fruit ( g) with fruit dimension of 12.2 cm 6.9 cm and pulp weight g was also found promising. This selection was found superior to original Amrapali with respect to yield and quality traits. H 11-2 H

32 Pollen-pistil interaction The pollen-pistil interactions in Amrapali as a result of self, open and cross-pollination with cv. Sensation was studied. The study indicated that selfpollination in Amrapali (1133flowers) resulted in rapid decline in fruit set (0.26%) after 25 days of pollination. In contrast, cross-pollination with Sensation (637 flowers) resulted in 32 fruits (5.02%) after 25 days of pollination. Results of the present investigation clearly indicate that Amrapali does not favour self-pollination. However, cross-pollination resulted in substantial fruit set Citrus Malta sweet orange. Eleven malta accessions were evaluated and compared with Jaffa and Valencia Late, standard sweet orange cultivars as check. The heavier fruits were recorded in MS 3 ( g) followed by MS 7 ( g). Juice content varied from 38.19% in MS 3 to 55.00% in MS 16 and total soluble solids (TSS) content was found to be the highest in MS 2 (11.3%) followed by MS 16 ( The lowest juice acidity was recorded in MS-5 (0.66%) and highest in MS 13 (1.18%). Higher ascorbic acid content was estimated in Jaffa (40.35 mg/100 ml juice) followed by MS 7 (39.60 mg/ 100 ml juice). The highest yield per plant was recorded in MS 13 (31.07 kg) followed by MS 7 (23.36 kg). heaviest fruit was recorded in P 7 ( g) followed by P 9 ( g). The peel thickness was found to be minimum in P 12 and juice TSS ranged between 8.5% in P 7 to 10.0% in P 11. The ascorbic acid content was found to be maximum in P 11, while acidity was minimum in P 12. Grapefruit. Five grapefruit cultivars, namely, Marsh Seedless, Red Blush, Imperial, Foster, and Duncan were evaluated for yield and quality parameters. The maximum fruit weight was found in Foster (408.8 g) followed by Duncan (293.6 g) whereas juice recovery was recorded the highest in Imperial (57.77%) followed by Red Blush (56.21%). Marsh Seedless had the lowest acidity (0.92%), while TSS was recorded the highest in Imperial (10.57%). Fruit yield varied from 8.94 kg/plant in Redblush to kg/plant in Marsh SL Grape Promising genotypes. Out of 35 genotypes, Tas-e- Ganesh had the highest bunch weight (550 g) and TSS (22.5%). Centennial Seedless was the promising exotic genotype having moderate bunch size (279.0 g) with self berry thinning type as well as berry size (2.2 g). These varieties can be recommended for commercial cultivation in north India. Amongst 16 hybrids evaluated, Hybrid (Hur BE) BS matured early followed by Hybrid Hur Card Hybrids BA Per 75-32, (Hur BE) BS are good quality seedless type, while Hybrid Hur Card 76-1 is seeded type with large berry (5.0 g) and suitable for table purpose and munnakka making. MS 13 MS 5 Mosambi sweet orange. Maximum fruit weight ( g) was observed in MOS 6 and juice recovery in MOS 2 (31.04%). Seeds per fruit varied from 13 in MOS 16 to in MOS 2. Variant MOS 6 also had higher TSS. The lowest acidity was recorded in MOS 5. The highest per plant yield was recorded in MOS 3 (12.80 kg) followed by MOS 7 (2.91 kg). Pummelo. Six pummelo genotypes were evaluated for various physico-chemical parameters and the Promising grape hybrids 25

33 Performance of some promising grape hybrids Hybrid/genotype Ripening Av. no. of Av. bunch Av. berry TSS Remarks date bunches/ vine wt. (g) wt. (g) (%) BA Per th June Yellowish seedless berry, suitable as table grape Hur Card th June Yellowish bold berry, seeded, suitable as table grape and also for Munnakka making. (Hur BE) BS 1 st June Yellowish-green round berry, seedless suitable as table grape Perlette 1 st June Greenish-yellow berries Six genotypes were evaluated for pigments and flavour compounds. It was found that PusaNavrang had highest phenol content (332 mg GAE/100 g) followed by Hybrid 76-2 (MA RR) (280.8 mg GAE/ 100 g). Pusa Navrang had highest total flavonoids followed by Hybrid 76-2 (MA RR) and Black Muscat. Pusa Navrang also contained highest total monomeric anthocyanin content ( mg/ l), while Alumwick had the lowest content ( mg/l) Papaya Promising genotypes. The highest fruiting zone was recorded in P 7-9 genotype (123 cm) followed by TGP 7 (109 cm) and RCTP 1 (107 cm), whereas it was lowest in Pusa Nanha (78 cm). The fruits of Sinta hybrid were superior having uniform fruit size, flesh thickness, minimum central cavity and maximum shelf-life (8 days). The total soluble solids were maximum in Surya ( Brix) followed by P 7-9 ( Brix) and Red Lady ( Brix). The Sinta P 7-9 maximum viral symptoms were observed in Surya followed by Red Lady and Arka Prabhat, minimum in P 7-9 followed by PSL 3 and RCTP 1. The maximum fruit yield per plant was recorded in P 7-9 (55.6 kg) followed by RCTP 1 and TGP 7 (50.2 kg), PSL 3 (46.5 kg), P 7-2 (46.0 kg), Sinta (40.5 kg) and Pusa Nanha (35.6 kg), whereas it was lowest in Surya (15.6 kg) followed by Red Lady (18.6 kg). At Regional Station, Pusa (Bihar), Pusa Dwarf showed lowest plant height (112.2 cm), number of nodes (24.8) and girth (18 cm) at first flowering. Maximum number of fruits (56.8) was found in Pusa Papaya 2-8 and highest fruit weight (2.12 kg) and T.S.S (11.6%) were observed in Pune Selection 3. Pusa Selection Red recorded the highest yield per plant (79.0 kg). Pune Selection 2 and Pune Selection 3 showed tolerance to ring spot virus disease in the first year trial whereas the maximum incidence (82.41%) was observed in Pusa Delicious ORNAMENTAL CROPS Gladiolus Hybrids identified for release. Two hybrids Berlew Heady Wine (Tall) and Berlew Heady Wine were identified for release as Pusa Unnati and Pusa Srijana, respectively. Pusa Unnati attained a height of cm and produced spikes having spike length of cm and rachis length of cm. However, Pusa Srijana attained a height of cm having spike length of cm, rachis length of cm with number of florets/spike. 26

34 Pusa Srijana Pusa Unnati Pusa Kesari Chrysanthemum Varieties identified Pusa Arunodaya. It is a gamma ray induced pink coloured mutant of cv. Thai Chen Queen, which is orange in colour. Pink coloured ray florets (65D) appeared as chimers which were used for in vitro regeneration to establish as a new variety. The plants are medium in height (50-55 cm) with good spread (60-65 cm). The semi double flowers are big (7-8 cm diameter) with incurving ray florets. The variety is suitable as a cut flower and pot culture for exhibition purposes. used for in vitro regeneration to establish as a new variety. The plants are tall in height (65-70 cm) with good spread (60-65 cm). The semi double flowers are big (9-10cm diameter) with incurving ray florets. The variety is suitable as a cut flower and pot culture for exhibition purposes. Pusa Aditya. It is an open pollinated seedling of cv.jaya. The plants are bushy (30-35 branches) and medium in height (55-60 cm) with moderate spread (45-50 cm). The spray type variety is a unique, bearing star shaped semi-double flowers that resemble that of a gazania. The flowers are yellow in colour (5 A) at the periphery with orange red colour (45A) in the center. The florets are spatulate with distinct keel. This attractive variety is suitable for cut flower and potted plant. Pusa Arunodaya Pusa Kesari. It is also a gamma ray induced red coloured mutant of cv. Thai Chen Queen. Red coloured ray florets (171A) appeared as chimers which were Pusa Aditya Pusa Aditya 27

35 Pusa Chitraksha. It is an open pollinated seedling of cv. Lal Pari. The plants are bushy (24-30 branches), tall in height (60-65cm) with excellent spread (60-65 cm). The variety is a spray type producing single flowers having deep magenta colour, which is unique in chrysanthemum. The florets are spatulate in shape with magenta colour (59A) at the periphery with silvery white ray floret tube. The disc florets are yellow (12A) providing a very good contrast. Owing to its floriferous nature the variety is suitable for potted plant and garden display. Pusa Chtraksha Pusa Sona. It is an open pollinated seedling of cv. Sadbhawana. Plants are bushy (20-25 branches), extremely dwarf in height (25-30 cm) with excellent spread (50-55 cm). The spray type variety produces single flowers that are yellow in colour (8A). The disc florets are also yellow (12C). The variety is an early flowering.the flowering commences by the last week of October while other varieties bloom in the third week of November giving an advantage of at least 20 days. The variety is ideally suited for pot mums Bougainvillea Stem cuttings of bougainvillea varieties were treated with gamma rays. After six month of planting, the results revealed that sprouting was % in Elizabeth Angus, 55.00% in Blondie and 40.00% in Mahara at 2.5 Gy dose of gamma rays. Two mutants, one each from Golden Glow and Lady Mary Baringalong with one natural bud sports of Dr. Bhabha were evaluated. All the three mutants were stable in terms of colour of the bracts which differed remarkably from their respective parents Lilium At IARI Regional Station, Katrain, the F 1 Oriental hybrids were backcrossed to diploid Asiatic hybrid cv. Pollyanna. Seedling of different progenies were harvested and evaluated. Maximum number of seedlings (11.0) and size of bulblets (6.8mm) was observed in Stargazer Pollyanna cross combination. In inter-ploidy crosses (4x) (2x) these values were maximum in Grand Paradiso Pollyanna. Stargazer Pollyanna Grand Paradiso (4x) Pollyanna (2x) Pusa Sona The alteration in morphology was observed after irradiation of lily bulbs. The changes included differences in flower development, double inflorescence, increase or decrease in tepal numbers and distorted leaves. 28

36 Seven petals Five petals Double inflorescence Tulip At IARI Regional station, Katrain, three varieties of tulip, namely, Apeldoorn, Golden Melody and Strong Gold were irradiated with gamma radiation (5, 10 and 20 Gy). At higher dose of gamma radiation large number of flower buds dried before opening. The irradiated bulbs produced less number of bulbs and bulblets than those of control. Stained pollen from flowers of freshly opened [A], [B], [C], [D], [E], 5 day old [F]; G and H Staining of Viable and Non-Viable pollen; Pod and seed set from pollen f & 3 and 4 day old flowers. (I&J) Development of Seed Production Technology for Hybrid Bitter Gourd Original flower Mutant flower 1.9 SEED SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Studies on Self-incompatibility and Protogyny System in Indian mustard and Seed Production in CGMS and SI based Hybrids Flowers of SI-Pg lines of Indian mustard were treated with growth regulators, such as, Kinetin, GA 3, IAA and NAA, and histidine amino acid to validate the seed set response. Highest number of seeds per pod was recorded in Kinetin (5mg/ 50ml) and histidine (1000 ppm). Analysis of the pollen viability of these lines at differential maturity stage, i.e., from freshly opened flower to 8 days after anthesis showed that pollens collected after 3 and 4 days of anthesis showed maximum viability ( %) leading to optimum seed setting ( seeds/ pod). Seed production technology was standardized for bitter gourd hybrids, Pusa Hybrid 1 and Pusa Hybrid 2. Stigma remained receptive up to one day both under open field and net house conditions, but fruit and seed setting was higher when pollination was done between 7 am and 12 noon. GA 3 (50ppm) sprayed at three leaf stage, tendril initiation and bud initiation was found View of hybrid seed production of bitter gourd in Insect proof net house 29

37 to be the most effective for induction of more female flowers, higher fruit and seed setting, number of fruits/ vine and seed yield for hybrid seed production of Pusa Hybrid-1. Hand pollination done once per flower was found to be the best for higher fruit setting as well as seed yield. Storability studies indicated springsummer-produced seeds had higher germination, vigour and storability as compared to kharif season Development of Seed Testing Protocol in Caraway Freshly harvested seeds of Caraway (Carum carvi L.) exhibited non-deep physiological dormancy for about 2-3 months. Seed deterioration in Carway was recorded to be fast. This was attributed to a low molecular weight carbonyl compound emitted by the seed that can be highly active against proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Seeds stored with higher moisture content (i.e., 8, 10 to 12%) lost viability within 6, 9 and 18 months of storage under ambient condition, respectively, while storage of seeds with similar moisture content at 20 o C could retain upto 50 % seed germinability Assessing Genetic Purity in Hybrid Seed Studies were conducted to identify molecular markers for ensuring the purity of hybrids of brinjal, maize and cotton, and their respective male and female parents. In brinjal validity of identified markers for testing the genetic purity in comparison with that of GOT was established in variety PH-5 and PH-9. Six SSR markers were identified for each of three brinjal hybrids, which could be used for ensuring the hybridity as well as extant of selfed seeds in hybrid seed lots of PUSA 9, PUSA 5 and Kashi Komal. Duplex PCR technique was developed to establish the identity of these hybrids/variety. In case of cotton, out of 40 microsatellite markers studied, 10 markers, i.e., BNL169, BNL2590, BNL 2895, BNL 840, BNL 2544, BNL1350, BNL 3255, BNL 2895 BNL 2572 and BNL3441 were found polymorphic among the parents of two interspecific cotton hybrids DCH32 and RAHB87. Maize hybrids (12) and the respective parental inbreds were screened for hybrid purity test by SSR markers. Two SSR markers for hybrid Vivek QPM-9, one SSR marker each for Vivek Hybrid 9, HQPM 1 and HM-11 were identified for distinguishing hybrids from its parental inbreds Pre-sowing Seed Treatments for Enhancing Crop Productivity Seed Priming High and low seed vigour lots of maize (HQPM-1) and sweet corn were exposed to hydro priming or halo priming (0.3% KNO 3 ), for 17h at 25 o C followed by dry dressing with thiram (3g/kg seed) and evaluated for field emergence, speed of emergence, seedling root growth (length, surface area, volume), early vegetative growth, plant height and seed yield. Treated seeds performed better than the non-treated control. In okra varieties, A-4 and Varsha Uphar, seeds treated with osmo priming (PEG MPa) improved field emergence, speed of germination, seedling vegetative growth, vigour and root development, especially under suboptimum conditions (Min. temp O C during 4 th week of February). In wheat, halo priming with KNO 3 (0.3%) followed by treatment with Neem Khali (10g/kg seed) was found effective in improving crop establishment and final plant stand, and was demonstrated on farm trials in Madhya Pradesh. A Duplex PCR technique for ensuring the identity and seed purity in brinjal hybrids and parental lines (F: female parent, H: hybrid, M: male parent) B Field emergence in osmo primed (A) and non-treated control (B) seeds of Okra 30

38 Identifying the seed vigour traits associated with drought tolerance in wheat Wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed for drought tolerance, were studied for seed and seedling vigour traits, especially pre-anthesis biomass production. Trial conducted under irrigated field conditions showed highly significant association (r=0.50) between root biomass (< 10 cm depth) and preanthesis shoot biomass. Genotypes showed wide variation in initial and final germination percentage, root and shoot length, and 1000-seed weight To Study the Effect of Different Growing Conditions on Stage of Harvest in Hybrid Seed Production in Cucumber The effect of stage of fruit harvest, i.e., 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 days after anthesis in cucumber cv. Pant Shankar Khira-1on fruit and seed quality was studied under naturally ventilated poly house (NVPH), insect proof net house (IPNH) and open field conditions (OFC). These three environments significantly influenced the fruit and seed development process. As a result under IPNH the fruit weight in summer (580.33g) and kharif (684.00g); number of filled seeds in summer (154.46) and kharif (169.33) were higher compared to NVPH and OFC Effect of Berry Pruning and Trusses Retention of on Seed Yield & Quality Attributes of Cherry Tomato under Different Environmental Conditions In the experiment conducted under different environmental conditions at the Center for Protected Cultivation Technology during winter summer season on cherry tomato Pusa selection-1, it was observed that 10 fruits/5 trusses recorded the highest berry weight followed by 10 fruits/7 trusses and 15 fruits/5 trusses under environmentally controlled poly house (ECPH) followed by NVPH and IPNH. The findings indicated that pruning of berries/truss as well as retaining of trusses/plant positively influenced the weight, width and length of berries, and enhanced seed germination and seed weight under ECPH followed by NVPH and IPNH conditions, when compared to un-pruned trusses Effect of Pollination Time on Fruit Set and Seed Yield under Different Conditions in Hybrid Seed Production of Cucumber The hand pollination was carried out at 7.00, 9.00 and AM under three sets of conditions viz., ECPH, NVPH and IPNH. During summer season, pollination at 7.00 AM gave higher fruit set (3.76) and number of fruit developed to maturity (2.30). Additionally, the number of filled seeds per fruit, 100-seed weight, seed yield per fruit was also significantly higher at 7.00 AM pollination Seed Production The Seed Production Unit (Delhi) and regional stations of IARI at Karnal, Pusa, Dharawd and Wellington produced nucleus, breeder, IARI seeds and fruit saplings of different crops during the year. Production of seeds (tons) and planting material (no.) Crop group Nucleus seed Breeder seed IARI seed Total seed Seed Production Unit, Delhi Wheat Paddy Maize Pearl millet (Parental lines) Mungbean Pigeonpea Chickpea

39 Crop group Nucleus seed Breeder seed IARI seed Total seed Lentil Dhaincha Mustard Soybean Vegetables and flowers Fruit saplings (Number) Regional Station, Karnal Cereals Forages Oil seeds Pulses Vegetables Regional Station, Indore Wheat Maize Soybean Papaya Regional Station, Pusa Wheat Paddy Pigeonpea Maize Papaya Lentil Tobacco Mungbean Mustard Cauliflower Okra Peas Regional Station, Katrain Vegetables Regional Station, Dharwad Pearl millet Pulse (Chickpea) Regional Station, Wellington Wheat

40 2. GENETIC RESOURCES Plant genetic resources are the reservoirs of variability in crops which is crucial for crop improvement. The institute has an in-built programme in different crops for collection, characterization and utilization of germplasm to strengthen the genetic base and improvement of crop varieties. A huge collection of landraces, released varieties, wild and weedy species of crop plants have been maintained and utilized in the breeding programmes of the Institute. The chapter also includes biosystematics and identification services related to fungi, insects and nematodes to explore, conserve and enrich the culture collection. 2.1 CROP GENETIC RESOURCES Wheat Maintenance and utilization of wild relatives About 250 accessions of wild relatives of wheat were maintained including diploid, tetraploid as well as hexaploid species. The introgression of rust resistance genes from several wild species such as Aegilops markgrafii (2n=2X=14, genome CC), Ae. Speltoides (2n=2x=14, genome SS), Triticum militinae (2n=4x=28, genome AAGG) and T. turgidum (2n=4x=28, genome AABB) are in advanced stage. Leaf rust registant Ae. speltoides and Ae. markgrafii derivatives were crossed with NI 5439 and Agra Local to study mode of inheritance and possibly determine the identity of gene through molecular mapping Germplasm maintained About 90 CMS and 70 fertility restorer lines of wheat developed so far were maintained and utilized. Monosomic series in Chinese spring and Lal Bahadur were maintained cytologically. A set of 1,259 indigenous and exotic genetic stocks collected from different sources for moisture stress, early and terminal heat stress, leaf, stem and stripe rusts, and foliar blight were maintained in the field conditions Pre-breeding Creation of new genetic variability and handling of breeding material. One hundred and seventy eight simple and three way crosses in wheat were attempted in order to create new genetic variability for selecting new desirable types. A total of 3,724 segregating and breeding lines of wheat were evaluated for rust resistance and agronomic features of which 1,673 elite lines selected. Preparedness to mitigate the threat from Ug99 race.top cross and three way crosses were effected for pyramiding of stem rust resistance genes Sr2, Sr22, Sr24, Sr25, Sr26, Sr27, Sr29, Sr33, Sr44, Sr47 and Sr49. Identifying newer APR genes from Indian old varieties and land races.to identify newer APR genes from HW 971, Lok 1 and UP 2339, mapping populations were picked at BC 2 F 2 stage in the background of WL711, Lumli local and Lalbahadur. Linkage studies. To study the positive and negative traits (yield, resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses) associated with rust resistance gene (Lr28), a planned trial with unsprayed and sprayed control was conducted utilizing already developed NIL s populations of popular wheat cultivars carrying this Aegilops speltoides - derived gene. Hybrid wheat research. In view of developing hybrid wheat, nearly 32 CMS A-lines have been developed and A x B seed production system was standardized. Genetic stocks. Under the bulk and modified pedigree program nearly 1,200 lines were raised as different filial generations. At F 9,140 advance stable 33

41 populations resistant to leaf, stem and yellow rusts were constituted Germplasm evaluation for stripe rust resistance Two hundred and seventy CVT entries of wheat were evaluated for seedling resistance against 46S119 and 78S84 pathotypes of stripe rust. Fifty genotypes were recorded as resistant to pathotype 46S119, 36 to 78S84 and 30 to both. Forty seven elite lines of wheat were evaluated for seedling resistance against 46S119 & 78S84 pathotypes of stripe rust, of which 23 were found resistant to both. Forty three spring and winter wheat genotypes possessing good agronomic features were evaluated against the most virulent and prevalent pathotype 77-5, of which nine were found resistant Identification of germplasm against rust disease The wheat germplasm line HS 545 (HD 2819/HS 435) developed through bulk-pedigree method of breeding at Tutikandi Centre was identified as source of resistance to all the pathotypes of leaf and stem rusts, and also possessed good agronomic features Rice Registration of three elite genetic stocks of rice A total of three germplasm lines including two improved versions of PRR 78, namely, Pusa (INGR12002, IC ) and Pusa (INGR12003, IC ) carrying gene Piz5 and Pi54, respectively, conferring resistance to blast disease developed through molecular marker assisted foreground and background selection, and an early maturing semi-dwarf basmati rice genotype, Pusa (INGR12052, IC ) were registered with NBPGR, New Delhi Germplasm characterization, maintenance and conservation A total of 855 rice germplasm consisting of released varieties and landraces were multiplied and conserved in seed storage modules Maize Maintenance and characterization of germplasm Collected 6 inbreds (with favourable alleles crtrb1 and lcye) from CIMMYT-Hravest Plus and more than 1,500 inbreds, majority in QPM background, were procured from CIMMYT, Mexico. These new generations of QPM inbreds were evaluated during kharif 2012 and promising entries identified which are being utilized in the QPM breeding programme. A set of 331 CMLs inbreds received from Sehgal foundation during the last season were maintained at IARI. Thirty eight populations in the genetic background of waxy, sweet corn, pop corn type were also received from CIMMYT, Mexico. These populations were selfed during kharif 2011 and 2012 to derive new inbreds in the given genetic background. An Opaque16 maize mutant known to increase the level of tryptophan content in maize was procured from USA. The new mutant is being used in the quality breeding program Development of sweet corn hybrids A set of F 1 plants generated between sh2sh2 and su1su1 based sweet corn inbreds were selfed to identify segregants for both the sh2 and su1 genes. Eleven promising F 3 segregants with su1su1/sh2sh2 were identified and selected for further advancement. These double recessive mutants were found to be distinctly different from either of the single mutants. These new mutant stocks hold significant promise in sweet corn breeding for further enhancement of kernel sugar. Kernel characteristics of shrunken (sh2sh2), sugary (su1su1) and double recessive genotypes (su1su1sh2sh2) 34

42 Conversion of haploid inducer temperate lines RWS, RWK-76 and RWS RWK-76 in to subtropical lines is underway. Crosses were successfully made between inducer lines and subtropical lines, and seeds harvested from the successful crosses. Ears of haploidy inducer lines Sources of resistance to maize foliar diseases Developed inbreds, viz., IDL-13, IDL-26, IDL-17, IDM-40 (PS-15), IDM-29, IDL-31, IDM-2, IDM-39 (PS-27), IDM-43, IDL-30, IDM-3, IDM-42 and IDE-9 combining tolerance to turcicum leaf blight with higher grain yield ( > 5t/ha). Four inbreds, viz., DK , DK , DK , DK were found highly tolerant to bacterial leaf and sheath blight with a disease score of <1.5. Inbreds, viz., IDM-44, IDE-40, IDM-2, IDM-3 IDM- 45 and IDL-3 were resistant to both maydis leaf blight and turcicum leaf blight whereas DK , DK , DK and DK resistant to maydis leaf blight and bacterial leaf and sheath blight Pearl Millet Maintenance of germplasm A total of 700 germplasm lines of pearl millet including cytoplasmic male sterile lines, maintainers and restorers were maintained and evaluated for the traits including early flowering, high tillering, thick spike, bristled spike, long spike, variations in compactness of the spike, grain colour, etc. Among these, four lines with > 120 ppm of Fe and 17 lines with > 80 ppm of Zn were identified Chickpea Germplasm registered Two germplasm accessions, namely, IC (BGD 112) and IC (BG 2085) were registered with NBPGR Pre-breeding and germplasm enhancement A set of 100 land races procured from ICARDA, Syria were evaluated for yield and drought parameters. Using a minimax-maximax approach based on yield and membrane stability index (MSI), the land races IG5844a, IG5896 and IG5908 had lower reduction in MSI under late sown conditions as compared to that of normal sown and were also high in yield Maintenance of germplasm Thirty four germplasm accessions and 11 breeding lines/varieties were screened for resistance to dry root rot pathogen (Rhizoctonia bataticola) for identification of resistant (R) and susceptible (S) genotypes. Nine lines were identified as resistant (score 3) Sources of tolerance to rust Three chickpea genotypes FLIP , ICC and ICC-1745 were identified as tolerant to rust caused by Uromyces ciceri-arietini Mungbean Evaluation and maintenance of germplasm A set of 409 mungbean germplasm lines were maintained and 101 lines along with checks (Pant Mung 5 and Pusa 871) evaluated for tolerance to drought stress at seedling stage. Out of these, only one line, IC showed remarkably higher level of tolerance. Physiological parameters such as relative water content and proline accumulation proved a potential indicator of drought stress tolerance. Four intraspecific and interspecific crosses were attempted using mungbean and urdbean to generate new genetic variability and incorporation of traits like drought tolerance, aluminium tolerance and YMV resistance. 35

43 2.1.7 Lentil Maintenance of germplasm Ninety European land races and 140 early maturing lines procured from NBPGR were evaluated and maintained Lentil screening against abiotic stresses One hundred and fifty one genotypes of lentil were grown in the hydroponic conditions under salt stress, having NaCl levels of 40, 60, 80 and 120 mm NaCl along with control. The most tolerant genotypes were PSL 1, PSL 2, PSL 3, PSL 4, PSL 5, PSL 6, PSL 7 and PSL 8. The results for plant biomass and salinity induced toxicity symptoms were closely associated with reduction of growth parameters. The level of salinity tolerance based on these parameters varied substantially and provide an important basis for genetic improvement of lentil. One hundred thirty five genotypes were evaluated under three treatments including control, 40 and 60 mm NaHCO3. There were significant differences in high ph tolerance between the 135 genotypes. The most tolerant genotypes were PAL 1, PAL 2, PAL 3, PAL 4, PAL 5 and PAL 6. Genotypes from ICARDA, Syria were the most tolerant, followed by those from Turkey, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Australia Pigeonpea Maintenance of germplasm A set of 113 lines including 27 bold seeded determinate entries were raised for their use in hybridization programme. All the lines were determinate (DT) type with bold seed size, but were late in maturity. Short duration lines (40) along with some R lines were also procured from ARS, Durgapura, Jaipur Brassicas Maintenance of germplasm A total of 726 germplasm lines including B. juncea (439), B. carinata (170), B. napus (38), B. rapa (39), B. oleracea (6,) B. nigra (14), B. tournifortii (3), B. caudatus (3), R. caudatus (1), R. sativa (1), S. alba (2), Eruca sativa (6), Crambe spp. (2), Lapidium spp (1), Camellina spp. (1) were maintained by selfing and used in crossing programme. Maintenance of mustard germplasm Diversity analysis Based on molecular and morphological diversity, 70 F 1 s were analyzed to study the relationship between genetic distance and heterosis. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were observed to be a better tool in differentiating genotypes from different origin. However, no strong association between genetic distance and average heterosis was observed Screening for temperature tolerance A set of 256 genotypes including released varieties, germplasm and advanced breeding lines along with five checks were screened under field conditions for seedling and terminal heat tolerance; and for seedling stage heat tolerance under Phytotron conditions. Genotypes, viz., NPJ 124, EJ 22, NPJ 113, EJ 13, EJ 20, Bio , NPJ 135, NPJ 147, NPJ 93, MST 11-1, MST 11-19, 6020 and 6023 were found to possess tolerance to high temperature at seedling stage Evaluation of double zero breeding lines Sixteen double zero genotypes from advance generations were raised in replicated trials with four checks (low erucic acid and conventional variety) for their yield evaluation. Out of these, six genotypes were found promising for various important agronomic traits Soybean Maintenance of genetic stock More than 100 diverse lines in F 5 were developed through inter-specific hybridization between Glycine 36

44 max and G.soja. All the lines found to vary in days to flowering, days to maturity, plant type, flower color, pod size and numbers, seeds per pod, seed size, etc.the colour of the seeds varied from black, variegated, green to yellow. The 100- seed weight varied from 5.5 g to14.1g. Five lines were identified with maturity duration around days. Plants were erect, medium tall and of non-shattering habit. Further testing is on. A series of lines devoid of Kunit trypsin inhibitor (KTI) in its seeds were developed through marker assisted selection. The donor for the null allele of KTI was PI , a germplasm line collected from USDA. The plants were resistant to yellow mosaic virus and earlier in maturity than the recurrent parent (DS 9712) Cotton Maintenance and evaluation of germplasm Two hundred germplasm lines of G. hirsutum were maintained and evaluated for important yield and fiber quality traits Vegetable Crops Cauliflower. Forty early group and 63 mid-group genotypes were evaluated and promising plants were advanced through selfing and sib pollination. One hundred new germplasms of cauliflower received from NBPGR were evaluated at IARI Regional Station, Katrain. Among them five promising lines were maintained. Ninety five lines of snowball cauliflower along with 11 CMS lines and their maintainers were maintained as core set of germplasm. Cabbage. Eighty four new germplasm of cabbage received from NBPGR were grown at IARI Regional Station, Katrain in observation rows and it was observed that more than 75% lines were male sterile. Another set of 50 exotic collections were evaluated for horticultural traits and the lines EC , EC , EC , EC and EC were found to be highly promising. Broccoli. Twelve lines were evaluated and promising selections were advanced for further evaluation. Twenty germplasm along with five CMS lines and their maintainer (B) lines were maintained at IARI Regional Station, Katrain. Tomato. Fifty two new germplasm and 60 old germplasm of tomato were collected and are being evaluated for their yield and quality traits. Sixty seven breeding/parental lines were evaluated during kharif 2012 for resistance against ToLCV. Brinjal. Fifteen newly collected and 145 working germplasm maintained in the previous years were purified, evaluated and maintained. Wild brinjal species, Solanum aethiopicum, S. incanum,s. gilo, S. insanum, S. indicum, S. torvum, S. khasianumand S. integrifolium were maintained. Chilli. Thirty nine genotypes collected from Meghalaya region through NBPGR and 10 Chinese lines were evaluated and maintained. Capsicum and paprika. Fifty six lines were evaluated and maintained and 40 new lines were added to gene pool at IARI Regional Station, Katrain. Carrot. Forty eight elite genotypes, 87 CMS lines and 56 fertile inbreds were evaluated, and selected roots were planted for maintenance and seed multiplication.thirty five germplasm and 23 CMS (A) lines along with their respective maintainer (B) lines were maintained at IARI Regional Station, Katrain. Three more CMS lines are in advanced stages of development. Onion. Thirty nine new germplasm of onion including allied species (Allium ascolonicum, Allium tuberosum) were collected and planted for initial seed multiplication. Another allied species, namely, Allium fistulosum and Allium schoenoprassum are being maintained. Garden pea. Eighty Fusarium wilt and powdery mildew resistant lines were evaluated and maintained. Minor legumes. Sixty five and twenty five genotypes of cowpea and Dolichos bean, respectively, were maintained. Cucumber. One hundred fifty three and ninety eight germplasm /advanced breeding lines including 32 new collections were evaluated during springsummer and kharif seasons, respectively, and promising lines maintained. Sixty-three germplasm/ breeding lines of gynoecious parthenocarpic cucumber, gherkin, 37

45 carotene rich cucumber, Cucumishytivus and other exotic lines with novel characters were evaluated under polyhouse conditions during winter season. Luffa. Seventy five and 72 germplasm/advanced breeding lines and virus resistant lines of Luffa (sponge gourd) were evaluated during spring summer and kharif seasons, respectively and promising lines maintained. In ridge gourd, 80 and 96 germplasm/ breeding lines including Satputia and its genetic stock were evaluated during spring summer and kharif seasons, respectively, and promising lines maintained. Pumpkin. Fifty germplasm/ advanced breeding lines of pumpkin were evaluated and maintained. Muskmelon and snapmelon. One hundred forty eight lines of muskmelon and 48 lines of snapmelon were evaluated and maintained. Minor cucurbits. Twenty five, 36 and 24 germplasm/ advanced breeding lines of summer squash, longmelon and roundmelon, respectively, were evaluated and maintained. Okra. One hundred forty one cultivated and 21 wild accessions of okra were maintained. Minor leafy vegetables. Nineteen lines of methi, 15 of Chenopodium, 8 of palak, 11 of spinach and 9 of Amaranth were maintained Fruit Crops Acid lime. A survey was made around Fatehpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 11 plants were selected based on yield and fruit quality parameters. Fruit weight varied from 40.5 g in ALC 59 to 88.1 g in ALC 58, while juice recovery ranged from 34.98% in ALC 55 to 59.63% in ALC 58. All collections had acidity more than 5.0%, however, maximum was recorded in ALC 56 and minimum in ALC 53 (5.57%). Plants of these collections were collected and planted in evaluation block. ALC 57 ALC 56 ALC 53 ALC 58 Kinnow. For identifying low seeded Kinnow mandarin clones, Hoshiarpur district of Punjab was surveyed. The areas surveyed were Mehlianwali, Ahranakala, Darapur and Dharamkot. Out of 16 orchards surveyed in different locations, two low seeded Kinnow mandarin trees (<10 years) were identified in new orchards of Mehlianwali (MH 2/1) and Darapur (DDH 5/5). The number of seeds/ fruit of MH 2/1 and DDH 5/5 were 5 and 15 with vitamin C content of and 28.9 mg/100 ml, respectively, and the juice recovery was over 45%. Guava. Thirty six genotypes with red peel, red and white flesh with soft seeds or less number of seeds were collected from different regions of Allahabad, Ajmer, Udaipur and lower Palani hills of Tamil Nadu. Physicochemical characters were analysed. Significant variability was observed among the traits, viz., fruit size, weight, colour, TSS, acidity and vitamin C content. Variability in guava Grapes. Twenty four germplasm were collected from Grape Research Station (GRS), Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University, Hyderabad; NRC for Grapes, Pune, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (Madhya Pradesh) and PAU, Ludhiana in the form of un-rooted/ rooted cuttings. The cuttings were planted in nursery for evaluation. Eight germplasm were supplied to GRS, Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University, Hyderabad. 38

46 Temperate fruit crops. At IARI Regional Station, Amartara Cottage, Shimla, a dwarfing rootstock (Prunus japonica) was identified for grafting stone fruits on the basis of graft compatibility, precocity and growth pattern. It gave fruiting in the same year of grafting on apricot, peach, cherry and plum. Pusa Apple Rootstock 101 (Malus baccata) Shillong was recommended as an ideal promising rootstock for conventional as well as high density (3m 3m) planting of apple. The grafted plant starts bearing from 4 th year onwards. It yielded more than 25 t/ha at 30 % slope with drip irrigation facility. It also showed resistance to powdery mildew, moderate resistance to apple scab and tolerance to white root rot Ornamental Crops Rose. Thirty varieties of rose belonging to H.T. and Floribunda groups (Vars. Bordo, Hollywood, Tajmahal, Noblesse, Tineke, Golden Giant, Moncheri, Modern Art, Bellona, First Prize, Landora, Gold Bunny, Chablis, Bellona, Michele Mielland, Blue Bird, Margaret Meryll, Casino, Out of Africa, Mirandy, Lagerfield, Nigrette, Pristine, Garden of the World, Abracadabra, Vale Della, About Face, Gold Strike, Sarissa and Narang)were collected from different sources. Lilium. Three important lily cultivar groups were evaluated at IARI Regional Station, Katrain. Among LA-cultivars, Salmon Classic and in Oriental hybrid, Medusa was the earliest to flower. OT-cultivar, Avocado produced longer stem. Tulip. Four new varieties, namely, Mughal, Don, Prince Victoria and Blenda were collected, evaluated and maintained along with twenty existing germplasm at IARI Regional Station, Katrain. Don and Mughal were found promising for cut flower production. Other ornamental crops. Two cultivars of gladiolus, 10 of bougainvillea and two of marigold (Giant Yellow and P 4 orange) were collected from various sources and added to the existing germplasm. 2.2 BIOSYSTEMATICS AND IDENTI- FICATION SERVICES Fungal Biosystematics and Identification Services Enrichment of repository of fungal biodiversity. One hundred and six specimens of fungal diseases of various groups were accessioned in Herbarium Cryptogamaae Indiae Orientalis (HCIO), raising the total number of specimens to 49,977. Besides, 3,846 fungal cultures belonging to Mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina groups were maintained at Indian Type Culture Collection. The culture collection was enriched with 38 different fungal cultures. Culture supply and identification services. A set of 250 authentic fungal cultures belonging to different groups, viz., Zygomycetes (1), Hyphomycetes (207), Ascomycetes (2) and Coelomycetes (40) were identified, besides, 280 cultures supplied to various users. Characterization of fungal species. In order to identify suitable marker for developing DNA barcode for fungal pathogens, Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Trichoderma spp. (T. asperellum, 15 isolates; T. harzianum, 14 isolates; T. longibrachiatum, 21 isolates; T. virens, 11 isolates) based on ITS, tef-1, Cal, -tubulin, and rpb 2 regions was carried out which revealed - tubulin as a suitable marker for the inter-species differentiation of Trichoderma isolates. Similarly, characterization of Collectrichum gloeosporoides (15), C. capsici (9) and C. musae (1) isolates based on ITS, glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate (gpd) and -tubulin regions were identified as suitable marker for interspecies differentiation. In contrast, ND 6 was identified as a suitable marker singly and/or in combination with tef1 for differentiating 26 isolates of different Fusarium spp. (11) Insect Biosystematics Taxonomic studies conducted in subfamily Mutillinae ( Hymenoptera : Mutillidae) resulted in several new records, viz., Trogaspidia pilosella (Magretti), 39

47 Pristomutilla pauli (André) and Trogaspidia intermedia (Saussure) from India; numerous new distribution records, viz., Kurzenkotilla niveosignata from Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Mutilla rufodorsata from Bihar, Karlissaidia sexmaculatus from Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, T. villosa from Coimbatore, Vanhartenidia dives from Haryana, etc.; cataloging of all the known 169 species under 29 genera in this subfamily from India with synonyms, revisionary details, and zoogeographic distribution of these species ; taxonomic accounts of a total of 31 species under 12 genera including a new species Trogaspidia karnatakaensis sp. nov. The new species karnatakaensis is closely related to species pilosella but differs from it by having a dense setal white spot on the dorso- lateral side of pronotum, genitalia broaderat the apex compared to base; penial valves long and slender, etc.; Further the male of K. sexmaculatus was described for the first time; two new combinations were proposed, viz., sexmaculatus transferred from genus Wallacidia to Karlissaidia Lelej in tribe Trogaspidiini and consociata from genus Physetopoda to Smicromyrme in tribe Smicromyrmini; description of all the species were standardized to an uniform format with additional characters, morphometric ratios, 350 illustrations including 165 line diagrams. Keys were formulated with valid characters and up to date terminology for all the genera and species studied separately for both males and females. A new leaf hopper species, Sophonia chandrai sp. nov. was described from Tupul, Manipur. This species can be distinguished by the ventral process of pygofer which is long and thin with pointed apex; aedeagus robust, membranous; dorsal apodeme robust with one pair of long, recurved, apical process about as long as dorsal apodeme in lateral view; two pairs of lateral shorter spine like processes, one basolaterally and one near apex. Another leafhopper Chudania axona was recorded from Umkiang, Meghalaya for the first time and re-described. Female Sophonia chandrai sp. nov. Male World review of the leaf hopper genus Phlogotettix with 9 species was completed with discovery of one new species. Further Phlogotettix indicus Rao was redescribed and two species monozoneus Li and Wang and longicornis Kamitiani, Hayashi and Yamada from China and Japan, respectively were synonymized with it. A key for identification of all the species was also formulated. Male of Trogaspidia karnatakaensis sp. nov. Surveys conducted in various regions of North and North East India indicated the faunistic composition of collected scarabaeid beetles from Uttar Pradesh to be 16 species under 10 genera while from Uttarakhand and North East India it was 16 species under 11 genera, and 24 species under 10 genera, respectively. A mite, 40

48 Sancassania sp. was found to be associated with field collected scarab larvae belonging to Melolonthinae, especially, Holotrichia and Maladera. On an average 590 mites per larva were found congregating around the spiracles resulting in 55-60% mortality Nematode Biosystematics and Identification Services National Nematode Collection of India (NNCI) was augmented by the addition of 30 wet suspensions, thus, bringing the total strength to 2,371 type slides (belonging to 194 genera and 588 species) and 3,455 wet Collections. A total of 62 additions were made in the wet collection. Identified slides of 10 species of plant parasitic nematodes were provided to AICRP (Nematodes) for their reference. Fifty species of type collection, including a specimen of male (wherever available) and female, were digitized. More than 1.75 lacs photographs of entire specimen were captured and stored. Digitization of NNCI is being done using motorized Zeiss image analysis system at a magnification of 630X (with 63X oil objective). Developed a Check-list of globally known 115 species of Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 along with compendium of the 60 Indian species and communicated for publication. Altogether 15 composite soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of maize, ginger, french bean, turmeric, rice, radish, pea, citrus, cabbage and potato. Helicotylenchus species were the most frequently occurring (A.F.=86.7%), followed by omnivorous dorylaims (A.F.=80%) and bacteriophagousrhabditids (66 %). Other plant parasitic nematode genera encountered were Tylenchorhynchus, Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Xiphinema and Trichodorus in low frequencies (A.F.= 6-13 %). A total of 23 soil samples received from Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, were analysed and the nematodes identified were: Tylenchorhynchusnudus, T. elegans, Hirschmanniellaoryzae, Meloidogynegraminicola, Rotylenchulusreniformis, Criconemoides and Heterodera sp. Five isolates of entomopathogenic nematodes received from Kerala, were identified and placed under carpocapsae(3) and bicornutum group (2) of the genus Steinernema. Discovered 11 new Gene Sequences of the 16S region of rdna comprising 4 of Xenorhabdus (GQ , JN457412, JN547413, JN547414), 5 of Photorhabdus (JQ924830, JQ924831, JX221722, JX221723, JX240394) and 2 of Providenciarettgeri strains (GQ , and GQ923883) and deposited in NCBI GenBank. Two hundred forty seven samples collected by the Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry were observed for nematode fauna. Rice root nematode, Hirschmaniella oryzae, not encountered in earlier survey conducted in 1978, was found to occur at IARI farm. Unlike previous survey, Helicotylenchus spp. were present in very few samples. Recording for free living nematodes was also done in the samples. The cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae was the most predominant nematode pest associated with wheat in Bhoot garhi and Gothani villages in Bulandshahr district with a population of >19 cysts /200 cm 3 soil. It was also observed from Shahpur in Aligarh district of UP. In Leh, H. avenae was encountered in all the wheat growing areas. A new species of Diptherophora was found in the rhizosphere of apricot and apple trees, and was described. Species of Trichodorus, Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus were also encountered. Dorylaimids were predominant in samples from bamboo. Cyst nematode obtained in another survey showed similarities with H. cardiolata and H. graminis. The soil and diseased plant samples received from Directorate of Seed Research, Mau, U.P. were found to harbour Criconemoides and Hirschmaniella in low numbers (about 1/5 cc soil) for attributing the disease to nematodes alone. Tissue culture plants of different species received from the TERI, Gurgaon, were diagnosed and certified to be free from harmful nematodes for export purpose. Tylenchorhynchus, Rotylenchulus reniformis, larva of cyst (Heteroderoides), Aphelenchus, Mononchus, Ironus, Cephalobids, Tylenchus, and Dorylaimids were observed in the samples collected from the forest areas of Dehradun. 41

49 3. CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT Managing crops and resources efficiently for higher agricultural productivity, profitability and environmental sustainability are challenging tasks. These issues have been adequately addressed through researches in various Divisions in the School of Natural Resource Management. Efficient management of crops and resources (soil/ nutrient/water/energy) under various cropping systems in conventional as well as conservational mode of agriculture have been studied and validated. Various studies in this regard have revealed the beneficial aspects of genotype environment (nutrient/water) interactions. Ground water recharge, recycling of waste water for irrigation and quality aspects of crops using waste water from consumer health point of view have been studied. Precision monitoring techniques for major nutrients (N,P,K & S) in certain crops and precise cultivation techniques for crops under protected environment have been developed. The effective management of below ground diversity along with efficient farm mechanization, development of new farm-machinery and post-harvest management of perishable farm produces like vegetables, fruits, flowers have been evolved, tested and refined. Several efficient and beneficial microbes/consortia/biofilms of agricultural importance have added new dimensions of research in the management of natural resources. Impact of different agricultural practices on mitigation of GHGs emission and climate change on crop production have been studied and documented. 3.1 AGRONOMY Conservation Agriculture for Improving Resource-use Efficiency and Productivity in Wheat-based Cropping Systems Conservation agriculture (CA) practices are being developed for non-rice-wheat cropping systems under irrigated conditions to replace rice with suitable alternative crops during kharif season in north-western plains zone. Therefore, a study (continued since 2010) was undertaken with three major non-rice cropping systems, viz., maize-wheat, cotton-wheat, pigeonpeawheat with different CA practices to diversify ricewheat system. Among the three non-rice cropping systems, cotton was found consistently superior to pigeonpea and maize in term of maize equivalent yield, Productivity and net returns in different non-rice,wheat-based cropping systems Treatment Cotton-wheat Pigeonpea-wheat Maize-wheat System Net returns System Net returns System Net returns productivity (x10 3 `/ha) productivity (x10 3`/ha) productivity (x10 3 `/ha) (WEY) (t/ha) (WEY) (t/ha) (WEY) (t/ha) CT+ flat bed ZT+ narrow bed ZT+ narrow bed with residue ZT+ broad bed ZT+ Broad bed with residue ZT+ flat bed ZT+ flat bed with residue LSD (P = 0.05) WEY: Wheat Equivalent Yield 42

