International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science & Technology

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1 Impact Factor (SJIF): International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science & Technology e-issn: , p-issn: Volume 5, Issue 3, MaRCH-2018 Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management System: A Case study of Gandhinagar City Payal Shah 1, Ushman Shaikh 2 1 Student of Environmental Engineering Department, Venus International Collage of Technology, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2 Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering Department, Venus International Collage of Technology, Gandhinagar, Gujarat Abstract- As per municipal Acts governing the local bodies in the country, it is an obligatory duty of municipal authorities in the country to keep cities/towns clean and provide a good quality of life to the citizens [3]. However, the services provided by the municipal authorities are outdated and very inefficient. Domestic, commercial, biomedical and variety of toxic and domestic hazardous wastes are generally disposed of by the citizens on the streets, drains, open spaces, water bodies, etc., causing serious problems of health and environment. Problems of solid waste management are growing with rapid urbanization and change in the lifestyle of the people. The situation is becoming critical with the passage of time. The research aims to critically assess the current scenario of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) system and studying feasibility for technological alternatives based on Case study approach. Keywords-Solid waste management, Gandhinagar, Assessment, Waste Management I. INTRODUCTION Amount and Attributes of Indian Metropolitan Waste, urban India generates around 42.0 million tons of solid waste every year i.e lakh metric tons per day(tpd), out of which 83,378 TPD is produced in 423 Class-I cities. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) created in 423 Class-I cities works out to 72.5% of the aggregate waste produced every day and this should be handled on need [1]. MSW involves 30% to 55% of bio-degradable (natural) matter, 40% to 55% latent issue and 5% to 15% recyclables. Composition and characterization of waste changes with size of city, season and local income group. Problems of solid waste management are growing with rapid urbanization and change in the lifestyle of the people. The urban population in India has gone up five times in the last six decades. Effective SWM is a major challenge in cities with high population density. India is slowly drowning in its own garbage. Planning Commission Report (2014) reveals that 377 million people residing in urban India area generate 62 million tons of MSW per annum currently. It is projected that by 2031 these urban centers will generate 165 million tons of waste annually and by 2050 it could reach 436 million tons [4].Thus, the issue of urban waste management is becoming remarkable as a result of waste quantum generated and exponential population growth. Due to spatial booming, over 5161 cities and towns face waste issues engaged with setting up and overseeing frameworks for accumulation, transportation, and transfer of waste. Exponential urbanization has prompted over-stressing of infrastructure services including MSW Management in view of poor assets and deficiencies of the current frameworks. Accordingly, enhancing operation and maintenance of solid waste management and systems in a sustainable way by municipalities would require colossal capital investment, adoption of most recent technologies which are financially savvy, Public-Private Partnerships in waste so as to keep urban waste from causing environmental contamination and health risks. Per capita waste generation ranges between 0.2 Kg to 0.6 Kg per day in urban cities with population range of 1.0 lakh to 50 lakh. An appraisal has been made that due to expanding per capita waste generation of around 1.3% every year, and growth of population in the vicinity of 3% to 3.5% for every annum, yearly increment in the general amount of solid waste in the urban communities is around 5%. Solid waste Management and collection efficiency ranges from 50% to 90%[4].Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) spend between INR.500/ - to INR 1500/ - per ton on solid waste management, of which 60% to 70% is spent on just collection, 20% to 30% on transportation and under 5% on treatment and transfer which is exceptionally fundamental to prevent ecological contamination. Open dumping is regularly adopted by ULBs without implementation of scientific disposal mechanisms [2]. II. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN WELL-PLANNED CITY Though Gandhinagar is taken as a pilot study as it is a capital city as well as planned city according to urban planning but still lacks efficient MSWM facilities. It would be easier to make models as the city is planned, and replicate them along with implementations in a larger context. Data availability, area and demographics permit replicability due to climate, temperature, rainfall patterns, earthquake zone, and other stipulations. 719

