Lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol: the environmental life cycle impacts

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1 Lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol: the environmental life cycle impacts Aiduan Li, Marcelle C McManus, Geoff P Hammond Sustainable Energy Research Team University of Bath United Kingdom

2 Contents Sustainable biofuel Life cycle assessment Current work Conclusions

3 Programme LACE: Lignocellulosic Conversion To Ethanol Theme A: Life Cycle Analysis Theme e B: Farm Systems Optimising Deconstruction Strand 1 Strand 2 Optimising Sugar Release Optimising Fermentation Theme C: Social and Ethical Dimensions

4 Sustainable biofuel

5 Sustainable biofuel Energy analysis; Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA), assessed in terms of various pollutant emissions; Integrated appraisal of biofuel chain

6 Life cycle assessment LCA is an environmental management tool to determine the environmental impact of a product or system over its whole life from production, through use and to recycling, reuse or disposal (from the cradle to the grave ). Energy and Energy and Energy and Energy and raw material raw material raw material raw material Requirements Requirements Requirements Requirements Component Production Assembley of Product Use of Product Disposal of Product emissions to air, water and soil emissions to air, water and soil emissions to air, water and soil emissions to air, water and soil

7 Life cycle assessment METHODOLOGY In an LCA study, the energy and materials used, and pollutants or wastes released into the environment as a consequence of a product or activity are quantified over the whole life-cycle, from cradle-to-grave. STANDARDS ISO series Environmental Life Cycle Assessment PAS 2050 Life Cycle GHG Emissions of Goods & Services DATABASES Ecoinvent Bath - Inventory of (Embodied) Carbon and Energy [ICE]

8 LCA Stages Goal Scoping Inventory Impact Assessment Classification Characterisation (Normalisation) (Valuation) Improvement Assessment Interpretation

9 The Biofuel Life-Cycle Crop harvesting > Processing > End Use Fossil fuels are used in the harvesting and processing of the crop, and in transporting between stages.

10 Lignocelluloses to ethanol Infrastructure Building Machinery Auxiliary Equipment Fuel and electricity Emissions Raising seeding Soil preparation Sowing Raising seeding Field preparation Soil cultivation Mulching Transplanting Training Fertiliser application Pesticide application Harvest Wheat Production treatment Grading Packing Straw for incorporation Straw for Biofuel Bailing Waste Loading Seed Fertiliser Irrigation Pesticides Transport Biomass Pretreatment Biomass process Storage of straw Fuel Electricity Chemicals Water Enzyme Yeast Hydrolysis C5 sugars Lignin Anaerobic Digestion C6 sugars Pyrolysis Biogas Upgrading Fermentation Combustion Pyrolytic liquid Separation BioCH4 Bioethanol Electricity & heat Chemicals Waste Emissions

11 Ethanol conversion process Lime Steam Acid Gypsum Enzyme Nutrients Feedstock 1. Feedstock handling Shredded Stover 2. Pretreatment and Conditioning Hydrolyzate 3. Saccharification and Co-Fermentation Aerobic vent Recycle Water Recycle water Recycle Cond. Vent Broth Wastewater Steam Nutrients 5. Wastewater Treatment Excess Cond. 4. Distillation dehydration Solids separation Vent Still solids Evap. Syrup EtOH Product Recycle Cond. Boiler Blowdown Anaerobic CH4 7. Burner/Boiler Turbogenerator 6. Storage Steam 8. Utilities Electricity

12 Material flow Corn stover with 15% moisture content Kg/h Feedstock handling Shredded corn stover with 30% moisture content Kg/h Prehydrolysis Glucose oligmers,716 Kg/h Xylose oligmers, 646 Kg/h Xylan, 439 Kg/h Ethanol, 47 Kg/h Glucose, 2432 Kg/h Xylose, Kg/h Cellulose, Kg/h Cellubiose, 312 Kg/h Ethanol, Kg/h Ethanol recovery Ethanol, Kg/h Kg/h Hydrolysis & fermentation Treated water, kg/h Wastewater, Kg/h Wastewater treatment 5.21 Kg corn stover for 1 Kg ethanol Product yield: 22.6% dry basis

13 Characterisation results Impact category Unit Total Feedstock handling Prehydrolysis Hydrolysis & fermentation Ethanol recovery Wastewater treatment Climate change kg CO2 eq 1.61E E E E E-01 Ozone depletion kg CFC-11 eq 7.56E E E E E E-09 Human toxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 2.08E E E E E-03 Photochemical oxidant formation kg NMVOC 5.50E E E E E E-03 Particulate matter formation kg PM10 eq 3.04E E E E E E-04 Ionising radiation kg U235 eq 3.53E E E E E-02 Terrestrial acidification kg SO2 eq 7.71E E E E E E-03 Freshwater eutrophication kg P eq 2.05E E E E E E-06 Marine eutrophication kg N eq 1.76E E E E E E-04 Terrestrial ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 6.84E E E E E E-06 Freshwater ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 3.94E E E E E E-05 Marine ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 4.08E E E E E E-05 Agricultural land occupation m2a 1.38E E E E E E-04 Urban land occupation m2a 4.34E E E E E E-05 Natural land transformation m2 1.04E E E E E E-06 Water depletion m3 2.99E E E E E-04 Metal depletion kg Fe eq 6.24E E E E E-03 Fossil depletion kg oil eq 5.88E E E E E-01

14 Characterisation results Wastewater treatment Ethanol recovery Hydrolysis&fermentation Prehydrolysis Feedstock handling

15 1.00E E E E E E+00 Normalisation results Wastewater treatment Ethanol recovery Hyrolysis&fermentation Prehydrolysis Feedstock handling Climate change Ozone depletion Hhuman toxicity Phochem ox form PM formation Ionising radiation Terr acidification Freshwater eutro Marine eutro Terr ecotoxicity Freshwater ecoto Marine ecotox Agri land occup Urb land occup Nat land transf Water depletion Metal depletion Fossil depletion

16 Conclusions An LCA analysis of ethanol conversion process was carried out taking account of feedstock handling, prehydrolysis, hydrolysis and fermentation, bioethanol recovery, and wastewater treatment. Among the ethanol conversion processes, the pre- hydrolysis step contributes significantly to the environmental burdens. The use of sulphuric acid and process steam, as well as electricity, are identified as the main sources for the environmental burdens that contribute to climate change and ozone depletion.

17 Thank You for Your Kind Attention

18 Impact assessment method ReCipe

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