50 and cotton-wheat system superior to pigeonpea-wheat and maize-wheat systems in terms of wheat equivalent yield, system productivity and net returns. All the three crops performed better when grown on zero-till (ZT) broad, narrow or flat beds with residue than in conventional-till (CT) flat bed. Zero-till broad-bed with residues resulted in significantly higher SOC, particularly at the surface (0-5 cm) layers in soil. Cottonwheat system under zero-till broad bed with residues gave higher system crop productivity, water productivity, energy productivity and efficiency and net returns than pigeonpea-wheat or maize-wheat system. This system could be a potential alternative to rice-wheat system which was found to give a net return of `1,22,724 with a system productivity of t/ha (wheat equivalent) in Conservation Agriculture for Improving Resource-use Efficiency and Productivity in Rice-based Cropping System In a study (continued since 2010), the performance of direct-seeded rice (DSR) cv. PRH 10 with different CA practices was compared with conventional transplanted puddled rice (TPR)- conventional till wheat (CTW) system. The results showed that DSR with rice residue (RR) retained on the surface in zero-till wheat (ZTW), followed by summer mungbean (SMB) and its residue retention resulted in rice yield similar with, and wheat yield significantly higher than TPR-CTW or ZTW. It not only resulted in significantly higher system crop productivity, net returns and B:C ratio than TPR- CTW or ZTW. It also gave higher system water productivity and energy productivity than TPR- CTW or ZTW. This treatment resulted in a considerable improvement of soil carbon (Walkley and Black method ) from initial 1.6 g kg -1 bulk soil, labile and very labile carbon, and total N content in the surface soil (0-5 cm) in rice-wheat system. This as well as other DSR treatments showed a considerable reduction in global warming potential (GWP) through reduction of methane emission from rice field. Wheat grown in mungbean residues (MBR) + DSR RR + ZTW SMB system gave higher yields over other DSR treatments, whereas DSR reduced methane emission and global warming potential compared to TPR Evaluation of System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) with Other Methods of Wheat Cultivation A field experiment was conducted to compare the productivity and economics of different methods of wheat cultivation. A significantly higher number of effective tillers and number of grains per earhead were significantly higher in SWI-DS over the conventional method. There was no significant difference in grain weight due to different methods of cultivation. Significantly higher grain yield and net returns were obtained with direct seeded system of wheat intensification over all other methods. System productivity and economics of different CA rice-wheat systems Treatment System productivity Net returns Net B:C (in rice equivalent) (t/ha) (x10 3`/ha) Direct-seeded rice (DSR) zero-till wheat (ZTW) DSR - rice residues (RR) + ZTW DSR + brown manuring (BM) ZTW DSR + BM RR + ZTW Mungbean residues (MBR) + DSR - ZTW - summer mungbean (SMB) (2.46)* Mungbean residues (MBR) + DSR RR + ZTW - summer mungbean (SMB) (2.73)* Conventional puddled transplanted rice (TPR) - ZTW TPR conventional till wheat (CTW) LSD (P =0.05) * Rice Equivalent Yield of mungbean 43

51 Yield attributes and grain yield of wheat (var. HD 2967) under different methods of cultivation Treatment Effective tillers No. of grains/ Test wt. Grain yield Net returns (m -2 ) earhead (g) (t/ha) (`/ha) Conventional ,910 Furrow irrigated raised bed system ,960 Conventional sowing at 20x10cm and ,040 irrigations as in SWI System of wheat intensification - direct seeded ,175 System of wheat intensification - transplanted ,065 Conventional and irrigations as SWI ,015 LSD (P=0.05) NS 1.06 System of wheat intensification (SWI) and conventional method Sensor based Nitrogen and Water Management in Wheat A field experiment was conducted in wheat (var. HD 2967) to study the effect of precise nitrogen and irrigation scheduling using plant sensors. Treatments comprised of combinations of four nitrogen application rates and three water application schedules. Applying N based on SPAD value < 42 resulted in the highest grain (5.24 t/ha) and straw (9.08 t/ha) yields which were significantly higher than those of soil based and SPAD value < 40 based N application. Water productivity (0.89 kg/m 3 ) was the highest with SPAD value < 42 based N applications. Further, SPAD based N application saved kg N/ha without causing significant yield reductions. Applying irrigation based on relative water content (RWC) and crop water stress index (CWSI) significantly improved water productivity over IW/ CPE ratio based irrigation. However, yield was significantly reduced when irrigations were timed as per RWC 85% and CWSI Evaluation of Wheat Varieties under Very Early Sown and Limited Period Assured Irrigation Conditions in Central Zone Nine wheat varieties, viz., HI 1531, GW 273, Lok 1, HD 2987, HI 8627, HD 4672, HI 8638, HI 8663 and HI 1500 were sown on October 5 at Regional Station, Indore to find out the most suitable variety for very early sown conditions under limited period assured irrigation condition (come-up irrigation provided after sowing in dry to facilitate germination + 3 irrigations given thereafter at about monthly intervals). Durum wheat variety HI 8663 produced maximum grain yield (3.46 t/ha), being statistically on a par with GW 273 (3.36 t/ha), HI 1500 (3.18 t/ha) and HI 8627 (3.13 t/ha), but significantly higher over all other varieties. It showed that the popular bread wheat variety Lok 1 was not suitable for very early sowing (1.92 t/ha) Seed Treatment with Static Magnetic Field (SMF) and Gamma Radiation (GR) Influences Grain Yield of Aerobic Rice A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of SMF and GR-treated seeds on growth and yield of aerobic rice (Pusa Basmati 1121) employing five seed treatments. The highest grain yield of rice was recorded with GR at kgy treated seeds, which was on a par with SMF treatments. Effect of static magnetic field (SMF) and gamma radiation (GR) treated seed on yield attributes and yield of aerobic rice Treatment Panicles/ m 2 Number of Grain filled grains/ yield panicle (t/ha) SMF at 50 mt 347 ab 104 a 3.60 ab SMF at 100 mt 335 ab 101 ab 3.42 ab GR at kgy 367 a 106 a 3.80 a GR at 0.10 kgy 324 b 99 ab 3.16 b Control 319 b 93 b 3.21 b 44

52 3.1.7 Effect of Transplanting Dates and Nitrogen on Seed Yield and Quality of Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509 There was significant reduction in yield attributes like plant height, panicles/m 2 and seed weight/panicle when transplanting was delayed to 30th July compared to 10th July in Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509 but seed yield increased significantly with increase in nitrogen dose up to 120 kg which was on a par with 80 kg N/ha at Karnal. Seed germination was not affected by transplanting dates or nitrogen levels and remained well above minimum seed certification standard of 80 percent. Maximum seedling vigour was recorded with 10th July transplanting which was significantly higher than those of 20th and 30th July transplanting Performance of Basmati Cultivars under Organic and Integrated Nutrient Management Four basmati cultivars, viz., Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509, PB 1121, PB 6 and PB 1 were evaluated at Karnal for yield under organic and integrated nutrient management. Among the cultivars, PB 1 recorded significantly higher grain yield than all the other cultivars, followed by PB 6. Among the nutrient treatments, vermicompost+50% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) was significantly superior to FYM 5t/ ha + 50% RDF, FYM 10t/ha, vermicompost 2.5t/ha+75% RDF and green manuring. Differential responses of cultivars were recorded under different nutrient management. Higher grain yield of Pusa PB 1509 was recorded under RDF whereas PB 1121 and PB 1 were superior under vermicompost+50% RDF. PB 6 recorded significantly higher grain yield over others under organic treatments, viz., FYM 10t/ha, FYM 10t/ha + vermicompost 5t/ha and green manuring + vermicompost 5 t/ha Assessment of Rice Establishment Methods with Different Rice Varieties under NEPZ At Regional Station, Pusa, three rice establishment methods, i.e., Direct Seeded Rice (DSR), System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Puddle Transplanted Rice (PTR) were assessed with five varieties involving one hybrid Arise 6444 and four conventional varieties of this zone PS 5, Pusa Improved Basmati (scented), PNR 381 and Pusa 834 (non scented). The results revealed that irrespective of varieties, SRI method of rice establishment was significantly higher yielder (6.04 t/ha) as compared to DSR and PTR. Whereas irrespective of rice establishment methods hybrid Arise 6444 (7.22 t/ha) emerged as significantly higher yielder, followed by PS 5 (5.41 t/ha) Effect of Integrated Potassium Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Maize and Wheat An experiment on maize-wheat cropping system was carried out to evaluate the effect of integrated potassium fertilization on maize and wheat. Results revealed that the application of 90 kg K 2 O/ha supplemented with 60 kg K 2 O through MOP and 30 kg K 2 O through FYM to both the crops produced maximum grain yield of wheat and maize over remaining treatments. The treatments with 60 kg K 2 O supplemented with 30 kg K 2 O through FYM + 30 kg K 2 O through MOP also proved significantly superior over 60 kg K 2 O/ha applied through MOP alone. The nutrient concentration in maize and wheat grains were significantly influenced by K 2 O fertilization. The highest concentration of N, P, K, Zn, Fe and protein content in maize and wheat grains were recorded with integrated potassium fertilization in both the crops, i.e., MOP 60 + FYM 30 (Maize) - K 0 (Wheat) and K 0 (Maize) MOP 60 + FYM 30 (Wheat), respectively Nutrient Omission Studies in Maize An experiment was conducted to study the effect of omitted nutrients on productivity and profitability of maize-wheat system as well as soil quality. The highest grain and stover yield of maize were recorded with the application of N, P, K & Zn on the basis of soil test value (STV) which was on a par with the application of recommended dose of N,P,K & Zn. The omission of N, P, K and Zn resulted in 20.5, 6.7, 8.1 and 2.7% reduction in maize grain yield, respectively, compared to RD of NPKZn. Application of NPKZn based on STV fetched the highest net returns, followed by recommended dose of NPKZn. Soil based application of NPKZn as well as recommended dose 45

53 of NPKZn resulted in higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soil at harvest of maize crop as compared to control. Effect of different nutrient omission treatments on grain and stover yields of maize Yield Evaluation of Maize Hybrids in Rabi Season Five Vivek Hybrids of maize (from VPKAS, Almora) were evaluated in rabi season against five maize hybrids recommended for North Bihar at Regional Station, Pusa (Bihar). During all the five Vivek Hybrids attained physiological maturity between 120 to 130 days, whereas other hybrids under test attained physiological maturity between 150 to160 days thereby taking almost one additional month for the crop. The significantly highest grain yield of t/ha was recorded with hybrid Pioneer 30V92, followed by Vivek Hybrid 25 (7.09 t/ha) in rabi season but in other two seasons (spring and kharif) at this location Vivek Hybrid 25 performed best among tested hybrids. At the same time, this hybrid was harvested almost one month earlier, therefore, preference of farmers for growing this hybrid is more. filling stages recoded the significantly highest Zn concentration in grains (72.3 mg/kg grain) as compared to 42.6 mg/kg grain in control, as well as highest grain yield (2.25 t/ha) which was 42.4 and 22.3% higher compared to the absolute control and only NPK. Hence, Zn was found to have a significant role in increasing productivity and Zn concentration in chickpea Influence of Diversification of Soybean-based Cropping Systems and Nutrient Sources on Productivity and Soil Health A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of diversification of cropping systems and nutrient sources on productivity and soil health. The combined application of 25 % (RDF) + 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through FYM + biofertilizers gave significantly increased seed yield of soybean over all other sources except 50 % RDF along with 25 % RDN through FYM and biofertlizers. During rabi, wheat and potato produced significantly the highest grain/tuber yields with the application of 100 % RDF followed by 50 % RDF + 50 % RDN through FYM. Chickpea recorded significantly higher yield with combined application of 50 % RDF + 50% RDN through FYM. Substitution of 50 % of RDN through FYM along with 50 % RDF through fertilizers resulted in significantly highest productivity of summer mungbean and fodder sorghum. The system productivity of different soybean-based cropping systems revealed that soybean-chickpea-fodder sorghum recorded the highest soybean equivalent yield (7.9 t/ha/year) followed by soybean-wheat-mungbean. Application of 50 % RDF along with 50 % RDN through FYM or 50 % RDF with 25 % RDN through FYM + biofertlizers resulted in improved soil status of Agronomic Bio-fortification of Zn in Chickpea A field experiment was carried out to study the agronomic bio-fortification of Zn in chickpea. Application of NPK + Zn 0.5% solution spray at maximum vegetative growth + flowering + grain Soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities at flowering stage of soybean 46

54 available N, P and K at harvest of crops and maximum activities of soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes over application of 100 % RDF alone and control, besides giving higher yields Evaluation of Maize and Soybeanbased Cropping Systems under Different Tillage Practices In a fixed plot field experiment, five maize-based and five soybean-based cropping systems with 300% cropping intensity were evaluated under different tillage practices for system productivity, economics and soil health. In the tillage systems, minimum tillage with crop residue cover recorded significantly higher system productivity (maize grain equivalent), production efficiency, net returns and B:C ratio as compared to conventional tillage. Minimum tillage with residue cover also found to improve/ moderate soil available nutrient, available soil moisture, soil temperature and soil microbial properties. In cropping systems, soybean-based cropping systems were found more productive and profitable than maize based systems. In terms of maize grain equivalent yield, maize/ soybean-garden pea sunflower system was found more productive and profitable, followed by maize/ soybean-potato sunflower system. Microbial activities and other soil properties recorded considerable improvement due to intervention of legumes in the cropping systems Nutrient and Moisture Management in Maize + Soybean Intercropping System under Dryland Conditions This experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of maize + soybean intercropping under dryland conditions. Maize + soybean intercropping system performed well under dryland conditions. Paired row planting of maize + soybean gave significantly higher maize equivalent yield over sole maize. Application of organic mulch + 6% kaolin spray was proved significantly better over control. Among different fertility levels application of 100% RDF recorded significantly higher maize equivalent yield SOIL MANAGEMENT Effect of Nutrient Management Options on Total Soil Carbon Long-term (9 years) impact of application of organic manure, green manure and biofertilizers on depth-wise distribution (0-15, and cm) of total carbon (C) was studied under rice-wheat system Effect of tillage practices and cropping systems on system productivity, production efficiency, net returns and B:C ratio Treatment System productivity- Production efficiency Net returns B:C ratio maize grain (kg/ha/day) (x10 3 `/ha) equivalent (t/ha) Tillage Conventional tillage Minimum tillage with crop residue LSD (P=0.05) NS Maize and Soybean based systems Maize Soybean LSD (P=0.05) Cropping systems M/S - Potato-sunflower M/S - Pea-sunflower M/S - Wheat-greengram M/S - Coriander-greengram M/S - Fenugreek-greengram LSD (P=0.05) M/S Maize/Soybean 47

55 in an Inceptisol of IARI farm. Sole application of farmyard manure (FYM) at 10 t/ha each to both rice and wheat, Sesbania green manure (SGM) at 10 t/ha to rice, and Leucaena green leaf manuring (LGLM) at 10 t/ ha to wheat significantly increased total C content in all the three soil depths. However, the effect was most spectacular when all the organic sources (SGM, FYM, Blue Green Algae at 10 kg/ha to rice and LGLM, Azotobacter seed treatment at 2 kg/ha and FYM to wheat) were applied together. The effect of organic sources was found to be more pronounced in surface soil than sub-surface soil Effect of Nutrient Management Practices on Aggregate Protected Carbon in Soil Effect of long-term (7 years) use of fertilizers and organics on the soil aggregate protected Carbon on an Inceptisol was studied in different potato-based cropping systems. Application of vermicompost (equivalent to 100% N) alone or in combination with crop residues significantly increased the macroaggregate-, microggregate- and total aggregateprotected Carbon in 0-5 cm soil depth. Though combined application of fertilizers (50% NPK) and vermicompost (50% N) showed higher Carbon in macroaggregates, it failed to enhance C in microaggregates. Maize-potato-onion system showed greater amount of macroaggregate protected C and total aggregate protected C while rice-potato-wheat system favoured formation of microaggregate protected C. Sesamum-potato-greengram system showed lowest aggregate protected carbon Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Fractions under Different Land Use Systems in East Khasi Hills of Meghalaya An attempt was made to assess the fractions of soil organic C under different land use systems in East Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. The results indicated that the total organic C, microbial biomass C, polysaccharides, glomalin labile C, non-labile C and particulate organic C followed the order of agroforestry (AF) > horticulture > agriculture. Total organic C, particulate organic C, labile C, non-labile C and microbial biomass C in the soils under agroforestry were greater by 27.8, 107, 131.7, 18.0 and 55.7%, respectively, as compared to agriculture land use. On the other hand, conversion of fallow lands to agriculture, horticulture and agroforestry land uses significantly increased all these fractions by many fold. Amongst the land uses, SOC stocks were highest through the 0-75 cm soil under agroforestry (54.3 t/ha), followed by horticulture plantation (53.7 t/ha) and agriculture crops (49.3 t/ha). Amongst the three land uses, agroforestry improved the overall soil quality, aggregate stability and sequestered more organic C in subtropical Meghalaya Effect of Applied Nanoparticles on Rice Crop Transport and accumulation of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) nanoparticles (NPs) in root and shoot of rice plants were studied under hydroponics. A comparison of four application rates, i.e., 0, 100, 500 and 1000 ppm each of Fe and Zn nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 and ZnO) indicated that elongation of the roots was inhibited with increasing concentrations of the NPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of Fe and Zn nanoparticles in root cells and xylem sap. This implies that these NPs were transported from roots to shoots via xylem. The current study indicated possible bioaccumulation of Fe and Zn NPs (20-40 nm) in biomass. Accumulation of nano particles in roots of rice plant Effect of Modified Clays on Heavy Metal Sorption and Bioavailability to Crops Modified bentonites were prepared by Mn oxide coating, Fe oxide coating and aluminium pillaring and adsorption behavior of Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd on these modified clays was studied. Modification of bentonite with iron oxide and manganese oxide resulted in 48

56 enhanced heavy metal sorption as revealed by Freundlich and Langmuir parameters. This was reflected in greenhouse experiment, where addition of modified bentonites significantly reduced the phytoavailability of zinc, copper and nickel as well as hazard coefficients to Amaranthus and spinach used as test crops Protocol for Fixing Maximum Allowable Limit of Sludge Application to Agricultural Lands A preliminary study was made to assess the maximum permissible limits of sludge application to agricultural soils in relation to transfer of metals to human food chain. For this purpose, a pot experiment was conducted on acid and alkaline soils with graded rates of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142 and 285 g/kg of soil) using spinach as a test crop. Spinach responded positively to the applied sludge in both acid and alkaline soils. Substantial increase in the content of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb in the shoot of spinach was recorded as a result of sludge application. Application of sludge was more effective in enriching the spinach with metals grown on acid soil than alkaline soil. Solubility-free ion activity model as a function of ph, organic C and extractable metal was far superior in predicting metal uptake by spinach grown on sludge treated soils as compared to chemical extractant alone. The risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) to human health for intake of metals through consumption of spinach grown on sludge treated soils was computed for different metals. In a 90-day-pot experiment, safe rates of sludge application were worked out as 4.46 and 35.7 g/ kg for acid and alkaline soil, respectively. 3.3 WATER MANAGEMENT Watershed Management Optimal crop planning of Biwan watershed, Haryana A linear programming (LP) model was developed to propose alternative cropping pattern plan (including and excluding improved water management strategies) and maximize net returns from Biwan watershed, subjected to various production and resource constraints of the target area. LP proposed alternative cropping plan with pearl millet (26.45%, irrigated; 7.54%, rainfed; total 33.99%); sorghum (26%, irrigated); mungbean (10%, irrigated); arhar (10%, irrigated); sesamum (10%, irrigated); vegetables (10%, irrigated); fallow (10%) during kharif season and wheat (44%, irrigated); mustard (28%, rainfed); tomato (18.25%, irrigated); other vegetables (5.75%, irrigated) during rabi season in place of existing cropping pattern plan, i.e., with pearl millet (67%, rainfed); sorghum (22% - 7% multi-cut irrigated; 17.75%-rainfed); vegetables (0.6%,irrigated ); fallow (10%) during kharif season and wheat (55%, irrigated); mustard (24%, rainfed); tomato (15%, irrigated); other vegetables (5%, irrigated) during rabi season could yield 29.5% higher annual net income (`87,172/ha/annum) as compared to the existing cropping plan (i.e., with net income ` 67,320/ha/ annum). However, this was associated with a 36.12% increase in the total annual water demand (731 ha-m vis-à-vis existing demand of 537 ha-m) for the area. This study revealed that as the total surface runoff potential of the area ( ha-m) is more than the additional water demand of 194 ha-m, therefore, this may be achieved through proper planning of the water harvesting measures in the study area. Incorporation of water saving technologies along with alternative cropping plan could lead to a further 13.9% increase in the annual net income (` 99,334/ha/annum) for the farmer of this region. The analysis also revealed that as compared to ` 1.20 per m 3 being actually spend by the farmer as market water cost, the dual (shadow) price of water (i.e. income per unit additional water consumed under limited water conditions) is ` 7.85/- and `10.80 per m 3, under existing and improved water saving technologies, respectively Waste Water Management Impact of harvesting of wetland vegetation on the pollutant removal efficiency of a pilot sewage water treatment plant of IARI and its up-scaling The sewage water treatment plant of IARI (of LPD capacity) is in operation since 2009 and comprises of 16 small scale batch fed (<1-day HRT) vertical sub 49

57 surface flow (VSSF) experimental wetlands (each of 100 lpd capacity). Long term pollutant mass reduction efficiency of (so far not harvested) system over 2 years (until July, 2011), indicated a general reduction (by 20-40%) in its pollutant mass reduction efficiency over the base year (i.e. 2010) and thereby emphasized the need for a periodic plant biomass harvesting plan. To work out a scientifically sound biomass harvesting plan, the wetland vegetation (Typha sp, Phragmites sp. and Acorus sp.) of the system were harvested (with the onset of the monsoon season) during July, 2011 and thereafter the impact of harvesting operation on the overall pollutant removal efficiency of the treatment plant (in terms of both nutrients and heavy metals) was monitored. Vegetation harvesting could lead to significant (30-40%) improvement in nutrient and metal removal efficiencies (70-90%). Treatment systems based on the fast growing Typha latifolia vegetation were observed to be associated with 10-20% superior nutrient and metal removal efficiencies. These, along with those for the other wetland systems, however subsequently dropped in the month of Jan Thus, for achieving year-round sustained (70-80%) plant - pollutant removal efficiencies, a 5-monthy harvesting schedule was worked out. The pollutant mass reduction efficiency of the new gravel based systems was then compared with those for the old (but July, 2011-harvested) soil based systems. Observations revealed that in general, the new gravel based wetland systems were associated with significantly higher (1.2. to 1.6 times) BOD, turbidity, nitrate, sulphate, K, RSC, phosphate, nickel and lead removal efficiencies. Typha latifolia based systems stood out as the best systems for chromium removal. However their chromium removal efficiencies were very low (20%) thereby suggesting the need for screening an alternative wetland vegetation for this purpose. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) removal efficiencies were observed to be significantly superior under soil based systems, thereby indicating the role of soil media in effective Fe/ Mn - transformation/ precipitation to nonlabile forms as one of the main geo-chemical process governing sewage metal removal. Based on these experiences, the technology has been recently up-scaled to a 2.2 MLD horizontal subsurface flow system for treating sewage waters from Krishi Kunj colony, adjoining IARI campus. Spread over 1.42 hectares, the up-scaled system consists of three treatment cells, with HRT of 2.2 days. Each treatment cell is stratified with 60 cm thick layer of stratified gravel, on which Typha latifolia- a wetland vegetation - is planted. The average pollutant removal efficiency of the system is quite significant. While biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the influent at the inlet is about 460 milligrams per liter (mg/l), the BOD of effluent is 100 or less at the outlet. Besides this, the system is capable of reducing total suspended solids (TSS) from 220 mg/l to about 2.2 mg/l and nutrients / heavy metals (such as NO3, PO4, K, Pb, Fe and Cr) by 75-85%. The treated water is collected in a 4800 m 3 holding tank, from where it is pumped through a riser BOD and Lead reduction efficiency of gravel vs. soil based wetland systems A view of the up-scaled horizontal sub-surface flow sewage treatment wetlands of IARI 50

58 pipe to the IARI - fields. The so treated sewage water has a potential to irrigate 132 ha of IARI farm lands Consumer health risk from rice/ wheat grains produced under different quality of irrigation water Consumer health hazard due to the consumption of food grains produced through the ground waters (GW), sewage waters (SW) and the waste waters treated through the unplanted (CW) and the 3-planted wetland technology (viz., Acoruscalamum planted: VW; Phragmites karka planted: PW; and Typha latifolia planted: TW) based systems was assessed in terms of the Hazard Index (HI). For these estimations, daily intake of grains/cereals by an adult of say 70 kg weight was assumed to be kg (on fresh weight basis, with the fresh weight to dry weight conversion factor assumed as 0.90 for grains/cereals). The dietary intake of pollutants normally does not exceed 50 % of the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake, except for individuals who are exposed through occupational activities or are resident near a pollution point source. Hence, for this analysis, the consumption probability of contaminated grains was considered as 25%. While the oral reference dose or safe daily intake quantity of different heavy metals was based on the standard per USEPA (1997 & 2002) guidelines. The analysis showed that lead (Pb) followed by the iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn) contributed the maximum to the consumer health risk. However, in comparison to the untreated sewage waters, these threats were significantly lower with the Acoruscalamus and Phragmites karka treated sewage waters. Further, the overall metal health hazard due to the consumption of wheat grains produced through untreated waste waters was about 1.6 times more than that of the consumption of similar water produced-paddy grains Irrigation Water Management Evaluation of mungbean under both surface and drip irrigation systems A study was conducted to find out the suitability of drip irrigation for summer mungbean production. The treatment consisted of three irrigation methods, i.e., drip, furrow irrigated raised bed (FIRB) and check basin (CB) with 3-irrigation regimes, i.e., 100% crop evapotranspiration (ETc), 75% ETc and 60% ETc. Total water applied was 234 mm, mm, and mm in irrigation at 100% ETc, 75% ETc and 60% ETc, respectively. The yield attributes (number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, pod length, 1000-grain weight) as well as grain yield were also recorded to be the highest in drip irrigated plots for all treatments as compared to CB and FIRB. Mungbean crop under drip irrigation Yield of mungbean under different treatments in surface and drip irrigation methods Consumer health hazard due to consumption of wheat and paddy grains produced through the untreated vs. treated waste waters Treatments Yield (t/ha) under different irrigation methods Drip Furrow Check Basin 100 % of ET C % of ET C % of ET C CD (0.05) =

59 Effect of crop geometry and fertigation frequency on the yield of kharif Onion An experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop geometries (S1 = 15 cm x 10 cm; S2= 12 cm x 10 cm; S3 = 10 cm x 10 cm; S4 = 7.5 cm x 10 cm) and frequency of fertigation (F1 =every alternate day, i.e. 3 times in a week; F2= two times in a week; F3= once in a week) on the yield, irrigation water use efficiency and cost of the drip system in two onion cultivars (AFDR and N 53). Lateral to lateral distance was 1.20 m in all treatments, to maintain the cost of the system uniform. Highest yield was observed in S4F1 (30 t/ha) in AFDR. There was 9.8, 16.1 and 23.3 % decrease in the onion yield in S1, S2 and S3, respectively, in comparison to S4. Irrigation water productivity of 9.9 kg/m 3 of water was observed in S4F1. Increase in fertigation frequency from once weekly to every alternate day increased the yield by about 15 %. Water requirement for onion was estimated to be 309 mm. However, because of adequate rainfall, only 132 mm irrigation water was applied through drip. Onion crop under drip irrigation Response of rice varieties to different planting methods under drip irrigation A field experiment was conducted with three planting methods of rice, direct seeded rice (DSR), system of rice intensification (SRI) with drip irrigation, and traditional method as control. Four varieties of rice, i.e., Pusa 44, Pusa 834, Pusa 1121 and Pusa 1401 were sown with three replications. The variety Pusa 44 produced significantly higher yield (6.4 t/ha) in SRI under drip. Irrigation water use efficiency (0.67 kg grain/m 3 ) and field water use efficiency (0.45 kg grain/m 3 ) was found to be highest in SRI method with drip Soil water tension based irrigation scheduling of different wheat varieties under drip irrigation A field study was conducted to investigate the water productivity of four wheat varieties (V 1 = HD 2733; V 2 = HD 2851; V 3 = HD 2894 and V 4 = HD 2967) in drip irrigation with different irrigation schedules. The irrigation scheduling was based on different soil water tensions (SWT) (I 1 = 40 kpa; I 2 = 50 kpa; I 3 = 60 kpa and I 4 = 70 kpa). Water requirement of the crop was estimated to be 35.1 cm. Maximum yield (7.1 t/ha) was observed in V 4 I 1. Water productivity at 70 kpa was higher than all other irrigation schedules. Productivity varied from 1.20 to 2.03 kg/m 3. HD 2733 was found to be more tolerant to deficit irrigation than the other three wheat varieties Enhancing productivity of pulses through micro irrigation Pigeon pea is one of the important pulses in India but poor nutrient and water management result in low productivity. Efforts were made to enhance the productivity of pigeon pea through drip-fertigation technology. Crop was sown on raised beds of 15 cm height and 45 cm width leaving 30 cm furrow to insure proper drainage. Three levels of irrigation (I 1 =100 % ETc, I 2 = 80 % ETc, I 3 = 60 % ETc) and 3 recommended doses of fertilizers (F 1 =100 % RDF, F 2 = 80 % RDF and F 3 = 60 % RDF) were applied through drip-fertigation. Highest yield (2.97 t/ha) was obtained in treatment I 1 F 1. Deficit irrigation of 20 and 40 % of ETc reduced the yield by 2.2 and 6.7 % in comparison to full volume irrigation. Reduction in fertilizer doses to the tune of 20 and 40 % of RDF reduced the yield by 3.3 and 20.2 %, respectively. Fertigation with drip irrigation enhanced the yield by 39.3 % in comparison to only drip irrigation. 52

60 Deficit and partial root zone (PRZ) irrigation in drip-irrigated citrus A study on drip irrigation was conducted to study the effects of single and combined regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) schedules on the yield and economics of Kinnow mandarin. RDI was scheduled at 50% ETc, during both early and final fruit growing periods, in both single and combined modes. While simple deficit irrigations (DI) at 50% ETc and 75% ETc criteria were scheduled during the rest of the growth stages along with or without partial root zone drying treatments. Full irrigation (FI: irrigation at 100% ETc) was taken as control, for comparison. Irrigation at 50% ETc in early, 100% at middle and 50% at final fruit growth periods (RDI ) saved around 30% irrigation water, producing only 3-6% less yield. Similarly, PRD at 50% ETc (PRD 50 ) proved superior, resulting in 35% improvement in irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) as well as better economy Research on Climate Change and Modelling Development of interfaces for trend analysis and drought indices An interface for Climate Change Trend Analysis (CCTA) of long term climatic data using Man Kendall and Modified Man Kendall, Sen Seasonality trend test and Cox Stuart trend test concepts was developed, using MATLAB programming language. Temporal variability in climatic parameters, reference crop evapotranspiration and groundwater levels for Karnal were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test, Sen s slope estimator and time series ARIMA model. Analysis of data of Karnal station showed that the mean daily minimum and mean daily temperature increased by 0.02 o C/yr and 0.01 o C/yr, respectively. Mean daily relative humidity and wind speed increased by 0.11 % per year and 0.57 km/yr during Mean daily sunshine hours and reference evapo-transpiration decreased by 0.06 hour/yr and 0.01mm/yr, respectively. Sensitivity analysis of potential evapo-transpiration (ET 0 ) to the principal climatic variables for Karnal district showed that mean annual and seasonal ET 0 are primarily affected by maximum temperature and sunshine hours.this was followed by sunshine hours, wind speed, relative humidity and minimum temperature during summer seasons and the minimum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed during monsoon seasons. Climatic and hydrological variables were combined to estimate district wise ADI for Uttar Pradesh using the data for the period from 1996 to 2002 for both pre-and-post monsoon season. The ADI is a multivariate drought index that considers all physical forms of drought (i.e., meteorological, hydrological and agricultural) through selection of input variables related to each drought type. In this study, four variables, namely, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, stream flow and groundwater levels (preand-post monsoon) were used. The categories of ADI to describe drought severity conditions were also developed. This study is in continuation to the work carried out during involving use of Standard Water level Index (SWI) to monitor hydrological drought anomaly in Indo Gangetic Plains. The results showed that, due to the incorporation of surface stream flow, rainfall and PET indicators, ADI could represent drought conditions better than SWI. A comparison of ADI based drought categorization of the study area with the NDVI values for the drought year-2002 validated superior performance of ADI to the previously developed SWI - drought index. The composite index - ADI is now being further improved by incorporating other variables such as soil moisture and biophysical parameters. Comparison of ADI and NDVI during 2002 for Uttar Pradesh 53

61 Besides this, a new drought index, namely, Standardized Effective Rainfall and Crop Evapotranspiration Index (SERCEI) was developed for assessing agricultural drought and tested using the data of Pune district. SERCEI index estimated for the year 2015, using GCM based downscaled rainfall data for the pearl millet growing regions of the Pune district, showed that 6 out of the 7 regions of Pune district will be under moderate drought while one will be under severe drought Simulation of vadose zone processes, recharge flux and groundwater behavior under various climate change and pumping scenarios Vadosezone processes, recharge flux and groundwater recharge under various climate change and pumping scenarios were simulated, and various components of water balance such as cumulative recharge flux, cumulative root water uptake, cumulative evaporation and cumulative surface runoff were computed using HYDRUS-1D and MODFLOW models for Najafgarh block of Delhi. Results indicated that average groundwater recharge in 2030s may increase marginally (0.03 m) compared to the 2005, under ARIMA based predictions. However, in case of estimates based on IPCC and INCCA predictions, groundwater recharge appeared to be decreasing by 0.09 to 0.21 m. Similar studies on future groundwater levels, using ARIMA model, for Karnal district also revealed receding groundwater levels (25.20 to m from current 15 to 18 m) by Evaluation of AquaCrop model in predicting wheat yield and water productivity under irrigated saline regimes Crop growth models of varying complexity to simulate grain and biomass yields, and water productivity of different crops under irrigated saline environment were developed and used for simulation of crop yield under different crop growth conditions. The present study was undertaken to simulate the grain yield and water productivity of four wheat varieties, including 3 salt-tolerant (i.e., KRL 19, KRL 1-4; KRL 210) and one salt non-tolerant (HD 2894) grown under different salinity levels using AquaCrop model. The model was calibrated using the experiment data of rabi and validated with the data of rabi The model efficiency (ME), index of agreement (d) and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) for grain yield were 0.85, 0.96, 0.94, and for biomass 0.7, 0.95, 0.95, respectively, for all varieties and salinity levels. However, AquaCrop model predictions were found to be the best for the grain yield, better for the biomass and relatively inferior for water productivity for all wheat varieties and salinity levels Assessment of energy requirement and carbon foot print of groundwater irrigation Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various groundwater recharge and pumping scenarios on energy requirement and carbon foot print (CFP) of groundwater abstraction at IARI. The results indicated that the pump efficiency had maximum impact on CFP (increase in efficiency from 36.5 to 50 % may decrease the CFP from 365 to 267 million tonnes). Groundwater recharge did not show much impact on CFP. Carbon footprint would increase by million tonnes for one meter decline in water table under specified recharge and pumping conditions. Energy required for groundwater irrigation of rice-wheat, ricemustard, pearl millet-wheat, pearl millet-mustard, maize-wheat, maize-mustard, pigeonpea-wheat, pigeonpea-mustard under prevailing conditions in Najafgarh, Delhi were 1.31, 1.30, 0.90, 0.88, 1.14, 1.12, 1.06 and 1.04 MWh, respectively, whereas their CFPs were 1.24, 1.22, 0.85, 0.83, 1.07, 1.05, 1.00 and 0.98 MT/ ha. 3.4 NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Long-term Effect of Fertilizers and Manures on Crop Yields and Soil Fertility The long-term experiment started during at IARI farm under the aegis of AICRP was continued with maize-wheat cropping system. Ten treatments comprising sub-optimal (50% of recommended) to super-optimal (150% of recommended) NPK, NP or N alone, NPK supplemented with FYM (5.0 t/ha), S (45 kg/ha) or Zn (10 kg/ha), and unfertilized-control were evaluated. Long-term changes in crop response to fertilizers. The grain yield of maize during the year under report revealed that conjoint use of NPK and FYM, or super- 54

62 optimal NPK out-yielded all other treatments. The yields in these treatments were significantly greater than recommended NPK, suggesting for an increase in the fertilizer recommendations. Grain yield under 100% NP was also significantly greater than N alone, underlining the response to P fertilization. Maize response to K was 0.3 t/ha, and that to P was 0.45 t/ha during the current year. The yield response to FYM was 0.87 t/ha. The yield responses to P, K and S in wheat were much greater during compared with the 17-year averaged response to these nutrients. Application of 150% of recommended NPK over optimal (100% of recommended) NPK gave an additional yield of wheat (0.67 t/ha), whereas the corresponding average yield gain for the period to was 0.45 t /ha. Similarly, yield gains due to conjoint use of FYM and NPK increased with the passage of time, owing to decline in soil health and inadequacy of recommended fertilizer rates. Nonetheless, results clearly suggested for an upward Grain yield trends of maize and wheat under different fertilizer options revision of fertilizer recommendations to achieve high yield goals and minimize nutrient mining from soil. Fractions of soil B under different nutrient supply options. Total B ranged between 36.5 and 44.9 mg/ kg, and was significantly higher under NPK+FYM as compared to the rest of the treatments. Readily soluble and specifically adsorbed B varied significantly with treatments, being the highest (0.82 and 0.86 mg/kg, respectively) under NPK+FYM and the lowest (0.61 and 0.60 mg/kg, respectively) under N alone. No significant effect of treatments was observed on the oxide-bound and residual fractions of B, which varied between 1.44 and 1.62 mg/kg, and 31.0 and 35.8 mg/kg, respectively. On the other hand, organically bound B showed the highest value (5.86 mg/kg) under NPK+ FYM, whereas it was the lowest (2.50 mg/kg) under control. As these soils are neither B deficient nor have excessive B adsorption sites such as CaCO 3, oxides or clay content, distribution of B in different fractions is mainly governed by soil organic matter content and B removal by the crops. Grain yield as well as total B uptake showed significant correlation with specifically adsorbed and organically bound B in soil. Multiple regression analysis revealed that specifically adsorbed and organically bound B fractions individually could explain 37% and 52% variability in grain yield and B uptake by wheat. Soil S pools and apparent S balance. Total S in surface soil (0-15 cm) ranged between 164 and 242 mg/kg, with the highest content in NPK+S plots. Organic fraction contributed 88 to 93% of total S, and appeared to be the dominant pool. Highest contents of organic and inorganic S fractions were registered in NPK+S followed by NPK+FYM plots. Apparent balance sheet of S was computed by estimating S addition through different sources,viz., fertilizers, irrigation and rainfall. Annual S addition to different treatments ranged between 29.8 and kg/ha, whereas total S uptake by both crops ranged between 9.34 and 33.0 kg/ha. Thus, the apparent balance was positive in all treatments, except 150% NPK. Highest positive balance of 88 kg/ha was recorded under NPK+S, which was followed by 45.2 kg/ha under NPK+FYM. 55

63 3.4.2 Effect of Sludge Application on Crop Yield and Soil Properties A field experiment established in was continued with wheat- cowpea system on a Typic Haplustept at IARI farm to assess the effect of sewage sludge application on crop yields and soil properties. The highest yield of wheat was obtained with 100% of recommended NPK, which was on a par with the treatment receiving 15 t/ha + 50% of recommended NPK. Soil ph and EC remained unaffected after harvest of wheat. Application of sewage sludge along with 50% NPK not only increased the yield but also improved soil available N, P and K content. Application of sludge decreased bulk density, while mean weight diameter, water stable aggregates and porosity increased Effect of Enriched Composts on Soil Fertility and Biological Properties under Wheat-Green Gram Sequence Composts were prepared using rice straw, mustard stover and tree leaves, enriched with low-grade rock phosphate (RP). Cattle dung was added as natural inoculant for faster decomposition of composting mass. The materials were ready for field evaluation after 4 months. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of these enriched composts on soil fertility and biological properties under wheat-green gram rotation. Eleven treatments consisted of T 1 : Control; T 2 : 100% RDF (recommended dose of NPK fertilizers); T 3 : 50% RDF; T 4 : 5 t/ha; T 5 : Rice straw enriched 5 t/ha; T 6 : Mustard stover enriched 5 t/ha; T 7 : Tree leaf enriched 5 t/ha; T 8 : 50% RDF + 5 t/ha; T 9 : 50% RDF + Rice straw enriched 5 t/ha; T 10 : 50% RDF + Mustard stover enriched 5 t/ha; and T 11 : 50% RDF + Tree leaf enriched 5 t/ha. Whole quantities of fertilizer materials were applied to first crop of wheat and green gram was grown on residual fertility. Mineral N (NH 4+ -N and NO 3- -N), organic C, and available P, K and S status in soil improved significantly due to application of enriched composts as well as inorganic fertilizers than control at harvest of each crop. The organic C content varied from 0.35% in control (T 1 ) to 0.54% in T 9 (50% RDF + 5 t/ha rice straw enriched compost) at wheat harvest. In general, significant buildup in soil organic C as well as available P was maintained in treatments receiving enriched compost along with 50% RDF than sole application of FYM/ enriched compost (T 4, T 5 and T 6 ) or fertilizer (T 2 and T 3 ). The available P content in soil ranged from 13.0 kg P/ha in control (T 1 ) to 25.3 kg/ha in T 9 (50% RDF + 5 t/ ha rice straw enriched compost) at wheat harvest Enhancing Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Maize-Wheat Cropping System A field experiment comprising fertilizer P rates (0, 33, 50 and 100% of recommended P) and microbial inoculation options, i.e., un-inoculated, P solubilizing bacteria (PSB; Pseudomonas striata) and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) consortia consisting of Glomas, Gigaspora and Acualospora sp., and PSB + AM inoculation was established with maize-wheat cropping system. Available P content was higher in rhizosphere soil by 35% than non-rhizosphere soil, whereas, at V5 and VT stage, the rhizosphere soil P availability was lower by 24% and 45%, respectively than non-rhizosphere soil. Microbial inoculants (PSB+AM) enhanced P availability by 12, 27, 52 and 47% over un-inoculated plots at V2, V5, VT and harvest stages, respectively. The recovery efficiency of P was the highest when 50% of recommended P was applied along with PSB+AM. Highest maize grain yield (4.16 t/ha) was recorded under split application of 100% P fertilizer with PSB+AM. Averaged across fertilizer treatments, maize yield under microbial inoculants (PSB, AM, PSB+AM) was on a par. The yield under 50% P with PSB + AM was on a par with 100% P fertilizer application, indicating that microbial inoculation can help in curtailing fertilizer P application by mobilizing the native and applied P Evaluation and Refinement of Laboratory Techniques for Boron (B) Determination in Soil In view of the problems encountered in conventional hot-water extraction of B, a study was undertaken to evaluate different extractants for available B in soils of varying characteristics. Sixteen soils representing different soil groups were selected for pot experiment, which differed widely in 56

64 characteristics with ph ranging between 5.26 and 8.43, organic C between 0.15 and 0.75%, and exchangeable Ca between 1.54 and 5.20 me 100 g -1 soil. Four extractants, viz, Hot water, Hot 0.01M Cacl 2, 0.05M Mannitol-0.01M CaCl 2 (ph 8.5) and 0.2M Sorbitol-1N NH 4 OAc-0.1M TEA (ph 7.3) were used to extract the available B. In general, soil B extraction increased with increasing organic C and soil ph, whereas the reverse was true in case of exchangeable Ca content. Such a relationship with soil characteristics was more consistent in case of Hot CaCl 2, Sorbitol-NH 4 OAc-TEA and Hot water. A pot-experiment was conducted using these soils, wherein soybean was grown with (1.0 mg B kg -1 ) or without B (0 mg B/kg), and residual effect of B was studied in cauliflower. All pots received uniform application of N P K at mg/kg soil, respectively. Crops were harvested at 45-day growth. The results revealed that B content, B uptake by the crops and dry matter yield of crops were increased with B application, although the magnitude of increase depended on the soil B values. Dry matter yield response to B was, on average 39% in soybean and 53% in cauliflower over no B-control Controlled and Sustained Release of Zinc in Soil In order to ensure controlled release of applied Zn in soil, two bio-nano composites (Bio NCPC) were synthesized using biopolymers, namely, chitosan and starch, and uploaded with Zn. Studies on Zn release behaviour of these Bio NCPCs having different nanoclay content revealed that increasing amount of nanoclay decreased the release rate of Zn in all the three NCPCs. Biodegradability of these materials in soil was also studied by incubating the same with Aspergillus sp. and measuring CO 2 evolution. The results showed that bio NCPCs degraded much faster compared with polyacrylate-ncpc which degraded very slowly initially. In case of bio NCPCs, increasing amount of nano clay decreased CO 2 evolution rate at initial stages Biosynthesis of Nitrogen Nano-particles An attempt was made to synthesize nitrogen (N) nano-particles using bacterial enzymes. For this purpose, several soil bacteria were isolated from research farm of Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodhpur. A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the compatibility of each bacterial isolates against varying concentration of different salts of N, viz., (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4, NH 4 NO 3, NH 4 Cl and KNO 3. Out of these, three isolates (bacteria-2, bacteria-4 and bacteria-7) showed positive growth in NH 4 NO 3 salt solution and were selected for biosynthesis of N nanoparticles. The results indicated that bacteria-2 and bacteria-7 were able to produce nano-particles in NH 4 NO 3 salt solution. Intensity distribution of biotransformed salt solutions using extracellular enzymes of bacteria-2 in 1 mm of NH 4 NO 3 salt solution after 24 hours of incubation indicated that bacteria-2 was able to produce 92.9% nano-particles from salt solution. Similarly, intensity distribution of bio-transformed salt solutions using extracellular enzymes of bacteria-7 in 1 mm of NH 4 NO 3 salt solution only after 3 hours of incubation indicated that bacteria-7 was able to produce 70.6% nano-particles from salt solution Standardization of Leaf Colour Chart (LCC) and Chlorophyll Meter for Dynamic N Management in Wheat Leaf colour chart and chlorophyll meters (SPAD and Fieldscout CM 1000) were evaluated for sitespecific N management in wheat at IARI farm. A positive and significant (R 2 = , p<0.01) quadratic response between N application levels and wheat grain yield was observed. The optimum LCC score, Minolta SPAD, CM 1000 meter values, leaf chlorophyll and N concentration at maximum tillering (most important crop growth stage for N management in wheat) were found to be 4.5, 45.9, 301.9, 2.47 mg g -1 fresh weight and 2.72%, respectively, to fetch economic optimum grain yield. Growth stage specific optimum and critical values of above mentioned N indicators for achieving economic optimum and critical grain yield of wheat were also developed Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques to Monitor N, P, S and K status in Wheat Field experiments were carried out to assess the possibility of monitoring nutrient stress in wheat using hyperspectral remote sensing. Leaf and canopy spectra at wavelengths from nm using 57