2 the requirement of Oil and Gas for this developing world is one of the III. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN GANDHINAGAR CITY The city is witnessing a major construction / infrastructure boom as well as a steady population increase. It is a growing hub of education, information technology. The Gandhinagar Municipal Corporation (GMC) provides some of basic services to citizens of Gandhinagar such as solid waste management, transportation, providing medical facilities which are some of the key services. For effective service provision and smooth administration, GMC has divided its activities into 6 wards. Upon analysis of the existing Solid Waste Management system of Gandhinagar City, numerous gaps were found in the system such as lack of proper segregation, under capacity treatment facilities, lack of involvement of the informal sector in the main stream, polluted open waste disposal facility etc. A need for radical shift in the current Solid Waste Management system of Gandhinagar city was identified. There is an urgent need to move to more sustainable SWM, and this requires new management systems and waste management facilities. Current SWM systems are inefficient, with waste having a negative impact on public health, the environment and the economy. IV. EXISTING SWM FACILITIES IN GANDHINAGAR As shown in the Figure 1 (below) : Existing SWM facilities in GMC, Gandhinagar has 2 vermi -compost plants in sector 21 and sector 24; 2 refuse transfer station in sector 7 and sector 28 while the GMC Solid waste department office is located in sector 11. The Vehicle pool in sector 22 and a bio gas plant and the open dumping site is located in sector 30. Figure 1 Existing Solid Waste Management Facilities in Gandhinagar V. CURRENT WASTE SCENARIO IN GANDHINAGAR Almost 75 Metric Tons of solid waste is generated from the city daily. This waste is collected, transported, treated and disposed. Though, the current collection efficiency is 100%, only 45% of waste is treated and processed. There is total of 17 T of dry waste recycling been carried out in the system by sorting and segregation of the dry waste by the recyclers at the transfer stations. Total of 17 MT of wet waste processing is being done by composting & methanation. Hence, there is only 17 TPD of wet waste processing facility and 17 TPD of dry waste treatment due to sorting and segregation of dry waste; rest all the waste is dumped on the dumping site. 720

3 BIO GAS 2.5 TDP GENERATED 75 TPD COLLECTED WASTE 75 TPD TREATED AND PROCESSED 34 TDP VERMI COMPOST 4.5 TDP ORGANIC WASTE CONVERTER 10 TDP DRY WASTE RECYCLED / PROCESSED 17 TDP OPEN DUMPED WITHOUT TREATMENT 41 TDP DISPOSED AFTER COMPACTING 41 TDP Figure 1Solid Waste Statistics along with quantities for Gandhinagar City The waste collection system in GMC uses different vehicles like tippers, lifters, tractors, trucks and LSG (tractors). Table 1 shows quantity of Waste collection per day in Gandhinagar. Table 1 Waste Collection Per Day Sr.No. Solid Waste Collection Total :75 tonne Per day Tonne Per Day 1 Door To Door 55 2 Street Sweeping Minor Roads 4 3 Street Sweeping Major Roads 5 4 Construction And Demolition Waste 5 5 Container Lifting / Litter Bins 6 The waste collected from all the door to door system have GPS tracking system for collection monitoring. The Waste collected goes to the refuse transfer station located in sector 7 and sector 28 from where it is loaded into the compactors. The waste is weighed at the weighing bridge before dumping it. The waste is transported using compactors to the open dumping site in sector 30. The waste collected from the street sweeping is transported directly to the weighing bridge and then lately to the dumping site. The dedicated separate waste collected from the meat market s transported by the dedicated collection vehicle to the dumping site where it is buried in the soil. The waste form the Hotel & Kitchen is transported to the Biogas plant at the dumping site; whereas the garden waste is transported to the vermi-compost unit at sector 21 and sector 24. The C & D waste is in the dedicated collection vehicle & taken to the weighing bridge which is then being transported to Ahmedabad Enviro Projects Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad for treatment. Daily the dumping site at sector 30 receives the waste from the city where around 41TDP of waste which is openly dumped. This site is located at banks of Sabarmati River, causing environmental problems. Out of 41 TDP about 10 TDP of dry waste should be recycled and processed and 31 TDP wet waste should be treated by suitable means. 721