65 spectroradiometer and vegetation data were recorded at booting stage of wheat crop. Reflectance in short wave infra red (SWIR) region found to monitor nutrient (N, P, K and S) status in plant in combination with reflectance at either VIS or NIR region. Eight traditional and six newly proposed indices were tested for retrieval of N, P, S and K quantitatively. Prediction coefficient of newly proposed indices were statistically significant for P (R 2 = , RMSE= g m -2, p<0.01) and S (R 2 = , RMSE= g m -2, p<0.01). The ratio compared to normalized structures of vegetation indices was found to be more robust in retrieval of amount of nutrients. Newly developed and validated spectral algorithms specific to N, P, S and K can be used for their site-specific management in wheat Response of Soybean and Wheat to the Application of Nickel in Alluvial Soils A pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of applied Ni (0, 5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) on soybean and wheat crop, grown on residual Ni content. There was 16.5 to 26.6% increase in biomass yield of soybean due to Ni application at 5 mg/kg over control; the corresponding figure for wheat was 10.7 to 41.1%. Toxicity symptoms in soybean were recorded at higher level (50 or100mg/kg) of applied Ni. DTPA was more consistent in predicting available Ni in soil as compared to Sr(NO) 3 and Ca(NO) 3. Critical limit of deficiency of DTPA-extractable Ni in soil were 0.17 and 0.18 mg/kg for soybean and wheat, respectively. Whereas, critical plant Ni concentration of deficiency for soybean and wheat was worked out to be 0.20 and 0.37 mg/kg, respectively. Phytotoxicity limit of DTPA extractable Ni in soil was computed as 3.24 mg/kg and a plant content of 12.0 mg/kg on dry weight basis can be considered as toxic limit using soybean as a test crop Available Nutrient Content in Soil under Conservation Agriculture With an objective to assess the changes in nutrient status under conservation agriculture (CA), the soil samples (0-15 cm) from three cropping systems (ricewheat, cotton-wheat and pigeonpea-wheat) after two years of field experimentation at IARI farm were analyzed for organic C, available N, P and K. Averaged over different cropping systems, organic C in CA based systems increased by 19% over the conventional farmer s practice and 24% over the initial soil content. The maximum increase in organic C was recorded in CA based rice-wheat system, followed by cotton-wheat and pigeonpea-wheat system, respectively. Similarly, CA based systems maintained greater available N and K content in soil compared with conventional practice or initial value. The increase in N and K was highest in cotton-wheat system followed by rice-wheat and pigeonpea-wheat system. On the other hand, availability of P decreased in CA by 15% over conventional practice but increased over initial by 86% Soil Test Crop Response Correlation (STCR) Based Fertilizer Recommendation of N, P and S for Wheat Integrated plant nutrient supply (IPNS) recommendations for N, P and S in wheat (cv. HD 2851) Fertilizer (NPS) prescription equations for targeted yield of wheat Fertilization option Fertilizer NPS alone Fertilizer NPS + FYM Fertilizer prescription equation FN = 5.33 T 0.65 SN FP = 1.65 T 2.37 SP FS = 1.04 T 1.06 SS FN = 5.33 T 0.65 SN 0.68 FYMN FP = 1.65 T 2.37 SP 0.43 FYMP FS = 1.04 T 1.06 SS 0.39 FYMS Effect of Ni application on soybean grown on Ni deficient soil FN, FP and FS fertilizer N, P and S in kg/ha, respectively; T- target yield in q/ ha; SN, SP and SS Alkaline KMnO 4 N, Olsen s-p and 0.15% CaCl 2 extractable S in kg/ha, respectively; FYMN, FYMP and FYMS - FYM N, P and S in kg/ ha, respectively. 58

66 were developed on an Inceptisol following Ramamoorthy s inductive cum targeted yield model. Marked fertility gradients were established with respect to soil available N, P and S. Graded levels of fertilizer N, P, S and FYM were applied to three fertility strips each having twenty four plots. Soil and plant analysis data were used to compute basic parameters required for development of nutrient prescription equations. The nutrient requirement for producing one quintal of wheat grain yield was worked out as 2.3 kg of N, 0.40 kg of P and 0.5 kg of S. Available soil nutrient pool contributed 28.7, 54.5 and 52.0%, applied fertilizers 43.9, 23.0 and 49.2%, and FYM 29.9, 9.9 and 19.2% to total N, P and S uptake by wheat, respectively. Using these basic data, fertilizer prescription equations and ready reckoners were developed for a range of soil test values and yield targets. 3.5 ORCHARD MANAGEMENT Performance of IARI Released Mango Varieties on Polyembryonic Rootstocks Growth performance of four mango varieties released from IARI were evaluated on four polyembryonic rootstocks (K-5, Kurakkan, Olour and K-3). In Pusa Arunima, maximum fruit weight was recorded on K-5 rootstock and minimum on Kurakkan. Whereas highest pulp percent was recorded for Olour rootstock. The maximum fruit weight of Pusa Surya, Amrapali and Mallika was found on Olour rootstock, while pulp percent in Amrapali and Mallika was recorded the highest when grafted on K-5 and Kurakkan rootstocks, respectively Effect of Rootstock on Physiochemical Parameters in Mango Grown under NaCl Stress Plants of Amrapali mango grafted on two polyembryonic, Olour and Kurakkan and one monoembryonic, small fruited desi type (non-descript seedlings) were irrigated with water containing 0.0 or 50 mm NaCl at four days interval for 90 days. In different rootstock-scion combinations, minimum reduction in plant height (13.48%) under salinised condition was found in graft with desi type, while minimum inhibition in number of leaves (4.66%) was recorded on Olour rootstock. Graft on desi type seedlings had increased minimum leaf Na + concentration (1.5-fold), while graft with Olour had minimum leaf Cl - (1.2-fold) in the presence of NaCl as compared to non-salinised plants. Olour seems to be good Cl - excluder rootstock, while desi type, nondescript seedlings could exclude Na + from leaf tissues of scion cultivar. Based on the overall performance and leaf scorching symptoms, it could be concluded that Olour might be used as mango rootstocks in areas where irrigation water contains high salts Physiological and Biochemical Analysis in Malformation Resistant and Susceptible Mango Cultivars Twelve mango cultivars were characterized for different parameters with respect to mango malformation. Leaf blade thickness which showed genotypic variability, was maximum in Bhadauran (0.228 mm) a resistant cultivar to malformation, compared to Lucknow Safeda (0.136 mm) and Langra (0.142), the susceptible cultivars. Leaf wax coating showed highly significant negative correlation with intensity of mango floral malformation (r = -0.88) with highly susceptible cultivars showing considerably less wax thickness ( g/cm 2 ) compared to resistant cultivars ( g/cm 2 ). Resistant cultivars including Elaichi and Bhadauran had the highest leaf wax content (522 and 484 g/cm 2, respectively), while highly susceptible cultivars such as Amrapali, Eldon and Neelum had significantly low amounts 315, 355 and 375 g/cm 2, respectively. Correlation between the number of stomata per unit area (mm 2 ) of mango leaf surface did not show significant correlation (r = -0.28) with malformation intensity. Mallika - a susceptible cultivar recorded the minimum number of stomata, while Bhadauran a resistant cultivar had the maximum stomata per unit area. Significant positive correlations were observed between leaf length, leaf breadth and severity of floral malformation (r = 0.59, 0.53, respectively). Leaf length had highly significant positive correlations with leaf breadth, leaf weight, leaf area and total number of stomata per leaf. 59

67 Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was found to be significantly higher in malformation resistant cultivars Bhadauran and Ellaichi (8.38 and 8.39 min -1 g -1 fw, respectively) than the susceptible cultivars (Mean 4.43 min -1 g -1 fw). Chausa, Mallika and Bombay Green had the lowest PPO activities, which were insignificantly different within this group. Lipoxygenase (LOX) was higher in Chausa (3.96 mol Trolox g -1 fw) and lowest in Bhadauran (11.06 mol Trolox g -1 fw). LOX activity was negatively correlated with malformation. Mean peroxidase activity was maximum for the varieties resistant to malformation (29.62 and μmol H 2 O 2 mg -1 fw min -1 for Bhadauran and Ellaichi, respectively). Malformation susceptible varieties recorded significantly lower catalase (mean μmol H 2 O 2 mg -1 fw min -1 ) than the resistant genotypes. A comparison of mean catalase activity across mango varieties revealed significantly higher catalase activity in leaf of 1-2 month (29.83 μmol H 2 O 2 mg -1 fw min -1 ) than that of 3-4 months stage (18.13 μmol H 2 O 2 mg -1 fw min -1 ). Catalase activity in 3-4 month-old leaf was positively correlated (0.477) with malformation resistance Performance of Grapefruit Cultivars on Different Rootstocks Growth performance in terms of height, rootstock: scion index, and canopy volume of two grapefruit cultivars, namely, Marsh Seedless and Red Blush were observed on nine rootstocks. The maximum height 1.57 m of Marsh Seedless trees was recorded when grafted on Troyer citrange, while minimum plant height was recorded when Marsh Seedless grafted on Attani-1 (1.10 m), whereas in Red Blush, maximum height was found on rough lemon rootstock and minimum on Troyer citrange rootstock. Canopy volume of Marsh Seedless trees ranged from 4.30 m 3 on sour orange rootstock to 2.10 m 3 on Jatti khatti rootstock. However, in Red Blush, higher canopy volume was recorded when grafted on Jatti khatti and lowest was found when grafted on Attani-1. Rootstock: scion index was found the highest (1.23) when Marsh Seedless was grafted on Troyer citrange; whereas lowest index (0.87) was recorded on sour orange. In grapefruit cultivar Red Blush, rootstock : scion index varied from 0.90 on Troyer citrange to 1.46 in trees grafted on Jatti khatti after two year of growth Plant Growth and Physiological Parameters of Wilt Tolerant and Dwarf Guava Genotypes Physiological parameters like numbers of stomata per unit leaf area and phenolic content in leaves were assessed in guava germplasm. Minimum stomatal density was observed in Psidium chinensis followed by genotype Sasri. Stomatal density estimation also indicated Sasri to be a dwarf genotype. Low stomatal density and high phenolic content in leaves were found to be associated with dwarfness in Sasri genotype. Guava wilt affected area in Muzaffarnagar (UP) was surveyed and selected orchards was artificially Plant height, canopy volume and rootstock/scion index of grapefruit cultivars on different root stocks Rootstock Plant height (m) Canopy volume (m 3 ) Rootstock/Scion index Marsh SL Red Blush Marsh SL Red Blush Marsh SL Red Blush Rough lemon Attani Attani Jatti khatti Billi khichli Sour orange RLC Karna khatta Troyer citrange

68 inoculated with Fusarium and other bacterial bioagents to see their effect on controlling guava wilt. Soil and root samples were collected from guava wilt affected area, analyzed for identifying the fungal and nematode species. Fusarium oxysporum and eight different species of nematodes were found to be associated with guava wilt. 3.6 PROTECTED CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY Vegetables Crops Evaluation of different protected structures for off-season cucumber production Naturally ventilated polyhouse, fan-pad poly house and insect proof net house for production of parthenocarpic cucumber (var. Isatis and Kian) were evaluated during Cucumber seedlings (25 days old) were transplanted on 15 th Sept. under different protected structures on raised beds along with drip fertigation system. The variety Isatis gave higher average fruits yield (15.50 kg/m 2 ) as compared to Kian (14.15kg/m 2 ) under naturally ventilated polyhouse condition. It is concluded that parthenocarpic cucumbers can be grown successfully under naturally ventilated polyhouse during offseason, which is economically feasible for the growers Studies on summer squash varieties under plastic low-tunnels during winter season Four Summer squash varieties viz., Australian Green (Green coloured long fruited), Zucchini (Yellow coloured long fruited), Chand and DS 8 (Tinda type round fruited) were evaluated under plastic low tunnels for their off-season cultivation during winter Among the long fruited yellow coloured varieties Zucchini hybrid produced maximum fruit yield (56.2 t/ha) as compared to variety Australian Green (53.6 t/ ha). However, among the round shaped varieties, hybrid Chand produced the highest fruit yield (41.5 t/ ha) as compared to DS 8 (35.5 t/ha) Studies on parthenocarpic cucumber with and without plastic mulch under naturally ventilated poly house Three parthenocarpic cucumber varieties, viz., Kian, Satis, and Hilton were evaluated under naturally ventilated greenhouse equipped with low pressure drip irrigation cum fertigation system during August to December Out of three varieties, Kian required minimum period for first harvesting (23 days) after Red sweet pepper crop in experimental field Studies on parthenocarpic cucumbers under Greenhouse Crop /var. Crop Days taken to Days taken to Average fruit Average fruit Cost benefit duration flowering after first harvesting yield (kg/plant) yield (t/1000 m 2 ) ratio transplanting With mulch Kian 120 days :2.70 Satis 110 days :2.20 Hilton 115 days :2.40 Without mulch Kian 106 days : 2.12 Satis 100 days : 1.70 Hilton 107 days :

69 transplanting and produced the highest fruit yield (2.40 kg/plant and 7.78 t/1000 m 2 ) with the cost benefit ratio of 1:2.20. Silver/black plastic mulch of micron on raised bed at 30 cm x 30 cm spacing along with drip enhanced the fruit yield by 40-50% compared to without mulching under similar conditions Performance of sweet pepper with conventional and dry liquid drip fertigation under protected cultivation Eleven N and K fertilizer combinations, including nine combinations of urea and MOP, one ready mix dry liquid fertilizer (DLF) and a control, were considered in sweet pepper and fertilizer was applied weekly in 32 equal split doses through low head low cost drip system while irrigation was scheduled twice a week. The highest average sweet pepper fruit yield was recorded (62.2 t/ha) in case of the conventional fertilizer treatment. The use of urea as a nitrogen source retained more nitrate in surface layer than that of DLF. The net returns increased by 21 per cent (`30,000) by enhancing 25 per cent (`200) nitrogen as compared to the recommended dose of nitrogen (320 kg/ha). The above fertilizer rate with urea and MOP was found to be the best as far as yield, benefit cost ratio, net income and payback period were concerned. The study will be useful in operation and management of drip fertigation for enhanced production of sweet pepper under protected cultivation Development of pole type F 1 varieties of summer squash suitable for greenhouse and open field conditions Summer squash is important vegetable of cucurbits, mainly all cucurbits are wine type in nature but summer squash is having bushy type nature. Nowadays promotion of vertical horticulture is required for greenhouse but presently, varieties available are bushy types. Therefore, Breeding program for the development of wine type summer squash was initiated. A vine type parental line was collected and crossed with Australian Green (Bushy type) under green house conditions. F 1 between vine type female and bushy type male (Australian Green) was found suitable for protected conditions Flower Crops Effect of poly ethylene mulch on gladiolus Effect of polyethylene mulch was studied on three varieties of gladiolus, viz., Spic & Span (pink), Amsterdam (white) and Peter Pears (peach) on raised beds under open field, drip irrigation conditions during winter season. Out of these, the variety Peter Pears produced quality flowers with spike length of 84.8 cm, rachis length cm and floret size (10.90 cm). Spike length (91.39 cm) was also higher in Peter Pears as compared to two other varieties under silver mulch, whereas, plants with no mulch were late in flowering with shorter plant height Evaluation of five new varieties of rose under protected conditions Five new varieties of rose, viz., Poison, Tajmahal, Avalanche, Gold Strike and Bugatti were planted on 6 th November 2012 in the polyhouse to study their response. The variety Gold Strike responded well under polyhouse by producing maximum plant height ( cm), stem length (94.30 cm) and flower numbers (2.33). However, var. Avalanche produced maximum flower diameter (10.16 cm) as compared to other varieties. It was also observed that rose was prone to mites once the temperature reached beyond 35 0 C resulting in complete leaf falls. Out of the different chemicals tried, a regular spray of Vertimac or 0.2% was found effective Evaluation of eight gerbera varieties under polyhouse Eight commercial varieties of gerbera, viz, Balance, Salvadore, Goliath, Dune, Paradisco, Prime Rose, Sangaria and Silvester were evaluated under fully controlled green house. The variety Paradisco showed the earliest flowering while Salvadore performed comparatively better among all the varieties with respect to stalk length (52.75 cm) and diameter (1.51 cm) and frequency of flower production, whereas, Primerose produced maximum number of flowers (3.00) and maximum flower diameter (10.80 cm) as compared to other varieties. 62

70 Off-season production of chrysanthemum under polyhouse with drip fertigation system Among three chrysanthemum varieties, viz., Zembla, Thai Chen Queen and White Star tested for protected cultivation, var. Zambla produced very attractive flowers with longest vase life as compared to other varieties, whereas, maximum plant height (78.25 cm), stem length (70.25 cm) and flower diameter (14.60 cm) were recorded in var.white Star. Of these, vars. Zambla and Thia Chen Queen were found suitable for year round off season production by regulating photoperiod and using GA 150 ppm twice in 15 days interval during summer season. Off season production of chrysanthemum var. Zambla during summer Effect of mulching on flower quality and bulb production in tuberose and seed production in marigold Tuberose var. Parwajal was planted under open field conditions using different kinds of mulch. Silver mulch was found better for producing good quality flowers and production of bulbs and bulblets in tuberose under drip system in Delhi. Similar kind of effect was noticed in plant growth and quality bloom in marigold for seed production. Mulching provided the warmer environment for root growth and it ultimately enhanced the plant growth and promoted the early bloom Drip Irrigation and Fertigation Design of partial root zone deficit (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) techniques for greenhouse tomato The irrigation design was improved by making an arrangement of drip lateral with control valves for 16 mm diameter lateral fixed with dripper discharge of 2 liter per hour. Low pressure drip fertigation scheduling was controlled by two tensiometers installed at 30 cm and 60 cm depth. Good quality tomato with a yield of more than 10 kg per plant was achieved with 50% less water by using water saving techniques of PRD and RDI under naturally ventilated greenhouse with low pressure drip fertigation Design and installation of solar energy operated greenhouse A 200 square meter solar energy operated greenhouse equipped with fan-pad cooling system and low pressure drip fertigation system was designed and installed at CPCT farm. Solar photovoltaic power plant of 2.6 kwp was installed to energize the greenhouse of 200 square meter area. The greenhouse has two exhaust fans each of 500 watts and 0.5 hp pump and motor for cooling pad. Parthenocarpic cucumber was grown successfully in soil-less cultivation system inside the solar energy operated greenhouse. Mulching effect on bulb production in tuberose and seed production in marigold Solar Photovoltaic power plant for greenhouse 63

71 3.7 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Optimization of Design and Machine Parameters of Compost Turner-cum-Mixer To optimize the design and machine parameters of compost turner-cum-mixer, an experiment was conducted at three different levels of blade shape (Straight, L-shape and Knife edged) with three different rotor speeds (220, 300 and 350 rpm), three levels of forward speed (1.26, 2.26 and 4.17 km/h) and three different pile heights (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 m). The optimized performance parameters were tested with 1000 ml culture dose per tonne of the material of the compost. The optimum conditions were found with straight shaped blades at a rotor speed of 300 rpm operating with the tractor forward speed of 2.26 km/h and pile height maintained at 1.0 m. This resulted in decrease of the compost density from kg m -3 to kg m -3 and energy requirement to 4.84 kwh. The optimum dose of PUSA inoculant for the preparation of the good quality compost was 1000 ml per tonne of the compost material. The uniform mixing at the optimum parameters caused moisture to vaporize for the top surfaces and loss was from 19.4 to 6.66% with the maximum temperature of 60 0 C from the initial ambient temperature of 39 0 C. The electrical conductivity of compost increased from 1,421 to 1,640 μs/m, nitrogen content from 0.31 to 0.672%, potassium from 0.51 to 1.33% and phosphorus from 0.18 to 0.61% and C/N value from 53:1 to 18:1.The decomposition also resulted in reduction in power consumption from 7.93 to 6.13 kw for turning of compost by the turner-cum-mixer. There was reduction in composting time by more than 45 days in comparison to pit method. All the nutrient contents and various parameters studied were in accordance with the standards set by BIS Development of Two Bed and Eight- Row Carrot planter The two bed and eight-row carrot planter was designed and developed for precise planting of carrot seeds on raised beds with a ridge height of 20 cm. The top and bottom width of bed were 350 and 700 mm, respectively. The planter plants the carrot in four rows on each bed at a row to row spacing of 7.5 cm. An inclined plate metering device setting was used which consisted of circular outer casing, seed plate with cells on periphery, and a cut-off brush. The trapezoidal shape seed hopper of size 165x190 mm (top) and 130x105 mm (bottom) with the side wall slope of 40 to the horizontal was fabricated. The planting geometry adopted on the bed was 75x50 mm for carrot. The average depth of seed placement was 2.25 cm. The field capacity of the machines is 0.5 ha/h. Two bed and eight-row carrot planter Development of Two-Bed Carrot Harvester Compost turner-cum-mixer A prototype of a two bed harvester was designed and developed for harvesting carrot grown on raised bed. The width of coverage of the carrot harvester is 2000 mm and it is adjustable as per harvesting width requirement. The optimum design specifications of the carrot harvester are: rake angle of 25, length of soil separator 600 mm and angle of soil separator 20. The field capacity of carrot harvester is 0.5 ha/h with a field 64

72 Two-bed carrot harvester efficiency of 75%. The carrot harvester can be operated by a 35 hp tractor Development of Tractor Operated Garlic Planter A nine row tractor operated garlic planter was developed. The planter consists of main frame, vertical plate metering system, reversible tyne furrow openers and seed tubes. The metering system is driven by the ground wheel of 380 mm diameter and power transmission is by a set of chains and sprockets. The vertical metering plates are of 150 mm diameter and each having eight hemispherical cups of diameter 25 mm. The developed planter has two seed boxes. Row to row spacing is 150 mm and desired plant spacing is 75 mm. The field capacity of the planter is 0.2 ha/h at a working speed of 2 kmph. The vertical plate metering system was tested over sticky belt and the clove spacing recorded. The quality of feed index was computed as 88%. The miss index and multiple index were 2% and 10%, respectively. No visible clove damage was recorded in the laboratory testing. Performance evaluation of the prototype is being carried out in the experimental farm of the Institute Design and Development of Pneumatic Precision Planter for Vegetable Crops The effect of depth of seed placement for germination and plant stand was studied for design of the planter components. Performance parameters were recorded for radish, spinach and cauliflower for three different depths (10, 15 and 20 mm). No significant difference was observed for plant population in case of radish and cauliflower, whereas significant difference was recorded for spinach with 15 mm depth of planting with higher plant population. Performance parameters were also recorded for okra at two different depths (20 and 40 mm). Dry (8.16% m.c.) as well as soaked (66.27% m.c.) okra seed were used for the experiment. It was observed that almost 50 per cent germination occurred on 5 th day for soaked okra seed, whereas the germination for dry seed was 30 per cent on 5 th day. However, on 21 st day there was no significant difference in germination and dry matter for both the treatments. Planter performance was better in case of dry okra seed. No significant difference was observed in yield for both the treatments except the numerical higher values for dry okra seed planting. On the basis of the observations, the design of the experimental metering system was carried out with all the sub-systems Development of Prototype Garlic Harvester In order to reduce the high labour cost, design parameters of a garlic mechanical harvester were optimised through evaluation of relevant biometric and engineering properties. The influence of soil-machine parameters on mechanical harvesting of garlic was determined through field experiments of harvesting system set-up at three levels of soil moisture content (15, 12 and 9%), rake angle (10,15 and 20 0 ) and speed of operation (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 km/h), and optimum design values determined. A 4-row tractor operated garlic harvester was designed accordingly and field evaluated in sandy-loam soil. Crop harvesting and bulb damage Garlic harvester 65

73 percentages were and 5.94%, respectively. The machine had soil separation index of 0.26 with power requirement of 4.54 kw, which is adequate for small/ medium size tractors commonly used. The machine could cover 1.9 ha per day of 8 h of operation. Breakeven use of the prototype garlic harvester was estimated to be h/year, with a payback period of 3.63 years. Estimated operational cost of the machine is 55 % lower than that of manual harvesting Evaporative Cooling System for Tractor Cabin An evaporative cooling system was designed for tractor cabin and retrofitted on tractor to reduce environmental stress on tractor driver. Evaluation of system was carried out in two field operations, i.e., secondary tillage and transportation mode. The cabin temperature significantly reduced from 43 to o C with increase in relative humidity from 32 to 39% for secondary tillage operation; 42 to 35.3 o C with relative humidity of 34 to 41% for transportation operation. The dust concentration of PM 10 also reduced significantly from 18.5 mg m -3 to 0.35 mg m -3 in secondary tillage operation and 4.4 mg m -3 to 0.2 mg m -3 in transportation. Acceptability of protective system was evaluated by measuring physiological parameter of tractor operators, i.e., heart rate reduction from 138 beats min -1 to 119 beats min -1 and overall discomfort score from 4.0 to 2.9 for secondary tillage operation; 117 beats min -1 to 107 beats min -1 and overall discomfort score to 2.9 to 1.9 for transportation operation. The evaporative cooling efficiency achieved was 80% Solar Powered Knapsack Sprayer A solar powered system was developed which can be fitted with the existing knapsack sprayer. The system consists of 24V DC motor with diaphragm type pump, non-return two-way valve, safety control high pressure switch and acid-lead or Li 2 O battery. With constant pressure system, quality spray, i.e., uniformity, fine spray, effective and efficient control of pest is achievable with operator comfort. The diaphragm type pump creates 4 kg/cm 2 pressure without pulsation which is sufficient for fine and uniform spray, increases field capacity, chemical efficacy and farmers comfort. The acid-lead or Li 2 O battery can be charged with SPV panel of 100W. The fully charged battery is able to operate the sprayer for 6-8 h continuously, which is adequate for a day operation. As the spraying operation is undertaken only occasionally, the rest of the time SPV panel and battery system can be used for other purposes as a power source for domestic use, e.g., lighting. Solar powered knapsack sprayer in operation Evaporative cooling system for tractor cabin Solar Power Operated Vegetable Seed Extractor (Tomato) The manually operated vegetable seed extractor was modified to solar energy operated. Solar powered DC motor of 740 W, 48 V and 1500 rpm was used for running the machine. The machine can be used by the farmers who already have the solar panels of more than 740 Wp to reduce human drudgery involved, saving of labour/electric charges, and increasing the uses of the Solar Photovoltaic panels. The performance of solar 66

74 Solar power operated vegetable seed extractor (Tomato) powered seed extractor was evaluated, and the capacity achieved was 250 kg tomato per hour Utilization of Solar Energy for Rural/ Domestic Lighting System and Refrigeration Solar lighting system developed by the Division of Agricultural Engineering consists of a solar module of 40 W, battery of 12 V, 40 Ah and a LED light of 9 W. In addition, a solar lantern system was also developed. It consists of a solar module of 10 W, battery of 12 V, 7 Ah and a CFL light of 7 W. Preliminary studies were carried out to develop the solar refrigeration system. Preliminary testing of 80 litre refrigerator with solar panels through inverter and 40 Ah 12 V battery was done Farm Operation Services The farm operation service unit (FOSU) managed all field operations including field preparations, crop sowing, harvesting and threshing in 750 acres of IARI farm using indigenous and imported machinery. The multi crop harvester and plot combine harvester (combine) were used for mechanized harvesting and threshing of field crops during kharif and rabi seasons. The dependence on canal water was also reduced through development and renovation of old tube wells and addition of one new tube well at IARI farm. Check gates of irrigation channels were redesigned and installed in pucca irrigation channel for efficient water management. 3.8 POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY Fruit Bagging of Apple for Colour and Quality For improving the quality of apple, experiments with ethrel treatment (1000 ppm) and bagging of the fruits with four spun-bounded recyclable fabric bags (yellow, blue, red, and green) were conducted at 4 different elevations (1200,1500, 1800, 2100 msl) at Kullu and Shimla (HP). Both bagging and ethrel treatments improved colour of apple compared to unbagged apples, ethrel treatment caused fruit and leaf drop and poor keeping quality. Shelf life was found to be 18 days for ethrel treated, 26 days for non-bagged and 35 days for bagged apples at room temperature. Bagging of fruits improved colour more significantly (about 33% increase) over control at lower elevation (1200 msl) than at higher elevations (1500, 1800 or 2100 msl). But the best quality apples (TSS = 16.2%) were produced at higher elevation (2100 msl). Further, bagged apples had lower incidence of bitter pit (nearly 1.0%) and other storage disorders during storage, though no incidence of sooty mould or fly speck was observed this year. Fruit bagging of apple Lime As a Potential Source for Mango Desapping Lime (calcium hydroxide) was identified as a potential chemical for desapping of mango fruits. It reduces sap burn injury by neutralizing the highly acidic sap. For this mangoes (with stem attached) are dipped in lime solution (1 %) for seconds and desapped by removing stems while fruits are in submerged condition Development of Protocols for Dehydration of Okra The investigation was conducted to study the effect of drying methods, pre-dehydration treatments and 67

75 Fresh okra Dehydrated okra slice size on quality, rehydration characteristics and sensory qualities of dehydrated okra. The okra slices (2 cm) treated with 0.1 % Na 2 S 2 O 5 and subjected to microwave drying was found to be the best combination for better quality retention in respect of protein content, total carotenoids, total chlorophyll, dehydration characteristics and sensory quality for colour, texture, odour and general appearance Pearl Pop A ready-to-eat Snack A crunchy, soft and ready-to-eat pearl pop was developed from whole pearl millet grain. The popping yield in pearl millet is usually low (<40%), which was enhanced through suitable conditioning treatment up to about 70% in var. PC 443. The approximate composition of the product was estimated as 11.2% protein, 7.36% fat, 2.96% crude fibre, 3.83% ash, 72.81% carbohydrate and 1.84% moisture content. The total antioxidant was determined as mole Trolox /100g. There was a significant reduction in phytic acid content, an antinutrient factor from (raw grain) to mg/100g (product). The product is rich in micro-nutrients, especially iron (5.02 mg/100 g) and zinc (3.01 mg/100 g) Cowpea Protein Isolate Cowpea protein isolate (CPI) extracted through salt assisted extraction technique and dehydrated by freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying were assessed for x-ray crystallography, phase transition analysis, amino acids composition, zeta potential, colour, surface morphology (SEM) as well as functional properties like nitrogen solubility index, least gelation concentration, viscoelastic gel characteristics, oil and water absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, emulsion activity index and foaming ability. Depending on the functional attributes intended for end-use, the freeze Pearl pop drying, spray drying or vacuum drying may be considered as reasonable options for converting the protein isolates into powders. Based on its functional profile, it was concluded that CPI could be used as high value functional ingredient for various foods. X-ray crystallography of cowpea protein isolate Development of Reduced Fat and High Fibre Baked Products An attempt was made to develop high fibre biscuits by incorporation of fibre from soy and aonla. The soy fibre enriched biscuits had 6.87 per cent High fibre content crackers 68

76 Parameter Aonla crackers Beetroot crackers per 100 g per serving % RDA per 100 g per serving % RDA Energy (kcal) Protein (g) Carbohydrates (g) Fat (g) Fibre (g) Vitamin C (mg/100g) protein, about 3.0 per cent fibre and low fat content (about 17 per cent). Low fat crackers containing aonla and beetroot powders having good protein content (>16.0%) were also prepared. These sweet-salty crackers contain 60% less fat as compared to commercial ones. The aonla crackers are also rich in antioxidants ( μmole/g, ABTS assay) and flavonoids (389.1 mg/g) besides providing fibre from aonla. The beetroot crackers have antioxidant activity of 7.78 μmole/g and are rich in flavonoids providing mg/g Nisin Production and Recovery for Establishing its Use as Antimicrobial Preservative A cell free extract (CFE) (preserved till 6 months), from nisin producer organism Streptococcus lactis after 17 h growth, was assayed for nisin (the extra-metabolite antimicrobial protein). This CFE contained an active nisin concentration of 1360 IU/150 μl CFE ( IU / ml crude CFE) as assayed against Micrococcus luteus. It equaled to a titer of 1.51 mg as compared against pure nisin (used as standard, marketed by HiMedia with an activity of 900 IU/mg pure nisin). Crude nisin CFE produced by Streptococcus lactis showed a sensitivity of (slope value on a dose response plot) over Micrococcus luteus as the sensitive (indicator) organism. 3.9 MICROBIOLOGY Diversity Analysis of Microbes in Extreme Environments and Bioprospecting for Novel Molecules and Genes Bacterial diversity in Jaisalmer soils Soil samples collected from different sites in Jaisalmer were used for isolation of bacteria employing ten different growth media. The average population of bacteria at different locations ranged between 3.8 x x 10 6 g -1 of soil. Based on the varied colony morphology, 87 different morphotypes were selected. 16SrDNA PCR-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases AluI, Hae III and Hha1 could group the isolates into 27 clusters. Based on 16S rdna sequencing, the isolates from Jaisalmer were identified as Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus sp., Bacillus tequilensis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus thuringiensis, Sporosarcina pasteurii, Staphylococcus succinus. The sequences were submitted to NCBI GenBank with Accession numbers from JN JN411422, JX JX Of the 87 isolates, three isolates were tolerant to drought and could grow at a water potential of 0.5 MPa Bioprospecting for molecules and genes for antibacterial/ antifungal activity against charcoal rot and bacterial blight disease in soybean Non-fluorescent pseudomonads were found to have antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia bataticola (the causal agent of charcoal rot in soybean) or antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae (the causal agent of bacterial blight in rice). One of the isolates (WI-9) showed both antifungal and antibacterial activities. The culture supernatant from the arabinose amended medium, followed by that of starch, showed higher inhibition against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. The TLC analysis of the crude metabolite extracted using different organic solvents from a silica gel column showed the putative presence of amino acids. Based on complete 16S rdna sequencing, the isolate was identified as Bacillus subtilis spizizenii (NCBI Accession No. KC ). The genomic library of this 69

77 isolate was constructed with an average insert size of kb and the clones were screened for bioassay. Two putative clones showing active inhibition were found to have an insert of 1.5 kb and codes for nicotinate phosphoribosyl transferase and malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase Biomolecules from salt tolerant bacteria isolated from Sambhar salt lake Salt tolerant bacteria can be harnessed for novel genes and biomolecules which can help alleviate salt stress in plants. The salt tolerant bacterial strain was grown in presence and absence of salt and SDS PAGE was carried out to look for the differential expression of proteins. Under salt stress conditions, some proteins were up-regulated while others downregulated. The up-regulated proteins included chaperonin GroEL (57.5 kda, pi of 4.71), molecular chaperone DnaK (66.03 kda, pi of 4.73), elongation factor G (76.27 kda,piof 4.83) and glyceraldeyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase (35.86 kda, pi of 5.11). Flagellin (33.2 kda, pi of 5.40) was predominantly down-regulated under salt stress. Down-regulation of flagellin was confirmed by the bacterial motility test. In the stabs, there was considerable growth of bacterium in the upper layer of medium around the site of inoculation under control conditions, suggesting high motility. When exposed to salt stress, growth was limited to the site of inoculation, suggesting low motility probably due to poor synthesis of flagellin. Under the static, salt stress conditions, there was development of biofilm on the surface of medium whereas in the absence of stress, instead of biofilm development growth was observed uniformly in the medium. SEM micrographs of the isolates under the static and normal conditions Control 10% NaCl SEM micrograph of the bacterial growth under control and salt stress conditions showed that bacterial cell tended to be shorter in length, thicker and present as single cells or in small groups. However, the cells were longer, thinner and in the form of a network under the salt stress conditions Diversity and functional characterization of anaerobic ammonia oxidizers Anaerobic microbial processes such as anaerobic ammonia oxidation, iron reduction and manganese reduction are significant not only to elemental cycling but also to plant growth and development. Flooded soil microcosms (1:1.25 ratio, w/v) using samples from the experimental fields of IARI and Aduthurai and farmers fields of Kuttanad (Kerala) were prepared by adding N at two different levels (10 and 100 mm) to enrich anaerobic ammonium oxidizers (anammox bacteria) and archaea. Eleven acidophilic ammonia oxidizers from the acid-sulphate soil (Kuttanad) were obtained. Presence of essential oils such as spearmint and eucalyptus inhibited while those of lemongrass and basil when applied to the medium at 5 μl ml -1 stimulated ammonia oxidation by the selected isolates. Potential ammonia oxidation of soils decreased under anoxic conditions compared to that of oxic conditions; presence of nitrate alone stimulated denitrification by 20-folds. In the presence of both ammonia and nitrate, rates of ammonia oxidation were similar in soils of IARI and Aduthurai. Abundance of lipid biomarkers of Clostridia, Desulfobacter, and Desulfovibrio differed among soils of Aduthurai (28.0%), IARI (24.0%) and Kuttanad (20.4%) Isolation, identification and characterization of pentacholrophenol degrading microbes Bacterial isolates capable of degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP) 100 to 375 mg L -1 were isolated from farmers fields irrigated with PCP containing pulp and paper mill effluent. The efficient PCP degraders were identified by partial 16S rrna gene sequencing and classified into four major bacterial lineages, -Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Azospirillum sp., Burkholderia sp., Cupriavidus sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Inquilinus 70

78 limosus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropic, Pseudomonas mendocina Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. Isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PCP1) and Pseudomonas sp. (PCP42) could grow at PCP max (maximum PCP concentration) of 300 mg L -1 in 144 h and showed maximum degradation of and 72.07% PCP, respectively. PCP degrading isolates of Azospirillum (PCP13 and PCP16) and Inquilinus limosus (PCP 27) were reported for the first time and might represent new chlorophenol-degrading taxa Growth and phycobilin production in photobioreactor vis a vis open trays Large scale biomass and pigment production by Nostoc commune, Anabaena variabilis and Anabaena oryzae were optimized using photobioreactor (3.5 L) and open trays (18 L). Higher growth and phycobilin production was obtained in the closed photobioreactor as compared to open trays. Phycobilin production by Nostoc commune was maximum followed by Anabaena variabilis and Anabaena oryzae. Total phycobilin ( g/ml) Total phycobilin ( g/ml) Microbes for Nutrient Management Evaluation of fungal and cyanobacteria based biofilmed formulations PGP and biocontrol traits of Trichoderma based biofilms as inoculants for cotton. The potential of novel biofilmed biofertilizers as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents was evaluated in cotton crop at CICR, Nagpur, IARI, New Delhi and CICR Research Farm, Sirsa. The biofilms were developed using Trichoderma viride as a matrix and agriculturally important bacteria - Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum, as partners. At IARI, biofilmed formulations (using compost: vermiculite; 1:1 as carrier) significantly improved the germination (%), growth and nutrient uptake parameters, microbiological activity and yield attributes, including 15-20% increase in boll weight. At CICR, Nagpur, T. viride - B. subtilis biofilm significantly enhanced yield of cotton. In Rhizoctonia solani infested sick plots at Sirsa, seedling mortality reduced with inoculation of T. viride - B. subtilis and T. viride - P. fluorescens biofilms. This was significantly correlated with increased activity of hydrolytic enzymes like b-1, 3 and b-1, 4 endoglucanases and chitosanase in plant roots. Scanning electron microscopy further confirmed their colonisation on roots, especially the T. viride - B. subtilis biofilms. Significant correlation of plant parameters with polyphenol oxidase activity, mortality of cotton plants with MBC, defense enzyme activity with Phycobilin production by different cyanobacteria in (a) photobioreactor and (b) open trays SEM of biofilm inoculated and uninoculated cotton root 71

79 mortality were also observed in this study. Synergistic effects of the partners in these biofilmed formulations illustrated their potential vis a vis use of mixtures/ individual cultures as inoculants. Such formulations may represent a more viable inoculation option for integrated nutrient and pest management strategies in agriculture. Novel biofilmed inoculants as PGP agents for legumes. Agronomic potential of biofilmed preparations (developed using Anabaena/Trichoderma viride as matrices with different agriculturally useful bacteria/fungi as partners) on mungbean and soybean was examined. The Trichoderma viride - Bradyrhizobium biofilm exhibited 20-45% enhancement in fresh/dry weight and yield of mungbean plants, over recommended fertilizer treatment. Anabaena based biofilms and T. viride - Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm recorded 2-3 folds enhancement in microbial biomass carbon at the mid-crop stage, over control. The T. viride - Azotobacter biofilm exhibited highest dehydrogenase activity and nitrogen fixation at the mid-crop stage, besides enhanced dry weight at harvest stage. In soybean, among all the treatments, the T. viride Bradyrhizobium recorded highest fresh weight of plants and available N in soil at harvest stage. Anabaena Trichoderma viride biofilmed formulations proved most promising for soybean, recording 12-25% enhanced plant biometric parameters, yield and dehydrogenase activity. Biofilm of Piriformispora indica and Pseudomonas sp. for soybean and rice. The biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. and Piriformispora indica when inoculated with soybean led to significantly higher FDA (32%), urease activity (14%), glomalin production (43%), and acid-and alkaline phosphatase activities (15.7%), relative to individual inoculation of microorganisms with soybean. Inoculation of Pseudomonas striata- Piriformospora indica to aerobic rice in pot culture resulted in significant gains in chlorophyll content (1.66%), nitrate reductase activity (10.2%), and catalase activity (77.8%) while a reduction in peroxidase activity (-72.44%) in leaf tissues was recorded at the tillering stage. Similar trend was observed at the panicle stage, albeit with lower magnitude Development of Azotobacter bioinoculants for saline soils Inoculation of two salt tolerant Azotobacter strains (H 16 and A 24) significantly enhanced the yield of wheat under salt stress conditions. The N content both in straw and grain improved significantly due to inoculation. However, the influence on plant and grain P-content was non-significant. The increased uptake of K in Azotobacter inoculated treatments resulted in lower Na/K ratio in the plant both under normal and saline stress conditions. Inoculation also resulted in increase in phenol and proline contents. However, there was no influence on accumulation of amino acid, starch and total sugars content. Inoculation resulted in significant increases in chlorophyll and relative water content and decrease in percent electrolyte leakage in plants. Azotobacter strains could be used as bioinoculant to alleviate salt stress for growth and yield of wheat Profiling of Azolla in relation to crop improvement Methanolic extract of the fronds of Azolla microphylla, which was partially purified by solvent partitioning with ethyl acetate followed by hydrolysis showed antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae. HPTLC and HPLC analyses of the ethyl acetate fractions showed the presence of several active constituents with antioxidant, pro-oxidant and antibacterial potential, belonging to the categories of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and flavonoids. The GC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate fractions showed the presence of a mixture of decanes and eicosenes, which are also reported to have antimicrobial potential from other pteridophytes Microbial Degradation of Agrowaste Development of a formulation of effective microorganisms for production of enriched compost for peri-urban agriculture Effective Microorganisms (EM) formulation is a combination of microorganisms with lingo-cellulose hydrolysis potential and additives or helper bacteria like lactic acid bacteria, yeast and a group of photosynthetic bacteria capable of degrading agrowaste. The consortium consisting of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (VV18), Streptomyces sp. (C3), an isolate 72

80 of lactobacillus, yeast Candida tropicalis (Y6) and enriched photosynthetic bacterium was developed. EM consortia was evaluated for paddy straw composting under outdoor conditions and compared with Pusa Compost inoculant during summer and winter seasons. The EM consortia performed better during summer and degradation was faster resulting in C: N ratio of 13:1 within 60 days. The paddy straw supplemented with poultry droppings registered higher microbial activity as compared to other treatments, highest activity of alkaline phosphatase (2.62 mg pnp/g/h) and FDA hydrolase ( μg flourescein/g/h) was observed in paddy straw receiving EM. The ph of the mature compost ranged Compost was also found to be free from phytotoxicity showing 90% germination of mustard seeds Phytate mineralizing microbes and their role in P nutrition The organic P can be de-phosphorylated by using microbes with P mineralizing potential. Animal manures available in huge amount are rich source of organic P and can be exploited to prepare P enriched manure by co-composting them with some bulking agent such as cereal straw. The phosphorus enriched organic fertilizer was prepared by supplementing paddy straw with cattle manure, farm yard manure and poultry manure each added separately, with and without phytate mineralizing fungal consortium (Aspergillus and Trichoderma spp.). The nutrient availability of the aerobically degraded compost was found to enhance with time span. Inoculated cattle manure and FYM composts had higher total and available P compared to their respective uninoculated controls. Poultry manure amended compost recorded the highest content of total P (1676 μg g -1 ). Though, the amount of extractable P ranged from %, but not all of this was in readily plant available form. Sequential extraction with different reagents showed that % of the total P was in labile fraction. This showed that still a large fraction of P in the compost was present as condensed calcium phosphates such as apatites or octacalcium phosphate, which are not soluble in water or sodium bicarbonate. The inoculation with phytate mineralizing fungi improved the availability of bicarbonate P in cattle manure- straw compost by 20 % and FYM compost by 15 % compared to their respective controls Bioprospecting Microbes for Production of Biodiesel and Bioethanol Novel lignolytic micromycetes: Myrothecium roridum LG7 Biofuels produced from lignocellulosic materials, so-called second generation bioethanol have energetic, economic and environmental advantages in comparison to bioethanol from starch or sugar. A new lignolytic micromycete fungus Myrothecium roridum LG7 was isolated and selected for biological delignification of paddy straw and herbaceous weed Parthenium sp. Physical and chemical modifications in the biomass following pretreatment with M. roridum LG7 for 7 days in term of structural modification and lignin removal, changes in lignin skeleton, and alteration of cellulose crystallinity was observed through SEM-EDXA, FTIR and XRD analysis, respectively. Colonization of the fungus led to high amount of lignin removal ( mg g -1 ) from pretreated biomass which could be recovered as a value added product. Enzymatic hydrolysis of M. roridum LG7 pretreated biomass released significantly higher amount of reducing sugars ( mg gds -1 ) as compared to respective raw biomass within 24 h. The results illustrate the promise of micromycetes M. roridum LG7 for biological pretreatment to accelerate the hydrolysis of glucan into monosugars for bioethanol production. Biological delignification of paddy straw and carrot grass with Myrothecium roridum 73

81 Microorganism: source of plant cell wall degrading enzymes Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose is achieved by using cellulases and hemicellulases. Plant pathogens are known to produce arsenal of plant cell wall degrading enzymes which may be more potent. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae, a plant pathogen which causes blight disease in pomegranate showed high levels of endo- -1,4- glucanase and xylanase activities. The enzyme production was optimized with respect to major nutrient sources like carbon and nitrogen. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was better inducer for FPase, CMCase and xylanase production while starch was found to be good inducer of cellobiase. The soybean meal /yeast extract (0.5%) was better N sources for both cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes while cellobiase was higher with peptone. Temperature of 28 C and ph 6-8 were optimum for production of enzymes. Growth under optimized conditions resulted in around 1.7 to 5.0 fold increase in different enzyme activities. Physio-chemical characterization of enzymes showed that they were active over broad range of ph 4-8 with optimum at 8. Cellulolytic enzymes showed optimum temperature around 55 C while xylanase had the highest activity at 45 C. Saccharification of different substrates showed increased release of sugars till 96 hours Biochemical modulation of lipid productivity in Chlorella sorokiniana Quality and quantity of lipid production in Chlorella sorokiniana was studied by screening the modes of nutrition and use of metabolic intermediates along with reducing agents, under standard laboratory conditions and subsequently, its lipid production was upscaled in a photobioreactor. Time course studies using glucose under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions vis a vis autotrophy showed highest values of growth, lipid productivity (29.33% DCW) and lipid content (755 mg/l) under mixotrophic conditions on the 14 th day of growth. Upscaling in a photobioreactor with selected substrates (glucose and tryptophan), along with sodium thiosulphate (ST) as a reducing agent was undertaken. Lipid productivity of and 36.49% was recorded after 4 th and 8 th day, respectively in both substrates, vis a vis 11% with glucose alone. FAME analyses revealed a 2% enhancement in total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in tryptophan supplemented culture, which also exhibited an almost ideal fatty acid ratio for use as biodiesel (2.6:4:1 of 16:1.18:1 and14:1). Chlorella sp. grown in glucose + ST produced significant amount of linoleic acid (18:2) and -linolenic acid (18:3). This strain proved to be a very useful with metabolic versatility and multifaceted uses, mediated through substrate amendment and addition of reducing agent Standardization of harvesting technology for BGA and extraction of lipids Harvesting procedure was standardized in selected microalgal strains (Chlamydomanas sp., Chlorella sp.,chlorococcum sp., Botryococcus sp.; reference strain from German Collection, Botryococcus sp. isolated from Udaipur lake and Chlorella sp.) using inorganic as well as organic flocculants. Inorganic flocculants used were aluminium sulphate, calcium chloride, ferric chloride, sodium hydroxide while, organic flocculants utilized were Chitosan, Maize starch, potato starch, cationic starch, rice starch, yellow dextrin, oxidized starch, pregelitnized starch and Tapioca starch. Comparative analysis indicated that ferric chloride was most efficient as an inorganic flocculant for all except Botryococcus from German collection which exhibited highest flocculation efficiency with aluminium sulphate at a concentration of 200 mg L -1. Out of the organic flocculants, rice starch appeared to be most effective flocculant in Botryococcus sp. (Udaipur Lake). In general, organic flocculants were as effective as inorganic flocculants and would be more economical and environmentally safe for mass scale biomass production of efficient microalgae. Lipids were extracted from microalgal biomass of selected strains utilizing standard protocols. Botrycoccus sp. from German Collection yielded highest percent lipids (62.13%) by the methodology reported by Dittmer and Wells (1969). Different indigenous methods like bead beating, autoclaving, microwave, sonication, magnetism and osmotic shock, etc. are being tested and standardized for oil extraction from microalgal biomass. Commercial medium grown 74

82 Chlorella biomass was harvested from multiplication units and lipids were extracted. Fatty acid profile indicated suitability of mass produced Chlorella as a source of biofuel ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE AND CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE Trends of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Indian Agriculture Contribution of Indian agriculture to the global warming and the trends in greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission from 1970 to 2010 was estimated. In 2010, world emitted 50,101 Mt CO 2 equivalent (eq), out of which India emitted 2691 Mt CO 2 eq (5.4% of the global emission). The global agriculture contributed 11.3% (5,677 Mt CO 2 eq) to the total global GHG emissions. Share of Indian agriculture was 10.0% (566 Mt CO 2 eq) of global agriculture. Indian agriculture contributed 21.0% of total Indian GHG emissions, which was only 1.1% of the total global emission from all the sources. During 1970 to 2010, GHG emissions from Indian agriculture increased by about 10%. Enhanced use of fertilizers and higher population of the livestock were the major drivers for the increased GHG emissions. Relative contribution of Indian agriculture to the total GHG emission from all the sectors of the country decreased from 49.5% in 1970 to 21.0% in 2010 whereas the contribution to global agriculture increased from 8.8 to 10.0% during the period. Trends of greenhouse gas emission from Indian agriculture Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases with Eddy-Covariance Technique The Eddy covariance technique based GHG flux tower was installed in the rice field of the IARI farm during July 2012 and is currently being standardized and calibrated. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane, water vapor flux, heat flux, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture, rainfall, incoming and outgoing solar radiation, and photosynthetic active radiation can be measured by the system. Eddy covariance flux tower at IARI Impact of Different Irrigation Practices on Controlling Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Rice Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide gases were measured to evaluate the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of direct seeded rice (DSR) and system of rice intensification (SRI) cultivated under conventional and drip irrigation practices. Methane emission was significantly reduced in DSR under drip irrigation as well as conventional irrigation practices. Nitrous oxide emission was increased under both the water management practices in DSR and SRI as compared to the conventional transplanted rice. The global warming potential was reduced by 52% under DSR-Drip irrigation and 57% under SRI-Conventional irrigation in comparison to the conventional flooded control. 75

83 Impact of different water saving technologies on greenhouse gas emissions in rice Irrigation practice N 2 O CH 4 GWP (kg/ha) (kg/ha) (kg CO 2 eq/ha) DSR-Drip irrigation DSR- Conventional irrigation SRI-Drip irrigation SRI- Conventional irrigation Conventional transplanted rice Impact of Climate Change on Mustard and Soybean Yields and Adaptation Gains Simulation assessment was carried out using InfoCrop mustard model to project the impacts and adaptation gains at regional scale, and to delineate the vulnerable regions for mustard and soybean production. Simulation studies showed that at the national level, climate change is projected to reduce the mustard grain yields by ~2% in 2020 ( ), ~7.9% in 2050 ( ) and ~15% in 2080 ( ) climate scenarios of MIROC 3.2.HI and PRECIS models, if no adaptation is followed. Adaptation through a combination of improved input efficiency, additional dose of fertilizers and adjusting the sowing time is projected to increase the yields by ~17% with current varieties and by ~25% with improved varieties in Soybean yields are projected to increase by 2.5% in 2020 climate scenarios and beyond. Improved varieties and better management of crop can increase the soybean production by about 14% in future climate scenarios Response of Field Crops to Elevated Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Gradual rise in atmospheric temperature (1-4 o C) caused varying degree of reduction in the biomass and grain yield of rice, wheat, chickpea and green gram. Among the rice and wheat cultivars, PB 1121 of rice and HD 2932, HD 2967 and Kundan of wheat showed greater thermo-tolerance compared to the other cultivars. Elevated temperature enhanced the spikelet sterility leading to yield reduction. Flowering as well as maturity of rice and wheat crop got hastened with rise in temperature. Elevated CO 2 levels also enhanced the biomass and yield of maize and wheat grown at different nitrogen levels and varying water stress conditions Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Wheat Experiments were conducted to study the abundance of microbial functional populations for labile and recalcitrant carbon degradation in soil under wheat crop (PBW 343) grown in the temperature gradient tunnels (TGTs) (temperature 1, 2 and 3 o C above the ambient level). The labile substrates, namely, amino acids, carboxylic acids and polymers degraded fast (P<0.07) as compared to ambient control. However, the populations involved in decomposing recalcitrant carbon (phenols) were not affected by elevated temperature. These results were further corroborated by laboratory incubation experiments using labile (glucose) and recalcitrant substrate (phenol). The concentration of labile C being slightly higher (6.22%) under warming led to high microbial biomass at higher temperature (p<0.01) Conservation Agricultural Practices for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Simulation assessment of soybean yields Greenhouse gas emissions from the soils under rice following resource conservation technologies like direct seeding (DSR) in rice followed by zero tillage in wheat (ZTW), with and without residue incorporation and green manuring were quantified for the second year. Results showed that DSR reduced the methane emission as compared to conventionally transplanted puddled rice and increased nitrous oxide emission. 76

84 Effect of resource conservation technologies on global warming potential in rice Rice based system N 2 O-N CH 4 CO 2 -C GWP g/ha kg/ha kg/ha kg/ha TPR-CTW 566a 45.0b 498a 3118f TPR-ZTW 649b 41.9b 452a 2899e DSR-ZTW 793c 2.15a 479a 2047a DSR-ZTW+RR 819c 2.49a 516b 2197b DSR-ZTW+MBR 836c 2.23a 532bc 2255b DSR-ZTW+RR+MBR 848cd 2.89a 550c 2342bc DSR+BM-ZTW 951f 3.08a 555c 2397cd DSR+BM- ZTW+RR 871e 3.48a 553c 2375c TPR- Transplanted puddled rice, DSR Direct seeded rice, CTW- Conventionally tilled wheat, ZTW-Zero tilled wheat, RR- Rice residue, GM Green manure, MBR- Mung bean residue, BM-Brown manuring *In a column values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan s multiple range test Impacts of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Carbon Dynamics The conservation agriculture practices, namely, zero tillage + bed planting (ZT-B) and zero tillage with conventional/flat planting (ZT-F) increased the soil organic carbon (SOC) by 13 and 11% compared to conventional tillage with bed planting (CT-B) in top 0-5 cm soil layer. Plots under cotton/maize + wheat residue (C/M+ WR) contained ~9% higher total SOC concentration than the no residue treated plots (NR) in the 0-5 cm layer. The C/M+WR treatment had ~17, 13, 13 and 32% higher mean cotton, maize, wheat and green gram aboveground biomass yields than the NR treatment. About 9.8% of the gross C input contributed towards the increase in SOC content (0-30 cm soil layer) under the residue treated plots in ZT and CT. Total soil organic carbon (SOC) retention potential of conservation agriculture Ecosystem Services from Poplar based Agro Forestry System The ecosystem services provided by one hectare land areas of poplar based agro-forestry (AF) system in a six-year rotation period was approximately `3.54 lakh based on differential-weightage method as compared to about `3.96 lakh based on equalweightage method. This value was in addition to the income from selling of supply outputs (crop grain and wood) amounting to `19.90 lakh for the six-year rotation period. Economic valuation of ecosystem services from poplar based agroforestry system based on differential weightage method Effect of Gamma Radiation and Magnetic Energy on Post-harvest Storability of Soybean Radiated seeds of soybean var. SL 525 exposed to six different doses of gamma radiation, viz., 0.01, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kgy and untreated control, were evaluated for seed damage by insect, Callosobruchus analis, infestation. Feeding preference of the insect pest got altered on seed irradiation, depending on irradiation dose. Seeds irradiated at a dose of 1 kgy showed a total protection against insect damage and did not significantly alter the content and quality of the stored seeds. Electromagnetic energy treatments significantly reducted the lipoxygenase activity of the stored seeds. A dose of 1-3 kgy was effective in reducing the rate of seed quality deterioration under accelerated aging. 77

85 Ameliorating the Negative Impacts of Ozone on Crop Productivity For mitigating the negative impacts of air pollutants, antioxidant chemicals (ascorbic acid, Azoxystrobin and Tagetes leaf extract) were evaluated for their efficacy by growing rice, wheat and potato. The maximum yields were obtained in rice grown under ascorbic acid. The 0.5% ascorbic acid spray at vegetative and flowering stages increased the yield of rice by 9% over control. In potato the yield increase of 10-11% was observed in ascorbic acid treatments over ambient control (34 ppb mean seasonal O 3 ). Tuber yield (kg/m 2 ) Azoxystrobin 1% AA 0.5% AA Ambient differential growth and yield response. Among the cultivars, PRH 10 recorded highest grain yield followed by PB 6, Pusa 44, Pusa Type 3, a local basmati variety, registered highest degree of low light stress tolerance followed by Taraori, PRH 10, PS 5 and lowest level of tolerance was recorded in Pusa Air pollution due to Burning of Crop Residues in North West India The amount of crop residue burned in fields of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh in North West India was approximately 52.4 Mt per annum. Burning of these residues in field resulted in emission of CO 2 (91.65 %) followed by 5.5% CO, 0.15% NOx, 0.95% nonmethane volatile organic compounds and 0.42 % nonmethane hydrocarbons. Burning of rice straw contributed maximum (51%) to these emissions followed by wheat (30.4%) and sugarcane (15.3%). Highest emissions were from the states of Uttar Pradesh (41%) and Punjab (41%) followed by Haryana (18%). Burning of paddy straw resulted in the loss of about 0.16 Mt of nitrogen, Mt of potassium and 0.13 Mt of phosphorus. Effect of different antioxidants on potato tuber yield Updating the Infocrop-rice Model for Quantifying the Impact of Elevated Ozone Impact of different ozone levels on leaf area index, photosynthetic rate, radiation use efficiency, grain yield, root:shoot ratio and total dry matter was collated from field experiments conducted during This data was used in updating the present infocroprice model to simulate the impact of different ozone concentrations. Calibration and validation was carried out for quantifying the impact of surface ozone pollution on rice yield Effect of Low Radiation on Crop Productivity One of the direct effects of air pollution on agriculture is due to reduced radiation.ten promising rice cultivars/hybrids subjected to low radiation stress (40% reduction in radiation) showed Burning of crop residues in states of North West India Potential of Bio-fuel Production from Agri-residues Biogas, ethanol and hydrogen production potential of agri-residues were investigated. A small sized biogas plant based on agri-residue and recyclable byproducts 78

86 was fabricated, installed and evaluated for biogas production during different months of the year. The volume of digester and gas holder was 650 and 300 liters (L), respectively. Ethanol yield from rice straw of basmati and nonbasmati varieties ranged from 140 to 300 L/ t of rice straw. The estimated cost of ethanol production varied from `43.0 to 48.3 /L. The growth kinetics of hydrogen producing strain Bacillus coagulans NCIM 2323 (wheat straw) and Bacillus coagulans 2030 (rice straw) was investigated in batch fermentation of wheat and rice straw. The hydrogen concentration in the resultant gaseous mixture from wheat straw was up to 63.3% with 94% sugar utilization. The maximum hydrogen yield from substrate was 246 ml/g. The low ph (ph<4) inhibited hydrogen production and resulted in lower carbohydrate fermentation. In case of rice straw hydrogen concentration was 45% which increased 13 % by the use of nutrient and vitamin supplements. Growth kinetics of hydrogen producing strain Bacillus coagulans NCIM 2323 & correlation between microbial biomass and hydrogen production rate On-farm Demonstrations of Climate Resilient Technologies The farmers were imparted trainings on climate resilient technologies through demonstrations and training programmes in Gurgaon district of Haryana and Bulandshahar, Baghpat and Bareilly districts of Uttar Pradesh. The farmers were shown the benefits of zero-tillage based wheat cultivation, walk-intunnel and low-tunnel based vegetable cultivation, net house nursery system, IPM practices in vegetables, drip system of irrigation, mulching and use of hydrogel. During the year under report, total beneficiary of various technologies were more than 250 farmers. Improving livelihood security in changing climate. By replacing the local wheat varieties with WR 544, late sown variety having terminal heat tolerance, yields of the Mewat region improved up to 20% (based on 228 farm trials in 4 clusters). Similarly, mustard yield (from 360 trials) increased in the range of 8 to 11% by growing Pusa Mehak in place of variety cultivated in Mewat. In Dhar district, early and terminal heat tolerant aestivum varieties of wheat, viz., HI 8627 and HI 8638 are the potential varieties for replacement of local variety (Sujata) as HI 8627 (yield 2.67 t/ha) and HI 8638 (2.41 t/ha), produced 31-45% more yield than Sujata (1.8 t/ha). As a part of the livelihood security, seed village concept was developed at 11 seed villages in tribal districts of Dhar. Under integrated water saving technology for drought-prone areas nearly 10 km underground HDPE pipeline was laid down at the farmers field at Mewat and Dhar regions, which resulted in 40% savings in irrigation water. In floods-prone district of Ganjam, an improved backyard poultry strain (Vanaraj) chicks were distributed to 33 marginal and landless farm women (15 birds each) in 5 villages for enhancing their household income and reducing migration. Income of ` 3248/- per household was obtained from poultry birds. Innovation in communication technology- m-krishi Fisheries service was expanded to remaining 43 fisheries cooperatives out of 56 societies in Raigad district and were expanded in Mewat, Dhar and Ganjam districts. 79

87 4. CROP PROTECTION Pests and diseases result in an estimated loss of 10 to 30% in the yield and quality of field and horticultural crops, respectively. One of the major impacts of the changing climate and cropping pattern is the rising complexities in pest and pathogen dynamics, hence, there is a need to plan crop protection strategies that include cultural, biological and chemical methods to provide most effective and sustainable options. During the year under report diversity studies vis-à-vis resistances in hosts against major pests and pathogens and development of diagnostic protocols were undertaken. Besides, biological control measures, as well as novel chemical molecules were identified which can form a part of integrated management. Taking a long term approach, work on identification of sources of resistance against major pests and pathogens of important crops were also undertaken to be used for breeding resistant crop varieties. Planned crop protection based on these strategies will improve the yield and bring about economic benefits. 4.1 PLANT PATHOLOGY Genetic Diversity Puccinia spp. (wheat rusts). Of ten URP primers used for molecular analysis of leaf rust (77-5, and 12-2), stem rust (40A and 40-1) and stripe rust (78S84 and 46S119) races, amplicons ( bp) showing 90% polymorphism were obtained from six markers in all the rust races. The combined dendrogram using all URP primers showed two main clusters, cluster I comprising all stem and leaf rust races, while stripe rust races formed separate cluster II. Leaf rust race 77-5 shared 90 % similarity with stem rust race 40 A, while races and 12-2 showed 85% similarity with each other. Stripe rust races 78S84 and 46S119 showed 80% similarity. In another study, amplicons ( bp) showing 92% polymorphism were obtained from four RAPD primers in all seven races of rusts. The combined dendrogram showed two main clusters, Cluster I comprising three leaf rust races (77-5, 104-2, 12.2), while stem rust (40-A, 40-1) and stripe rust (46S119, 78S84) races formed separate cluster II. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (chickpea wilt). Genetic diversity in FOC isolates (22) originating from 13 states representing 8 races was assessed by comparing partial intergenic spacer (IGS) region Combined Dendrogram obtained from 7 isolates of wheat rust races with UPGMA-based similarity coefficient, using (a) URP primers and (b) RAPD primers Neighbor joining tree showing the phylogenetic relationships among isolates of F. oxysporum based on their IGS sequences 80

88 (1000bp). Sequence analysis suggested that except one isolate from Andhra Pradesh (Foc 118), the rest 21 isolates were grouped into two major clusters. Grouping did not correlate with the place of origin as well as race pattern. Chaetomium globosum. Genetic diversity in Chaetomium globosum isolates (15) was assessed by comparing -tubulin (1000 bp) and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) (1000 bp) gene sequences. Sequence analysis suggested that both the regions were highly conserved (97-100%). Bootstrap analysis for -tubulin showed formation of two major clusters. Cluster 1 comprised of Cg1, Cg15, Cg4, Cg2, Cg3 isolates with 100% similarity among them and 60% similarity with cluster II, which is comprised of remaining isolates of C. globosum, other species of Chaetomium and other fungi. On the other hand boot strap analysis for gpd gene showed formation of two major clusters. Cluster I comprised of C. globosum isolates and other fungi Medurella sp., Thielavia sp. and Hypocrea sp., while cluster II comprised of other Chaetomium species. Multilocus sequence analyses revealed that gpd sequences are more suitable for differentiating Chaetomium globosum from other species. Alternaria brassicae. Genetic diversity in Alternaria brassicae isolates (32) originating from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var botrytis) and mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern) crop was assessed using RAPD and ISSR primers and the mean similarity coefficient was 0.73 and 0.84, respectively. Further internal transcribed spacer (ITS) analysis showed % similarity among pathogenically different A. brassicae isolates. Fusarium spp. (Bakanae disease of rice). Of forty five Fusarium spp. isolates associated with bakanae disease of rice, originating from Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, distinct species, F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. nygamai were identified based on translation elongation factor (Tef) region sequences. F. fujikuroi was the most prevalent pathogen (88.88%) associated with bakanae disease in India Molecular Diagnostics Puccinia striiformis tritici (stripe rust). Of four sets of primers designed from ITS region, a primer pair F1 5 CCAATTGAGGAGGGGAAAT3 and R1 5 TTATTTTCAATGGATGTTGA3 yielded a specific band in only stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis tritici) races ( and 78584). No amplification was observed in leaf rust races (77-5, 104-2) and stem rust race (40A). This stripe rust specific marker needs further testing and validation. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc). Primers B 125 F1 and R1 derived from -tubulin gene and ISR 52 F1 and R1 derived from IGS region yielded an expected fragment size of 259 bp and 325 bp, respectively for Foc only. No amplification with other representative test plant pathogenic fungi was obtained. The markers were also able to detect the pathogen in infected chickpea plants. In conventional PCR, the minimum detection limit of -tubulin derived primers was 100 pg for Foc and 10 ng for infected plant samples, while IGS based primers sensitivity of 50 pg and 1 ng in Foc and infected plant samples, respectively. In Real time assay, the minimum detection limit of B 125 F1&R1 primer was 0.25 pg for Foc and 1.5 pg for infected plant samples, while the primer ISR-52 F1R1 could detect 0.1 pg and 1 pg in Foc and infected plant samples, respectively. 245bp Amplified product of different isolates of Foc with B125 F1 & R1. Lane 1-14: Foc isolates, lane 15: Foc inoculated chickpea plant, lane 16: Un-inoculated chickpea plant, lane 17: F. oxysporum f. sp. lini, lane 18: F. solani, lane 19: F. udum, lane 20: R. bataticola, lane 21: R. solani, lane 22: S. sclerotiorum, lane 23: NTC, lane 24: Non pathogenic Foc and M: 100bp ladder at both sides 313bp PCR amplication products of genomic DNA of Foc isolates using Foc specific markers ISR 52F1R1. Lane 1-14 : Foc isolates, lane 15 : Foc inoculated plant sample, lane 16: Un-inoculated plant sample, lane 17: Rhizoctonia solani, lane 18: S. sclerotiorum, and M: 100bp ladder at both sides Race Profiling Virulence analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae (Rice blast). Virulence analysis of 26 M. oryzae isolates on 24 81

89 monogenic rice blast differentials revealed that isolates from Almora (Uttarakhand), Basar (Arunachal Pradesh), Mandya (Karnataka), Cuttack (Orissa) and Lonavala (Maharashtra) were highly virulent. Some isolates from these locations were compatible with Tetep (blast resistance donor). Ralstonia solanacearum (Bacterial wilt). Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum isolates (159) originating from different hosts (tomato, capsicum, chilli, brinjal and potato) and locations (Jharkhand, Odisha, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Karnataka, Goa and Jammu & Kashmir) revealed that race 1/Biovar 3/Phylotype I of R. solanacearum (95.2%) was most prevalent (95%). Stray incidence of race 1/Biovar 4/ Phylotype I was found in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jharkhand. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris isolates (187) originating from different locations when evaluated on a set of seven differential hosts, viz., Turnip (Brassica rapa L.), Just Right Turnip F1, Seven Top Turnip, Indian mustard (B. juncea L.) Florida Broad Leaf, Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata) PI , cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis) Miracle F1 and Savoy cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) Wirosa, revealed that majority of the isolates (80) belonged to race 1, 58 to race 4 and 49 isolates remained unidentified. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Xoo isolates (60) originating from Punjab (8), Haryana (7), Rajasthan (5), Uttar Pradesh (6), Uttarakhand (5), Himachal Pradesh (8), Odisha (5), West Bengal (6), Nagaland (5) and Assam (5) when evaluated on monogenic lines revealed the prevalence of six races in India. Race 4 and 6 were highly virulent and predominant in most of the north-western states, race 2 and 3 were predominant in north-eastern states, whereas the race 1 and 5 were sporadic in distribution. Few selected isolates were screened for Xop T3SSeffector genes. Phylogenetic analysis using xop N gene revealed close similarity of Indian Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates with Korean and Japanese isolates Biological Control Validation of Trichoderma based bioformulations. The efficacy of Pusa 5SD, a seed dressing formulation of Trichoderma harzianum was validated at seven different locations, namely, Sehore and Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), IARI (Delhi), Rahuri (Maharashtra), Durgapura (Rajasthan), Junagadh (Gujrat) and Samba (Jammu & Kashmir) against wilt and root rot of chickpea. Pusa 5SD 4g/kg seeds in combination with Vitavax power reduced disease incidence from 51.1 to 100% and enhanced the grain yield from 19.9 to 62.5% in different areas. Pusa 5SD alone reduced the disease incidence from 8.3 to 63.8% and enhanced the grain yield from 14.7 to 39.6% in different locations. Performance of Pusa 5SD (Trichoderma harzianum) formulation. The efficacy of Pusa 5SD formulation alone or in combination with Pseudomonas fluorescens, Mesorhizobium ciceri and fungicides as seed treatment significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the seed germination and the grain yield of chickpea and reduced the wilt incidence against control. A combination of Pusa 5SD (T. harzianum) + carboxin + TMTD (Vitavax power TM ) + P. fluorescens (Pf-80) showed significantly low wilt incidence (16.3%), higher seed germination (86.7%) and grain yield (898.1 kg/ha) compared to other treatments. Effect of seed treatments on seed germination, wilt incidence and grain yield of chickpea cultivar Pusa 362 under sick field condition. T1: Pusa 5SD (T. harzianum); T2: Pseudomanas fluorescens 80 (Pf 80); T3: Carboxin + TMTD (Vitavax power TM ); T4: Pusa 5SD + Pf 80; T5: Pusa 5SD + Vitavax power TM + Pf 80; T6: Carbendazim (Bavistin TM ) + TMTD (Thiram TM ) and T7: Control (untreated seeds) Chitinolytic enzyme purification and characterization in Trichoderma. Endochitinase enzyme purified using Ni-NTA protein column from effective Trichoderma harzianum (Th3), showed the 82

90 molecular mass as 32kDa estimated by SDS gel electrophoresis. Chitinase was optimally active at ph 5.0 and temperature 25 C, but was stable at ph 1-5 and upto 40 C. The in vitro assay of purified chitinase showed antifungal activity against Sclerotium rolffsii, Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria brassicicola, Magnaportha ml -1 and above. The enzyme caused hyphal cell lysis at 200 μg ml -1 concentration. Validation of Chaetomium based bioformulation. Soil amendment with 5g/m 2 along with 3 sprays using Cg2WP (0.2%) significantly reduced the disease severity and improved the yield of the crop under All India Co-ordinated Wheat Improvement Programme under multilocations trials conducted at Faizabad, Karnal and Coochbihar. Characterization of diene lactone hydrolase (DLH) gene from Chaetomium globosum. A novel diene lactone hydrolase (DLH) gene (783 bp), involved in secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and degradation of chlorocatechol compounds, was cloned and sequenced from Chaetomium globosum (Cg2). The sequence analysis showed that DLH gene contains 3 exons and 2 introns with a conserved domain of Dienelactone hydrolase in the sequence. The putative polypeptide sequence of this gene was highly conserved (96% identity) in C. globosum isolates and shared 83% identity with hypothetical protein of Myceliophthora thermophila and 77% with hypothetical protein of Thielavia terrestris. Genotyping of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus megaterium. Comparison of concatenated nucleotide length of bp representing 13 housekeeping genes from Pseudomonas putida BP25R revealed its close similarity with nicotine degrading Pseudomonas putida strain S16 isolated from China. Similarly, concatenated nucleotide length of 7393 bp from Bacillus megaterium BP17R showed close similarity with industrially important strain WSH002. Genes participating in the biosynthetic pathways of multiple metabolite secretions were identified in Pseudomonas putida BP25R which included phz (Phenazine- GenBank: JX843728), ppph (2-octoprenylphenol-GenBank: JX843729), psat (2-oxo hydroxyphosphobutanoate- JX843730), haeh (Hydroxyatrazine-GenBank: JX843726), and kari (2- acetyl hydroxyl-butanoate-genbank: JX843727). LC- MS analysis of total metabolome extracted from the Pseudomonas putida BP25R revealed that these metabolties had antifungal activity. Similarly, genes identified in the biosynthetic pathways of multiple insoluble secretions having activity against 1-4 endoglucanase of Radophilus similis from Bacillus megaterium are 2-carboxy-5-oxo- 2,5-dihydrofuran-2-acetate (GenBank: KC698869), (2Z,4E)-5-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienedioate (GenBank: KC698870), 2-aceto-2-hydroxy-butanoate (GenBank: KC698871), Oxoglutarate (GenBank: KC698873), and (R)-Pantoate (GenBank: KC698872) Evaluation of Genotypes for Resistance Wheat. Out of total 2440 wheat genotypes evaluated against leaf rust races, 1641 were found resistant. Of 520 PDSN entries evaluated for rust resistance, 26 entries, viz., PS 1048, WR 2194, WR 2487, WR 2575, WR 2636, WR 2641, WR 2644, WR 2645, WR 2651, WBM 2395, HAS 687, HAS 706, HAS 712, CL 3385, CL 3413, CL 3419, CL 3480, CL 3486, CL 3499, CL 3501, CL 3507, CLY 1113, CLY 1138, CLY 1147, CLY 1155 and CLY 1175 were free from all three rusts at adult plant stage across test locations. Of 177 CVT entries evaluated for rust resistance at seedling and adult plant stage, five entries, viz., ID 1127, ID 1128, WBM 2382, RD 1689 and DW 1509 showed resistance to all three rusts at both the growth stages. For yellow rust, 20 entries, viz., ID 1110, 1118, 1121, 1127, 1128; DL 1330; RD 1689; SBP 1120, 1122, 1127; WBM 2360, 2379, 2383, 2384, 2385, 2386, 2387, 2389, 2391; and DW 1508 were identified resistant at both growth stages. Twelve entries, viz., HS 560, HPW 386, VL 971, VL 972, PDW 329, PBW 658, PBW 665, PBW 670, RKD 219, HI 8726, KRL 327 and WH 1098 in AVT II nd and I year possessed high degree of resistance to yellow rust pathotypes (78584 and ). Among 81 wheat lines including allied species, 37 showed resistance against spot blotch pathogen. Of total 240 wheat entries screened against Karnal bunt (KB), 59 showed disease incidence up to 5% and 117 entries remained free from KB infection. Of 200 F 4 population derived for KB resistance from the crosses between HD 29 HD 2009, HD 30 WL 711 and HD 30 HD 2009; 134, 175 and 152 populations, respectively, were identified resistant on artificial inoculation. In durum wheat genotypes, GW 1114, HD 4672 and RS 749, 83

91 presence of two dominant, one dominant and one recessive genes, respectively, were identified. Rice. Of 26 elite rice entries evaluated under artificial epiphytotic conditions for blast resistance, seven showed high resistance. Two Basmati rice genotypes developed at IARI (IET and 22290) showed severity index less than five as compared to blast susceptible check HR 12 with 7.4 SI, when evaluated under artificial epiphytotic conditions at blast hotspot locations across the country. Of 384 entries from Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad evaluated against sheath blight, seven entries were moderately resistant. Of 200 wild rice species evaluated against sheath blight, three accessions of Oryza rupipogon (336687, and ), four accessions of O. nivara (336685, , and ) and other accessions, viz., NKSWR23, NKSWR53, NKSWR57 and NKSWR101 were found to be resistant. Of 24 rice varieties evaluated against bakanae disease under glass house conditions, Pusa 1342 and IR were moderately susceptible. Of 222 entries from Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad evaluated against bacterial leaf blight under glasshouse as well as field conditions, Pusa 1460A, Pusa 1460B, BSP 56-57, 58; CMS 5A, CMS 5B, GCP 1 to GCP 39 and SPS 153 showed resistance. Among the R-genes, xa5 was more effective followed by Xa7, Xa21 and xa13. Maize. Of 337 elite maize genotypes evaluated against maydis leaf blight (MLB, Bipolaris maydis) and banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB, Rhizoctonia solani), 31 entries, viz., DADA, FMH 1073, FMH 951, Rasi 863, A 7503, VMH 4174, HM 11, Meghan-G, IJ8533, BIO 719, JH 31599, CMH , CMH , Bisco 2324Plus, GK 3102, MCH 46, Orbit, BIO 562, BIO 9681, Seed tech 2324, JH 31522, X35A189, BIO 151, CMH , CMH , KNMH , VMH 4106, X35A174, BIO 9637, CMH and FH 3525 showed resistance against both the diseases. Of 201 inbreds from Directorate of Maize Research (DMR), eleven entries, viz., HOP II, CML 133, P72c1Xbrasil1177-2, G18seqcef , BML 7, HKI , PFSR-R3, PFSR-R9, PFSR-R10, CM 501 and BML 15, were resistant to both MLB and BLSB diseases. Of 296 entries from IARI, ten (Gen , Gen , Gen , DLK , DLK , DLK , DLK , DLK , DLK , DLK ) were resistant to both BLSB and MLB diseases. Under the ICAR-CIMMYT collaborative programme, of 180 genotypes evaluated against BLSB, 33 genotypes showed tolerant reaction. Legumes. Of 356 chickpea entries evaluated against wilt, 16 entries, namely, GNG 1936, JG 27, IPC 08-68, IPC 05-62, IPC 07-31, IPC , IPC 10-61, IPC , IPC , IPC , IPC , H 09-70, H 10-04, IC , ICC and ICC 5003 showed resistance. Two genotypes JGK 19 and GL showed resistance against Ascochyta blight. Two urdbean (P 45 and P 64) and three mungbean (P 4, P 7 and P 16) entries showed multiple disease resistance against Cercospora leaf spot, Macrophomina blight and YMV. Papaya cultivars for PRSV resistance. Twenty-one cultivars/ lines were screened for resistance to PRSV under field conditions. The cultivar PS 3 showed lowest incidence (21.5 %) with maximum mean fruit yield (32.62 kg/plant), while in cultivar Red Lady it was 96.7% and kg/plant, respectively. In general, the incidence of PRSV was more in June and October planting as compared to April planting. Severity of PRSV on Pusa selection varied at different locations. At IARI regional station, Pusa (Bihar) severity was 38.4% on cultivar PS 3, while in farmers field at Akola (Maharashtra) it was 18.46% and in Gulbarga (Karnataka), severity on PS 3 was 31.75% as compared to 90.0% in Red Lady. Lower aphid population was observed in plots having banana as border cop and recommended sprays. F 1 hybrid of Red Lady and Vasconcellea cauliflora had 11.11% PRSV severity. Attempt were made to cross Pusa Delicious, Pusa Nanha and Pusa Dwarf with hermaphrodite PS 1 to convert them into PRSV tolerant gynodioecious lines Epidemiology and Disease Management Stripe rust monitoring for Indo-Gangetic plains. Based on the infection risk period, yellow rust was predicted across Indo-Gangetic region. Yellow rust favourable conditions predicted and were validated with ground truthing in Jammu, several areas in Punjab such as Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Nawanshahar, Ludhiana and Ropar district. However, for some locations although infection occurred but thematic map 84

92 Evaluation of Ug99 resistant genotypes with Indian stem and leaf rust pathotypes. Out of seven proven sources of resistance to Ug99, viz., Baaz, Chewink, Francolin, Kingbird, Super 152, Super 172, and Quaiu only Kingbird, Chewink and Super 172 exhibited resistance to stem rust while all showed resistance to leaf rust. Yellow rust risk areas during December to February throughout Indo-Gangetic plains could not indicate infection either due to nonavailability or unrepresentative weather data. Effect of elevated CO 2 on spot blotch of wheat. Elevated levels of CO 2 ( ppm) under phytotron significantly increased spot size in wheat caused by B. sorokiniana in comparison to ambient level (320 ppm) irrespective of genotypes. However, elevated exposure through free air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) did not show any significant change in spot size. A significant increase in spectral value was observed in phytoton grown plants under elevated CO 2 conditions. Genetic diversity for stem rust resistance in durum wheat. Presence of two dominant, one dominant, and one recessive genes in GW 1114, HD 4672 and RS 749 (durum wheat genotypes) were identified, respectively, based on analysis of F 2 populations derived from their crosses with Local Red (susceptible parental line). A total of four diverse genes for stem rust resistance (Sr2, Sr7b, Sr9e, and Sr11) were identified among these genotypes. Virulence typing of rust pathogens accomplished in south India. Leaf rust race 77-5 predominated southern hills, while stem rust races 40A and 40-1 occurred in equal frequencies. Race Ug99 was not observed. In case of stripe rust, pathotype I (38S102) with additional virulence on gene Yr 9 was observed. Bakanae - a potential threat in basmati rice cultivation in India. Survey was conducted for bakanae disease in different aromatic rice growing states (Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh) of the country. The disease was observed in all the surveyed areas where rice variety Pusa 1121 is highly popular with the incidence of 1 to 20%. Besides this, disease was observed in other basmati varieties of rice, viz., CSR 30 (2%) at Karnal, Pusa 1401 (10 to 15%) at Fatehgarh and Aligarh districts of Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, respectively, Pusa 1509 (3%) at Aligarh, and Pusa 2511 (2%) at Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. Both elongation and rotting symptoms of bakanae were observed in all surveyed areas. False smut of rice. Maximum false smut incidence was observed in PB 6 (42.6%) and no incidence was observed in Pusa Sugandh 2 and PB 1121 under natural conditions. Out of 14 fungicides assessed, disease severity in blue copper+ Trichoderma viride, blue copper and tilt 25EC sprayed plots was 3.6, 16.6 and 17.9% as against 33.9% in control plot. Disease management in aromatic rice using chemical and biological methods. Seed treatment with Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram g/kg seed was the most effective against brown leaf spot disease of rice. In case of blast disease, one spray of g g/litre water was found to be the most effective in reducing the disease severity. Management of foliar blight of wheat through chemicals. Seed treatment with Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram g/kg seed was the most effective against foliar blight of wheat. Two sprays of ml/l showed minimum disease incidence and leaves remained green up to 120 days after sowing. 85

93 Management of Fusarium wilt in pigeonpea through seed treatment with novel chemicals and polymer coating. Seed treatment with Captan g/kg seed and polymer coating was found best with initial wilt incidence of 18.4% and 21.61% in Bahar and Pusa 9 cultivars of pigeonpea, respectively. Management of vegetable diseases. Out of twenty nine cauliflower and nineteen cabbage genotypes screened for black rot resistance by artificial inoculation, none showed complete resistance, while cauliflower genotypes, DC 5, KT 15, 1385, Grandess, KT 2 MR, Pusa Meghna and cabbage genotypes KGMR 1, 83-6, AC 204, Pusa Ageti, Kinner Red, Red Cabbage, Red Rock Mammoth, S 645, S 696 and KTCBH 81 exhibited partial resistance. The disease management module comprising of the use of yellow coloured seeds, nursery root dipping with Bavistin (0.5%) followed by Trichoderma viride enriched compost application 15 days after transplanting and need based fungicide/ insecticide application was found to be most promising for seed crop of Capsicum var. California Wonder. Seed treatment with metalaxyl, one foliar spray of propiconazole (0.1%) and removal of 4 lower leaves at 60 DAS were found to be most effective for the management of mustard diseases, and only 11.6% Alternaria blight disease was recorded in comparison to 53.3% in control plots. Seed health testing. Vegetable crop seeds when tested for their health, showed a total of 31 fungi and the fungal infection varied from 0.2% in tomato seed cv. Pusa ruby to 6.7% in bittergourd cv. PDM. Maximum fungal infection on the seed samples was due to Alternaria alternata (23.5%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (22.5%), Rhizopus sp. (13.04%) and Aspergillus niger (10.6%). Twenty six fungi were recorded on the seed of paddy varieties and maximum fungal infection was of Aspergillus flavus (26.7%) followed by Alternaria padwickii (18.6%), Curvularia lunata (8.9%) and Fusarium moniliforme (6.9%). Seed germination of the paddy samples varied from 6.0 to 91.8% and seed vigour index varied from 60 to Incidence of viral disease on vegetables. In cucurbits (bottle gourd) occurrence of CMV (3%), PRSV-W (8%) and ZYMV (1%) was observed. In tomato fields, maximum incidence was of GBNV (15%). Thrips (Thrips tabaci) on tomato and white fly (Bemisia tabaci) on cucumber were observed. Management of viral diseases. Mulching of plastic showed comparatively less aphid and thrips population in capsicum fields. Bottle gourd plants sown in June and sprayed fortnightly with imidacloprid (0.01%) showed significantly lowest incidence of virus diseases (2.71%) and aphids (3.28/pl.) with highest yield (35.69 t/ha)). Management of virus diseases in tomato revealed that CMV, GBNV and ToLCV could be controlled by spray of Agroneem (2ml/l) /Dimethoate (0.05%). In capsicum, Mulching + Neem oil (2%) + Imidacloprid (0.01%) was most effective in reducing the incidence of PVY, PMMoV and CMV. The combined incidence of virus diseases was 8.33 % in treated plot as compared to control (23.80%) Viral and Phytoplasmal Diagnosis Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV). The coat protein (CP) gene (960 bp) of five Indian Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) isolates was sequenced. Sequence comparisons revealed that the CP of GarCLV isolates from India shared % amino acid sequence identity and were grouped with isolates from Australia, Brazil, Japan and South Korea. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Association of BCMV with French bean samples collected from Sikkim was established through DAS-ELISA and RT- PCR. Coat protein gene of BCMV from cv. Allopetri was cloned and sequenced (NCBI Genbank accession no. JQ753313). In silico recombination analysis of 76 sequences of BCMV revealed evidence for 11 putative recombinants. However, Jammu and Kashmir as well as Sikkim isolates of BCMV exhibited no recombination indicating their independent evolution/stability. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Mild mosaic and stunted growth symptoms were observed in 19 out of 38 plants of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L, Accession No. EC687345, variety NVRS-10:001818) at IARI experimental farm, New Delhi. Leaf-dip electron microscopy revealed flexuous virus particles measuring nm suggesting the association of a potyvirus. The coat protein gene (834bp) (CP) of the virus infecting lettuce shared 96 to 100% identity at 86

94 amino acid level with the corresponding regions of LMV isolates, suggesting natural infection of LMV infecting Lactuca sativa. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and 1 (GLRaV 3&1). Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) were found associated with the leaf roll disease of grapevine in India based on the sequencing of the coat protein (CP) and partial heat shock protein 70 homologue (HSP70h) genes. GLRaV-3 was detected in cultivars, namely, Cabernet Souveignon, Shiraj, Krishna Seedless, Sharad Seedless, Flame, Pinot Noir and Thompson Seedless from six vineyards in DAS- ELISA and RT-PCR. GLRaV-1 was detected in two cultivars, viz., Shiraj (Nashik region) and Pinot Noir (Pune region). GLRaV-1 was detected either alone in Pinot Noir or as mixed infection with GLRaV-3 in Shiraj. Reddening and curling of leaves in the fall on dark-fruited varieties; Leafroll on white (light-fruited) varieties Etiology of Cowpea mild mosaic virus (CPMMV) in soybean. The soybean crops showing systemic mottling, mosaic and leaf deformation were observed with high disease incidence of % in experimental farm of IARI at New Delhi. The electron microscopy revealed flexuous particles (650 x 12 nm) suggesting the association of a Carlavirus. The causal virus was characterized as a strain of CPMMV on the basis of mechanical, insect (whitefly) and seed transmission, host range and sequencing of a 1289 nt (1.3 kb nt) fragment of 32 end region of viral genome comprising complete CP gene (867 nt), complete NABP gene (303 nt) and 32 UTR (120 nt). This is the first report of natural infection of a distinct strain of CPMMV in soybean in India. Production of polyclonal antibodies using recombinant protein. Polyclonal antibodies developed against bacterial expressed recombinant coat protein of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus (GLRaV-3) in grape, Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) in garlic, Large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV) in large cardamom and Potato virus S (PVS) in potato effectively detected. Coat Protein (CP) gene of GLRaV-3, GarCLV and Large cardamom chirke virus was mobilized in pet28a (+) expression vector and expressed in E. coli strain BL- 21(DA3). The polyclonal antibodies produced from recombinant CP could detect these viruses in DAC ELISA or dot immunobinding assay. The immunoreagents developed will be useful for the virus indexing in tissue culture programs as well as in quarantine and/or certification programs. Dual antigen construct for simultaneous diagnosis of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato virus X (PVX). The conserved coat protein (CP) gene regions of PVY (246 bp) and PVX (243 bp) were sub-cloned in frame in pet-28b (+) vector to create a dual expression construct. Cocktail polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated from fusion protein (~20 kda) efficiently detected mixed infection of PVY and PVX in infected potato sample in DAC-ELISA. The Cocktail PAb was further validated with 70 field potato samples, where it simultaneously detected both PVY and PVX in 66 samples with the O.D. range This is the first demonstration of engineered fusion antigen to PVX and PVY, the most important viruses affecting potato all over the world. Development of serological diagnosis of Large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV). (a) Expression construct of LCCV based on coat protein (CP) gene sequence. (b) Expression and purification of CP in E. coli BL21 (DE3). M: Marker, UN: Un-induced culture, 3H & 6H: Three & six hours induced culture, His: Ni-Nta purified protein, SDS: purified protein from gel. (c) Western blot with LCCV polyclonal antibody (PAb) at 1:5,000 dilution. (d) ELISA with PAb to LCCV at 1:10,000 dilution. (1-10, LCCV infected leaf samples). (e) Dot immunobinding assay with PAb to LCCV at 1:10,000 dilution. Samples 1-3: protein (10, 25, 50ng), 4&5: purified virus, 6 to10: LCCV infected samples, 11to14: large cardamom healthy, 15 to18: CdMV infected samples, 19&20: small cardamom healthy 87