4 VI. NEED FOR ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES As represented in figure 3, 43% of waste is biodegradable. Waste Management Rules, 2016 mandates that waste except inert wastes must be processed or treated before disposal. It also states that the biodegradables must not be land filled. The composition of waste in Gandhinagar currently is shown in figure 3 below: PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OTHERS PAPER WASTE 5% 3% RAG & CLOTH 12% BIODEGRADAB LE 43% INERT 23% PLASTIC 14% BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC INERT RAG & CLOTH PAPER WASTE OTHERS Figure 2 Composition of waste in Gandhinagar Segregating is the key to have an optimum waste usage as a resource.[6][7] As only 45% of Waste is treated or processed, there is a need for alternative treatment technologies to be adopted to treat rest of 55% waste. Typical Indian Waste characterization comprises of Biodegradable waste (55.02%), followed by paper (5.82%); Plastic waste (4.54%), Rag and Cloth waste(1.55%), and Inert (24.95%), and Other waste i.e. rubber, metal, glass, leather and wood (8.12%)[7].Table 2 below shows feasibility calculation for alternative technologies [7][8]: 48 % of total average MSW biodegradable that can be treated through composting & biomethanaton by employing strict waste segregation in decentralized manner. MSW sample calorific Kcal/kg high energy potential RDF plant can be viable. However RDF plant viability is dependent on factors such as: Quality of incoming waste Quality of RDF produced Location of plant with respect to consumer of RDF Transportation cost Revenue model The municipal solid waste to energy projects can be set up by adopting a cluster approach wherein, waste /RDF can be collected from adjoining towns /areas to the plant location as Quantum of MSW generation - less for WTE technology. Hence combination of Material Recovery Facility, composting & biomethanation, RDF plant would be appropriate for SWM of Gandhinagar corporation area. For inert waste There should be development of scientific landfill site For legacy waste Capping or bio mining should be carried out. 722

5 Table 2 Techno-economical Comparison of various SWM technologies Table 3 Feasibility Study of Alternative Treatment Technologies Sr No. Name of the Technologies Bio-chemical Waste to Compost Production Cost (Per Tonne or KwH) Treated Waste Tonne per Day Cost of Area Capital Operational treatment Reqd. Expense Expense INR m2 In Lacs In Lacs 1 Vermi Composting In-vessel Composting (drum) Mechanized Composting (Organic Composter) 4 Windrow Composting Pit Composting Bio-Slurry Compost (Bio-fertilizer) Stack Composting Waste to Energy (Thermal Technologies) 8 Biomethanation/ Biogas Mass Burn & RDF

6 VII. GAPS IDENTIFIED Key gaps Identified with Municipal Solid Waste Management System in Gandhinagar City are: Lack of Segregation at source. Insignificant waste treatment facilities in the city. Negligible provision for recycling of waste. Lack of scientific disposal facility of MSW. A polluted open waste disposal facility. VIII. CONCLUSION There is a need for a radical shift in the current Solid Waste Management system existing in the Gandhinagar city. A sustainable, preventative and comprehensive approach is required towards handling and disposal of waste in the city. The waste disposal is the most crucial component of the solid waste management system. GMC faces an extreme vulnerable waste disposal practice which needs to be change at utmost priority. All the steps taken as the proposal actions plans are the foundations steps for reaching to reducing the waste going to the landfill site. IX. REFERENCE 1] Solid Waste Consultants, G., A., O., & Associates, INC, R. &. (2017). Rethinking Waste for a greener Fort Worth: Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. 2] Kumar S, Smith SR, Fowler G, Velis C, Kumar SJ, Arya S, R, Kumar R, Cheeseman C.2017 Challenges and opportunities associated with waste management in India. R. Soc. open sci. 4: ] Solid Waste Management Manual (2016), Ministry of Urban Development, Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization (CPHEEO) 4] Waste Management in India- Shifting Gears, March PWC report 5] My Swachh Neighbourhood A multi stakeholder approach towards a garbage free society (2017), guidelines published by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs- Swachh Bharat Mission 6] Waste to Wealth : A ready reckoner for selection of technologies for management of municipal waste (2017) guidelines published by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs- Swachh Bharat Mission 7] An inclusive Swachh Bharat through the Integration of the Informal Recycling Sector: A step by step guide (2016) guidelines published by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs- Swachh Bharat Mission 8] Tozlu A, Özahi E, Abuşoğlu A. Waste to energy technologies for municipal solid waste management in Gaziantep. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016; 54:

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