95 Bacterial expressed engineered monoclonal antibody fragments for Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV). Engineered monoclonal antibody fragments were produced in E. coli for Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV). The variable region for both heavy and light chain (V L and V H ) genes specific to immunoglobulin (IgG) were cloned from mrna of immunized spleen cells of mouse or hybridoma. Two expression constructs developed using V L and V H genes were utilized to generate monoclonal antibody (MAb) in E. coli. A dot immunobinding assay and ELISA using the engineered MAb fragments to PRSV and GBNV showed sensitivity of detecting <50 ng of protein. The engineered MAb could successfully detect PRSV in crude leaf extract of papaya. Detection of 16SrXI subgroup A phytoplasma in sesame and delphacid leafhopper (Distant) in India. During survey of sesame fields in Babhnauli and Kushinagar districts of Uttar Pradesh, 22 to 50% incidence of sesame phyllody was observed during August-September, The association of phytoplasma was confirmed utilizing P1/P7 and nested primer pair R16F2n/R16R2 which yielded exclusive bands of 1.8kb and 1.kb, respectively. Approximately 1.2 kb amplified DNA product of nested PCR was obtained from the leafhopper, Hishimonas phycitis in the infected sesame phyllody fields and BLAST analysis revealed 100% sequence identity with 16 SrXI subgroup A phytoplasma. This is the first time that sesame phytoplasma has been identified as a strain of 16SrI-A subgroup phytoplasma and H. phycitis (Distant) as a career for SP phytoplasma (16Sr I-A) in India Host-virus Interaction Studies in Papaya- Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) Role of protein degradation machinery, the ubiquitin/26s proteasome system (UPS), as one of the mechanism of plant defense was studied. The ubiquitin/26s proteasome system (UPS) plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant microbe interactions. Previous studies highlighted two separate roles of the UPS in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through the RNase activity of the 20S core component of UPS, affecting the levels of viral RNA. The proteosomal inhibition studies using MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal reversible inhibitor, caused an increase in Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). The increase in the levels of viral transcripts, viral titre as well as phenotypic expression of symptoms were evident during proteosomal inhibition. The increase in the levels of viral transcripts suggests the probable RNAse activity of proteosomes, playing crucial role in regulating RNA viruses. Hence, it was concluded that 20S core proteosome impose direct defense against Papaya ringspot virus. 4.2 ENTOMOLOGY Insect Pest Management Cereals Out of Sulfoxaflor g a.i./ha, buprofezin g a.i./ha, rynaxypyr g a.i./ha, and triazophos 40 EC and acephate 75 SP 500 g a.i./ha evaluated along with monocrotophos g a.i./ha against rice insect pests on Pusa Basmati 1401, incidence of leaf folder remained very low (<1.4 %) in all the treatments while 200 g a.i./ ha proved most effective against plant hoppers followed by 90 g a.i./ha. Triazophos and buprofezin treatments had the highest yields followed by acephate. Development of spectral signatures for rice brown plant hoppers (BPH). Significant difference in reflectance of uninfested and infested plants in most of the wavebands indicated detectability of even low intensity damage through remote sensing. Based on rice plant reflectance corresponding to the sensitive wavelengths, three hyperspectral indices,viz., BPH Index 1(R 665 /R 1792 ), BPH Index 2 (R R 665 /R R 665 ) and BPH Index 3 (R R 1986 /R R 1986 ) were developed, where R 665, R 1792 and R 1986 refer to reflectance at 665, 1792 and 1986 nm wavelength, respectively. 88

96 Efficacy of insecticides against rice plant hoppers on Pusa Basmati 1401 Treatments Active ingredient BPH + WBPH/10 hills Population reduction Yield (a.i.)/ha 70 DAT 80 DAT (%) over 70 DAT (kg/ha) Triazophos 40 EC 500 g (6.37) Sulfoxaflor 24 SC 90 g (6.84) Buprofezin 25 SC 200 g (5.56) Rynaxypyr 20 SC 30 g (7.27) Acephate 75 SP 500 g (5.91) Monocrotophos 36 SL 500 g (6.08) Untreated control Water spray (6.86) C D (P<0.05) - NS (1.31) *Values in parentheses are square root transformed original plant hopper counts Using rice plant reflectance corresponding to the sensitive wavelengths, a multiple-linear regression model was developed and validated. Y= R 500nm R 665nm R 1792nm R 1986nm (R 2 =0.99) The model would facilitate assessment of BPH damage based on rice plant reflectance, thereby ensuring prompt forewarning to stakeholders. Development of BPH population-weather model. Weather-based prediction model for BPH was developed by regressing peaks of BPH light trap catches on mean values of different weather parameters recording at different weeks. Of the weather parameters, Tmax, RF and RH 2 were found to be relevant through stepwise regression and resultant model was: Log BPH = Tmax (Oct. 2-week) RF (July 2-week) RH 2 (Oct. 2-week) (R 2 =0.90, P=0.006) The model was validated through 5-year independent data on weather parameters and peaks of BPH light trap catches (R 2 =0.845, RMSE=7.64%). Development of rice gall midge population simulation model. A degree days based population simulation model of rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, an important pest of rice in eastern India, was developed using thermal constants, development thresholds and abiotic and biotic mortality factors for different development stages of the pest. Thermal constants for egg, larval, pupal and adult stages were used as 36.4, 169.4, 59.1 and 24.2 degree days (DD), respectively with corresponding development threshold being 16.2, 15.0, 15.5 and 16 o C and Fecundity taken as 125 eggs/female and sex ratio as 1:1. Impact of global warming on the pest population was simulated and it was observed that 1 o C rise in daily mean temperature would benefit the pest by increasing its population, while further increase would adversely affect it. In view of the climate change scenarios for the Indian sub-continent ( during kharif by 2020 & during kharif by 2050), it seemed that the gall midge incidence on rice might increase by 2020 but would decline by 2050 compared to 2000 weather under Cuttack and other similar environments. Mechanism of resistance. Presence of globular structures in stem sheath and more long hairs and spines on leaves of resistant rice genotypes, viz., PTB 33, KAUM and IR 64 and higher activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase (defense enzymes) was associated with resistance against BPH. Biochemical characterization of maize genotypes for resistance to spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus indicated that the iron content (37.79 to mg/g) in all the white seed kernel lines, viz., CPM 2, CPM 13 and CPM 15 was significantly higher (22.98 to mg/g) than that of yellow kernel color lines, viz., CPM 8 and CPM

97 Vegetables Three foliar sprays of profenophos+cypermethrin 440 g a.i./ha at fortnightly interval recorded lowest fruit damage in bitter gourd due to fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (10.71% on number and 8.23% weight basis). Okra border-cropped with maize had significantly reduced leafhopper population. Brinjal border-cropped with maize followed by sprays of 25 g a.i./ha, 10 g a.i./ha and 75 g a.i./ha in sequence at fortnightly interval was most successful in minimizing shoot and fruit borer damage in brinjal fruits Soybean One hundred nine soybean lines, i.e., IVT=40, AVT- I & AVT-II=40, PYT-I=17 and PYT-II=12 evaluated during kharif, 2012 against stem fly and yellow mosaic virus (YMV) disease under natural incidence, varieties DS 1213 and DS 2614 were identified as promising sources of resistance. Thiamethoxam ml/ ha and triazophos ml/ha significantly reduced YMV disease incidence and population of stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae, in soybean resulting in significant increase in seed yield Cotton Studies on effect of different levels of non-bt cotton as refuge on Bt cotton productivity showed maximal top shoot damage of 18.3% irrespective of days of plant growth in 100% non-bt and was significantly higher than the rest of treatments ranging from 5 to 40% of non-bt and 100% Bt cotton. Similarly for BGII MRC7017Bt cotton, top shoot damage due to Earias spp. was found to increase with respect to age of crop from 45 to 108 days. It was least in treatment 100% Bt cotton (0.89%), followed by 5% non-bt cotton (0.89%) and maximum in100% non-bt cotton (17.14%). The damage due to Earias spp. was relatively less in BGII than in Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac only Storage Entomology Cadra cautella and rice moth Corcyra cephalonica caused maximum weight loss in wheat genotypes PDW 239 and PDW 291(d), respectively at 90 days of storage. Maximum per cent grain damage occurred in variety PBW343 with both the insects. Sitophilus oryzae a rice weevil caused maximum weight loss in variety PBW 621 at 60% and 70% RH while maximum insect population was observed in HD 2967 after three months of storage. After 12 months of storage under high Rhyzopertha dominica population regime, out of 14 treatments evaluated, only carbaryl (1.75% damage), imidacloprid 5ppm (3.75% damage) and spinosad 5ppm/kg seed (1.25% damage) could provide considerable protection from insect pests. Many of the other treatments including control had over 90% of seed damage. After 12 months of seed storage, of the 13 treatments tested, sprays with primiphos-methyl carbaryl and spinosad 1000ppm/l water over gunny bags could effectively protect wheat seeds from insect pest infestations. The experiment was conducted under high Rhyzopertha dominica population regime Biological Control Thiamethoxam was observed to be more toxic than imidacloprid against populations of Coccinella septempunctata grubs collected from Coimbatore, Almora, Ludhiana and Delhi. However, Coimbatore and Ludhiana population showed 6 and 4 times more tolerance to imidacloprid than other populations. Multi-arm olfactometer studies with the extracts of different cotton varieties indicated that increase in concentration of the extract plays a vital role in parasitoid activity index (PAI), per cent parasitization and emergence irrespective of the variety. The Electroantennogram (EAG) response of A. bombawalei to synomonal extracts of cotton plants revealed that the mean EAG response in males were lower than the female parasitoid. EAG responses of Uzi fly, Exorista sorbillans, a parasitoid of tussar silkmoth, Anthereae mylitta recorded against 49 plant volatiles revealed that acetophenone triggered highest relative response at 0.1 and 1 mg/ml concentration which was on a par with benzaldehyde at 10 mg/ml and pentanone at 100 mg/ml. 90

98 4.2.4 Insect Physiology Three sirnas, viz., Hachi, HaSlchi and Slchi for chitinase gene suppression designed in silico were evaluated by injection and feeding the larvae of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera and tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. More than 40% mortality as inter-molt and up to 40% mortality in the form of malformed pupae or adult in both H. armigera and S. litura was observed. Thus, silencing of chitinase gene led to mortalities throughout the development period. Efficacy of the silencing of the chitinase gene was demonstrated by gene expression of the target gene using RT-PCR with tubulin as the marker gene. Down regulation of target genes was observed to be 98% in neonates, 99% in larvae, 95% in the malformed pupae and 99% in the malformed adults in H. armigera while it was 95% in neonates, 45% in larvae, 55% in malformed pupae and 85% in adults of S. litura. selection pressure within 6-generations and Cry1Ac resistance is autosomal and semi-dominant in nature. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were studied for biochemical, molecular and insecticidal characterization. More than 40 isolates were characterized by 16s RNA sequence analysis. Kb-29, St-6 and Wh-1 were most effective and comparable with HD-1 in toxicity against H. armigera. Diversity analysis using PCR probes revealed the presence of Rhodobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Panenibacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Roseomonas sp., Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter, Proteobacterium (uncultured) and Pseudomonas sp. in the gut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Out of 52 gut bacterial isolates from H. armigera, 12 isolates showed high lipase activity while 14 isolates had strong -glucanase activity and seven isolates had good amylase activity. Similarly in P. xylostella, out of 41 gut bacterial isolates identified, six isolates had strong lipase activity, five had good -endoglucanase activity and three isolates had strong amylase activity Insect Toxicology The shade dried leaf powder of Millettia pachycarpa contained lupeol, besides, four bio-active isoflavonoids identified, viz., millewanin-g, millewani-h, pyranochalcone and diprenyl 5,7.4-trihydroxy isoflavone, which showed antifeedant activity against larvae of S. litura. Azadiracthin showed complete growth inhibition even at 0.001%, and more than 50% growth inhibition was recorded at the lowest Last instar larvae of H. armigera and S. litura showing inter-molt mortality, pupal mortality, malformed pupae after SiRNA treatment Earias vitella reared on artificial diet had lower larval survival, longer larval and pupal period than those on natural diet. Studies on pink bollworm rearing showed that insects collected from north India did undergo diapause during last larval stage which ranged from 134 to 203 days during their initial collection. The pink bollworm strain developed resistance of about 605-fold to Cry1Ac under the Structure of Lupeol 91

99 Antifeedant activity (AI 50 ) and Growth inhibitory activity (GI 50 ) of various extracts and fractions of Millettia pachycarpa against S. litura Extracts and Antifeedancy Growth inhibitory activity fractions of leaf powder Heterogeneity AI 50 / Fiducial limits (%) Heterogeneity GI 50 /Fiducial limits (%) x 2 df x 2 df Methanol More than 50% growth inhibition even at lowest ( ) concentration (0.001%) Hexane ( ) ( ) Dichloro More than 50% growth inhibition even at lowest methane ( ) concentration (0.001%) Butanol ( ) ( ) Fraction ( ) ( ) Fraction ( ) ( ) Fraction ( ) ( ) Fraction ( ) ( ) Fraction ( ) ( ) Azadirachtin Complete growth inhibition even at lowest concen ( ) tration (0.001%) concentration of methanol and dichloromethane extracts. 4.3 NEMATOLOGY Nematode Management In Pasteuria infected females of the nematode Heterodera cajani, a rod shaped stage was found. Besides, unlike the root-knot Pasteuria isolate, no female of H. cajani was found to develop eggs in presence of the bacterium Metham Sodium for the Management of Root Knot Nematode in Polyhouse Root-knot nematodes were effectively reduced in tomato cultivation under polyhouse conditions, on applying Metham 300 l/ha with a dilution 1:7 (30ml/m 2 ) deep into furrow (25cm depth) one month before transplanting of tomato seedlings Biofumigation with Brassica juncea against Reniform Nematode Five varieties (MT 1, MT 2, MT 3, MT 4 and MT 5) of Brassica juncea reduced (>45 %) the population of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis in comparison to control field Bioefficacy of Indazoles in Tomato Infected with Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 L16 {6-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4-Phenyl- ppm onwards showed increase in plant growth of tomato and maximum reduction (84.5%) in number of galls compared to the control. 92

100 4.3.5 Management of Rice Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice Solarization (15 D) + Pseudomonas fluorescens 1% 50g/sq.m gave maximum shoot growth and least number of galls of M. graminicola in rice over the control. Maximum reduction in the no. of eggs were observed in solarized bed applied with carbofuran (74.4%) and P. fluorescens 1% 50g/ sq.m (73.7%) compared to control. Split application of kg a.i./ha at transplanting & at 15DAT increased the plant growth of rice puddled condition compared to unpuddled with a reduction in root-knot nematode population. Hexane extracts of Crotolaria juncea 500 ppm showed maximum in-vitro mortality (>72%) of second stage juveniles (J2s) of M. graminicola after 96h Population Behavior of Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Citrus Root Nematode) in Citrus Population behavior of Tylenchulus semipenetrans recorded in IARI orchard at regular intervals showed positive correlation with the growth flush in citrus plants. The total nematode populations were higher in October (240/ g roots) and April (200/ g roots) and declined gradually from May to August. This synchronized with high temp. coupled with low % of humidity Management through Transgenic Approach Several transgenic brinjal lines have been developed to express the double stranded RNA of four esophageal gland genes and two FMRFamide like peptide genes of Meloidogyne incognita independently to bring about their silencing in the nematodes. Evaluation on the effect of gene silencing showed 60 to 80% reduction in multiplication factor of the nematode indicating their potential in reducing the population pressure in the soil. QPCR analysis indicated good expression of different genes in various primary events and also in the plants of T 1 generation. qpcr analysis of primary transgenic events and T 1 plants of brinjal for the expression of dsrna of flp Entomopathogenic Nematodes Bioefficacy of 4 isolates of Steinernema when tested against homopteran insect pests showed that Steinernema thermophilum could induce 83% mortality of mealy bugs within 72 h after inoculation at 50 IJs / insect and 100% within 48 h at 500 IJs /insect. Against aphids, it caused 66% and 83 % mortality at 50 and 500 IJs/insect within 3 days post-inoculation. But against whitefly, at 500 IJs / insect, S. riobrave caused 66% mortality after 72 h followed by S.thermophilum (49%) and S. meghalayensis (33%). Multi-location field trial for the management of white grub infestation in sugarcane crop by application of Galleria mellonella cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica carried out in eight villages- Jallopur, Ogarpur, Dadhyal, Bukharipur, Shaidra Milak (Amroha district, UP), Jakhwala (Saharanpur district, UP), Alawalpur and Trilokpuri (Haridwar district, Uttrakhand) showed reduction in white grub population in the range of 25 93

101 to 66% and an increase in sugarcane yield up to 6 to 8 t/acre at different locations. B. cereus (WGPSB-2) when fed orally to 3 rd instar grubs of Holotrichia spp x 10 4 spores/grub) resulted in reduction in the feeding of the grubs finally leading to mortality within 5 to 9 weeks. When healthy and diseased 3 rd instar grubs (exposed to B. cereus for 4 weeks) were exposed to H. indica 250, 500 and 1000 IJ/grub, at the highest level (1000 IJ/grub), 100% mortality was recorded in healthy within 5 days as compared to 3 days in diseased grubs. The grubs infected with H. indica-photorhabdus symbionts alone turned characteristically reddish in color. Grubs infected with H. indica-photorhabdus-b. cereus exhibited patches of red, brown and black. a: White grub infected with H. indica and B. cereus; b: Emergence of H. indica infective juveniles from white grub 4.4 CHEMICALS FOR CROP PROTECTION Chemo and Bio-prospecting for Agrochemicals through Design, Discovery and Development of Novel Processes and Products Synthesis, characterization and bio-efficacy of novel chalcone based 6-carbethoxy-2-cyclohexen-1- one and 2H-Indazol-3-ol derivatives. Using a simple, efficient and environment friendly method of Green chemistry sixteen 6-carbethoxy-2- cyclohexen-1-one derivatives and sixteen 2Hindazol-3-ol derivatives were synthesized, characterized and screened for antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. (E)-1-(4- Fluorophenyl)-3-phenyl-propenone was found to be the most active as antifungal agent (Rhizoctonia solani, LC μg/ml), 6-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4- phenyl-2h-indazol-3-ol was found to be most active antibacterial agent (Klebsiella pneumonia, MIC 24.7 μg/ml) and 6-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4-(3- nitrophenyl)-2h-indazol-3-ol emerged as most active antioxidant (IC μg/ml). Synthesis and bioactivity of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives. Out of a series of twenty two 1,3,4- thiadiazole derivatives synthesized using 5-methyl/ amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiols, characterized showed antifungal, antinemic and nitrification inhibitory activities. The test compounds were highly effective against the fungi. The antifungal and nematicidal activity was observed with 2-hexyl sulfanyl-5-amino- 1,3,4-thiadiazoles (ED g/ml). Low to moderate effect of these compounds was observed for inhibition of nitrification process in soil. Synthesis and nematicidal activity of Schiff bases of traizole. Out of twenty Schiff bases of 4-amino-3- mercapto-5-pyridin-2-yl-4h-1,2,4-triazole and picolinic acid synthesized and evaluated for nematicidal activity, 4-(4-Methoxybenzyliderneamino)-3-mercapto-5- pyridin-2-yl-4h-1,2,4-triazole exhibited the highest nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC ppm) and R. reniformis (LC ppm). Fungitoxicity evaluation suggested that 4-(4-Methoxybenzy- liderneamino)-3-mercapto-5-pyridin-2-yl-4h-1,2,4- triazole was the best compound among the Schiff bases (ED ppm against R. solani ). Chemical profiling of essential oil of Anisomeles indica. Twenty six compounds in (accounting for 82.8% of the crude oil) essential oil was extracted from A. indica leaves were identified using GC-MS analysis, The compounds identified were caryophyllene oxide, 4- hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, hexatriacontane, bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8- methylene-, [1R-(1R*,4E,9S*)]-, hexahydro farnesylacetone, 4,8,12,15,15-pentamethylbicyclo[9.3.1] pentadeca-3,7-dien-12-ol, - caryophyllene, pentadecanal, 2-methoxy-4-(2- propenyl)-phenol, verticiol, trans-nerolidol, -ionone, farnesene, Z-7-tetradecanal, farnesyl acetone and small 94

102 amounts of dihyro- -ionone, hexyl butanoate, n- tetracosane, n-hexadecane, tricontane, tricosane, oleyl alcohol, geranyl acetone and 3-octen-1-ol. Extraction, profiling and antifungal evaluation of non protein imino acids from leaves of Calliandra sp. Caliandra leaves extract purification and characterization using GC-MS suggested that pipecolic acid derivatives were the main constituents of the extract. These compounds showed moderate antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and Fusarium oxysporum (ED ppm) Innovations in Agricultural Formulations and Application Technology for Safety and Efficacy Preparation and evaluation of hydrogel based combo formulations of bioagent (Trichoderma harzianum) and micronutrient (ZnSO 4 ). Fungal diseases and zinc availability are two important factors influencing rice productivity, therefore a hydrogel based integrated compositions was prepared employing Trichoderma harzianum, combination of T. harzianum with ZnSO 4 (25, 250 and 1000 ppm) exhibited significantly higher activity than Trichoderma or ZnSO 4 alone against Rhizoctonia solani. Dry (H-Zn-dry) and wet formulations (H-Zn-wet) of T. harzianum employing zincated hydrogel exhibited 100% viability of T. harzianum showing no toxicity, and showed 94.8 and 95.1% inhibition of R. solani in in vitro. Development of zeolite based superabsorbent composite. Fluid retention capacity of Pusa hydrogel was enhanced by Zeolite hydrogel composite having water absorption capacity of 550 to 600 g/g of dry gel. Residual acrylamide monomer estimation in hydrogel and hydrogel composites revealed that the residual acrylamide content in the samples decreased with increase in cross-linker concentration. Development of new amphiphilic nano-polymers for formulating the thiamethoxam. Amphiphilic copolymers were synthesized from poly(ethylene glycols) and various aliphatic and aromatic diacids and used to develop controlled release (CR) formulations of thiamethoxam (3-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)- 5-methyl-1,3,5-oxadiazinan-4-ylidene (nitro) amine) using encapsulation technique. Formulations were characterised by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The diffusion exponent (n value) of thiamethoxam, in water ranged from to in the test formulations. While the time taken for release of 50% of thiamethoxam ranged from 2.04 to 5.46 days for the CR formulations. The developed CR formulations can be used for efficient pest management in different crops. Development of polymeric thiamethoxam seed coats for seed quality enhancement.seed coat containing 12 controlled release (CR) formulations of thiamethoxam was developed. The thiamethoxam recovery ranged from 86.1 to 93.2% from different CR formulation seed coats. Better thiamethoxam retention was observed on soybean seed coats treated with CR formulations. Most of the CR formulations of thiamethoxam gave significantly better control of white fly which transmit Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) compared to commercial formulation and control. The seed coating formulation prepared from amphiphilic polymer Poly [poly (oxyethylene-4000)- oxysebacoyl] with recommended dose of thiamethoxam,i.e., 3 g a.i. / kg seed recorded highest yield ( kg/ha) as compared to commercial formulation ( kg/ha). Nodulation pattern of soybean was not affected due to treatment of CR formulations and commercial formulation of thiamethoxam. Also the residues of thiamethoxam in seed and soil at harvest were below the detection limit of 0.25 g/ml for both CR and commercial formulations Food Safety, Risk Assessment of Crop Protection Products and Residue Management Pesticide risk assessment Persistence of chlorfenapyr on tomato. Chlorfenapyr was applied on tomato at flowering followed by 2 nd application at 50% 75 and 100 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. Chlorfenapyr (Intrepid 10 SC) were applied on tomato (var. Pusa Ruby) dissipated and half lives in tomato and soil ranged from 2.9 to 4.0 days and 4.1 to 4.4 days, respectively. 95

103 Persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage and field soil. Persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage and field soil following foliar application at recommended and double dose (200 and 400 g a.i. / ha) showed that the residues persisted beyond 5 days in both the treatments and dissipated with the halflife ranging from 1.7 to 2.1 days in cabbage and in soil it degraded with a half life ranging from 4.0 to 4.8 days. A pre-harvest waiting period of 3 days was suggested based on calculation of theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) Environmental fate of pesticides Effect of elevated CO 2 on persistence of pesticides. The petrilachlor and butachlor dissipated faster in soil at elevated CO 2 (half life 3.6 and 4.8 days at 550 ppm and 3.1 and 3.7 days at 750 ppm) as compared to ambient conditions (38 and 25 days). Similarly, elevated CO 2 and temperature (~550, 30 o C and 750 ppm, 35 o C) caused faster dissipation of cypermethrin, pendimethalin and chlorpyriphos from soil maintained at field capacity and submerged moisture condition as compared to ambient (~350 ppm, 25 o C) condition. However, the effect was negligible when soil was maintained at dry condition. Persistence and sorption of pesticides. The studies revealed that chlorantranipole dissipated faster from soil under submerged condition (t 1/ days) followed field capacity moisture (t 1/ days) and dry condition (t 1/ days). Degradation of metaflumizone was faster under anaerobic conditions (t 1/ d) compared to aerobic condition (t 1/ d) and dry soil (t 1/ d). UV light, temperature and atmospheric CO 2 levels increased the degradation in soil (t½ d). Degradation of metaflumizone was faster in Oxisol compared to Inceptisol. 4- cyanobenzoic acid ( mg/kg) and 4- trifluoromethoxy aniline ( mg/kg) were detected as major degradation products. Effect of fly ash on leaching and degradation of metolachlor and atrazine. Potential of coal fly ash (Inderprastha and Badarpur) for retaining soil applied metolachlor and atrazine within the application zone was studied in Inceptisol and Alfisol soils. Both the fly ashes at 2% and 5% were highly effective in reducing the leaching losses of metolachlor and atrazine. The Inderprastha fly ash was more effective than the Badarpur fly ash. Although fly ash contained heavy metals like Cr, Cu or Pb, but they were not detected in the leachate. Also, concentration of other metals like Zn, Mn and Fe in leachate decreased after fly ash amendment. Results of this study have implications in reducing the leaching losses of these herbicides in agricultural soils. However, application of fly ash increased the persistence of both the herbicides. 2- Ethyl-6-methyl acetanilide was detected in the soil samples as the major degradation product of metolachlor. Sorption behaviour of pesticides. Adsorption behaviour of bispyribac-sodium herbicide was studied in four soil types. Herbicide is poorly sorbed in the soils and the Freundlich adsorption coefficients (K f ) values ranged between 0.36 and Herbicide adsorption was highly nonlinear and 1/n values ranged between 0.21 and Herbicide adsorption did not correlate with the organic carbon content, however, positive correlation was observed with the soil ph and clay content. Desorption studies suggested that during single desorption step complete desorption of sorbed herbicide was observed. Adsorption of metsulfuron-methyl was studied in different SOM fractions, viz., commercial humic acid, commercial lignin and humic acid and humin extracted from compost. 13 C-CPMAS-NMR studies indicated that the structural composition of the organic carbon in different SOM fractions was different. The order of sorption of metsulfuron-methyl in the different sorbents was: humic acid- compost > humic acidcommercial > humin ~ lignin. The herbicide adsorption coefficient [K f X 1/n] in SOM fractions was positively correlated with the carbonyl components of organic carbon, which accounted for 98.7% variation in the sorption of herbicide. Similarly, desorption coefficient too showed positive correlation with the carbonyl fraction of SOM and accounted for nearly 91% of herbicide desorption. Both correlations were significant at p= 0.01% level of significance. Study suggested that chemistry of organic carbon content affects the herbicide adsorption. 96

104 Analytical methods Development of multi residue analytical methods. A multi-pesticide residue method of extraction and cleanup was standardized for the estimation of pesticides, namely, lindane, chlorpyrifos, quinalfos, methyl parathion,ethion, hexaconaazole, -cyhalothrin, -cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin. Bifenthrin, fluvalinate and permethrin in wheat flour by GLC ECD detector and GC-MS. The average recovery varied from 79 to 92, repeatability % RSD and reproducibility % RSD. Similarly, a multi-pesticide residue method for rice grain was standardized and validated for 20 crop protection chemicals belonging to insecticide, fungicide and herbicide groups. GLC-ECD conditions were standardized for resolution of all the twenty pesticides in one go. Various pesticides were eluted at Rt: Lindane min; malathion-16.2 min; chlorpyriphos-16.6 min; flufenacet-17.2 min; pendimethalin-18.4 min; fipronil min; -endosulfan min; p,p-dde min; thifluzamide min; -endosulfan 23.2 min; op- DDT-24.2 min; endosulfan sulfate-25.7 min; p,p-ddt min; bifenthrin-29.8 min; carpropamid-30.5 min; -cyahalothrin-33.0 min; permethrin-35.5 min; cypermethrin-37.9 min; fluvalinate min; indoxacarb-43.0 min and deltamethrin-43.2 min. Instrument detection limit of different pesticides varied from to 0.01 ppm with 2 μ injection volume. Method validation was carried out at 0.1 and 0.05 ppm fortification levels using AOAC procedure. Method was found to be repeatable and reproducible. HPLC method was developed for the determination of flucetosulfuron in water and soil. The recovery of flucetosulfuron was 93.2 and 82.0% from water and soil, respectively. Limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method from water and soil were 0.05 μg ml -1 and 0.1 μg g -1, respectively Decontamination of pesticides Decontamination of pesticides from water. Laboratory prepared rice husk ash was evaluated for removal of 9 pesticides from water as a low cost adsorbent. The rice husk was found to possess appreciable adsorbent capacity (K f ). The column elution studies showed that with 10 g rice husk, more than 90% of the pesticide load can be removed from 10 liters of water. Decontamination study of anilofos and chlorpyrifos from water indicated that GAC may not be a better option for removal of chlorpyrifos from water. The normal drinking water treatment process was found to be inefficient in removal of PAHs (<40% removal). Inclusion of step of adsorption by clay materials in the process resulted in removal of % of 6 PAHs from water. The method was validated for natural water. Adsorption-desorption of 2 OP pesticides anilofos and chlorpyrifos were studied on granular carbon (GAC) using batch method. Granular carbon could remove 98% of the both pesticides. Desorption studies in three cycles showed that chlorpyrifos desorbed in each cycle and at all the concentration levels. Anilofos was desorbed only at higher concentrations during first cycle only. Study indicated that GAC may not be a better option for removal of chlorpyrifos from water. Microbial degradation of pesticides. Three fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Achaetomium strumarium degraded bifenthrin with a half-life of 81.3, 34.2, 30.7 days, respectively. A bacterial strain Serratia marcescens, L-11 which was found to be bio-surfactant producing and PAH degrader in earlier studies degraded bifenthrin with a half-life of 24.3 days. Mixtures of microbes (consortia) were more efficient than individuals. Consortium M-1 (Aspergillus flavus+ Achaetomium strumarium) and M-2 (Aspergillus flavus +Achaetomium strumarium+ Serratia marcescens) degraded bifenthrin with a half life of 12 days and 10 days, respectively. Hydrolysis and oxidation were major routes of bifenthrin degradation and 2-methyl- 3-phenyl benzyl alcohol, 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3- trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid metabolites were identified. Two white rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor (NCIM1076) and Pestalotia bicolor (MTCC 372) were screened for degradation of fipronil. The white rot fungi enhanced fipronil degradation. Fipronil half life was days in sterile soil as compared to 71.5 days and 52.7 days when inoculated with C. versicolor and P.bicolor, respectively. Fipronil amide and sulfone were detected as the major degradation products. 97

105 4.5 WEED MANAGEMENT Effects of Tillage and Weed Management on Soybean Productivity Weed density in no-tillage treatment was significantly lower than conventional tillage, but weed dry weight, and physiological parameters like leaf soluble protein and chlorophyll content and yield were not affected by tillage treatments. Pendimethalin 0.5 kg/ha tank-mixed with imazethapyr kg/ha caused the maximum reduction in weed density. All weed control treatments gave significantly higher soybean seed yields compared to weedy check, but pendimethalin 0.5 kg/ha + imazethapyr kg/ha being comparable with weed-free check was superior to all other weed control treatments. Among weed control measures, pre-emergence application of 250 g/ha followed by 50 g/ha at 3 weeks after sowing (WAS) caused significantly higher reduction in weed dry weight at all stages of observation resulting in higher weed control efficiency and seed yield in soybean which was statistically similar to the season long weed free condition Optimization of the Brown Manuring Technology for Weed Management in Maize A field experiment undertaken to optimize the dose of herbicide, seed rate of dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) and time of spraying/mulching for brown manuring and weed management in maize. The results indicated that 25 kg dhaincha seed was slightly superior to 15 kg/ha mulching dhaincha/spraying 2,4-D at 25 days after sowing (DAS) superior to that at 35 DAS,and 0.50 kg/ha was superior to 0.25 kg/ha or in situ dhaincha grown and mulched, in terms of broad-leaved and grassy weed control, and maize grain yield Efficient Weed Control Using Herbicides in Gladiolus All the herbicides tested were selective to gladiolus and the herbicides treatments resulted in lower weed growth than weedy check. But, 0.5 kg/ha pre-emergence and kg/ha preemergence+residues (5 t/ha) resulted in the lowest weed dry weight comparable with that of the weedfree check. A tank-mix application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha + metribuzin 0.3 kg/ha resulted in maximum plant height (123.0 cm) followed by atrazine 1.0 kg/ha + residues, and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha. However, atrazine 1.0 kg/ha + residues was found to be the best which resulted in maximum spike length (101.0 cm) Bio-efficacy and Selectivity of Herbicides and Efficient Weed Control in Tuberose Although, all the herbicides treatments (taken up) were more or less equally effective and reduced weed growth considerably than weedy check in tuberose. Effect of chemical herbicides on weed dry weight, and plant height and spike length of gladiolus Treatments Dry wt. of weeds (g/m 2 ) Plant height (cm) Spike length (cm) Atrazine 1.0 kg/ha pre-emergence kg/ha pre-emergence Metribuzin 0.5 kg/ha pre-emergence Atrazine 0.75 kg/ha + pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha pre-emergence Pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha + metribuzin 0.3 kg/ha pre-emergence kg/ha pre-emergence + residues 5.0 t/ha kg/ha pre-emergence + one hand weeding days after planting (DAP) Butachlor 1.0 kg/ha pre-emergence Weed- free check Weedy check LSD (P=0.05)

106 However, metribuzin 0.50 kg/ha pre-emergence + one hand weeding at 30 DAP, and pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha + atrazine 0.75 kg/ha pre-emergence resulted in the maximum reduction in weed dry weight comparable with that of the weed-free check, and proved to be the best Integrated Weed Management in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown under System of Rice Intensification Among different weed control treatments, three cono-weeding at 15, 30 and 45 days after transplanting (DAT) caused the highest reduction in growth of weeds with the highest weed control index of 92.1% over weedy check. Weed-free treatment recorded the highest grain yield (4.83 t/ha) and straw yield (10.35 t/ha) of rice. Among integrated measures, cono weeding at 15 DAT supplemented with application of bispyribac 25 g/ha at 30 DAT is the best alternative option for weed control under SRI method of rice cultivation Bioefficacy of Different Herbicides on Weeds in Wheat Tank mix application of clodinafop and pinoxaden with carfentrazone and metsulfuron were effective on complex weed flora (Phalaris minor, Anagallis arvensis, Medicago denticulata, Melilotus alba, Rumex maritimus and Coronopus dydimus) accumulated lower weed dry matter and increased the seed yield over their sole application. Clodinafop and pinoxaden showed their inability towards broadleaf weeds where as carfentrazone and metsulfuron were ineffective on grassy weeds. In an experiment conducted at Pusa (Bihar) for controlling complex weed flora in wheat, application of twelve herbicides and their combinations significantly reduced the weed density and weed dry weight. However, application of 25.0 g a.i. /ha was most efficient in controlling weed density and weed dry weight Integrated Weed Management in Muskmelon Seed Crop Among the mulch treatments pea straw with vermicompost and FYM accumulated lower weed dry weight and resulted in higher seed yield than pigeonpea straw mulch, however, in both the mulches compared to vermicompost. Among the herbicidal treatments, glyphosate at 1.0% with one hoeing recorded lowest weed dry matter, higher weed control efficiency and seed yield compared to pendimethalin and alachlor Evaluation of Herbicides in Controlling Weeds in Transplanted Rice Out of six herbicide applications tested in transplanted rice for their effectiveness, pendimethaline application as pre mergence of weed (up to 48 hrs of transplanting) followed by post emergence application (30 DAT) of Bispyribac sodium recorded lowest dry weight of weeds in transplanted rice. However, highest yield (4.43 t/ha) was recorded in weed free treatment followed by oxydiargyl (4.29 t/ha). 99

107 5. BASIC AND STRATEGIC RESEARCH The School of Basic Sciences of IARI has made significant progress during in cloning and characterization of abiotic stress responsive genes, genetic transformation of rice and soybean for abiotic stress tolerance and reduction of seed phytate, respectively, unraveling the molecular basis of off-flavor generation in soybean and cold induced sweetening in potato, and physiological basis of input use efficiency and abiotic stress tolerance. Genotypes with contrasting quality traits and stress tolerance were identified, and used for development of mapping populations in important crops. Molecular markers were employed for genetic diversity analysis, association mapping, and QTL mapping for drought tolerance, waterlogging tolerance and disease resistance in various crops. GIS and remote sensing methods were developed for high throughput non-destructive measurement of plant water status, discrimination of wheat genotypes, wheat yield prediction and forewarning of white rust disease of mustard. 5.1 PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Cloning and Functional Validation of Genes With the advent of structural genomics, significant progress has been made in sequencing of plant genomes. Functional characterization of genes to identify their role in plant development and stress response is necessary to utilize the genome information for enhancing agricultural productivity. However, the progress in functional genomics in India is very slow. To bridge this gap, concerted efforts were made at the School of Basic Sciences, to clone and characterize genes for agriculturally important traits Expression analysis of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in wheat HKT genes encode plasma membrane Na + transporters. Quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis revealed that HKT2;1.1 and HKT3;1.1 genes were 1.5 and 3.0 folds down-regulated, respectively, under salt stress in tolerant wheat cv. Kharchia 65. These two HKT genes of HKT 2 subfamily were cloned and sequenced (Acc. No. HF and HF937364). RT-PCR expression analysis showed that HKT1;4 expresses specifically in root tissue, while HKT2;1 and HKT2;3 expresses in both root and shoot. Expression pattern of HKT genes in wheat genotypes with contrasting salt tolerance. Salt stress was imposed to 14 days old seedling by irrigating with 150mM NaCl (S); C= Control plants irrigated with water; M= 100 bp ladder Sugar metabolism is critical for stress tolerance. Hence, genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport were studied during grain development in salinity tolerant Kharchia 65 and salinity sensitive HD 2687 wheat genotypes. Kharchia 65 showed higher expression of Sucrose transporter genes SUT1 and SUT2 in leaf at 20 DAA as compared to susceptible HD In wheat grains at 20 DAA, SUT1A, SUT1B, and SUT1C expressions were higher under 100 mm NaCl in both the genotypes, but under 200 mm NaCl, expression levels of these genes declined in HD Salinity stress decreased the expression of AGPase large subunit (AGPase LSU) and soluble starch synthase 100

108 III (SSSIII) in both the genotypes. However, Kharchia 65 was able to maintain transcripts of SUT1, AGPase LSU and SSSIII under 200 mm NaCl treatment. Sugar metabolism is critical for stress tolerance. Hence, genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport were studied during grain development in salinity tolerant Kharchia 65 and salinity sensitive HD 2687 wheat genotypes. Kharchia 65 showed higher expression of Sucrose transporter genes SUT1 and SUT2 in leaf at 20 DAA as compared to susceptible HD In wheat grains at 20 DAA, SUT1A, SUT1B, and SUT1C expressions were higher under 100 mm NaCl in both the genotypes, but under 200 mm NaCl, expression levels of these genes declined in HD Salinity stress decreased the expression of AGPase large subunit (AGPase LSU) and soluble starch synthase III (SSSIII) in both the genotypes. However, Kharchia 65 was able to maintain transcripts of SUT1, AGPase LSU and SSSIII under 200 mm NaCl treatment Cloning of stress responsive genes from wheat Homologs of stress responsive genes, namely, Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase (Acc. No. JX878360), Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Acc. No. KC158224), Heat Shock Transcription Factor (Acc. No. JQ801451), Superoxide Dismutase II (Acc. No. JQ613154), AGPase small subunit (Acc. No. KC347594) and Rubisco Activase (Acc. no. KC776912) were cloned and sequenced from wheat. In addition, three novel heat responsive transcription factors (Transcript 152, Transcript 514 and Transcript 3714) were also cloned from wheat. As antioxidant defense is one of the important components of abiotic stress tolerance, the cytosolic-cu-znsod gene was cloned from wheat genotypes Kharchia 65, HD 2009, HD 2687 and WL Expression analysis of HSP genes in chickpea The expression of Heat Shock Protein (HSP) genes and acclimation response was studied in Kabuli (Pusa 1105) and Desi (Pusa 1103) type chickpea genotypes in early seedling stage. Seeds were germinated at 25 C. Two days old seedlings were subjected to the following treatments: 1) Control, seedlings were grown at 25 C; 2) seedlings subjected to acclimation (induction) temperature of 35 C; 3) acclimated seedlings subjected to 2h heat stress at 42 C; 4) acclimated seedlings subjected to 3h heat stress at 42 C; 5) Non-induced seedlings were subjected to 2h heat stress at 42 C; 6) Non-induced seedlings were subjected to 3h heat stress at 42 C. All the HSPs studied except HSP21 showed similar and enhanced expression in both the chickpea genotypes under all the high temperature treatments. The expression of HSP21 also increased under heat stress, but Pusa 1105 showed higher level of expression as compared to Pusa Functional validation of abiotic stress responsive genes in rice Plant stress hormone abscisic acid receptor (ABAR) family genes, and stress regulated genes such as SnRK, MYB transcription factors and expressed protein (EP) were cloned from drought tolerant rice cv. Nagina 22. For analysis of the role of these genes in abiotic stress tolerance in rice, plant transformation vectors for stress-inducible overexpression (RD29A promoter), constitutive expression (ZmUBQ promoter) and RNAi silencing were constructed for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of rice cv. IR64. A) Different stages of genetic transformation of rice, B) Confirmation of putative T 0 transgenics by PCR 101

109 ABAR6, SnRK, MYB TF and EP genes. Rice cv. IR 64 was transformed with ABAR6 and SnRK genes under stressinducible RD29A promoter by using Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation. T 0 transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR with gene specific and selection marker gene primers. An AP2/ERF family transcription factor gene was cloned from Nagina 22. This gene was subcloned into plant transformation vector PBI121 under constitutive CaMV35S promoter, and used for Agrobacterium mediated floral dip transformation of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AP2/ERF gene showed better drought tolerance as compared with wild type plants under greenhouse conditions. Therefore, this gene was further subcloned in to a plant transformation vector suitable for rice transformation Transgenic Crops with Economically Important Traits Development of low phytate soybean Reduction in seed phytate content is necessary to enhance the nutritive value of soybean. To reduce the seed phytate content, seed specific expression of PHYTASE (PHY) gene was attempted. A full length PHY cdna was cloned from 10 day old seedlings of soybean and used for construction of seed specific overexpression vector. The full length CDS of PHY gene was cloned under the transcriptional control of seedspecific VICILIN promoter. This plant transformation vector was mobilized into Agrobacterium and then used for genetic transformation of soybean cv. JS 335 by using Agrobacterium mediated cotyledonary node method. The T 0 transgenics were confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis. qrt-pcr analysis showed the expression of PHY transgene in the developing seeds Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Mapping Association mapping for drought tolerance in maize Genome-wide association mapping was performed using 30K SNP data and phenotypic data of 240 inbreds. These inbreds were phenotyped at 3 locations consecutively for two years under control and drought stress conditions. Two R packages, namely, GAPIT and Genable were used to identify SNP-trait association. The results from admixture and PCA were used as covariates in addition to kinship to eliminate false signals. Significant SNPs were identified for all the agronomic traits used in the analysis (ASI, grain yield and yield contributing traits). SNPs identified for ASI on chromosome 1 and 7 were mapped within the known QTLs for grain yield and its component traits. These SNPs are in the stress-related transcription factors such as MYB, ERF and NAC, suggesting their potential role in drought tolerance in maize. Population stratifications, genetic diversity and SNP-trait association Different stages of development of transgenic soybean harboring GmPHY gene Downy mildew resistance in pearl millet Four QTL(s) were identified for resistance to downy mildew Rajasthan isolate (Sg 384) by using a mapping population from WGI 148 and ICMR cross. 102

110 Block rot resistance in cauliflower A RAPD derived SCAR marker (Sc4Xca1) linked to black rot resistance locus Xca1 at 1.6 cm distance has been developed. Another SCAR marker (Sc11Xca1) has been developed from tightly linked ISSR markers at 1.6 cm distance from black rot resistance locus Xca1. Both of these markers were able to distinguish resistant and susceptible plants with 100% accuracy Charcoal rot resistance in soybean F 2 populations were used to map QTLs for charcoal rot disease resistance in soybean. Two QTLs controlling resistance to this disease were mapped by using molecular markers Gynoecious trait in bitter gourd To identify molecular marker that can differentiate the gynoecious line from monoecious line, 113 markers (65 SSR, 16 ISSR and 32 RAPD) were screened using bulk segregant analysis. The RAPD marker OPZ was found linked to the gene for gynoecism at cm distance Marker assisted gene pyramiding for wilt races (foc 2, 3,4) resistance in chickpea WR 315 was used as donor for wilt resistance alleles in backcross breeding with Pusa 372, Pusa 362, Pusa 5023 and Pusa 1103 as recipient parents. Validated markers for wilt race foc 2 (TR19), foc 3 (TA 110), foc 4 (TA 110) were used along with those of markers for 100 seed weight (TR56, TA78) and pods per plant (TR29, TA 146). The background selection was done using 80 markers spread across the chromosomes. Recovery of recipient parent genome was about 94% after BC 2 along with the pyramided alleles of interest Introgression of root trait QTL in chickpea Parental genotypes of marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) program (Pusa 362 and ICC 4958) were screened with 194 SSR markers, and 54 polymorphic markers covering all 8 linkage groups were selected for background selection. Foreground selection for QTL linked marker NCPGR 21 was done in 72 BC 2 F 1 plants. Twenty four plants showed the presence of alleles from both the parents. These plants carrying root trait QTL were subjected to background selection. The recurrent parent genome recovery in BC 2 F 1 ranged from % Haploid Development in Vegetable Brassicas Using Anther Culture Anther culture was used in cabbage and cauliflower to develop haploids. Initial inoculation of anthers at 35 C for two days was beneficial for MABC and MARS for developing high yielding and wilt resistant chickpea. The figure shows allele structure analysis for foreground and background selection Haploid development through anther culture in vegetable brassicas: a) Induction of embryo from anthers; b & c) regeneration of roots and shoots from anther embryo; d & e) mass multiplication & rooting of anther regenerated shoots; f) In vitro hardening of anther derived plantlets 103

111 embryogenesis. The highest per cent embryogenesis was recorded on Nitsch media supplemented with 140 g/l sucrose, 800 mg/l Glutamine, 100 mg/l L-Serine, 30 mg/l Glutathione and 2 mg/l AgNO 3. The anther derived embryos were successfully regenerated and multiplied on MS media supplemented 2.5 mg/l thidiazuron and 0.5 mg/l NAA. The anther derived plants were successfully rooted and hardened. 5.2 BIOCHEMISTRY Identification of Heat Stress Regulated Proteins in Wheat To identify novel proteins associated with heat tolerance of wheat, soluble proteins were isolated from the leaves of wheat cv. NIAW 301 grown under control and heat stress conditions. The proteins were first fractionated by IEF using IPG strip (ph range 3 to 10, 17 cm) and then by SDS-PAGE. Numerous new protein spots were observed in heat shock treated samples as compared to control sample. We observed 197 and 275 spots in control and treated samples, by gel image analysis with IMP7 software. Of the 68 un-matched spots observed, five heat stress induced protein spots were selected randomly for MALDI-TOF analysis. Peptide mass fingerprinting followed by mascot search for the protein sequences from these five spots showed maximum score with small heat shock protein, Rubsico small subunit, Oxygen Evolving Enhancer Protein, ATP synthase and Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase (CDPK). These proteins will be further characterized for their role in heat tolerance in wheat. (a) (b) 2D analysis of differential expression of proteins in wheat cv. NIAW301. a) 2-D gel of control sample; b) 2-D gel of heat stress treated samples Heat Stress Induced Change in Stigma Surface Morphology in Wheat Stigma was collected from control and heat shock treated samples of wheat cv. HD2985. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of interwoven fluffy layers in stigma from wheat grown at 22 C, while stigma from wheat plants heat stressed at 42 C for 2h showed unclasped, unconfined and slackened vessels. This change in morphology may affect pollen-stigma interaction and may lead to failure of pollen germination and fertilization Heat Stress Regulation of Genes for Starch Biosynthesis in Wheat Starch metabolism in grains is highly sensitive to heat stress. To understand the transcriptional regulation, expression of genes involved in starch synthesis namely granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), soluble starch synthases (SS-I, SSII and SSIII), starch branching enzyme (SBE), AGPase (small and large SUs) and ADP transporter were analyzed at milky-dough stage of grains in wheat cv. HD 2985 and HD 2329 after exposing them to 42 C for 2 h. The GBSS, SPS, SS-II and SS-III genes were upregulated, while SBE was downregulated in both the cultivars under heat stress. In general transcript abundance was high in thermotolerant HD 2985 as compared to thermosusceptible HD Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Off-flavor Generation in Soybean Lipoxygenase 2 enzyme activity inhibited by antioxidants and isoflavones Our previous results showed that lipoxygenase (LOX) isozymes, that catalyze the production of offflavor causing volatiles, differ in their biochemical characteristics such as inhibition by antioxidants. To further characterize LOX2 isozyme, the full length cdna (NCBI Acc. No. JQ ) overexpressed in E. Coli and 97 kda LOX2 recombinant protein was purified. The activity of purified LOX2 protein was inhibited by soya isoflavones (genistein and diadzein) and antioxidants (ascorbate and -tocopherol). All the natural antioxidants inhibited LOX2 in noncompetitive manner. Alpha tocopherol (Ki=5 μm) was 104

112 the most potent inhibitor among all. Among the two isoflavones, genistein (Ki=62 μm) was stronger inhibitor than diadzein (Ki=98 μm). High isoflavone and low antioxidant combination exhibited synergistic mode of action. The inhibition kinetics results were further validated through estimation of off-flavour associated parameters like malonaldehyde, carbonyl compounds and hexanal in seeds Characterization of hydroperoxide lyase Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) from soybean seeds was purified to 16.5 fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. The SDS-PAGE analysis of purified enzyme revealed that it is about 53kDa protein. Kinetic studies using purified HPL showed that the V max and Km values are A/min. and 25 μm, respectively. Analysis of the effect of natural antioxidant molecules like -tocopherol, genistein, glycitein, daidzein and ascorbic acid on the HPL activity showed that all these molecules inhibit the enzyme activity. Further, the full length CDS of HPL gene was cloned from developing soybean seeds. Sequence analysis showed that HPL gene encodes a putative protein of 478 amino acids (NCBI Acc. Nos. KC and KC349985). 5.3 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Physiology of High Crop Growth Rate and Yield To understand the physiological basis of higher early vigor in barley than that of wheat, the seed reserve mobilization and seedling growth were studied. Barley cv. RD 2668 showed higher seed reserve mobilization and seedling growth as compared with wheat. The higher dry matter production in barley than that of wheat was associated with higher rate of production of leaves and tillers. The number of nodal roots, root dry matter and root length density in the upper 0-15 cm soil was higher in barley as compared to wheat. The higher SLA and leaf growth of barley as compared to wheat was positively associated with the higher H 2 O 2 content but negatively with the cell wall content of ferulic acid, which is known to reduce cell expansion. Comparison of Australian and Indian wheat genotypes showed that higher yield in Australian genotypes was associated with higher root weight, length, diameter and volume as compared to the low yielding genotypes at Indore conditions. The root density was found to be the highest in the top 10 cm soil depth. Further, Australian wheat genotypes with Tillering Inhibition (TIN) gene produced less number of tillers. These genotypes produced higher yield as compared to the genotypes with high number of tillers under terminal drought and heat stress conditions Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Wheat To understand the molecular basis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and its genetic improvement, it is essential to identify set of wheat genotypes with contrasting NUE. Towards this goal, we screened about 110 genotypes earlier. From this, 40 genotypes were selected and evaluated in the field with and without N-application. Based on this study, five efficient genotypes (EC , BT Schomburgk, PBW 394, Arrino and Roller) and five inefficient genotypes (Stretton, Kater 1, Bevy 1 (Med), Triticale and Gluyas early) were identified for further analysis Abiotic Stress Tolerance Non-destructive high throughput phenotyping methods Large scale phenotyping of germplasm and breeding populations for drought tolerance is limited by the availability of high throughput and nondestructive methods to quantify plant water status. The hyperspectral indices based non-destructive high throughput method developed earlier for measurement of relative water content (RWC) of the excised leaves under lab conditions were validated. In addition, this method was further standardized to measure RWC of rice plants grown in pot culture conditions. Twenty one rice genotypes were phenotyped for moisture deficit stress tolerance under pot culture conditions during kharif Plants were grown under adequate irrigation till anthesis stage. At anthesis, one set of plants were subjected to soil moisture stress (soil matric potential of 70 to 80 kpa), while the other set was maintained under non-stress (0 to -10 kpa) conditions. Spectral and RWC data collected from 11 rice genotypes 105

113 under control and water-deficit stress were used to develop prediction equations for RWC. Water Band Index (WBI) showed highest R 2 value (0.75; P 0.01). These prediction equations were validated by using the RWC and spectral data from the other 10 rice genotypes under control and water-deficit stress. The RMSE for the correlation between predicted and actually measured RWC values ranged from 4.95 to 5.25, with the lowest RMSE for WBI based prediction. These results showed that this method can be used as high throughput non-destructive measurement of plant water status in large scale phenotyping for drought tolerance of rice. conditions to identify set of genotypes with contrasting stay-green trait. Based on the drought susceptibility index and stay-green trait (leaf senescence rate) under drought stress, the wheat genotypes were grouped in to four categories, namely, 1) stay-green & drought tolerant, 2) stay-green & drought susceptible, 3) fast senescence & drought susceptible and 4) fast senescence & drought tolerant. These genotypes will be used to unravel the molecular genetic basis of staygreen train under drought. As plant hormone cytokinin is one of the key regulators of leaf senescence, to understand the relationship between cytokinin content and stay green under drought, Isopentenyl transferase (IPT) gene involved in cytokinin synthesis was cloned from wheat. Ethylene is associated with enhancement of senescence processes, while polyamines have been shown to delay senescence. Hence, the association between ethylene and polyamines with stay green trait under drought stress in wheat was studied. S-adenosyl- L-methionine (SAM) is an important metabolic intermediate required for synthesis of both polyamine and ethylene. The SAM is decarboxylated by SAM decarboxylase (SAMDC) which is used in polyamine synthesis. Reduction in SAM leads to less ethylene synthesis. The expression pattern of SAMDC was studied in drought tolerant and susceptible genotypes, and found that tolerant genotypes have high expression levels of SAMDC gene. Hyperspectral indices based model to predict RWC in rice Phenotyping of wheat for stay green trait under drought stress Plants with the stay-green trait under drought have high photosynthesis due to maintenance of green stems and upper leaves during grain filling, and, thus, contribute grain yield. However, the molecular processes regulating this trait are not understood clearly. Hence, 70 wheat genotypes from India and CIMMYT were phenotyped under drought stress Classification of wheat genotypes based on leaf senescence rate and drought susceptibility index 106

114 Antioxidant metabolism in spikelets of rice under heat stress The effects of high temperature on antioxidant metabolism in spikelets of nine rice genotypes were studied. During flowering stage, spikelets of susceptible genotypes can withstand a high temperature stress up to 35 o C, those moderately tolerant between 35 and 38 o C, and those of tolerant genotypes up to 40 o C. Isozyme profiles showed two isozymes of super oxide dismutase (SODII & III) after temperature exposure to 30 and 35 o C, while SOD I appeared above the 40 o C exposure. Catalases CAT I and III were the major isozymes, while in ascrobate peroxidase and guaicol peroxidase only one isozyme was seen in rice spikelets. Of the four isozymes of catechol oxidase, two were suppressed under temperature stress. Thus antioxidant metabolism in rice spikelets appears to help mitigate oxidative damage under high temperature stress Bioregulators protect photosynthetic machinery and enhance chickpea yield under drought The mechanism of bioregulators induced drought tolerance was studied in two chickpea varieties, viz., Desi (Pusa 362) and Kabuli (Pusa 1108). Water-deficit stress was imposed by withholding water at vegetative and reproductive stages. Prior to the imposition of stress, plants were sprayed with bioregulators, namely, thiourea (TU, 1000 ppm), benzyladenine (BA, 40 ppm) and thidiazuron (TDZ, 10 ppm). Drought stress decreased RWC, MSI, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, PGRs stabilized photosynthetic pigments under drought stress in chickpea. Lane 1: Well watered (WW); 2: drough (D); 3: WW + thiourea; 4: D + TU; 5: WW + BA; 6: D + BA; 7: WW + TDZ; 8: D + TDZ transpiration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, yield and its attributes and increased the respiration. Interestingly, plants treated with bioregulators maintained higher values of all these parameters, maintained the integrity of leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure and enhanced level of photosynthetic pigments under water-deficit stress, and exhibited faster recovery after termination of stress Magnetopriming to boost yield under salinity stress in chickpea Chickpea is conventionally cultivated in marginal areas and saline soils. Chickpea cannot tolerate salinity levels higher than 6 ds/m. Seed germination and early seedling growth are the most critical stages sensitive to salinity stress. Pre-sowing exposure of seeds of different crops to static magnetic field (SMF) called magnetopriming, a non invasive dry seed priming, has been shown to increase percentage of germination, rate of germination and seedling vigour of many crops. Hence, seeds of chickpea cv. Pusa 1053 (Kabuli) and Pusa 256 (desi) were magnetoprimed with 100 mt SMF for 1h to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on salinity tolerance. Enhanced rate of germination and seedling growth parameters under different salinity levels indicated that magnetopriming was more effective in alleviating salinity stress at early seedling stage in Pusa 1053 as compared to Pusa 256. Dynamics of seed water absorption in magnetoprimed seeds showed increased water uptake in Pusa 1053 under non saline as compared to saline conditions that could have resulted in faster hydration of enzymes (total amylase, protease and dehydrogenase) in primed seeds leading to higher rate of germination. Increased production of H 2 O 2 in germinating magnetoprimed seeds suggested its role as a signaling molecule leading to promotion of germination. Our results showed that magnetopriming of dry seeds of chickpea can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for mitigating adverse effects of salinity at seed germination and early seedling growth Post Harvest Physiology Cold induced sweetening in potato Cold storage (4 C) induces accumulation of reducing sugars in potato, which react with asparagine (Asn) during high temperature frying, and produce 107

115 acrylamide. Analysis of Asn contents in nine potato genotypes stored under different temperatures revealed that these genotypes accumulated >100 mg per 100 g Fwt (permissible limit) of Asn, suggesting the necessity to breed for genotypes with low Asn content. The expression levels of asparagine synthetase 1 (AS1) and AS2 were higher in high Asn accumulating Kufri Frysona and Kufri Chipsona 3 as compared with low Asn accumulating Kufri Pukhraj and Kufri Chipsona 1. CAPS markers for UGPase and Invertase Inhibitor, and SSR marker for Apoplastic Invertase were used to analyze the allelic variation in these genes and their relationship with reducing sugar accumulation in 18 potato genotypes. Absence of UGP B, StInh ap -a and apinv-255 alleles, and presence of apinv-221 allele were found to be associated with CIS tolerance. Hence, these marker combinations will be useful to identify CIS tolerant genotypes. Expression levels of AS1 and AS2 in potato genotypes with contrasting levels of Asn accumulation. Total RNA isolated from potato tubers at harvest (H) or stored at room temperature (RT), 12 C and 4 C for 2 months were used for RT-PCR analysis. 18S rrna gene used as RNA quantity control Mineral nutrients dynamic in tomato fruits during ripening Changes in the endogenous status of different mineral nutrients were studied during the course of ripening of tomato fruits detached and attached to the mother plants. Ripening of tomato fruit harvested at green mature stage and stored for ripening to occur at 25 C showed static levels for Mg, Ca and Mn along with a net increase in the contents of Zn and Cu. On the other hand, ripening of tomato fruits on the mother plant showed net decrease in the contents of Mg, Ca and Mn in outer pericarp, while the levels of Zn and Cu remained static. Absence of remobilization and backflow of nutrients from plant-detached tomato fruits to other stronger sinks of the plants also explains the better availability and balance of nutrients (with respect to Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn and Cu) in plant-detached tomato fruits. 5.4 GENETICS Wheat Alien gene introgression and genetics of rust resistance Leaf rust resistance was transferred from wild relative of wheat T. militinae to bread wheat. Cytological analysis at metaphase I of meiosis revealed presence of 42 chromosomes with 21 bivalents in most of the pollen mother cells (PMCs), but in few PMCs twenty bivalents and two univalent were observed. A genetic stock WR95 with a single recessive gene for stripe rust resistance against race 78S84 was identified. Similarly, a T. spelta accession carrying a single dominant seedling leaf rust resistance gene was identified Effects of environment on the expression of the quality traits Regression based methods and Additive Mean and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model were used for characterizing the Genotype (G) Environment (E) interactions in quality traits. The effect of G E interaction (pooled deviation plus linear part of G E) was found to be higher than both G and E individually on expression of grain protein percentage, RVA traits, Farinographic traits, bread loaf volume and bread score. Sedimentation volume was found to be almost equally influenced by G (51.04%) and E plus G x E interaction component (48.96%). In spite of the major influence by G and E (linear) components (together 90.55%), the observed differential ranking of genotypes across environments in this study may be accounted for by 108

116 the significant G E (non-linear) component. Generation mean analysis for gluten strength revealed the involvement of more than one gene block. This study reinforced the superiority of subunit 5+10 over 2+12 for bread loaf volume. It was also found that the inferior effect of 2+12 could be overcome to a large extent by combining in the genotypes 7+9 or and 2* HMW glutenin subunits at other Glu-1 loci. Thus, for combining the superior HMWGS with higher protein, higher sedimentation volume and greater kernel hardness, intraspecific hybridization involving germplasm identified as above were carried out using single, three way and complex cross schemes earlier. Single plant selection and advancement of generations were done and the advance generation was screened for quality. The promising lines were evaluated for their yield potential both at station and multilocation trials under timely and late sown conditions Rice A novel InDel identified in GS3 locus of Indian short grain aromatic rice A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from contrasting parents, Sonasal and PB 1121 was developed, and the two QTLs for grain length, namely, GS3 on chromosome 3 and qgl-7 on chromosome 7 were found to explain phenotypic variance of 65% and 6%, respectively in this population. However, the phenotypic contrast for rough rice length in the parental lines was 1.78 times more than the parents used to map and clone gene GS3. Therefore, in order to ascertain if there was any additional sequence variation in GS3 in Sonasal/ PB 1121 which is responsible for extreme variation for grain length, the full length sequence of GS3 locus both parental lines was generated and analyzed, which revealed a novel 342 bp InDel covering exon-5 and 32 UTR of GS3 in the short grain aromatic landrace, Sonasal. Based on this 342 bp deletion, a robust marker, aksgs3-12 involving deletion in the exon-5 of Sonasal was developed and validated in a set of diverse rice germplasm varying for grain length including cultivars, landraces and wild rice accessions and the Sonasal PB 1121 RIL population from cross Sonasal/ PB1121, segregating for grain length Maize Genome-wide analysis of transcriptome and co-expression network under waterlogging stress Waterlogging causes extensive damage to maize crop in tropical and subtropical regions. Identification of genes for waterlogging tolerance will help enhance maize crop yield under waterlogging stress. A wholegenome comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that genes involved in synthesis of ethylene and auxin, cell wall metabolism, G-protein activation, ROS scavenging, carbohydrate metabolism, and formation of aerenchyma and adventitious roots were upregulated in the tolerant genotypes as compared with susceptible genotypes under waterlogging stress. Many transcription factors belonging to ERFs, MYB, HSPs, MAPK, and LOB-domain protein family were upregulated under waterlogging stress. Twenty one genes upregulated in the tolerant genotypes were colocalized within the known QTLs for adaptive traits. Co-expression analysis of 528 microarray samples including 16 samples from the present study generated seven functional modules each in the two genotypes. In the tolerant genotype, stress responsive genes co-expressed along with peroxidase and fermentation pathway genes. 109

117 Transcriptome analysis of waterlogging stress tolerance in maize: A) Expression of genes involved in PCD pathway and aeranchyma formation, B) Co-localized transcriptome with QTLs for waterlogging stress tolerance traits Unraveling the genetic architecture of subtropical maize lines and their utility in breeding programs Genetic architecture of 240 subtropical maize lines were analyzed by using SNPs distributed throughout the genome. The mean SNP distance across the genome was 70 Kb. The average polymorphism information content, minor allelic frequency, and gene diversity values were 0.35, 0.25, and 0.35, respectively. The genome had both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions, and the latter were predominant closer to the gene-rich telomeric portions. A total of 252 haplotype blocks 1 Kb to 15.8 Mb were identified. Slow LD decay ( Kb) at r across all chromosomes Genome architecture of maize germplasm showing LD, LD decay and LD distribution explained the selection of favorable traits around low LD regions in different breeding programs. The association mapping panel showed the characteristics of the population substructures. The genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters with a mean genetic dissimilarity coefficient of The dissimilarity among genotypes in combination with agronomic traits provides an opportunity to exploit the heterotic potential of subtropical elite maize breeding lines Genetic diversity analyses of maize inbreds differing in resistance to Sitophilus oryzae Forty eight inbred rice lines differing in their resistance to rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) were subjected to diversity analysis using 63 SSR markers. The analyses grouped these rice lines into three distinct clusters. The genetic dissimilarity of the parental pairs was found to vary from 0.32 to 0.77 with an average Jaccard s dissimilarity coefficient of The principle coordinate analysis revealed diverse spatial distribution of inbreds across four quadrangles, suggesting the presence of genetic divergence among the inbreds. The study led to the identification of the following parental inbred combinations that may be crossed to exploit heterosis for grain yield with weevil resistance: SKV21 x Pant109, SKV21 MGB1, SKV21 HKI209, SKV21 LM13, SKV21 MGHC1, SKV21 CM502, SKV21 V372, Pant109 MGB1, Pant109 CM502, Pant109 LM13, Pant109 MGB1, Pant109 MGHC1, Pant109 HKI209, MGB1 V372, MGB1 110

118 LM13, MGB1 CM502, HKI209 LM13, HKI209 CM502, HKI209 V372, LM13 MGHC1, LM13 V372, MGHC1 CM502, MGHC1 V372, CM502 V372. The following cross combinations can be made for the development of mapping population to map QRLs for S. oryzae resistance: SKV21 CML290, CML394 HKI1105, CML442 V364, LM13 CML Development of Linkage Map of Pearl Millet A linkage map was developed using the white grained lines of pearl millet susceptible to Rajasthan isolate of downy mildew from IARI (WGI 148) and a resistance donor from ICRISAT (ICMR 09999). The linkage analysis revealed 7 linkage groups. The linkage map of pearl millet was constructed using 35 SSR loci covering 491 cm map distance with a marker density of cm at a minimum LOD score of 2.5 and a maximum recombination fraction of 0.5. Mapping populations for mapping QTLs for downy mildew resistance, high grain iron and zinc and thick spike characters were advanced which are at different stages ranging from F 3:4 to BC 2 F 3. Linkage map of pearl millet Brassicas Genotyping and phenotyping for double zero trait Forty two BC 4 F 1 (LES-39 EC and LES-1-27 EC ) generated through MABB were raised along with their recurrent parents. Based on morphological resemblance to their respective recurrent parents, 1662 plants were selected for foreground and background genotyping. The desirable plants with double zero traits will be advanced to BC 4 F 2. In addition, for maintenance breeding and development of 0 and 00 breeding material, biochemical analysis for various fatty acid was done in 7206 lines single plants with low erucic acid (<2%) were screened for glucosinolate content, and 441 plants with <30 ppm glucosinolate were identified. Ten new SNPs in B. juncea FAE1 gene for beta-ketoacyl- CoA synthase in ZEM-2 derived genotype were identified Development of mapping populations (RILs) Eleven mapping populations for mapping QTLs for erucic acid (Varuna LES-39, and NPJ-93 LES- 1-27), glucosinolate (LES-39 EC , LES-1-27 EC , LES-39 Heera, and LES-1-27 EC ), white rust (Varuna Bio-YSR, Varuna BEC-144, Bio-902 Bio-YSR, and Bio-902 BEC-144) and drought tolerance (RGN-73 Bio-YSR) were advanced for making RILs which are in different stages from F 3 to F Embryo Rescue for Transfer of Genes from Alien Species to Cauliflower For transferring black rot resistance gene from alien Brassica species namely, B. carinata, B. nigra and B. napus, BC 1 made in cauliflower and is being advanced through embryo culture. For transferring sterile cytoplasm from alien species into Brassica oleracea, crosses were attempted with Diplotaxis catholica, D. sifolia, D. erucoides and D. berthaultii which are being advanced through embryo culture. Embryo cultured plants of cauliflower carrying male sterile cytoplasm from Trachystoma ballii and Anand cytoplasm are in rooting stage and BC 1 stage, respectively. 111

119 5.4.7 Virus Resistance in Tomato The S. habrochaites genotype LA1777 was identified for high level of resistance to TOLCNDV, and inter specific F 1 between commercial susceptible varieties Pusa Rohini and Pusa 120 were made. These F 1 plants showed resistance to this virus. SCAR marker TGO 302 which differentiates the parents was used for selection of desirable plants in segregating generation to develop prebreeding lines. PCR based molecular markers were validated for TOLCNDV resistance locus (Ty1, Ty2 and Ty3), and tomato lines containing combination of different resistant locus were selected from segregating population. Screening of these lines for leaf curl virus in the field condition during kharif season led to the identification of 42 lines with desirable alleles and high level of resistance. The resistance for GBNV was identified in S. peruvainum accessions EC and EC These lines also showed resistance to TOLCNDV Transcriptome Analysis of Bitter Gourd Global transcriptome sequencing led to the identification 3,414 unigenes from DBGY201_Female plant and 3,045 from DBGY201_Hermaphrodite plant of bitter gourd. A total of 477 unigenes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between flowers of female and hermaphrodite plants, of which 237 unigenes were down regulated, while 59 unigenes were up-regulated in DBGY201_Hermaphrodite plants. Hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes in female and hermaphrodite flowers of bitter gourd Garden Pea Genetic diversity was assessed among 28 garden pea genotypes with sixteen RAPD primers which produced 79 polymorphic markers showing 73.15% polymorphism. The polymorphism information content (PIC) was the highest for the RAPD primer OPN14 (0.74) indicating that it can be used for fingerprinting of genotypes Lettuce Diversity study of 62 lettuce lines was carried out with RAPD markers. A dendrogram was constructed using unweighted pair group method of arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The Genotypes Wo Suen and Revolution were highly divergent as demonstrated by the marker system Drosophilla To understand the role of DWnt4 gene in development of Drosophila, analysis of the DWnt4 mutant (DWnt4 RNAi lines) were developed. To study effect of DWnt4 on cuticle pattern of the embryos, DWnt4 RNAi was over-expressed using Gal4 and UAS system. The crosses involved in this study included: i) Da Gal4/Da Gal4 X DWnt 4 RNAi [Marker used for identification: Cyo/Gla]; ii) Da Gal4/ Da Gal4 X Dwnt 4 RNAi [Marker used for identification: Sco/Gla]; Based on the cuticle pattern, the mutants were classified into the following 3 classes: Class I: Denticle reduced: These mutants showed reduction in number of denticles but the number of rows of denticles and segments remained unchanged. Class II: Rows missing: These mutants showed reduction in denticles as well as its rows in some or all segments. Class III: Segment missing: These mutants showed severe phenotypic effect of DWnt4 RNAi. Here, besides the reduction in number of denticles, the rows of denticles were also decreased or absent totally. These results showed that reducing the transcripts of Dwnt4 in wild type flies had similar phenotype as that of the knock down mutants of Dwnt4. 112

120 5.5 AGRICULTURAL PHYSICS, REMOTE SENSING AND METEOROLOGY Agricultural Physics Chiselling and amendments improve soil physical properties A study was conducted with soybean cv. DS 9814 in soybean-wheat system to assess the effect of chiselling along with amendment application on soil properties under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Treatments consisted of two tillage types (chiselling and conventional), two levels of water supply (2 irrigations and rainfed) and amendment 5 t/ha and 2.5 kg/ha) application. Chiselling reduced sub-surface compaction (15-30 cm) and increased the porosity and soil water storage of upper 45 cm of soil profile. Increased soil water content brought about o C reduction in soil temperature in upper 0-15 cm soil. Nearly 15% increase in root length density in upper 0-30 cm was observed in the chisel treatment. Soybean grain yield was significantly higher under chisel than that of conventional tillage, and under dhaincha and hydrogel application than that of no amendment. Chisel treatment combined with dhaincha or hydrogel under irrigated condition significantly enhanced the soybean crop performance by 30-35%. Effect of tillage, irrigation and amendments application on soybean grain yield Tillage Dhaincha Hydrogel Control Chisel Irrigated Rainfed Conventional Irrigated Rainfed C.D. (0.05%): tillage type t/ha; water application-0.18 t/ha; amendments-0.1 t/ha; water application amendments t/ha Prediction of wheat yield under varied irrigation and nitrogen levels using Infocrop model Infocrop model was validated to predict grain yield of wheat cv. HD 2932 grown with four levels of nitrogen i.e., 0, 30, 60, and 120 kg N/ha, and irrigation i.e., rainfed, and irrigation to meet 30, 60 and 100% soil moisture depletion from field capacity. The model could account for 82% variation in the observed grain yield. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted grain yield was to the tune of 14.2% of the mean observed grain yield. The index of agreement between the observed and the predicted grain yield was The predictability of the model was better for irrigated treatment than rainfed treatment. Similarly, N stress was computed as the proportion of the actual N content to potential N content in plant. The yield gap between the potential yield and actual yield was very high even if N was kg N/ha when the crop was under moisture stress. However, when the water stress is gradually alleviated by applying higher levels of irrigation, the yield gap between the observed and potential yield gradually declines. This shows synergistic interaction between water and nitrogen with respect to crop yield. The global warming potential i.e., the emission of green house gases (GHG, expressed in CO 2 equivalent) during wheat growth increased but the CO 2 equivalent GHG emitted per unit quantity of grain decreased with the increase in the irrigation and N levels. Thus, there was a trade-off between the wheat production and global warming potential estimated by the model. Therefore, the irrigation and fertilizer N dose should be optimized for obtaining higher water and nitrogen use efficiency and minimum global warming potential without significant reduction in wheat yield Development of soil quality index The soil quality was tested in three agroecosystems (AER), namely, sub-humid (Pantnagar), semi-arid (Ludhiana) and arid (Hisar) based on Non Linear Weighted Index (NLWI). The NLWI was determined for 8 cropping systems in sub-humid region, 10 cropping systems in semi-arid region and 7 cropping systems in arid AER. The comparison of the soil quality using NLWI through nested anova concluded that the impact of agro-ecosystems on soil quality was statistically significant. The interaction of cropping systems and AER on soil quality showed that, the soil quality was better in the Desi order of 113

121 Trade-off between wheat production and green house gas emission Treatment Grain yield WUE NUE GWP Carbon efficiency (kg/ha) (kg/ha mm) (kg/kg N) (kg CO 2 /ha) (g CO 2 /kg grain yield) Irrigation Control % SMD % SMD % SMD Nitrogen Control NA kg N/ha kg N/ha kg N/ha SMD: soil moisture depletion from field capacity; GWP: global warming potential arid > semi-arid > sub-humid. The higher NLWI indicated enhanced soil quality which resulted in increased cropping systems equivalent yield. The lower values of NLWI implied that the cropping system resulted in degradation of soil quality over longer period of time. The lowest soil quality index was found under Rice Wheat (conventional) cropping system in sub-humid AER, under Maize Wheat Moong in semi-arid AER, and under Pearl Millet Wheat (Desi) Cowpea (Vegetable+R) in arid AER. Therefore, from soil health point of view such cropping system should not be continued in the respective AER for a long period. Soil quality index (MLWI) averaged over cropping systems under three AER Depth (cm) Sub-humid Semi-arid Arid Average NMR characterization of grain filling of maize under different nitrogen levels NMR transverse relaxation time (NMR-T2) was used to assess the water status of maize grains during grain development under three N levels (N 1, N 2, N 3 : 0, 120, 180 kg/ha, respectively). NMR-T2 decreased to less than 50 ms in N 1 as compared to N 3. Nitrogen deficiency reduced the rate of dry matter accumulation. NMR relaxation times qualifying the water mobility showed significant correlation with water content and dry matter accumulation in maize grains. Free water in grains remained for a longer period at N 3 as compared to N 1 condition. Among the nitrogen treatments, N 3 showed better grain filling rate of 8.29 mg/day with a final seed weight of 261 mg/seed as compared to N 1, which showed a grain filling rate of 5.39 mg/day with a final seed weight of 169 mg/seed. This study indicated that biophysical tools like NIR and NMR are useful to characterize the seed nutrient and water status in maize Remote Sensing and GIS Spectral model for wheat yield prediction Time-series of remote sensing images were used to predict wheat yield for Dehradun district. The study used MODIS Terra-EVI time-series images from having spatial resolution of 250 m and temporal resolution of 16 days. Pixel-wise crop phenology parameters were extracted from time-series images for wheat pixels. Out of eleven, four phenology parameters of amplitude, large integral, right and left derivative showed significant correlation with district wheat yields. Amplitude showed the highest 114

122 Spectral Reflectance (A) and Separability Matrix (B) of 70 wheat genotype pairs Remote sensing to predict wheat yield correlation (r = 0.83), followed by right derivative (r = 0.81). Correlation analysis of yield with single-date raw EVI data and single-date filtered EVI corresponding to peak vegetative crop growth stage showed improvement of correlation from 0.41 for former to 0.74 for later, though were lower than correlation with amplitude. Study was conclude that phenology parameter of amplitude derived from multi-date satellite data is much better in capturing variability in yield followed by filtered single date EVI. A multiple regression model with time and amplitude as independent variable was developed (R 2 = 0.83; p = 0.002). This model predicted wheat yield of 2.32 ± 0.23 t/ha at p = 0.05 for the year Identification of wheat genotypes through remote sensing Spectral observation of seventy wheat varieties grown during rabi in the experimental field of Genetics Division, IARI were taken using Fieldspec 3 spectroradiometer in the spectral range of 400 to 2500 nm. Spectral separability analysis was done for all combination genotype pairs (i.e pairs) using stepwise discriminant analysis and Jeffries- Matusita (J-M) distance as a measure. Result of JM distance matrix for 2415 pairs of genotypes based on hyperspectral data revealed that 378 pairs are not separable, rest of genotypes pairs were classified quantitatively to low, moderate and highly separable pairs and they are 119, 167 and 1751 pairs respectively GIS based forewarning of white rust of mustard The white rust rule for mustard developed earlier was validated, fine tuned and put into GIS environment. In feature attribute table, locations of automatic weather stations and mustard growing villages in NCR were represented as point features. NCR and district boundaries were represented as polygon features. In attribute data table, hourly weather data were added for 10 days in MySQL format. Algorithms were developed in php and incorporated. Influential zone of each weather station was developed GIS based map of NCT-Delhi with mustard growing villages and white rust forecast 115

123 using Theissen polygons and superimposed on NCR boundary. Now, by clicking any village on the map, forecast of white rust for that village will be displayed. Weather data can be updated every day to have forecast for next seven days for mustard growing villages of NCR Agricultural Meteorology Modification of aphid rule The old aphid prediction rule developed by us earlier was modified to enhance the accuracy. After analyzing the long range weather and mustard phenology data, in addition to temperature and GDD, two more parameters responsible for initiation and outbreak of aphid population were identified. Weekly mean maximum (T max ) and minimum temperature (T min ), and cloudiness had profound influence on initiation of aphid infestation. But the most important parameter was found to be the phenology of the mustard crop. For aphid initiation, 100% flowering stage was found to be most congenial. T max and T min values greater than 20 and 8 o C, respectively and 2-3 consecutive cloudy days provided the favorable weather. This was validated during rabi and and was found to be highly accurate. Monthly pan coefficient values estimated for IARI station and its comparison with other empirical methods Evaluation of pan coefficient methods for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration Estimation of Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) from the pan evaporation (Ep) data using pan coefficient (Kp) is commonly practiced but most users adopt generic Kp values or empirical methods without carrying out local calibration entailing large errors in ETo estimates. In this study, monthly Kp values were estimated from IARI station using daily weather data from 1997 to 2011, and evaluated different empirical methods for estimation of Kp in a semi-arid region. The estimated Kp values for IARI showed bi-modal variation across the year between 0.72 to The Kp was lower in summer months and higher in rainy and winter months. Besides, Kp was also estimated by five empirical methods (viz. Cuenca, 1989; Snyder, 1992; Orang, 1998; Pereira, 1995 and Allen and Pruit, 1977) which use temperature, humidity and wind data. Except for Periera method, all empirical methods also showed a bi-modal pattern in Kp. Out of the five methods, Snyder method was found to be the best method for estimating Kp values with RMSE of The ETo estimated with Kp of Snyder method also showed the lowest RMSE. It is recommended that temporal variation in Kp shall be estimated for each station for estimating representative ETo. Otherwise, Snyder method is recommended for estimating Kp in semi-arid environment Integrated agromet advisory services Weather forecast on rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, wind direction, cloud cover, maximum and minimum humidity received on every Tuesday and Friday from IMD, New Delhi. Once the forecast was received, the expert opinions from different disciplines (Agriculture Physics, Centre for Protected Cultivation Technology, Entomology, CATAT, Seed Production Unit, Agronomy and Plant Pathology) were obtained and based on their advice: the agro-advisories were prepared on every Tuesday and Friday in Hindi and English. These advisories were sent to IMD for preparation of national bulletin and uploaded on the IMD web sites The bulletin was passed on to the farmers on the real time through telephone / /SMS and through local Hindi newspapers (Haribhoomi and Dainik Jagran). The same was uploaded at IARI website in both Hindi and English languages. The bulletins were 116

124 also sent by to ATIC, KVK Shikohpur,Ujawa, IFFCO, NGO, ATMA, State Agriculture Department, e-choupal, Krishi Darsan and All India Radio. During , 104 agro-advisory bulletins were prepared. Majority of farmers rated the utilities of agro-advisories high in relation to sowing and plant protection under aberrant weather conditions. Farmers who followed the agromet advisories were able to reduce the input cost up to ` 1252 /acre in carrot and increases net profit of ` 3192/acre as compared to the non AAS farmers. In wheat, AAS farmers were able to reduce the input cost up to Rs. 237/acre and increases net profit of ` 776/acre as compared to the non AAS farmers. Thus, the application of agromet advisory bulletin based on current and forecasted weather is useful tool for enhancing the production and income by reducing the farm input cost. 117

125 6. SOCIAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER The research programmes in Agricultural Economics are focused on understanding the growth process in agriculture in the context of the viability of small holder producers. Particular emphasis was placed on the functioning of agricultural value chains, and the implementation and impact of domestic market reforms. Since higher growth in the agricultural sector is linked to increased demand for energy, analysis of time series data on energy consumption in agriculture was undertaken to determine the relationship between energy consumption and agricultural GDP, and to project future demand for energy in agriculture. The Agricultural Extension and technology transfer and assessment programmes concentrated on the demonstration and evaluation of the technology generated, especially the new varieties of various crops developed by the Institute, and also on developing innovative models for technology transfer. Training of farmers and collaborations with various agencies including farmers groups and voluntary organizations were established to boost seed production in villages to meet the growing demand for quality seed. Rural youth were trained to take up alternative vocational employment and to become entrepreneurs themselves. 6.1 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Agricultural Growth and Small Holder Producers An analysis of growth in the agricultural sector in the context of the viability of small farmers indicated three major growth trends in Indian agriculture. The first trend relates to higher growth rates of coarse cereals, particularly maize, oilseeds and cotton in the recent years. The growth in maize and cotton is primarily technology-driven whereas, in oilseeds, area expansion, price incentive and better seed varieties are responsible for yield growth. The second major trend relates to high agricultural growth in some states like Gujarat, where institutional reforms to expand irrigation and transfer of technology are the major contributing factors. The third major trend is the rapid growth in high-value commodities like fruits, vegetables, livestock and fisheries. Price incentives, coupled with rising demand and strong market linkages have prompted farmers to diversify towards these commodities. This has been accompanied by supply-side factors like improved availability of seed and other planting materials. The indicators show that these sectors will continue to grow rapidly and, therefore, will compete for area with food grains. Thus, there is a need for raising productivity of food grains so as to provide more area for high-value commodities, which requires better technologies and input delivery systems in disadvantaged regions like eastern India. Based on a district-level analysis, districts with limited irrigation and relatively slow agricultural growth were identified. These districts constitute more than 40 per cent of the agricultural area of the country and, therefore, are a potential source of future output growth in agriculture. Hence, it is necessary to accord priority in investment in infrastructure, markets, agroprocessing and scientific knowledge dissemination in these regions Agriculture and Small Farmers Livelihood Small holder farmers are in a disadvantageous position in terms of access to several inputs and markets. Although several development programmmes with a focus on socially disadvantaged groups have been implemented, improved governance is needed to help provide small farmers better access technology, inputs and other services. The average net value of productivity per hectare was estimated at ` 52,953 in the irrigated regions, ` 34,647 in the floodaffected regions and ` 21,336 in the drought-prone 118

126 regions of northern and central India. The total household income was found to range from ` 25,483 / ha in the drought-prone regions to ` 87,000 /ha in the irrigated regions. The contribution of agriculture to household income ranges between 50 to 70 per cent and is even less in the case of marginal and small farmers. This is just adequate to sustain farmers above the poverty line in the irrigated regions. The majority of small farmers will have to live below the poverty line if they continue to depend only on agriculture as their source of livelihood. The study shows that marginal and small holdings are economically nonviable. The long-run solution to the problem lies in shifting agricultural workers to non-agricultural sectors. Short-and medium-term measures are required to increase agricultural productivity and generate nonagricultural sources of employment in the rural areas. A few farmers have reported taking up nonagricultural activities to supplement their income. However, the lack of technical knowledge, lack of capital, low local demand, and social and cultural inhibitions constrain farmers from taking up nonagricultural enterprises. Major programmes for skill development, institutional credit and technological support to the rural youth in starting non-agricultural enterprises are required to facilitate the shift from agriculture to non-agricultural sectors Promotion of Agricultural Value Chains The conditions for participation of small farmers in high-value markets were examined in two case studies. First was on baby corn in Haryana and the second was on grapes in Maharashtra. In the case of baby corn, one farmer s initiative to set up a simple processing and packaging facility gave a boost to baby corn production in Aterna village of Haryana. The area planted to baby corn increased by over 5 times in the village from around 8 ha in 2006 to nearly 40 ha in The net returns from baby corn were estimated at ` 62,000 /ha. The estimated per hectare returns from paddy (Pusa 1121) and wheat were ` 75,000 and ` 48,000, respectively. The returns from baby corn are encouraging considering the fact that picking starts from 60 to 70 days after sowing and three crops can be taken in a year. In the case of grapes, Mahagrapes demonstrates a successful public private partnership that has benefitted the grape growers of Maharashtra and given a boost to grape production. Mahagrapes is a partnership firm of 16 grape growers cooperatives which facilitates the production and exports of grapes. Mahagrapes strength lies in the post-harvest support that it provides to its members. It pioneered the precooling technique required very much for preserving quality and enhancing shelf lifeof grapes. In addition to providing logistics support, it also negotiates for a better price for the members which includes small farmers. The success and utility of Mahagrapes for grape growers is evident from the fact that in a span of one year the proportion of members of the society have grown from 48 per cent in to 62 per cent in Survey results among grape growers and markets further indicated that Mahagrapes is able to obtain a significantly higher price (` 52 / kg) for its members than what is offered by the local trade (` 34 / kg). The success of Mahagrapes has encouraged several private players to enter the grape export trade in the area and some are even able to provide a higher price than Mahagrapes. Producers, however, preferred Mahagrapes to other private agencies for disposal of their produce. Fifty one per cent farmers expressed that they preferred Mahagrapes for selling their produce, while only 11 per cent preferred other private agencies. Prices (`/kg) offered by different agencies for grapes (2011) Domestic Market Reforms in Karnataka Karnataka has been one of the progressive states in respect of the implementation of domestic market 119

127 reforms for improving the marketing of agricultural produce and providing higher income opportunities for the producers. A survey conducted in Karnataka showed that direct purchases of agricultural produce have been permitted in the state. Since 2009, licenses have been granted to 9 companies to directly purchase agricultural produce from the farmers. Under the proposed reforms, Karnataka State has also set up Special Commodity Markets for fruits and vegetables. Six market sub-yards have been set up in different parts of the State. Survey conducted in the Binny Pete Special Commodity Market for babanas revealed that the produce in the market is arriving from as far away as Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Sellers indicated that the Special Commodity Market provided them an assured market and remunerative prices. Under the PPP mode, a special commodity market was being developed by a private realty company Sobha Developers for vegetables in Dyatanarayanapura, Bangalore where all infrastructure including cold storages, weighing facilities, godowns, etc. will be provided by the developer. An important feature of these markets is the provision of a facility for fast track disposal of complaints and disputes. Another reform initiative is the setting up of farmers consumers markets. These markets facilitate direct sales by farmers to consumers. While some markets have not been very successful, the farmers market in Bangalore has been highly successful as it has a location advantage in terms of large numbers of consumers. Mostly vegetables are sold in these markets. Farmers are benefitted as they are not required to pay any market cess or commission. Also, problems arising on account of the intermediaries and functionaries are not found in these markets. Prices are fixed by averaging the prices at the Kalasipalya wholesale vegetable market and the HOPCOMS price. As the HOPCOMS price is slightly higher than the wholesale market price, farmers receive a price which is slightly more than the wholesale price but less than the HOPCOMS price. Prices fixed are displayed prominently in the market for the benefit of the sellers and buyers. Average prices received (`/kg) Mahagrapes 52 Other Private Agencies 62 Local Trade 34 Floriculture is an important activity in Karnataka. To facilitate fair trade in cut flowers, an International Flower Auction Centre with state of the art electronic auctioning system on the Dutch pattern has been developed in Bangalore. However, the facility has benefitted only the national market trade and not exports which still continue on a one-to-one basis between the growers and buyers or their agents. E- trading in agricultural commodities is another important reform initiative being undertaken. With the help of NCDEX, e-trading was started in 11 markets covering 50 commodities during Energy Use in Indian Agriculture in the Context of Climate Change Empirical analysis of time series data on energy consumption in agriculture and gross value of agricultural output indicated that the value of output per unit of energy-use has declined over time. Therefore, there is a need to establish a robust relationship between direct energy-use and agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) so that energy requirement for the targeted growth of Indian agriculture can be projected. The Johansen test based on the vector autoregression (VAR) method was performed for the presence of cointegration between the energy input and value of agricultural output. Empirical analysis supported the presence of one cointegrating vector for the pair of analyzed time series data. Since, the cointegration relationship was established between the logarithmic transformations of two variables, it provided a long-run energy elasticity of for agricultural growth. This indicates that for any target growth of agricultural GDP, growth in energy-use should be more than two-times the target growth. Using the estimated model, attempts were made to bring out the broad contours of energy demand for the country by the years 2016 and 2021, which mark the end of the 12th and 13th Plans, respectively, and hence are relevant for India s policy planning. For the direct energy demand projection, two scenarios were considered, viz., business as usual (BAU) scenario, i.e., agriculture GDP to grow at a rate of 3 per cent per annum, as observed in the previous decade and an optimistic scenario (OS) of 4 per cent agricultural growth per annum. The demand of direct 120

128 energy for the year 2016 is projected to be million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) in the BAU and MTOE in optimistic scenarios, respectively. The corresponding demand for direct energy for the year 2021 has been projected to be 47.0 MTOE and MTOE under the two scenarios. These represent an annual average growth rate of 7 9 per cent over the current energy consumption in the Indian agriculture. Energy requirement scenarios for the years 2016 and 2021 Categorization of major states of the country on the basis of national average of energy consumption and agricultural productivity revealed that productivity of some of the larger states like Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra is low as their per hectare energy consumption is low. Also, states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh still use more of traditional energy in agricultural production. This clearly calls for investment in energy related infrastructure in order to achieve targeted growth of four percent for the country Agricultural Investments in the Post Liberalization Period: An Institutional Perspective The role of investments in pushing India s agriculture on a higher growth path is being widely recognized. However, it is important to set the right priorities of investments with improved efficiency to gear up the economy. Analysis of recent trends in public investments in agricultural research and education (Ag R&E), a key driver of agricultural growth, showed that total Government expenditure (both Central and State Governments) has risen more than six times in the last three decades from ` 11 billion in to ` 68 billion in at prices. More than half (58 per cent) of the total spending during was contributed by the Central Government with almost the entire fund (95 per cent) being routed through the ICAR. The steadily rising share of the Central Government in total expenditure points to the its increasing role in Ag R&E. However, a large proportion of funds is transferred to State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) for various programmes for education, technology assessment and transfer, and coordinated research. The second major source of funding are the annual block grants from the State Governments to their respective SAUs, which are engaged in region specific research to meet the local technology needs and higher agricultural education. Commercial energy consumption and its relationship with agricultural output in major states of India (TE ) Trends in real government expenditure on agricultural research and education in India (at prices) 121

129 The decade-wise growth rates in the real spending show that it grew by 5.8 per cent during the nineties and maintained its growth momentum during the 2000 decade (7.2 per cent) too. But the major thrust came only during the second half of the 2000 decade (13 per cent per annum between and ). It is also significant that growth in the central funding has outpaced that of the state funding throughout the period which is also evident from the rising share of the former in all India spending. Though, the growth in all states real expenditure in Ag R&E also continued to inch upwards, it remained highly uneven across states. Consequently, there is a wide variation in the research intensity ratios across states. Annual compound growth rates (%) of Government real expenditure in research and education Period Centre States Total to to to Increased Central Government expenditure has led to a rise in the share of Ag R&E investment to agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) from 0.42 per cent in triennium ending (TE) to 0.60 per cent in TE Though, recent trends clearly indicate an improvement in the country s research efforts, this needs to be judged in the context of the size and structure of our agricultural economy. The share of Ag R&E expenditure in the total agricultural expenditure of the country is still only 3 per cent. The ratio of Ag R&E investment to AgGDP is much lower than in other developing countries like Brazil (1.80) and South Korea (2.30) and substantially lower than in developed countries like Australia (3.56) and Japan (4.75). Thus although public investments in agricultural research and education are widely distributed and address the diverse research needs of the country, a still higher and consistent investment support is warranted to put the country on the growth trajectory Innovations in Credit Delivery and Farmers Access to Institutional Credit A significant disparity across financial institutions was observed in relation to the performance of Kisan Credit Card Scheme. The largest number of cards were issued by commercial banks (44 per cent) followed by cooperative banks (43 per cent). In spite of their rural presence, regional rural banks have performed poorly and account for just 14 per cent of the total cards issued. The evaluation of the impact of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) revealed that the beneficiary farmers realised 22 per cent higher income from paddy crop over the non-beneficiary farmers. The transaction cost of borrowing through KCC has also come down to ` A large proportion of the KCC beneficiary farmers (66 per cent) withdraw the entire loan amount sanctioned to them in a season. This is against the spirit of the KCC card which authorizes the farmers to withdraw the amount as and when it is required for different agricultural operations. The lump sum withdrawal enhances the chances of credit diversion leading to nonproductive use of the loan amount impacting farmers income and the repayment. Overview of public agricultural R&D spending and research staffing levels, 2009 Agency Total spending Total staffing Rupees PPP Dollars Share Number Share (In billion at 2005 prices) (%) (FTEs) (%) ICAR (94) Other government (12) SAUs (45) Other higher education (16) Total (167)

130 gram and mustard, existing schemes of state departments on education, health, training, etc., were updated on web portal to meet the information needs and to generate awareness among farmers and extension personnel. SMS facility for communicating relevant information on cultivation practices, market intelligence and weather forecasting is being extended to project locations. Performance of KCC Scheme, March 2009 Frequency of withdrawal of loan amount by KCC beneficiaries Non-availability of loan on time, lack of flex ibility in use of branches of the same bank, lack of flexibility in withdrawal, insufficient credit limit, lack of consumption loan and difficulty in opening accounts were the major constraints faced by the beneficiaries. Issuance of the KCC in the form of ATM cards will help to overcome many of these problems. 6.2 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Cyber Extension Model for Agricultural Development: An Action Research The cyber extension model aims at developing an effective mechanism for communication of farm information and dissemination of technology to the farmers. Information on cultivation practices of red Linkages have been established with post offices to strengthen the dissemination of agricultural technologies and information to remotely located farmers. IARI-Post Office Linkage Model was expanded to four more locations, viz., Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir), Sirohi (Rajasthan), Sheopur (Madhya Pradesh) and Buxar (Bihar). In , 20 branch post offices and 114 villages were covered in partnership with KVKs of the districts. The Krishi Vigyan Kendras, our grassroot level partners, provide technology backstopping to the village post office staff and the farmers. Seeds of improved IARI crop varieties were sent to 678 farmers. Two training programmes were organised on improved crop production technologies for capacity building of farmers and branch post masters. The yield data for the paddy (Pusa 44, PS 5, PNR 546, PNR 519, PNR 381 and JD 13) and bajra (Pusa 383) varieties which were disseminated among 55 farmers in kharif 2012 through post office revealed that farmers preferred Pusa 44 and PS 5 to other varieties in terms of duration, yield, and taste. The high yielding wheat seeds of IARI varieties HD 2967, HD 2985 and HD 2733 and mustard vars. Pusa Bold and NPJ 113 were distributed to 623 farmers covered under twenty post offices in 5 districts during rabi For summer season, vegetable seeds of bottle gourd (20 kg) and pumpkin (3 kg) were disseminated under eighteen selected post offices. The distribution of seeds through the post offices was perceived as effective by the farmers who shared half of the seed cost and paid the amount in cash. A Workshop on IARI Post Office Linkage Model: Experience Sharing and Mechanism for Expansion was organised for institutionalising the linkage mechanism and expansion involving 53 Krishi Vigyan Kendras. 123

131 IARI - Post Office linkage for effective extension Constraints in Adoption of Improved Technologies in Pulses and Cereals During kharif 2012, a total of 30 demonstrations of paddy variety P 1121 and 30 demonstrations of pigeon pea variety P 2001 were conducted. The yield gap I in case of rice was calculated t/ha while yield gap II was t/ha. In pigeon pea, yield gap I was estimated at t/ha and yield gap II at t/ha. In wheat, data from 20 profitability demonstrations during rabi showed that actual yield of both the varieties was more than the potential yield. The average yield of HD 2967 was 6 t/ha while HD 2733 yielded 5.4 t/ha. Two chickpea varieties Pusa 1053 and Pusa 1003 were also demonstrated at 18 farmers fields. A comparative profitability analysis indicated that profits were higher in chickpea relative to wheat in terms of the B:C ratio. The analysis further revealed that during kharif 2012, the trained farmers adopted almost all critical practices in pigeonpea production including seed treatment with rhizobium culture, insecticide and fungicide, line sowing and recommended varieties. However, integrated pest management practices were not adopted mainly due to non-availability of the pheromone traps. The impact of A3P component of NFSM in Gujarat (high potentialhigh gap state) showed that large scale block demonstrations with nutrient and plant protection centric approach coupled with support for construction of rain water harvesting farm ponds for providing protective irrigation resulted in expansion of the pulse area and production. The adoption status of the improved technologies in two adopted districts, namely, Anand and Ahmedabad showed major changes in input use pattern in application of micronutrients, liming materials application, HYV seed, IPM technology, possession of farm implements including pump sets, and participation in FFS. The services of the farmers were utilized as Farmer Facilitators in the Farmers Field Schools organized under the Mission. The visits of scientists and experts to the sites were confirmed by 75% of the respondents and the frequency of such visits was reported as very often by 20%, sometimes by 50% and rarely by 30% of the respondents. A majority of the respondents reported that through the exposure visits organised under A3P their knowledge regarding pulse production has improved and their farm productivity has increased. The major constraints reported included destruction by blue bulls, poor availability of critical inputs, like seeds, bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, secondary and micronutrients which limit productivity and yield. Efficient marketing was reported as an urgent need as pulses have short shelf life and cannot be stored by the farmers for long in the absence of proper storage facility. Farmers suggested provision of large scale grazing lands through Mission support for management of Blue Bulls to tackle the problem Extension Models and Strategies for Sustainable Livelihoods In coastal Maharashtra, m-krishi led extension has been effective in providing early warning, knowledge of potential fishing zones and saving of time, money and fuel for motor boat. Integrated farming system model and community participation have been effective in livelihood security of farmers in coastal areas of Odisha. Survey of KVKs in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Gujarat revealed their impact in enhancing crop yield by 1.5 to 2 times with introduction of improved varieties and technological packages and capacity building. Community based extension model was tested and found effective in promotion of climate resilient technology (zero-tillage, DSR, IPM, vegetables cultivation on raised beds and in low and walk-in- 124

132 tunnels, etc.). Assessment of ATMA in Gujarat revealed lack of competence and incentives as constraints Interventions for Enhancing Entrepreneurship among Rural Youth Extending the work done in previous years, eight achiever agricultural entrepreneurs were studied during to delineate facilitative and inhibitive factors in setting up of agri-enterprises. The key Entrepreneurial Catalysts were identified as individual motivations, aspirations and entrepreneurial competencies. Factor analyses revealed facilitative socio-economic factors like promotional government schemes, frequent expert advisory sought by entrepreneurs and market demand were important contributing factors. However, the critical factor differentiating success and failure of entrepreneurial endeavour is the entrepreneur s ability to effectively manage the inhibitive factors present in the rural environment. Agri-preneurial Success Index based on profit levels, growth and diversification, yield improvements, quality maintenance, recognition received and innovations implemented is being developed. To develop agriculture based entrepreneurs, thirty women entrepreneurs from villages of Hapur district (U.P.) were trained in postharvest processing and value addition in vegetables and fruits. After the training imparted to them, they have launched their pickle making enterprise and are selling their products under the name of Sunhara Lalpur. Besides various pickles they have also taken up agarbatti and dalia making. An assessment of motivational level, aspirations, willingness to take risks, credit orientation and entrepreneurial competencies indicated enhanced motivation levels after the training interventions. Follow up and mentoring of the trained agripreneur youth is being done by initiating linkages and partnerships with supportive institutions and marketing agencies like RuDSETI (Ghaziabad), NABARD, nationalised commercial bank branches located in project villages, District Horticulture Officials, selected NGOs and Bharati Walmart. An interactive video conferencing facility was also launched for rural women of these villages which facilitated regular exchange of information, views and problem sharing with district officials, IARI project team, RuDSETI trainers and DDM, NABARD Developing and Validating Entrepreneurial Technical Information Packages (ETIP) Two ETIPs on protected cultivation and baby corn production were developed based on the information collected from practicing entrepreneurs. Data for ETIP on seed production earlier collected was validated on parameters of relevance for potential entrepreneurs and expert opinion On-farm Testing of IARI Technologies in NCR Analysis of the data of on-farm trials of wheat laid out during rabi showed that the grain yield of all the three varieties subjected for adaptation research under timely sown conditions was significantly higher than the local practice as a whole. The highest yield was of the variety HD The application of fertilizers on the basis of soil test yielded significantly higher quantities of grain and straw than the farmers practice and general recommendations of fertilizers highlighting the importance of scientific nutrient management practices. During kharif 2012, on-farm trials of paddy were conducted at Badarpur Said village and on Pearl millet at Kumbhawas village which showed that site specific nutrient management yielded highest. In case of weed management, Pretilachlor + Bispyribac-Na proved promising in direct seeded as well as transplanted paddy in terms of grain yield Developing Agricultural Entrepreneurs in Vegetable Seed Production Seed production of hybrid brinjal PH 5 at Kansala village, carrot ( Pusa Rudhira) at Badarpur Said and cauliflower (Pusa Sharad) at Tigipur village was initiated. Adverse climatic conditions, particularly hailstorm, impacted the crops in Kansala and Badarpur Said. Interaction meets and training programmes for seed production were organized in 4 project villages. The buyback process with NSC was streamlined for vegetable seed produced under NABARD funded research project and an agreement between seed producing farmers and NSC was facilitated. 125

133 6.2.8 Livelihood and Nutritional Security of Tribal Dominated Areas In order to promote integrated farming systems and generate appropriate technology models for tribal dominated areas of Udaipur, Dungarpur, Sirohi and Banswara districts of Rajasthan, 50 on-farm demonstrations on improved wheat varieties, viz., HD 2967, HD 2894 and HD 2932 were laid. On-farm demonstrations of vegetables including palak (Pusa Bharti), vegetable pea (Pusa Pragati) and tomato (Pusa Rohini) were also organised. Seed production of improved wheat variety HD 2932 was taken up at farmers fields. A training programme was conducted at IARI on improved production technologies of fruits and vegetables Strategies to Enhance Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in Vulnerable Regions Interventions were made for livelihood options among farmers and farm-women, viz., mushroom cultivation, value addition, stitching and tailoring. Five trainings were organized in protected cultivation of vegetables, IPM, storage pest management, animal health, and mobile based advisory. Through publicprivate partnership with TCS, m-krishi led advisory service was initiated in project villages of Mewat. A Village Resource Centre was established in the project area with facilities of custom-hired farm implements, seed banks, stitching training centre, information service, etc. 6.3 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND TRANSFER Assessment and Promotion of Agricultural Technologies and Developing Market-led Extension Models Four villages of the NCR, namely, Badarpur Said in Faridabad, Rajpur in Sonepat and Dhani Kumbhawas in Gurgaon districts of Haryana and Soodana in Hapur district of Uttar Pradesh have been adopted for integrated development as model villages. Farmers problems were prioritized on the basis of which the potential interventions were planned. During rabi , 358 demonstrations were conducted on wheat, mustard, palak, berseem, cauliflower, onion, pea, carrot and lentil over an area of around 143 ha. In Badarpur Said, Soodana and Rajpur, wheat variety HD 2967 outperformed other varieties and gave an average yield of 7.02 t/ha, 6.25 t/ ha and 6.21 t/ha, respectively. Mustard varieties Pusa Bold and Pusa Jaikisan performed well as a new introduction in the area. Pea variety Pusa Pragati gave an average yield of 5.5 t/ha, which was per cent higher than the local check (4.3 t/ha). Demonstration on use of hydrogel in wheat resulted in saving of one irrigation. Demonstration of lentil variety L 4076 in Soodana village resulting in an increase of yield to the tune of per cent as against local variety (1.6 t/ha) with a high B:C ratio of The best trait of mustard varieties Pusa Bold and Pusa Vijay was reported as bold seeded grain. During kharif 2012, 347 demonstrations were conducted on paddy, arhar, moong, muskmelon, bhindi, bottle gourd, sponge gourd and pumpkin covering an area of nearly 166 ha in all the four adopted model villages. In Soodna, carrot variety Pusa Rudhira was grown on ha. The variety was found to be superior than that of the best hybrid of the private company, Sungro, on account of its long size, dark flesh colour and better taste. Because of greater market acceptability, it generated a net profit of ` 2.44 lakh from 1.5 acres resulting in nearly 25 per cent additional income Strengthening National Extension Programme The National Extension Programme, which has been found to be effective in disseminating IARI technologies in far off locations, was further strengthened in collaboration with 16 ICAR Institutes and SAUs for faster and broader diffusion of IARI varieties and production technologies. During rabi , 494 demonstrations were conducted at 16 locations covering an area of ha on varieties of wheat, mustard, gram, lentil, carrot, onion, bottle-gourd, pumpkin, pea and palak. The following traits were found prominent in the variety demonstrations. 126

134 Wheat HD 2643: Suitable for late sown conditions, good grain size and good chapati quality HD 2932: Lodging resistant, rust resistance and good grain quality (amber colour) HD 2733: High tillering, good yield and lesser lodging in adverse weather HD 2967: High tillering (20-25), medium sized grains and an average 60 grains per ear head HS 420: High yielding (3.8 t/ha) and yellow rust free even in epidemiological conditions. Mustard Pusa Bold: Higher oil content, more branching, higher yield and bold seeds Pusa Jaikisan: Lodging resistant. Pusa Vijay: Fruiting from lower branches and consistently high yield with the highest at Baghpat district (U.P.) (2.5 t/ha) Chickpea Pusa 1103: High yield at Chitrakoot (2.0t/ha), good taste, two grains per pod and pods per plant BG 365: High yield (2.2 t/ha) at Bilaspur (HP) P 2024: Highest yield (2.5 t/ha) at Bilaspur (HP) Palak Pusa All Green: Higher profit with 4-5 cuttings at Bangalore Carrot Pusa Rudhira: Long in size, good taste, market acceptable and higher profitability During kharif 2012, a total of 279 demonstrations of paddy PRH 10 (64), Pusa 1121 (51), P 1401 (38), Pusa 2511 (80), P 44 (22), JD 6 (3), JD 13 (1), PNR 519 (6), P 1460 (8) and PB 1 (6); Arhar, P 992 (22) and P 2001 (3); Bottle Gourd, Pusa Naveen (19); Cauliflower, Pusa Kartik Sankar (2) and Pusa Snowball (5); and Bhindi, Pusa A 4 (4) were conducted at ICAR Institutes / SAUs. All demonstrated varieties of IARI showed significantly higher yield in comparison to local varieties at all locations with one or two exceptions. Paddy New paddy variety Pusa 1509 (3.5 t/ha) has been observed to be early by days. No incidence of bakanae disease was observed. However, it could not surpass the yield of PB 1121 (3.75 t/ha). There is a need for further testing at farmers field under different level of inputs for drawing a conclusion about this variety. Pusa 1401 paddy variety has shown promising yield (3.9 t/ha) and did not suffer from foot rot. However, the rate of the variety is not yet established as in case of PB PRH 10 emerged as best paddy variety for eastern region in terms of higher yield, short duration and fineness. Non-basmati variety Pusa 2511 showed superiority in terms of yield (4.2 t/ha) and less duration (120 days). In areas where water is not a limitation, Pusa 44 paddy variety has out-yielded all local varieties (average yield 4.7 t/ha). Bottle gourd Pusa Naveen Small size bottle gourd has a niche market in certain areas like Delhi. Better market preference makes it more profitable than the other popular varieties which bear longer fruits. Lentil Lentil L 4076 fetched a higher price (15 per cent) due to its preferred seed size and taste Participatory Seed Production of Improved IARI Varieties Under participatory seed production programme of improved varieties of paddy, 120 t of Pusa 44, 18.0 t of Pusa 1401, 36.0 t of PB 1121, 10.0 t of Pusa 1509 and 3.0 t of Pusa 1460 were produced during kharif During rabi , Pusa Vijay (1.8 t), Pusa Bold (1.0 t), Pusa Jagannath (2.3 t) seed was produced at PRDF Gorakhpur. Around 72.0 t seed of wheat var. HD 2967 was produced at YFAP, Rakhra and 400 kg of quality seed of carrot (Pusa Rudhira) was produced at Bharatpur. 127

135 IARI - Farmers Participatory Seed Production Programme Front Line Demonstrations on wheat (in collaboration with DWR) During rabi , 15 FLDs were conducted in collaboration with DWR on wheat in selected villages of Sonepat, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and Hapur districts on newly released varieties of wheat DBW 17 and PBW 550, zero tillage and use of bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter + PSB) Innovative Transfer of Technology Model: IARI Voluntary Organisations Partnership In collaboration with 25 Voluntary Organisations, 1415 demonstrations were conducted for 27 varieties of 11 crops covering an area of over 383 ha during kharif All demonstrated varieties of IARI showed significantly higher yield in comparison to local varieties at all locations with one or two exceptions. Crop Variety No. of No. of Area covered locations demonstrations (ha) Paddy Pusa PRH PNR Pusa PNR JD PNR PB Pusa Pusa Pusa PB Total Arhar Pusa Pusa Pusa Total Bhindi Pusa A Sorghum PC PC Total Maize PC Bottle gourd Pusa Naveen Cowpea V Sponge gourd Pusa Supriya Pusa Sneha Total Pumpkin Pusa Vishwas Cauliflower Pusa Kartik-S PSB Total Capsicum California Wonder Grand total Kharif 2012 Paddy Pusa 2511: High yielding and good in taste, market rate up to ` / t more than the best local variety (Sarju 52) in Gorakhpur S. No. Technology Variety No. of Demonstrations Area (ha) 1. Newly released wheat varieties HD HD Zero tillage HD Use of bio-fertilizers (Azotobactor+PSB) HD Total

136 Pusa 44: High yielding, medium grain size variety which can replace Sarju 52 in eastern regions because of its better taste and yield in eastern Uttar Pradesh. PNR 381: Higher yield and a higher market price which was ` 3000/ t more than the local check (Satya 29) in West Bengal. PRH 10: Fits very well in the crop rotation with early mustard (lahi) and vegetables. PRH 10 also escaped terminal drought. This variety gives 40 to 50 per cent higher yield and fetched better market price relative to local varieties. When cooked, PRH 10 is better in taste and possesses good aroma compared to local variety. PB 1121: Matured 10 days earlier enabling timely planting of potato. Use of BGA in paddy increased the yield by 2 per cent and helped to keep weeds under control and improved soil physical properties (visual). Maize Pusa Composite 3: Suitable for intercropping in cotton and pigeon pea. Taste and sweetness were found to be better as compared to local variety at Dahod, Gujarat. Cauliflower Pusa Kartik gave an average yield of 6.5 t/ha at Mandi, HP. Arhar Pusa 2001: The variety was found to be more profitable and it could be sold as green pod in Gujarat. Rabi During rabi , in collaboration with Voluntary Organisations, 808 demonstrations were conducted in an area of ha on varieties of wheat, mustard, lentil, pea, carrot, palak, onion, and pumpkin. In addition to the wheat varieties demonstrated under the National Extension Programme and which showed similar results, two other varieties of wheat, HD 2985 and HD 2643, were also demonstrated. HD2985 emerged as a promising wheat variety as it showed good tillering and high grain quality while HD 2643 which is suitable for late sown conditions, produced grains of good size and was found to possess good chapati quality. Other crop varieties for which demonstrations were laid out performed similarly as in the case of demonstrations under National Extension Programme Up-scaling of Water Related Interventions Integrated water related interventions were upscaled through deepening of open wells, renovation of water harvesting structures, laser levelling, underground pipeline system, sprinkler, drip and rain gun irrigation systems in villages of Dhar and Mewat districts of Haryana. These interventions were introduced at the individual, water user group, and community levels to develop strategies to enhance adaptive capacity to climate change through enhanced water availability and utilization efficiency. Besides these, other livelihood interventions were introduced in these districts. The m-krishi service in Mewat distrcit of Haryana was also launched under public-private partnership and mobile handsets were distributed to selected farmers of the region to facilitate the receipt of advisory services for enhancing productivity of the region Assessment and Promotion of Water Management Technologies for Sustainable Crop Productivity in Irrigated Areas Thirty five demonstrations were successfully conducted on farmers fields in Bulandshahar district, Uttar Pradesh. These included 10 demonstrations on the use of biogas slurry, 10 on laser leveling, 10 on raised bed planting and 5 on system of rice intensification. Farmers reported irrigation water savings of around 19, 20.8, 28 and 19 per cent through these interventions, respectively. Two farmer s field training programs and two field days were also organized. Field demonstration of different technologies at farmers fields 129

137 6.3.8 Pusa Krishi Vigyan Mela 2013 The theme of the Institute s annual Krishi Vigyan Mela 2013 organized from March 6 to 8, 2013 was Agricultural Technologies for Farmers Prosperity. Hon ble Union Minister for Agriculture and Food Processing Industries, Government of India, Shri Sharad Pawar inaugurated the Mela. Hon ble Minister of State for Agriculture and Food Processing Industries, Shri Tariq Anwar presided over the inaugural session. Besides IARI, 40 ICAR Institutes, 6 SAUs, 6 KVKs, 6 CGIAR Centres, 57 private companies, 3 news paper publishers including Krishak Jagat and Dharati Ugale Sona, 42 NGOs and 9 public sector undertakings participated in the mela. In addition to this, 41 progressive farmers from Extension Operational Areas of the Institute also put-up their stalls for display and sale of their farm produce. Farm technologies developed by IARI for enhancing productivity and income were displayed in the thematic pandal and in the stalls of the different Divisions of the Institute. Technical sessions on Crop Based Technologies for Enhanced Productivity and Income, and Horticultural Technologies for Higher Income and Employment, a workshop on Women Empowerment, and an Innovative Farmers Meet in which 25 progressive farm men and farm women from A progressive farmer receiving IARI Fellow Award from Hon ble Union Minister of Agriculture and Food Processing Industries, Shri Sharad Panwar different states participated, were organized during the Mela. A special talk on Kitchen and Container Gardening was organized for the benefit of urban housewives. On this occasion, two important publications, a Mela Souvenir and a Technology Bulletin on Uchch utpadakta avam aiy hetu unnat krishi prodhogikiyan and one gladiolus variety Pusa Unnati were released. Two farmers were bestowed with IARI Fellow award in recognition of their outstanding contributions in technology development and dissemination in partnership with IARI. Twenty five progressive farmers from different states of the country were honoured for their innovations in the field of agriculture. Seeds of high yielding varieties of different crops worth Rupees 35 lakhs were sold through Pusa Seed Sale Counter during the mela period. An important feature of the Mela was the provision of free soil test facility for farmers and technical advisory services to the farmers on their specific problems. More than 1,00,000 visitors from different parts of the country including farmers, farm women, extension workers, entrepreneurs, students and others visited the Mela. Farmers from 19 states across India including, among others, distant states like Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Orissa and Assam visited the Mela Participation in Off-campus Exhibitions In order to extend the reach of the Institute s extension services and ensure widespread dissemination of the technologies developed by the Institute, the staff of CATAT and ATIC participated in 14 national and international agricultural exhibitions outside the campus. The technologies and products developed by the Institute and the services being provided were showcased in these exhibitions Agricultural Technology Information Centre (ATIC) For agricultural information to be useful, it is not enough to merely generate it but it must also be delivered to the end users in a way in which it can be used by them. This requires considerable coordination between researchers and technology users. The Agricultural Technology Information Centre (ATIC) of the Institute provides a formal and functional 130

138 mechanism for linking scientists and technology users for the dissemination of relevant information through a single window delivery system. Besides farm advisory services at ATIC, farmers were given farm advice through Pusa Helpline ( ), Pusa Agri Com , exhibitions, farm literature and letters. A Second Level Kisan Call Centre ( ) has also been established at ATIC for providing remedial measures of the problems / queries of farmers of Delhi state. Information needs of the visitors are also being catered to through touch panel kiosks, revolving scrollers, and laminated posters. An information museum, plant clinic, farm library, and exhibits on agricultural implements, seed samples & bio-fertilizers are also established for communicating information at the Centre. During the year 26,450 farmers / entrepreneurs, development department officials, students, NGO representatives and others from 24 states of India visited ATIC for farm advice, diagnostic services, purchase of technological inputs and products and training. The largest number of farmers visited ATIC to purchase / enquire seeds / varieties (14,235). Other visitors included those seeking information / products related to horticultural and medicinal plants (7,010), plant protection (1,855), agro-based enterprises (1,465), farm literature (5,135), dairy (345), agricultural implements (798). The highest number of farmers came from Uttar Pradesh (28 %) followed by Haryana (20%), Delhi (15 %), Rajasthan (15%), Punjab (8%) and others (14%). Besides the visitors, 8,172 farmers / entrepreneurs from 18 states received information on various aspects of agriculture through Pusa Agricom, a toll free service, Pusa Help-line and Kisan Call Centre (IInd level). Purpose-wise, the maximum calls received were related to seed availability (3,210) followed by production technology (2,418), plant protection (1,320), agro-based enterprises (690), literature (745), and biofertilizer (380). Seeds and publications worth nearly ` lakh and ` 65 thousand, respectively, were sold by ATIC during the period, generating a record revenue of ` lakh. ATIC also lays out demonstrations of different crops in a cropping systems mode. The demonstrations laid included paddy varieties Pusa Sugandh 4 (PB 1121), Pusa Sugandh 6 (Pusa 1401), PRH 10, Pusa Basmati 1, Improved Pusa Basmati 1(Pusa 1460), Pusa Sugandh 5 (Pusa 2511 ), Pusa 44, P-834, PNR 162, PNR 381, Pusa 1509, Jaldee Dhan 13 (JD 13), maize varieties (PEHM 5, PEHM 2, PC 3 and PC 4) and Pearl millet varieties (Pusa 443, Pusa 605) in kharif. Demonstrations of wheat varieties (HD 3043, HD 2894, HD 2851, HD 2987, HD 2733, DBW 17, WH 1105, PDW , HD 2987, HD 2985, DBW 71,HD 2932, HD 3059 and WR 544) and mustard (NPJ 93, Pusa Mustard 21, Pusa Mustard 26, Pusa Mustard 27, Pusa Mustard 28) were conducted in rabi season followed by moong variety Pusa Vishal and green manuring with dhaincha during summer in rotation in the same field. Cauliflower (PH 2, PSBKT 25, Pusa Sharad), cabbage (Golden Acre, Chinese cabbage), broccoli (Samridhi, Vichitra, Kanchan), tomato (Rohini, Utsav), khol khol (White Vienna), capsicum (Yellow Wonder,), lettuce (Revolution, Iceberg), brinjal ( Pusa Uttam, Pusa Purple Cluster), chilly (Pusa Sadabahar), pumpkin (Pusa Vishwas), bhindi ( Pusa Long Green), bottle gourd (Pusa Naveen), lobia (Pusa Sukomal) were the vegetable varieties that were demonstrated. ATIC also maintains a medicinal garden, nutrition garden and fruit orchard. Drip irrigation system was demonstrated for fruit orchard and nutritional garden for the benefit of the visitors. High density fruit trees orchard planted with lemon (Kagzi Kalan), mango (Amrapali), guava (Lucknow 49, Allahabadi Safeda and Lalit), ber (Banarasi Karaka and Gola) and aonla (NA 7, NA 10, Lakshmi 52, Chakaiya) are also maintained. For generating awareness among farmers about 15medicinal plants are demonstrated in small plots. A bio-gas plant of 4 cubic metres and a unit of bee keeping (apiary) with 4 bee hives are also being maintained for demonstration to the visitors. To disseminate IARI technologies to the ultimate users, ATIC regularly publishes a bi-monthly farm magazine, Prasar Doot which is popular amongst the farming communities. Twelve pamphlets (reprints) on cereals, pulses, vegetables and fruit crops were distributed free of cost to visiting farmers. Besides this, more than 110 clients were provided advise through letters and s. ATIC is providing a mechanism for obtaining direct feed-back from the technology users 131

139 to the technology generators. This has helped to strengthen ATIC activities and provide a ground for developing need based technologies. The ATIC has also developed functional linkages with various agencies working for the farming community to effectively cater the information needs of the different stakeholders IARI Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shikohpur, Gurgaon (Haryana) Front line demonstration programme During rabi and kharif 2012, 322 demonstrations over an area of ha were conducted in oilseeds, pulses, vegetables and cereal crops. These included demonstration under the KVK scheme in ha, sponsored FLDs in 25 ha and demonstrations under NEP and Model Village scheme in ha. The increase in yield recorded in the demonstrations on various crops ranged from slightly over 2 per cent to around 17 per cent Trainings for different target groups With a view to enhance opportunities for income and employment and to update knowledge of farmers, both men and women, several vocational and farm trainings were organized by the KVK, Shikohpur. Vocational trainings for income generation and employment enhancement were organized in the areas of dress making, kitchen gardening, motor winding, vermin-composting, plant protection and pest control services, beekeeping, and value addition. To update the knowledge and skills of farm men and women, trainings were organized in crop production, dairy management, horticulture, home science, plant protection, post harvest management and agricultural engineering. Refresher courses for in-service candidates were organized in integrated plant nutrient management, IPM, live stock production and management; improved crop production technology in soybean and maize, advances in protected Results of FLDs organized on farmers field under KVK scheme Season Crop Variety No. of Area Yield (kg / ha) Increase BC ratio Demo. (ha) in yield Demonstrations Local (%) Max. Min. Avg. Avg. Rabi Mustard Pusa Vijay :2.80 (Laxmi) Wheat HD :2.70 (PBW 343) HD do :2.78 Peas Azad P :2.40 (Arkel) Gram Pusa :2.60 (HC 1) Barley BH :2.90 (BH 393) Total Kharif 2012 Paddy PB (PB1) :2.41 PB (PB1) :2.80 Arhar P :3.85 (UPAS120) P :3.51 (UPAS 120) Summer- SML :2.36 Moong Pusa Vishal :2.75 Sponge Rashmi :3.53 Gourd (Nutan) 132

140 Cowpea Gauri :3.62 (Mahesh) Bottle Pusa :5.19 Gourd Samradhi (Mayuri ) F.S :3.80 Sumit (Hy) :4.79 Keerti :4.04 (Arka Harit) Aditya :4.46 (Mayuri) Total Grand Total Results of FLDs organized on farmers fields under Model Village Scheme Season Crop Variety No. of Area Yield (kg / ha) Increase BC ratio Demo. (ha) in yield Demonstrations Local (%) Max. Min. Avg. Avg. Rabi Wheat HD :2.41 (PBW 343) HD do :2.81 HD do :2.54 HD do :2.79 HD do :2.56 WR do- 1:2.31 Mustard Pusa Vijay (Laxmi) :2.86 Gram P (HC 1) :2.63 Palak All green :2.45 Onion N :2.67 Methi P. Early Bunch :2.48 Carrot Pusa Kesar :2.52 Pea Azad P :2.85 Total Kharif Paddy PB (PB1) :2.75 PB do :2.93 Total Grand Total Results of FLDs under Sponsored Scheme Season Crop Variety No. of Area Yield (kg / ha) Increase BC ratio Demo. (ha) in yield Demonstrations Local (%) Max. Min. Avg. Avg. Rabi Wheat DPW (PBW343) :2.83 Barley DWRB (BH 393) - 1:2.74 Kharif 2012 Pearl millet HHB (Pioneer) :2.45 PA do :2.21 Total

141 cultivation of vegetables and floriculture and first aid in animals. In addition to this, three sponsored programmes on value addition, mushroom production and beekeeping were also organized. Around 1503 participants, including 245 women, attended the various programmes On- farm testing The focus of this activity is to test the technologies developed so as to find solutions to common problems of farmers in a particular area and under a specific farming system in a participatory mode. The objective is to provide tailor-made recommendations to the farmers after location specific testing. During the period, 44 on-farm trials were conducted on different crop based problems and two trials were conducted on animal based problems. S. No. On-farm testing trial Number of trials Rabi Integrated nutrients management in wheat Integrated weed management in wheat Varietal evaluation of wheat Management of pod borer in gram Management of stem rot in mustard Management of diamond back moth in cauliflower Management of Nematode in Chappan Kaddu Management of Fusarium wilt in Chappan Kaddu 03 Total 28 Kharif Varietal evaluation of arhar Effect of different Ecto parasiticides on control of Ecto 03 parasites in animals 3. Effect of hormones to control the fruit dropping in 03 young orchard of lemon 4. Effect of growth hormones on size and uniformity of flowering and yield in marigold Effect of mineral mixture and herbal hormones and vitamins A,D& E on productive performance in buffaloes. 03 Total 16 Grand Total Extension activities and farm advisory services Various extension activities were organized to facilitate speedy dissemination of technologies among the farming community. The KVK celebrated a Women in Agriculture Day with a focus on women 'Women in Agriculture Day' at KVK, Shikohpur empowerment. Other programmes conducted included field days, group meetings, camps and campaigns, farmers visits to KVK and visit of subject matter specialists to farmers fields, demonstrations, radio and TV talks and special lectures, advisory services on telephone and through SMS, exhibitions, diagnostic services, and press releases. Latest agricultural news and new practices and technologies developed are made available to farmers at their door step through a quarterly publication of the KVK entitled the Krishi Vigyan Patrika. Through this publication, relevant technical know-how on production technologies of field crops, fruits, vegetables, home and dairy management are provided to farmers Transfer of Technology Through IARI Regional Stations Regional Station, Indore conducted fifty three FLDs of 13 recently released IARI wheat varieties during in 22 hectares area across 7 villages of Indore, Harda (minority dominated villages), and Khandwa districts of Madhya Pradesh. The average increase in grain yield was 1.13 t/ha or 39 per cent in these demonstrations compared to respective local checks plus conventional cultivation practices. Under NAIP Network Project on Strategies to enhance adaptive capacity to climate change in vulnerable regions, a large number of FLDs were conducted in 11 villages of two agro-ecological zones in Dhar district 134

142 of Madhya Pradesh. A total of 131 demonstrations of five wheat varieties (HI 1500, HI 1531 and HI 1544 of bread wheat; and HI 8627 and HI 8638 of durum wheat) were conducted in 38 hectares of area and average yield increase of 0.75 t/ha or 37% was obtained. Fifteen demonstrations of the gram variety JG 11 were conducted in 7.2 hectares in 8 villages and average yield increase was 380 kg/ha or 34 per cent. Demonstrations (86) of two soybean varieties JS and JS were conducted in 20 hectares area and the average yield increase realized was 507 kg/ha or 43 per cent. One hundred and thirty one demonstrations of three maize varieties, JM 216, PC 3 and Ganga Kaveri Hybrid conducted in 20 hectares area gave an average yield increase of 340 kg/ha or 17 per cent. The Station also organized 118 on- and off-campus training programmes for 2,300 farmers on wheat production technology. Regional Station, Pusa, Bihar distributed wheat seeds of HD 2985 and HI 1563 varieties for one ha among ten farmers of Muzaffarpur, Samastipur, Araria and Kishanganj districts of Bihar. Out of ten demonstrations, three were sown with biofertilizers and two demonstrated zero tillage technology. Under the IARI Outreach Programme, new cereal and pulse crops (paddy, maize and pigeonpea) were included with wheat to popularize IARI varieties among farmers. Trials of six varieties of long grain scented and medium grain paddy (Pusa Sugandh 5, Pusa Sugandh 6, Pusa 1176, Rajendra Suwasini, and PNR 381, Pusa 44, respectively.) were conducted on 140 farmers fields through KVKs in 14 districts of Bihar in kharif The response of farmers was very encouraging for the scented varieties of paddy, especially for Pusa Sugandh 5, Pusa Sugandh 6 and Pusa Hybrid maize, DHM 117 was distributed among twenty farmers in four districts of Bihar. Farmers compared this variety with other hybrids from private seed companies and found it better in yield performance. Average yield of DHM 117 obtained was 6.97 t/ha. Pigeonpea var. Pusa 9 was distributed among twenty farmers in four districts (Samastipur, Begusarai, Patna, Vaishali) of Bihar. Yield of this variety was excellent and farmers liked it very much compared to their local (desi) varieties. Average yield performance of the variety was 2.74 t/ha. Eighty five quintal wheat seed of timely, late, very late and rainfed sown varieties was distributed to the farmers through KVKs, NGOs and SHGs in eastern states. A Kisan Mela was organized by the Station in collaboration with NABARD, MONSANTO, ATMA and Syndicate Bank, Pusa on the theme Importance of Quality Seed in Integrated Crop Management. The Station also participated in the in the Kisan Mela organized by Rajendra Agriculture University, Pusa. Under the Bioversity-ICAR Project on Climate Change Adaptation and Visualization through Farmer based Experimentation Networks in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India, varietal trials (18 varieties), selected varietal trials (3 varieties) and crowd sourcing trials (10 timely and late sown varieties) were conducted at different locations. In India, crowd sourcing trials were conducted for the first time at the Regional Station, Pusa, Samastipur and Vaishali district of Bihar and also in Unnao and Badaun districts of Uttar Pradesh. Farmers Field Days were organized at two locations to facilitate interaction with scientists in understanding the climate change adaptation and visualization and in choosing wheat varieties based on their observations and discussion in the workshop. Regional Station, Wellington conducted front line demonstrations for successful introduction of wheat as an alternate viable crop in South Hills Zone in 20 ha. The varieties promoted were: CoW(W)1, HW 5207, CoW-2 and HD Under Seed Village Programme sponsored by DAC, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India the Regional Station, Karnal gave special emphasis to resource poor farmers, especially farm women, around Karnal region. Farmers were given nine trainings on different aspects of quality seed production like seed agronomy, weed control, disease and insect management, genetic purity, harvesting and post harvest management at the Station as well as at farmer s fields. Forty eight farm women from Pundri village of Karnal district, Haryana were selected under seed village programme, and were given training on quality seed production of paddy var. Pusa Basmati 1121 which resulted in improvement of their level of understanding and income. Seed crops of the selected farmers of 135

143 Churni and Modi Jagir villages were visited and need based plant protection measures suggested. Seed production through seed village programme was undertaken on 16 ha area in kharif 2012 for paddy cv. Pusa Basmati 1121 and on 16 ha area in rabi for wheat cv. HD Regional Station, Katrain conducted fifty field demonstrations on different vegetables at the farmers fields. The varieties/hybrids demonstrated showed per cent higher yield over check in kharif Forty field demonstrations have been conducted in rabi A study conducted among farmers showed that in vegetables production, a technology gap of 70 per cent existed. Only 22 per cent farmers were found to apply the correct agronomic practices with the majority 78 per cent using local practices. Only 12 per cent farmers were satisfied with market facilities in the valley. Regional Station Amartara Cottage, Shimla conducted 5 front line demonstrations on new wheat and barley varieties. Seven wheat and 3 barley FLD s were organized during for popularizing wheat var. HS 507 and barley var. BHS 380 among the farmers. Three all India coordinated trials of northern hills zone under AICW&BIP were conducted. The data on phenological traits, grain yield and associated traits was recorded and is under analysis at DWR. Three onfarm training programmes were organized on the preparation of Bordeaux mixture and its application, seed stratification techniques in apple and package of practices of strawberry cultivation. 136

144 7. EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN AND MAINSTREAMING OF GENDER ISSUES Women are playing an increasingly important role in household and farm activities and hence they can contribute significantly to family income and welfare. This can be further enhanced if women are empowered through training in farm and off-farm alternative occupations. Initiatives taken by Self Help Groups (SHGs) which promote collective action also enhance income and livelihood. With this in view, several special activities were undertaken and interventions planned for empowering women in rural areas. 7.1 CAPACITY BUILDING OF SHGs FOR GENDER EMPOWERMENT Six capacity building modules identified through training need analysis,were designed/developed and subjected to content validation by Self Help Group Members in Haryana. The modules developed relate to motivation, leadership, financial management and use of ICT. A self rating scale was developed for assessment of new learning taken place, utility, appropriateness and overall satisfaction from the module. Knowledge tests were finalized for selected components of the modules. The designed modules contain a Facilitation Guide with activities, reading materials and suggested multimedia resources, presentation slides explaining key concepts with trainer notes included, learner s guides for the SHG members, and handouts of other resources for participants to continue their learning. The modules are based on a participative approach and include experiential exercises. Relevance of the designed training modules was worked out on a maximum score of 5. The average score for the designed modules was estimated at 4.1 implying high relevance of the modules for the women SHG members. Similarly the modules were evaluated on the criteria of ease of understanding, simplicity of language, interest created, motivation for learning, etc. A very high overall increase in knowledge level of participants was observed as a result of the trainings. Impact of training modules on different dimensions indicated a high level of perceived behavioral changes. Action oriented interventions for promotion of IARI technologies included an exposure visit of seventy women SHG members from Ujeena, Sangel and Nooh villages of Mewat, Haryana to popularize latest agricultural technologies of IARI among SHGs. 7.2 EFFECTIVENESS OF SHGs FOR GENDER EMPOWERMENT Data were collected from 100 SHG women members from Junagarh and Rajkot districts of Gujarat, and 40 SHG women members from Model Villages of IARI for studying the effectiveness of SHG for gender empowerment and their impact on livelihood security. Items related to changes in livelihood security were ranked on a ten point scale with maximum possible score of +5 and minimum possible score of -5. The data revealed significant difference in scores before and after formation of SHGs with the maximum change in score for the positive in the case of social security followed by occupational security, health security, educational security, food security, environmental security and habitat security. 7.3 VOCATIONAL & FARM TRAINING FOR TECHNOLOGICAL INTER- VENTION The Institute, through its KVK in Shikohpur, Gurgaon, is taking a lead in empowering rural women 137

145 by providing need based training for self-employment and for income generating activities. Besides entrepreneurship training, other extension activities aimed at creating awareness about scientific farming and dissemination of technologies are also undertaken. Some of the important programmes and activities organized for rural women during the last year included: Specialized training in quality seed production of Pusa Basmati 1121 provided to farm women led to an improvement in their skills and income levels. Forty eight farm women from Pundri village in Karnal district of Haryana were selected by the IARI Regional Station, Karnal under the Seed Village Programme for the special training in quality seed production. Vocational training courses for self employment and income generation. Trainings and special lectures in villages for updating the farm knowledge /skills. Visits of rural women in agriculture fairs and exhibitions. Celebration of Women in Agriculture Day. Interactive field visits of SMS In all, 52 programmes were organized for rural women during the period under report. Nine hundred sixty nine rural women from all social classes and income strata were benefited. Practical training on mushroom production for the rural women at KVK, Shikohpur Activity wise participation of rural women S.No. Programme / Activity Number of Number of programmes / beneficiaries activities 1. Vocational training programmes Dress designing & tailoring Dairy management Value addition and preservation of fruits & vegetables Production technology of button mushroom Total Agriculture extension & farm advisory service Celebration of 'Women in Agriculture Day' Special lectures delivered Women s visit to agricultural fairs Day long trainings in villages Field days Field visits of SMS to farmers fields Total Grand total

146 8. POST-GRADUATE EDUCATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEM The Indian Agricultural Research Institute is India s largest and foremost Institute in the field of agricultural research, higher education, and extension. The PG School of IARI which was first established as a part of Deemed University in 1958 has been engaged in providing high quality agricultural education at the post-graduate level in the country as a lead centre. A formal course leading to a two year diploma, Associateship of IARI in various fields of agriculture was started in 1923, which was awarded to 903 graduates up to Keeping the tradition of the glorious past, the PG School endeavours to scale newer heights in agricultural research, education and extension through upgradation of course curriculum and by adopting new methods of teaching. 8.1 POST- GRADUATE EDUCATION Admission during the Academic Session The P.G. School continues to attract a large number of students seeking admissions to various PG courses through five modes of admission, namely, open competition, faculty up-gradation, ICAR in-service nominees, departmental candidates and foreign students. Admissions to the Ph.D. programme are made on the basis of candidates performance in a national level entrance examination conducted in different parts of the country followed by an interview and academic records. While the admissions to the M.Sc./M.Tech. programme are made on the basis of an All-India Entrance Test conducted by the Education Division of the ICAR. The foreign students are admitted through DARE, Ministry of Agriculture. During the academic year , 267 students (including 13 foreign students from seven countries) were selected for admission to various M.Sc. and Ph.D. courses as per details given below Convocation The 51 st Convocation of the PG School of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute was held on February 15, Hon ble Lt. Governor, NCT of Delhi, Shri Tejendra Khanna was the Chief Guest. Dr. S. Ayyappan, Secretary, DARE & Director General, ICAR presided over the function. Dr. H.S. Gupta, Director, IARI in his welcome address highlighted the salient achievements of the Institute. Dr. H.S. Gaur, Dean and Joint Director (Education) presented Dean s report on the education, training and HRD activities of the Institute. In his very impressive Convocation Address, the Chief Guest covered scientific, moral and spiritual Category M.Sc./M.Tech. Ph.D. Total Open competition Foreign students Total A Ph.D. student receiving his degree certificate from Hon ble Lt. Governor, NCT of Delhi, Shri Tejendra Khanna at the Convocation. Also seen in the picture is Dr. H.S. Gupta, Director, IARI (centre) 139

147 aspects of life. He advised the students to use their knowledge for the upliftment of the people particularly the farmers. At the Convocation 208 candidates (100 M.Sc., 100 Ph.D. and 8 M.Tech.) including 18 foreign students were awarded degrees. Mr. Bappa Das (M.Sc. in Agricultural Physics) and Dr. Sudipta Paul (Ph.D. in Agricultural Extension) received the Best Student of the Year Award. Five students each in M.Sc. and Ph.D. also received IARI Merit Medals. Fourth Rao Bahadur Dr. B. Viswa Nath Award for the Biennium was awarded to Dr. (Mrs.) Shailaja Hittalmani, Professor, Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agriculture College, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore. Dr. Ashok Kumar Patra, Principal Scientist, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, IARI, New Delhi received the Hooker Award for biennium Dr. D.K. Yadava, Principal Scientist, Division of Genetics, IARI, New Delhi received Dr. B.P. Pal Memorial Award for the year Prof. K. N. Tiwari, Professor, Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur received the 13 th Shri Hari Krishna Shastri Memorial Award for the year Four faculty members, namely, Dr. S.K. Jha (Post Harvest Technology), Dr. S.P. Datta (Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry), Dr. Anil Dahuja (Biochemistry) and Dr. Sharad Mohan (Nematology) were given the Best Teacher Award for their achievements in academics during On this special ceremony, the Chief Guest also released 21 IARI varieties of different crops and two PG School publications. The 43 rd Lal Bahadur Shastri Memorial Lecture was delivered by Dr. M.K. Bhan, Former Secretary, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, on February 14, 2013 on the emerging topic Science Innovation and Future Food and Nutrition Security. Dr. C.R. Bhatia, Former Secretary, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, presided over the function. Dr. M.K. Bhan, former Secretary, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India (seated 2 nd from right) delivered the 43 rd Lal Bahadur Shastri Memorial Lecture, Dr. C.R. Bhatia, former Secretary, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, Dr. H.S.Gupta, Director & Dr. H.S.Gaur, Dean are also seen in the picture Communication and Language Laboratory The Communication and Language Laboratory at the IARI Central Library was inaugurated by Dr. H.S. Gupta, Director, IARI, New Delhi on November 22, The laboratory is equipped with 20 networked computers and with smart classroom gadgets. The facility is being used for the benefit of international students who have difficulties in written and spoken English Modernization of PG Laboratories and Lecture halls Modernisation of PG laboratories and lecture halls was undertaken under the scheme for strengthening of PG education programme at deemed university. Teaching facilities were modernized by adding smart class, audio-visuals, LCD projectors, multi-media systems, interactive boards, etc Training Programmes The institute organised several national and international short-term training courses (regular, adhoc and individual) and refresher courses in specialised areas for the scientists of NAREES under the programmes of Centres of Excellence and Centres of Advanced Studies. In addition, some special training courses were also organised for the benefit of professionals, farmers and extension workers. 140

148 Important training programmes organized Name of the training programme Date Number of trainees Division of Agricultural Chemicals Techniques and Methods for Pesticide Residue Analysis October 5-11, Extraction and Analysis of Nutraceuticals from Vegetables, Fruits and Non-food Crops November 22-24, Division of Agricultural Economics Agricultural Research Planning and Impact Assessment August 17 to 25 September 6, 2012 Division of Agricultural Engineering Motor Winding for Entrepreneurs October 3-12, February 18-27, Project Formulation, Risk Assessment, Scientific Report Writing and Presentation November 11-15, Division of Agricultural Extension March 12-16, Enhancing Motivation for High Job Performance May 18-21, October 4-6, January 7-9, January 14-16, Life Skills and Leadership Development July 19-23, January 29 February 1, Experiential Learning Andragogical Methods for Developing September Entrepreneurial Human Resource October 1, 2012 Information and Communication Technology Application October 12-19, Emerging Paradigms of Competencies in Context of Changing Agricultural Scenario January 3-23, Division of Agricultural Physics EDUSAT Based off Campus Training Programme on Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS August 6-18 October 17, 2012 Assessment of Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System for Improving Resource September 4-11, Use Efficiency in Agriculture Dspace Admin Training September 10-11, Advances in Spectrometry for Earth Remote Sensing December 3-4, Koha LMS Training December 12-13, December 19-20, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Agriculture February 18-27, Dspace User Training June 25-26, Division of Biochemistry Current Biochemical & Molecular Techniques for Nutritional Enhancement and November 1-21, Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants CESCRA Role of Environment Resources in Determining Agriculture Productivity September 14-21,

149 Name of the training programme Date Number of trainees Safe Use of Radioisotopes and Radiations December 6-7, Management of Emerging Environment Problem for Enhancing Agriculture Productivity December 17-24, Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology Good Agricultural Practices in Production of Horticulture March 10-18, Division of Floriculture and Landscaping Rose Floral Arrangements January 24, Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights March 21, Dry Flower Making October 10, October 27, 2012 November 17, 2012 Division of Nematology Microbial Bio-Agents and Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Management for October 26 Agriculturally Important Pests November 2, 2012 Division of Plant Pathology Mushroom Cultivation October 15-20, Genomics and Diagnosis of Emerging Phytopathogens in Indian Agriculture October 3-23, Division of Post Harvest Technology Soynut: Processing and Packaging December 13-15, Post Harvest Management and Value Addition of Horticultural Produce for Export March 12-16, Division of Seed Science and Technology Seed Quality Assurance July 24-28, August 17-24, Seed Production and Quality Evaluation February 11-24, Quality Seed Production March 23-25, Seed Production of Field Crops March 28, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Soil Testing, Plant Analysis and Water Quality Assessment September 4-24, Water Technology Centre Water Saving Technologies September 28, Sugarcane Cultivation Through Micro-irrigation October 3, Micro-irrigation for Livelihood Improvement January 10, Centre for Protected Cultivation and Technology Advances in Micro-irrigation and Fertigation November 5-25, Protected Cultivation Technology for Horticulture Crops August 16-18, August 21-25, August September 2, 2012 September 3-9, September 8-9, September 11-14, March 14-16,

150 Name of the training programme Date Number of trainees IARI Regional Station, Pusa, Bihar Quality Seed Production and Seed Certification March 17-26, IARI Regional Station (Cereals & Horticultural Crops), Amartara Cottage, Shimla Preparation of Bordeaux Mixture and Application October 1, Seed Stratification Techniques in Apple October 6, Package of Practices of Strawberry Cultivation February 16, Regional Station, Karnal Control of Diseases and Insect Pests in Paddy Crop September 21, Beej Utpadan Dwara Udyamsheelta February 20-22, AKMU (Formerly USI), IARI Applications of Bioinformatics Tools in Agricultural Research March CATAT Organic Farming, Vermi-Compost, Mustard, Wheat and Rabi Vegetables October 24, Grading, Packing and Post Harvest Management October 30, Pre-Seasonal Rabi Crops and High Tech Agri. Horticulture November 6-7, Diversification on Agriculture due to Climate Change November 16, Skill Development Training and Exposure Visit Safe and Judicious use of Chemicals for Food Safety and Quality Reference to January 7, Food Standards and Other Certificates Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables January 8, Use and Benefit of Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation System and Use of Net and January 15, Green House in Agri-Horticulture High Tech Agriculture/ Pre-Seasonal Zaid /Kharif Crop January 29-30, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and its Certification February 5, Improved Agricultural Technologies for Higher Productivity and Income January 21-30, February 21-28, March 12-18, Tips and Strategy for Effective Extension February 12, INFORMATION AND DATABASE Bioinformatics & Agri-informatics A computational study was undertaken to identify the structure and function of Pi-ta Blast resistance protein (Accession:- Q9AY26) and its comparative analysis with Pi-ta Blast susceptible protein. The susceptible protein sequence was generated by mutating the 918 th position in blast resistance protein sequence by replacing 918 th alanine(a) with serine(s). The physio-chemical properties of resistant and susceptible protein for blast disease were derived which showed the differences in molecular weight, Aliphatic index and GRAVY. Tertiary structural alignment of both the proteins showed a significant difference in the structure of these two proteins. It was also observed that there was a major difference in the altered active site/ pocket area and volume of the two protein 143

151 structures and difference in cleavage site for the both sequences. The study clearly indicated that changing a single residue,i.e., alanine by serine, caused mutation from resistant strain to susceptible strain for blast disease. Content management and updation of the website was carried out. Various crop genomic and proteomic data was integrated on the website. The content of the site was also made inter-operatable with RKMP and wheat informatics databases. A stand alone scientist information system (SIS) was developed using SQL server as back end tool for database storage and ASP.net as front end tool for application development. The SMS facility helped the registered farmers by providing the general information regarding the rice cultivation practice and disease management Consortium for e-resources in Agriculture (CeRA) Nearly 2424 on line journals are available for full text from nine publishers. In addition to on-line access, the library is providing document delivery services to 143 institutions (including SAU s) under NARS. Photocopies of 4299 articles were provided from the holdings of library.three hundred fifty articles were received from different institutes and delivered to concerned students and faculty. Under the NAIP subproject on CeRA, the website developed at IARI was updated with the latest information. Under CeRA, 18 awareness cum monitoring workshops covering 25 institutions under NARS were organized Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Based on the end users feedback, the RKMP portal of IARI was updated for northern region. Rice bioinformatics related activities were also added in this portal which enable proteomic annotation including rice protein chain, color, molecular composition, amino acid composition, etc e-granth: Strengthening of Digital Library and Information Management under NARS As a subcomponent of ICDS (Information and communication and dissemination System) of component I of NAIP, e-granth was started from May 2009 with 12 Libraries of ICAR Institutes and SAUs as consortia partners and IARI as the lead center. Under the project, 574 books were directly catalogued in WorldCat through Connextion Software of Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) which are accessible in WorldCat (catalogue of 71,000 libraries of the world). IARI Library is also selected to digitize important institutional repositories including old and rare publications and 15,66,624 pages were scanned during the reported period publications were uploaded in KrishiKosh LIBRARY SERVICES IARI Library is one of the largest and the finest agro- biological libraries in South East Asia housing large collection of publications including books/ monographs, journals, reports, bulletins, post graduate theses and other reference materials. The Library functions as the depository of Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), and Consultant Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) institutes publications. Several training programme/demos were conducted during the reported period on the aspects of DSpace software, KOHA software, etc Acquisition Programme Books During the period under report, the Library procured 625 publications which included 168 in Hindi and 457 in English costing ` 32, 31,918. The Library also acquired 133 gift publications and 205 PG Students theses from IARI and 3 RFT theses Serials The Library procured 806 journals/serials through subscription, gifts and exchanges. It subscribed to

152 foreign journals (out of which 17 online access) and 284 Indian journals, advances, and annual reviews. Exchange relationship was maintained with 67 institutions globally and nationally by sending 185 annual reports, ICAR journals and society publications. One hundred twenty three annual scientific/technical reports of different institutions and 64 bulletins were received in the Library during report period. The expenditure on serial acquisition from plan and PG strengthening scheme was ` 1,90,45, Documentation Activities AGRIS Project IARI Library is declared as an input center for National Agricultural Research Database (NARD) under AGRIS Project. The Library is assigned the job of scanning articles from 10 most important Indian journals. The input was done in ISO format using AGRIN methodology. During the reported period, 340 articles were scanned, processed and sent to DKMA, ICAR for inclusion in AGRIS Index Development news in agriculture Four thousand, six hundred twenty two issues of 14 newspapers were scanned and 30 news items pertaining to IARI as well as ICAR were sent to the Directorate, Principal Scientist (PME) and CATAT Document processing In all, 795 documents consisting of 574 books, 156 IARI post-graduate and RFT theses, and 30 Hindi books were processed (classification and cataloguing). Thirty five articles were also loaded in KrishiKosh Resource Management Reference, circulation and stack maintenance Apart from approximately 2000 registered members, the Library served everyday approximately 125 to 130 users, who consulted about 1500 to 2000 documents. During the period under report, 1986 publications were issued and 1871 publication returned to its members. In all, 45 documents were issued under Inter Library Loan System to various institutions CD-Rom Workstation Three prominent international databases on agricultural aspects were subscribed amounting to ` 35,76,419 to provide CD-ROM services. Ten user terminals were provided to users in CD-ROM workstation of the library. These databases are accessible to scientists/students/users through LAN. In all, 21,904 references were downloaded by the scientists, students of IARI and research scholars from all over India. The cost based references downloaded were 9,904 which generated a revenue amounting to ` 17,

153 9. PUBLICATIONS An important mandate of the Institute is to generate scientific information, add value to information and share the information nationally and internationally. Publications in the form of research papers in peer reviewed journals, books/ book chapters, popular articles, etc. are an integral component of the information system. During the reported period, the Institute scientists brought out quality publications both in English and Hindi. Apart from these publications, the Institute brought out several regular and adhoc publications both in English and Hindi. The details of these publications are given below: 9.1RESEARCH/SYMPOSIA PAPERS a) Research papers published in international 360 journals b) Research papers published in national 462 journals c) Symposia/conference papers BOOKS/CHAPTERS IN BOOKS a) Books 39 b) Chapters in books POPULAR ARTICLES IN-HOUSE PUBLICATIONS Regular Publications (English) IARI Annual Report (ISSN: ) IARI NEWS (Quarterly (ISSN: )-4 issues IARI Current Events (Monthly)-12 issues (Available only on IARI website) Technical Publications (English) A Guide Book of Global Climate Change (ISBN ) Edible Oilseeds Supply and Demand Scenario in India: Implications for Policy (ISBN ) Evaluation Report on Watershed Development Programme (DPAP & IWDP) in Selected Districts of Uttar Pradesh (ISBN ) Enhancing Water Productivity in Agriculture (ISBN ) Five Decades of Research in Agricultural Physics (ISBN ) A Practical Manual of Analytical Methods for Soil and Plant Samples from Agronomy Field Experiments ( ISBN ) A Practical Manual on Principles and Practices of Managing Soil and Field Crops (ISBN ) The Insight of Green Education (ISBN ) Dual Purpose Summer Mungbean for Sustaining Rice-Wheat Cropping System (TB-ICN: 93/2012) IARI Vegetable Hybrids for Nutrition and Profit (TB-ICN: 94/2012) Assessment of Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System for Improving Resource Use Efficiency in Agriculture (TB-ICN: 95/2012) Management of Storage Pest through Modified Atmosphere Technology (TB-ICN: 96/2012) Developing Understanding on the Role of Environment Resources in Determining Agriculture Productivity (TB-ICN: 97/2012) Genomics and Diagnosis of Emerging Phytopathogens in Indian Agriculture (TB-ICN: 98/2012) Pusa Basmati Rices-India s Pride A Saga of Success (TB-ICN: 99/2012) 146

154 Crop Residues Management with Conservation Agriculture: Potential, Constraints and Policy Needs (TB-ICN: 100/2012) Pusa Hydrogel-An Indigenous Semi synthetic Superabsorbent Technology for Conserving Water and Enhancing Crop Productivity (TB-ICN: 101/ 2012) Water Management Technologies for Sustainable Agriculture (TB-ICN: 102/2012) Management of Emerging Environmental Problems for Enhancing Agricultural Productivity (TB-ICN: 103/2012) Breeding for High Productivity and Industry Suitable Food Colourants and Bioactive Health Compounds in Vegetable Crops- Conventional and Hi-Tech Cutting Edge Approaches (TB-ICN: 104/2012) Selected Topics in Chemistry for Post-Graduate Students of Agronomy (TB-ICN: 107/2012) Vegetable Seed Production Techniques and Post- Harvest Handling of Seeds (TB-ICN: 108/2013) Entrepreneurship Development Through Seed Production (TB-ICN: 109/2013) Year-round Cultivation of Baby Corn through Drip Irrigation (TB-ICN: 110/2013) Processing of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data (TB-ICN: 111/2013) Protocals for Analysis of Antioxidants and Functional Quality in Food (Part-1) (TB-ICN: 112/ 2013) Manual on Air Quality Analysis (TB-ICN: 113/ 2013) GAP in Production of Horticultural Crops (TB- ICN: 114/2013) Turf Grasses (TB-ICN: 115/2013) fu;fer izdk ku ¼fgUnh½ okf"kzd fjiksvz 2011&12 (ISSN ) iwlk lekpkj ¼=Sekfld½ (ISSN ) iwlk lqjfhk ¼okf"kZd½ izlkj nwr ¼f}ekfld½ lkef;dh ¼ekfld½ ¼dsoy lalfkku dh oscklkbv ij miyc/k½ rduhdh izdk ku ¼fgUnh½ Qlyksa esa lw=ñfe jksx,oa mudk izca/ku (ICN : H-120 /2012) tso mozjd (ICN : H-121 /2012) tm+xkab lw=ñfe feykbmksxkbuh xzsfefudkyk % /kku dk,d eq[; ihm+d (ICN : H-123/2012) fvdkm [ksrh ds fy, ty izca/ku izks ksfxfd;ka (ICN : H- 124 /2012) chtksriknu }kjk m e khyrk (ICN : H-125 /2013) Qyo`{kksa dh l?ku ckxokuh (ICN : H-126 /2013) Ñf"k e khuhdj.k] mi;ksxh ;a=] mudk j[kj[kko,oa miyc/krk (ICN : H-127 /2013) muur cht % [kq kgky fdlku (ICN : H-128 /2013) Ñf"k esa muur ty izca/ku (ISBN ) 147

155 10. COMMERCIALIZATION AND IPR ACTIVITIES The mandate of the Institute Technology Management Unit (ITMU) relates to registration of patents, facilitation of contract research projects and consultancies by the Institute scientists, intellectual property rights, and interaction with the agri-business industry. During the period, the ITMU organised the following activities: 10.1 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS A. Patents Filed 1. Carotinoid rich composition and process of its preparation (Dr. Charanjit Kaur, Division of Post Harvest Technology). 2. Heat stable anthocyanin rich composition and process of its preparation (Dr. Charanjit Kaur, Division of Post Harvest Technology). 3. Anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial di-arylindazol-3-ols and their method of preparation thereof (Dr. N. A. Shakil, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 4. Development of polymeric formulations of bioactive molecules and method of preparation thereof (Dr. Jitendra Kumar, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 5. Amphiphilic polymers based slow release nano formulations of -carotene and method of preparation thereof (Dr. Jitendra Kumar, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 6. A cross flow flexible membrane filtration assembly for small processing volume (Dr. Gopal P. Agarwal, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi). B. Patents Renewed 1. A process for the preparation of Mosquito Larvicidal Formulations based on Rabdosia Melissoides Ingredients (Dr. B.S.Parmar and Dr. Lalit Kumar, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 2. Process for the preparation of Mono/Di/Polyol Ester Pesticides (Dr. Suresh Walia and Others, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 3. Process for the preparation of Pesticidal Oxime Esters (Dr. Suresh Walia and Dr B.S. Parmar, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 4. A hyper-spectral data analyzing method for characterization and discrimination of natural/ man-made resources from air borne platforms (Dr. Ravinder Kaur, Division of Environmental Sciences). 5. Polymeric seed coats based on bioactive botanicals (Dr. Jitendra Kumar, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 6. Efficient process for the preparation of Neem based Reduced Azadirachtin(s) Pesticides (Dr. Suresh Walia and Others, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 7. Synthetic gene encoding Cry1Fa 1 -endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Dr. P. Ananda Kumar, NRCPB). 8. Synthetic gene encoding a chimeric -endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Dr. P. Ananda Kumar, NRCPB). 9. Biopesticidal formulation with improved shelf life and the process of preparation (Dr. Prem Dureja and others, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). C. Trademark Filed Trademark application has been filed for PUSA in eight different classes. 148

156 D. Varieties Protected under PPV&FRA Sl. No. Crop Variety Type of Variety Application No. Date of Filing Principal Inventor 1. Brinjal Pusa Upkar Extant REG/2012/ Dr. Pritam Kalia Division of Vegetable Science 2. Brinjal Pusa Uttam Extant REG/2012/ Dr. Pritam Kalia Division of Vegetable Science 3. Tomato Pusa Hybrid-8 Extant REG/2012/ Dr. Pritam Kalia Division of Vegetable Science 4. Rice Pusa Basmati 1509 New REG/2012/ Dr. A K Singh (IET 21959) Division of Genetics 5. Wheat HD CSW 16 New REG/2012/ Dr. Rajbir Yadav Division of Genetics 6. Wheat HD CSW 18 New REG/2012/ Dr. Rajbir Yadav Division of Genetics 7. Chickpea Pusa Green 112 New REG/2012/ Dr. J. Kumar Division of Genetics 8. Chickpea Pusa 2085 New REG/2012/ Dr. J. Kumar Division of Genetics 10.2 TECHNOLOGY COMMERCIALIZED A. Memoranda of Understanding Signed MoUs signed Fifteen MoUs signed during the year under report with twelve private partners generating a revenue of ` Lakh. Sl.No Technologies Companies Date of MoU Revenue Generated (`) 1. Nano formulations of bioactive molecules M/s Aegis Agro Chemicals India Pvt Ltd, ,00,000 i.e., Carbofuran and Azadirachtin A Hyderabad 2. VAM Technology M/s Bharat Agro Molecules Ltd, Meerut , Nano formulations of bioactive molecules M/s Insecticides (India) Limited, Delhi ,00,000 i.e., Imidacloprid and PEG based surfactants 4. Maize Hybrid PEEHM 5 M/s Sampoorna Seeds ,00, Embedded Dry Flower Technology Mrs Poonam Qamra , Rice Hybrid HI 1544 M/s Syngenta India Ltd, Pune , Pusa Pearl Puff M/s Devesh Foods & Agro ,00,000 Products Pvt. Ltd 8. Vegetable Varieties (Cauliflower: Pusa M/s Nuziveedu Seeds ,000 Hybrid-2 & Kartik Shankar; Carrot: Pusa Rudhira ; Cucumber: Pusa Sanjog) 9. Pusa Nutri Cookies M/s Gold Win Agro Foods Pvt. Ltd ,

157 10. Event 142 (Brinjal Variety) carrying Cry1Fa1 gene Bejo Sheetal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., Jalna (2 nd Renewal Agreement) 11. Soil Test Fertilizer Recommendation M/s Systronics (India) Ltd., Ahmedabad ,00,000 Meter (STFR) 12. Animal Feed Block Making Machine M/s Perfect Hydro Machines, Haryana ,00, Chickpea varieties Pusa 256, Pusa 372, M/s Sungro Seeds Limited, Mumbai For collabora- Pusa Dharwar Pragati (BGD 72), tive research Pusa 1053 (Kabuli), Pusa 1088 (Kabuli), Pusa 1103, Pusa 1105 (Kabuli), Pusa 1108 (Kabuli), Pusa Shubra (BGD 128) (Kabuli), Pusa 547 and (BGM 547) 14. Rice hybrid Pusa RH 10 M/s Delta Agrigenetics Pvt Ltd ,80, Pusa Fruit Drink M/s Shankar Amrit, Muzaffarpur ,000 B. Consultancies /Contract Research Proposals/ Agreements 1. Contract Research Project on To study the Bioefficacy of insecticide incorporated insect-proof net as a cladding material for different protected structures to ward off major sucking insect & pests for cultivation of important vegetables and flowers for Vestergaard Frandsen Group (Dr. Raj Kumar, CPCT). 2. Contract Research Project on Validating the efficacy of solo clodinafop-propargye and its combination and sequencial application with other herbicides, and in combination with adjuvants against the resistant Phalaris 1minors Retz populations/biotypes for Syngenta India Ltd., Mumbai (Dr. T. K. Das, Division of Agronomy). 3. Contract Research Project on Management of Rice and Brinjal diseases through bioproducts- Biogold and MC TEC-2 for M/s. Jai Shree Rasayan Udyog Limited, Delhi (Dr. Pratibha Sharma, Division of Plant Pathology). 4. Consultancy on Proposal to impart training in capacity development on Plant Protection for Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation of livestock of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan for UNDP (Dr. R.K. Jain, Project Co-ordinator, Division of Nematology). 5. Consultancy for Economic feasibility study on identification of investment opportunities in Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique for cultivation of pulses for State Trading Corporation of India Ltd, New Delhi (Dr. I Sekar, Division of Agricultural Economics). 6. Contract Service on Supervised field trials on residue and persistence of Tebuconazole 430 SC on Cabbage for M/s Bayer Crop Science Ltd, Bayer House, Mumbai, (Dr. K.K. Sharma, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 7. Contract Service on Supervised field trials on residue and persistence of Spiromesifen 240 SC on Cucumber for M/s Bayer Crop Science Ltd, Bayer House, Mumbai, (Dr. K.K. Sharma, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 8. Contract Service on Supervised field trials on residue and persistence of Flubendiamide 480 SC on Okra for M/s Bayer Crop Science Ltd, Bayer House, Mumbai, (Dr. K.K. Sharma, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 9. Contract Service on Supervised field trials on residue and persistence of Picoxystrobin 7.5% + Propiconazole 12.5% w/w SC in Wheat for M/s E.I. Dupont, 7 th Floor, Tower C, Sec-25 A, DLF City Phase-III, Gurgaon (Dr. K. K. Sharma, Division of Agricultural Chemicals). 150

158 10.3 OTHER ACTIVITIES A. Technology Promotional Events 1. Meets Organized/Participated Field day for Pearl Millet was organized on September 27, 2012 at IARI for showcasing Pearl Millet varieties & hybrid lines. Over thirty participants including people from industry attended the meet. The Unit actively participated in the following events: IARI Krishi Vigyan Mela; National Innovation Foundation Award Ceremony cum Exhibition at Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi, March 7, 2013; Floriculture Field day at IARI, March 4-5, 2013; Indian Seed Congress at Gurgaon, February 8, 2013; Vegetable Field day at IARI, January, 2013; Plant Genome Savior Community Award, New Delhi, May 21, 2012; Seed Business workshop organized by BAU Ranchi at Shinghbhum, Jharkhand, June 2, 2012; Zonal (Eastern) CII-ICAR Industry Meet at Central Agricultural University, Lembucherra, Agartala, July 3, 2012; Manufacturers Meet, Division of Agricultural Engineering at IARI; CII-ICAR Industry Meet (Regional) at Hisar, September 4, 2012; National Convention- The Next Frontier of Agri-Business and Technology- Agri Asia at Gandhinagar, September 3-6, 2012; Krishi Mela organized by BeejIndia and Tara Health Foods Ltd. at Punjab, September 24, 2012; CII- ICAR Industry Meet (Regional) held on 16 and 25 April, 2012 at Ahmedabad and Coimbatore, respectively. 2. Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP) An Entrepreneurship Development Programme was conducted on Microbial Bio-Pesticides Technology during March 19-22, Twenty seven participants from four states participated in this programme. ZTM & BPD unit coordinated the fund matching activity during this EDP. Representatives from National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF), Ministry of Agriculture (Govt. of India), National Bank for Agriculture (NABARD), Union Bank and Bank of Maharashtra participated. 3. Corporate Membership Continuous interaction with the industry and the entrepreneurial community has resulted in the development of a network of corporate members. 159 corporate members were registered with BPD Unit during the period under report making a total of Revenue Generated A revenue of `45.88 Lakh was generated during the financial year by commercialization of technology, corporate membership and Entrepreneurship Development Programme. 5. New Initiatives EDP on Microbial Bio-pesticides Technology bank: A repository of information was developed in the format of Technology Bank on List of technologies available for commercialization 151

159 about 250 IARI technologies,which are ready for commercialization. Zonal technology bank: A total of 310 technologies of North Zone-1 were evaluated. Out of which 57 technologies were prioritized for commercialization. Invention disclosure form: To expedite the process of IP management, an invention disclosure form was developed by ZTM & BPD Unit for the use of scientists/ inventors. Profile on social websites: Developed an interactive page on social website at New Delhi/ ?fref=ts 152

160 11. LINKAGES AND COLLABORATION The Indian Agricultural Research Institute has linkages with various national and international institutes/organizations.at national level the Institute has close linkages with almost all annual crop and horticultural crop research institutes, centres, project directorates, coordinated projects as well as a few other selected institutes of the ICAR. Similar linkages exist for natural resource and socio-economic research institutes. Collaboration exists with almost all state agricultural universities (SAUs), selected conventional universities, several of the institutes of the CSIR and departments of Ministry of Science and Technology such as the Departments of Biotechnology, Space Research, Meteorology, and several other ministries/ departments/organizations of the Government of India. At the international level, the Institute has close linkages with some of the CGIAR s international agricultural research centres (IARCs), viz., ICRISAT, CIMMYT, IRRI, and ICARDA. It also has linkages with other international organizations, viz., FAO, IAEA, USAID, UNDP, WMO, UNIDO and UNEP. Several bilateral research linkages involving developed and developing countries also exist. These include linkages with USDA, selected universities in USA, Canada, Australia, World Bank, Rockfeller Foundation, European Commission, JAICA, JIRC, JSPS, ACIAR, AVRDC (Taiwan), etc. The number of externally funded projects in operation during the period from to are given below: Name of funding agency No. of projects Within India DBT, DST, ICAR,CPRI (Mini Mission - HP), 159 CSIR, NCPA, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Environments & Forest, MoFPI, Basmati Export Development Foundation, DAC, DWR, DRDO, SAC, NABARD, NRDC, BARC, PPV&FRA NFBSFARA (ICAR), NAIP (ICAR), etc. Revolving Fund, National Fellow Scheme of ICAR and ICAR Niche Area Project Outside India IPNI India Programme, USAID, UKIERI, CIMMYT, University of Sydney, Indo- Australian Programme

161 12. AWARDS AND RECOGNITIONS Dr. K. V. Prabhu, Head, Division of Genetics received (i) Borlaug Award for the year 2012 by Coromandel International and (ii) Certificate of Honor by Government of Punjab and Young Farmers Association. Dr. Ravender Singh, Head, Division of Agricultural Physics was selected Fellow of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Dr. T. Janakiram, Head, Division of Floriculture and Landscaping was nominated Fellow of the Confederation of Horticultural Associations of India. Dr. P. Kalia, Head, Division of Vegetable Science was nominated (i) Secretary of the Horticultural Society of India and (ii) Fellow of ISVS. Dr. Jagdish Kumar, Head, IARI Regional Station, Wellington received Shri V.P. Gokhale Prize of Agharkar Research Institute, Pune. Drs. A.N. Mishra, S.V. Sai Prasad, A.K. Singh, M.Y. Samdur, S.R. Kantwa, H.N. Pandey, P.K. Verma IARI Regional Station, Indore received ICAR Award for outstanding Inter-disciplinary Team Research in Agriculture and Allied Sciences Dr. H.Chandrasekharan, Incharge, AKMU (formerly USI) received Certificate of Appreciation from NAIP for outstanding work on e-journal accessibility in CeRA. Dr. Y.S. Shivay, Principal Scientist, Division of Agronomy received FAI Golden Jubilee Award. Dr. Shiva Dhar, Senior Scientist, Division of Agronomy was selected for Common Wealth Academic Staff Fellowship, Harpenden, UK. Dr. Supradip Saha, Senior Scientist, Division of Agricultural Chemicals was selected for NAAS Associateship. Dr. S.D. Singh, Professor and Dr. S.Prasad, Senior Scientist, CESCRA received Aryabhatt Samman by the Vigyan Bharati, NPL. Dr. D. Chakraborty, Senior Scientist, Division of Agricultural Physics awarded Rothamsted International Post Doctoral Award. Dr. A. K. Singh, Professor, Division of Genetics received (i) Borlaug Award for the year 2012 by Coromandel International and (ii) Certificate of Appreciation, NAIP for outstanding contribution in model translational research. Dr. Partha Saha, Scientist, Division of Vegetable Sciences received Dwarika Nath Memorial Gold Medal Award. Dr. K.V. Prasad, Principal Scientist, Division of Floriculture and Landscaping received Horticultural Society of India (HSI) Gold Medal in Floriculture. Dr. A.K Mishra, Scientist, AKMU (formerly USI) received Award from Society of Information Technology Professionals. Dr. T.K. Dutta, Scientist, Division of Nematology was conferred with Crop Protection Young Scientist Award. Dr. C. Viswanathan, Principal Scientist & Dr. Lekshmy, S., Scientist, Division of Plant Physiology received J.J. Chinoy Gold Medal. Dr. Vijay Paul, Principal Scientist & Dr. Rakesh Pandey, Senior Scientist, Division of Plant Physiology received Aryabhat Samman. Dr. K. Annapurna, Principal Scientist, Division of Microbiology was nominated Member of International Advisory Board of Asian PGPR Society. Dr A.K. Patra, Principal Scientist, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry received Rajiv Gandhi Excellence Award. 154

162 Dr. D.R. Biswas, Senior Scientist, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry received World Phosphate Institute Fertilizer Association of India Award. Dr. T.B.S. Rajput, Principal Scientist, Water Technology Centre received (i) Dr. C. Subramanian Outstanding Teacher Award, (ii) Student Incentive Award and (iii) Fellow of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Dr. N.R. Prasannakumar, Scientist, IARI, Regional Station, Katrain was awarded Dr. S. Pradhan Medal. In addition, a number of our scientists were recognized by their peer groups by electing/ nominating to various positions in the societies and governmental and inter-governmental committees. The Institute won the First Prize under the ICAR Rajrishi Tandon Rajbhasa Puraskar for the year and Second Prize for Institute s Annual Rajbhasa Patrika Pusa Surbhi under Ganesh Shankar Vidhyarathi Hindi Krishi Patrika Puraskar Yojna for the year

163 13. BUDGET ESTIMATES Statement showing Budget Estimates (B.E.) & Revised Estimates (R.E.) for the year and Budget Estimates for under Plan Sl.No. Name of the Head Plan up to March, 2013 Grants for creation of Capital Assets (CAPITAL) ` in lakhs B.E R.E B.E Works (A) Land (B) Building i. Office building ii. Residential building iii. Minors Works 2 Equipments Information & Technology 4 Library Books & Journal Vehicles & Vessels 6 Livestock 7 Furniture & Fixtures Others A Total- CAPITAL (Grants for creation of Capital Assets) Grants in Aid-Salaries (REVENUE) 1 Establishment Expenses (A) Salary i. Establishment charges ii. Wages iii. Overtime allowance (B) Loan & Advances Total-Establishment Expenses(Grants in Aid-Salaries) Grants in Aid-General (REVENUE) 1 Pension & Other Retirement Benefits Travelling Allowance A. Domestic/Transfer T.A B. Foreign T.A Total-Travelling Allowance Research & Operational Expenses A. Research Expenses B. Operational Expenses Total Research & Operational Expenses

164 4 Administrative Expenses A Infrastructure B Communication C Repair & Maintenance i. Equipments, Vehicles & Others ii. Office building iii. Residential building iv. Minor Works D Others (exc.ta) Total-Administrative Expenses Miscellaneous Expenses A HRD B Other Items (Fellowship) Provision for OBC C Publicity & Exhibitions D Guest House-Maintenance E Other Miscellaneous Total -Miscellaneous Expenses Total Grants in Aid-General B Total Revenue (Grants in Aid-Salaries + Grants in Aid-General) GRAND TOTAL (CAPITAL + REVENUE) * Tribal Sub Plan * NEH Total (CAPITAL+REVENUE+TSP+NEH) Statement showing Budget Estimates & Revised Estimates for the year and Budget Estimates for under Non-Plan ` in lakhs Sl.No. Name of the Head Non-Plan up to March, Works Grants for creation of Capital Assets (CAPITAL) (A) Land (B) Building i. Office building ii. Residential building iii. Minors Works B.E R.E B.E Equipments Information & Technology 4 Library Books & Journal Vehicles & Vessels 6 Livestock Furniture & Fixtures Others A Total- CAPITAL (Grants for creation of Capital Assets) Grants in Aid-Salaries (REVENUE) 1 Establishment Expenses 157

165 (A)Salary i. Establishment charges ii. Wages iii. Overtime allowance (B) Loan & Advances Total-Establishment Expenses(Grants in Aid-Salaries) Grants in Aid-General (REVENUE) 1 Pension & Other Retirement Benefits Travelling Allowance A. Domestic/Transfer T.A B. Foreign T.A Total-Travelling Allowance Research & Operational Expenses A. Research Expenses B. Operational Expenses Total Research & Operational Expenses Administrative Expenses A Infrastructure B Communication C Repair & Maintenance i. Equipments, Vehicles & Others ii. Office building iii. Residential building iv. Minor Works D Others (exc.ta) Total-Administrative Expenses Miscellaneous Expenses A HRD B Other Items(fellowships) C Publicity & Exhibitions D Guest House-Maintenance E Other Miscellaneous Total -Miscellaneous Expenses Total Grants in Aid-General B Total Revenue (Grants in Aid-Salaries + Grants in Aid-General) GRAND TOTAL (CAPITAL + REVENUE)

166 14. STAFF POSITION (As on ) Category No. of posts Sanctioned Filled Direct By Recruitment Assessment Total A. SCIENTIFIC STAFF 1) Research Management Personnel ) Principal Scientist ) Senior Scientist/Scientist (S.G.) ) Scientist * - 92 Total B. TECHNICAL STAFF 1) Category III ) Category II ) Category I ) Auxiliary 1 1 Total C. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF 1) Group A ) Group B ) Group C Total ** D. SKILLED SUPPORTING STAFF Note: * Out of 272 positions of scientist filled through direct recruitment only 92 are working in the grade of Scientist. The remaining 180 scientists (i.e. 140 Principal Scientists & 40 Senior Scientists) have been promoted as Principal Scientist and Senior Scientist through assessment. ** Three vacancies are excess filled i.e., CF & AO, Security Officer, and Assistant Manager (Canteen). 159

167 15. OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IMPLEMENTATION According to Article 343 of the Constitution, Hindi shall be the Official Language of the Union Government. To implement the objectives in letters and spirit, IARI is making consistent progress in the use of OL in agricultural research, education, extension as well as in administration OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IMPLE- MENTATION COMMITTEE An Official Language Implementation Committee (OLIC) was constituted by the institute under the chairmanship of Joint Director (Research) and the Committee ensures compliance of policy and rules of O.L. Act 1963 and O.L. rules of All the Joint Directors, Head of Divisions and Comptroller are exofficial members of OLIC and Deputy Director (OL) is its member-secretary. During the period under report, the meeting of this Committee was organized regularly in each quarter and necessary suggestions and instructions were given for promoting the use of Hindi in various official/research activities and the effective implementation of Official Language. To ensure follow up action on the decisions taken in these meetings, subcommittees were also constituted in different Divisions, Regional Stations and the Directorate Inspection of Progressive Use of Official Language As per the recommendations of the OLIC and to achieve the targets fixed in the annual programme of the Department of Official Language, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, an OL Inspection Committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Dr. A.K. Vyas, Head, Division of Agronomy. The Committee inspected the progressive use of OL in all the Divisions, Units and sections of the Directorate. The Committee also visited some of the Regional Stations, namely, Katrain, Kalimpong, Wellington, Pune and Indore, and inspected the progressive use of OL. The committee gave valuable suggestions for making the desired progress of OL implementation in the concerned Division/Section/Centre,etc. and submitted inspection reports. The Institute s Inspection Committee was reconstituted on February 2, 2013 with Dr. R.D. Rai, Head, Division of Biochemisty as its chair AWARDS AND HONOURS The Institute was awarded the First Prize for doing maximum writing work in Hindi for the year under the ICAR Rajrishi Tandon Rajbhasa Puraskar Yojna and Second Prize for Institute s Annual Rajbhasa Patrika Pusa Surbhi under Ganesh Shankar Vidhyarathi Hindi Krishi Patrika Puraskar Yojna of ICAR for the year during the Director s Conference organized on March 19, Dr. H.S. Gupta, Director and Dr. Malavika Dadlani, Joint Director (Research), IARI receiving Second Prize for the Institute s Annual Rajbhasa Patrika Pusa Surabhi from Prof. M.S. Swaminathan, Chairman, M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation Smt. Seema Chopra, Deputy Director (OL) IARI received Aryabhatt Puraskar for her outstanding contributions in popularization of science in Hindi 160

168 during the Third National Conference on Innovations in Indian Science, Engineering and Technology 2013 organized by Indian Swadeshi Science Movement, Vigyan Bharti, Delhi from February 25 to 27, PROMOTION OF THE USE OF HINDI IN OFFICIAL WORK In order to encourage staff members in different categories to do maximum work in Hindi, several steps were taken by the Institute during the year One-day workshop was organized for assistants of administrative cadre of the institute on June 12, 2012 (60 assistants participated). Two - day workshop was organized on December 5 and 6, 2012 for technical officers of the institute on Quality Research Paper Writing in Hindi in which 60 technical officers participated. Two - day workshop was organized from January 28 to 29, 2013 for administrative staff of the institute on Use of Unicode System on Computers AWARD SCHEMES/COM- PETITIONS During the year many competitions/award schemes were also initiated to motivate the employees of the institute to do their maximum work in Hindi. A large number of officers and employees of different categories of staff participated in these activities. The following activities were organized : Award Scheme for Doing Maximum Official Work in Hindi This award scheme of the Department of Official Language, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India was implemented as per the directives of the Department and 10 employees of the institute were given cash awards for doing their maximum official work in Hindi in the whole year Hindi Vyavahar Pratiyogita Hindi Vyavahar Pratiyogita were organized amongst the different Divisions and Sections of Directorate separately and a Division and Section each were awarded mobile shield for doing maximum work in Hindi during the whole year. In the period under report, the Division of Floriculture and Landscaping amongst the divisions and personnel-ii amongst the sections were given mobile shield Rajbhasha Patra Vyavahar Pratiyogita Rajbhasha Patra Vyavahar Pratiyogita was organized for promoting maximum correspondence in Hindi. The Divisions of Nematology and Vegetable Science were given first and second prize, respectively. The prizes carry mobile shields Awards for Popular Science Writing in Different Journals A competition for Popular Science Writing was organized for scientists/technical officers of the institute and winners were awarded first, second and third prizes for their published articles in different journals Pusa Vishisht Hindi Pravakta Puraskar Pusa Vishisht Hindi Pravakta Puraskar was given jointly to two scientists for their outstanding lectures in different training programmes. Evaluation was done on the basis of recommendations of course coordinator and feedback of the trainees. The Puraskar carries a cash prize of `10,000/- and a certificate Power Point Presentation in Hindi A Power Point Presentation Competition was organized on September 29, 2012 on the topic entitled Utilization of Bio-technology in Agricultural Growth. Cash Awards were given to the successful participants Hindi Chetna Maas The Institute celebrated Hindi Chetna Maas from September 1 to 30, Hindi Chetna Maas was inaugurated on September 1, 2012 by the Chief Guest, Dr. Rashmi Gupta. Dr. H.S. Gupta, Director, IARI chaired the function and Dr. Malavika Dadlani, Joint Director (Research) & Chairperson, OLIC, was also present. On this occasion Kavya Paath competition was organized. Famous poets 161

169 Dr. Shardendu Sharma and Dr. (Ms.) Kamal Kumar, Associate Professor, University of Delhi were invited to judge the competitions. On this occasion Hindi version of IARI Annual Report was also released by the Chief Guest. During Hindi Chetna Maas, various other Hindi competitions like essay writing, noting & drafting, debate, and quiz, etc. were also organized for all categories of the staff members. Hindi Week/Hindi Day were also celebrated in different divisions and regional stations of the institute. Many competitions were organized and participants given prizes Hindi Annual Prize Distribution Function Hindi Annual Prize Distribution Function was organized on October 5, Famous Hindi Critic and renowned Hindi Litterateur, Dr. Namvar Singh was the Chief Guest. Dr. Malavika Dadlani, Joint Director (Research),IARI presided over the function. The Chief Guest gave away the prizes to the winners of different competitions conducted during Hindi Chetna Maas. Smt. Seema Chopra, Deputy Director (OL) presented the annual Hindi progress report of the Institute. Three publications, viz, Pusa Surbhi (Annual Rajbhasha Patrika ), Jaiv Urvark and Faslon Main Sutrakrimi Rog Avam Unka Prabandhan (technical bulletins),were released. A Hasya Kavi Sammelan was also organized on this occasion. Release of IARI Annual Report in Hindi Dr. Namvar Singh, Chief Guest of Annual Hindi Prize Distribution Function, releasing Pusa Surabhi (Annual Rajbhasha Patrika) 162

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